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Africa

information: Geography of Africa


For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Africa with geographical data such as
area, population, and population density, see here.
Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most-populous continent. At about 30.2 million km
(11.7 million sq mi) including adjacent islands, it covers six percent of the Earth's total surface area
and 20.4 percent of the total land area.[2] With 1.0 billion people (as of 2009, see table), it accounts
for about 15% of the world's human population. The continent is surrounded by the Mediterranean
Sea to the north, both the Suez Canal and the Red Sea along the Sinai Peninsula to the northeast,
the Indian Ocean to the southeast, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The continent
includes Madagascar and various archipelagoes. It has 54 fully recognized sovereign
states("countries"), 10 territories and two de facto states with limited recognition.[3]
Africa, particularly central Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the origin of humans and
the Hominidae clade(great apes), as evidenced by the discovery of the earliest hominids and their
ancestors, as well as later ones that have been dated to around seven million years ago
including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H.
habilis and H. ergaster with the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) found in Ethiopia being
dated to circa 200,000 years ago.[4] Africa straddles the equator and encompasses numerous climate
areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones.
[5]
The African expected economic growth rate is at about 5.0% for 2010 and 5.5% in 2011.[6]

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Algeria

Algiers

Dinar

Arabic

Angola

Luanda

Kwanza

Portuguese

Benin

Porto-Novo (official)
Cotonou (seat of government)

CFA franc

French

Botswana

Gaborone

Pula

English
Setswana

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Burkina Faso

Ouagadougou

CFA franc

French

Burundi

Bujumbura

Burundian
franc

Kirundi
French

Cameroon

Yaound

CFA franc

French
English

Cape Verde

Praia

Cape
Verdean
escudo

Portuguese

Central African
Republic

Bangui

CFA franc

French
Sango

Chad

N'Djamena

CFA franc

French
Arabic

Comoros

Moroni

Comorian
franc

Comorian
Arabic
French

Congo (CongoBrazzaville)

Brazzaville

CFA franc

French

Cte
d'Ivoire (Ivory
Coast)

Yamoussoukro (official)
Abidjan (seat of government)

CFA franc

French

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Democratic
Republic of the
Congo (CongoKinshasa)

Kinshasa

Congolese
franc

French

Djibouti

Djibouti

Djiboutian
franc

French
Arabic

Egypt

Cairo

Egyptian
pound

Arabic

Malabo

Equatorial
Guinean
peseta

Spanish
French
Portuguese

Equatorial
Guinea

Eritrea

Asmara

Tallero

Tigrinya
Arabic
English

Ethiopia

Addis Ababa

Birr

Amharic

Gabon

Libreville

CFA franc

French

Gambia

Banjul

Gambian
dalasi

English

Ghana

Accra

Ghana cedi

English

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Guinea

Conakry

Guinean
franc

French

Guinea-Bissau

Bissau

CFA franc

Portuguese

Kenya

Nairobi

Kenyan
shilling

Swahili
English

Lesotho

Maseru

Lesotho loti

English
Sesotho

Liberia

Monrovia

Liberian
dollar

English

Libya

Tripoli

Dinar

Arabic

Madagascar

Antananarivo

Malagasy
ariary

Malagasy
French

Malawi

Lilongwe

Kwacha

English
Chichewa

Mali

Bamako

CFA franc

French

Mauritania

Nouakchott

Ouguiya

Arabic

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Mauritian
Creole
French
English

Mauritius

Port Louis

Mauritian
rupee

Mayotte

Mamoudzou
Overseas department of France

Euro

French

Morocco

Rabat

Moroccan
dirham

Arabic
Berber

Mozambique

Maputo

Mozambican
metical

Portuguese

Namibia

Windhoek

Namibian
dollar

English

Niger

Niamey

CFA franc

French

Nigeria

Abuja

Naira

English

Runion

Saint-Denis
Overseas department of France

Euro

French

Kigali

Rwandan
franc

Kinyarwanda
English
French

Rwanda

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Saint Helena,
Ascension and
Tristan da Cunha

Jamestown (Saint Helena)


Georgetown (Ascension Island)
Edinburgh of the Seven
Seas (Tristan da Cunha)

Saint Helena
pound
Pound
sterling

English

Sao Tome and


Principe

So Tom

Dobra

Portuguese

Senegal

Dakar

CFA franc

French

Seychelles

Victoria

Seychellois
rupee

Seychellois
Creole
French
English

Sierra Leone

Freetown

Leone

English

Somalia

Mogadishu

Somali
shilling

Somali
Arabic

Somaliland

Hargeisa

Somaliland
shilling

Somali
Arabic

South Africa

Pretoria (administrative/executive)
Cape Town (legislative)
Bloemfontein (judicial)

South African Afrikaans


rand
English
Southern
Ndebele
Northern
Sotho

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Southern
Sotho
Swazi
Tsonga
Tswana
Venda
Xhosa
Zulu

South Sudan

Juba

South
Sudanese
pound

Sudan

Khartoum

Sudanese
pound

Arabic
English

Swaziland

Mbabane (administrative)
Lobamba (royal and legislative)

Lilangeni

English
Swati

Tanzania

Dodoma (official)
Dar es Salaam (seat of government)

Tanzanian
shilling

Swahili
English

Togo

Lom

CFA franc

French

Tunisia

Tunis

Tunisian
dinar

Arabic

Uganda

Kampala

Ugandan
shilling

Swahili
English

English

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Luganda

None

Western Sahara

None Disputed territory between


Morocco and the
Sahrawi Arab
Democratic Republic

Moroccan
dirham
Algerian
dinar
Mauritanian
ouguiya

See
respective
claimants

Zambia

Lusaka

Zambian
kwacha

English

various

English
Shona
Sindebele

Zimbabwe

Harare

Asia[edit]
Asia

Area

44,579,000 km2(17,212,000 sq mi)[7]

Population

5,879,000,000 (1st)[8]

Pop. density

87/km2 (225/sq mi)

Countries

48 (list of countries)

Languages

List of languages

Time zones

UTC+2 to UTC+12

Main articles: Asia and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia
See also: Eurasia and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Eurasia
Further information: Geography of Asia
For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Asia with geographical data such as
area, population, and population density, see here.
Asia ( /e/ or /e/) is the world's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in
the eastern andnorthern hemispheres. It covers 8.7% of the Earth's total surface area (or 30% of its
land area) and with approximately 4.3 billion people, it hosts 60% of the world's current human
population. During the 20th century Asia's population nearly quadrupled. [9]
i

Asia is defined as comprising the eastwards four-fifths of Eurasia. It is located to the east of
the Suez Canal, theUral river, and the Ural Mountains, and south of the Caucasus Mountains (or
the Kuma-Manych Depression) and the Caspian and Black Seas.[10][11] It is bounded on the east by
the Pacific Ocean, on the south by the Indian Ocean and on the north by the Arctic Ocean.
Given its size and diversity, Asia a toponym dating back to classical antiquity "is more a cultural
concept" incorporating diverse regions and peoples than a homogeneous physical entity.[12] Asia
differs very widely among and within its regions with regard to ethnic groups, cultures, environments,
economics, historical ties and government systems.
Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official language

Afghanistan

Kabul

Afghani

Pashto
Dari (Persian)

Akrotiri and
Dhekelia

Episkopi Cantonment

Euro

English
Greek

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official language

Armenia

Yerevan

Dram

Armenian

Azerbaijan[Europe]

Baku

Manat

Azerbaijani

Bahrain

Manama

Bahraini dinar

Arabic

Bangladesh

Dhaka

Taka

Bengali

Bhutan

Thimphu

Bhutanese
ngultrum

Dzongkha

British Indian
Ocean Territory

Diego Garcia
Overseas territory of the
United Kingdom

US dollar
UK pound

English

Brunei

Bandar Seri Begawan

Brunei dollar

Bahasa Melayu

Cambodia

Phnom Penh

Riel

Khmer

China

Beijing

Renminbi
(yuan)

Standard Chinese

Christmas Island

Flying Fish Cove


External territory of
Australia

Australian
dollar

English

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official language

Cocos (Keeling)
Islands

West Island
External territory of
Australia

English

Cyprus [Europe]

Nicosia

Euro

Greek
Turkish

East Timor(TimorLeste)

Dili

US Dollar

Portuguese
Tetum

Georgia [Europe]

Tbilisi

Lari

Georgian

Hong Kong

Special administrative
region of China

Hong Kong
dollar

English
Cantonese

India

New Delhi

Rupee

Hindi
English

Indonesia

Jakarta

Rupiah

Indonesian

Iran

Tehran

Rial

Persian

Iraq

Baghdad

Iraqi dinar

Kurdish
Arabic

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official language

Israel

Jerusalem (seat of
government, proclaimed
capital)

New Shekel

Hebrew
Arabic

Japan

Tokyo

Yen

Japanese

Jordan

Amman

Jordanian
dinar

Arabic

Kazakhstan

Astana

Tenge

Kazakh
Russian

Kurdistan

Erbil

Dinar

Kurdish

Kuwait

Kuwait City

Kuwaiti dinar

Arabic

Kyrgyzstan

Bishkek

Som

Kyrgyz
Russian

Laos

Vientiane

Kip

Lao

Lebanon

Beirut

Lebanese
pound

Arabic

Macau

Special administrative
region of China

Macanese
pataca

Portuguese
Cantonese

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official language

Malaysia

Kuala Lumpur (official)


Putrajaya (seat of
government)

Ringgit

Malaysian

Maldives

Mal

Maldivian
rufiyaa

Maldivian

Mongolia

Ulaanbaatar

Tgrg

Mongolian

Myanmar(Burma)

Naypyidaw

Kyat

Burmese

NagornoKarabakh

Stepanakert
De facto sovereign state
lacking general
international recognition
Recognized by United
Nations as de jure part
of Azerbaijan

Armenian
dram

Armenian

Nepal

Kathmandu

Nepalese
rupee

Nepali

Northern Cyprus

Nicosia
De facto sovereign state
lacking general
international recognition
Recognized by United
Nation as de jure part
of Cyprus

Turkish lira

Turkish

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official language

North Korea

Pyongyang

North Korean
won

Korean

Oman

Muscat

Rial

Arabic

Pakistan

Islamabad

Pakistani
Rupee

English
Urdu

Palestine

Ramallah (West
Bank seat of
government)
Gaza (Gaza Strip seat of
government)
East Jerusalem (capital)
State of Palestine (flag
displayed)proclaimed on
territory

Israeli Shekel

Arabic

Philippines

Manila

Philippine
Peso

Filipino
English

Qatar

Doha

Riyal

Arabic

Saudi Arabia

Riyadh

Saudi riyal

Arabic

Singapore
dollar

English
Chinese
Malay
Tamil

Singapore

Singapore

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official language

South Korea

Seoul

South Korean
won

Korean

Sri Lanka

Colombo

Sri Lankan
rupee

Sinhala
Tamil

Syria

Damascus

Syrian pound

Arabic

Taiwan

Taipei
De facto sovereign state
lacking general
international recognition
Recognized by United
Nations as part of China.

New Taiwan
dollar

Standard Chinese

Tajikistan

Dushanbe

Somoni

Tajik

Thailand

Bangkok

Baht

Thai

Turkey [Europe]

Ankara

Turkish lira

Turkish

Turkmenistan

Ashgabat

Turkmen new
manat

Turkmen

United Arab
Emirates

Abu Dhabi

UAE dirham

Arabic

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official language

Uzbekistan

Tashkent

Uzbekistan
som
(O'zbekiston
so'mi)

Vietnam

Hanoi

ng

Vietnamese

Yemen

Sana'a

Yemeni rial

Arabic

Uzbek

Tagalog

Notes
1. The Russian Federation is classified as a European country by the United Nations Statistics Division.
Russia is historically the successor of the Grand Duchy of Moscow, a medieval state of northeastern
Europe. The Russian conquest of Northern Asia begins in the late 16th century. Today, most of the
territory of Russia is in Asia, but most of its population lives in the European part.

Europe[edit]
Europe

Area

10,180,000 km2(3,930,000 sq mi)[n]

Population

739,165,030[n] (2011), 3rd)

Pop. density

72.5/km2

Countries

50 (list of countries)

Languages

List of languages

Time zones

UTC to UTC+6

Main articles: Europe and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe
See also: Eurasia and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Eurasia
Further information: Geography of Europe
For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Europe with geographical data such as
area, population, and population density, see here.
Europe ( /jrp/ EWR-p or /jrp/ YUR-p[13]) is, by convention, one of the world's
seven continents. Comprising the westernmost peninsula of Eurasia, Europe is generally divided
from Asia by the watershed dividesof the Ural and Caucasus Mountains, the Ural River,
the Caspian and Black Seas, and the waterways connecting the Black and Aegean Seas.[14] Europe
is bordered by the Arctic Ocean to the north, the Atlantic Ocean to the west, the Mediterranean
Sea to the south, and the Black Sea and connected waterways to the southeast. Yet the borders of
Europea concept dating back to classical antiquityare somewhat arbitrary, as the
primarilyphysiographic term "continent" can incorporate cultural and political elements.
i

Europe is the world's second-smallest continent by surface area, covering about 10,180,000 square
kilometres (3,930,000 sq mi) or 2% of the Earth's surface and about 6.8% of its land area. Of
Europe's approximately 50 states, Russia is by far the largest by both area and population, taking up
40% of the continent (although the country has territory in both Europe and Asia), while the Vatican
City is the smallest. Europe is the third-most populous continent after Asia and Africa, with
a population of 733 million or about 11% of the world's population.[15]
Europe, in particular Ancient Greece, is the birthplace of Western culture.[16] It played a predominant
role in global affairs from the 15th century onwards, especially after the beginning of colonialism.
Between the 16th and 20th centuries, European nations controlled at various times the
Americas, most of Africa, Oceania, and large portions of Asia. In 1900, Europe's share of the world's
population was 25%.[17] Both World Wars were largely focused upon Europe, greatly contributing to a
decline in Western European dominance in world affairs by the mid-20th century as the United
States and Soviet Union took prominence.[18] During the Cold War, Europe was divided along the Iron
Curtain between NATO in the west and the Warsaw Pact in the east. European integration led to the

formation of the Council of Europe and the European Union in Western Europe, both of which have
been expanding eastward since the revolutions of 1989 and the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991.

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

land Islands

Mariehamn
Autonomous region
of Finland (recognized by
international treaty)

Euro

Swedish

Albania

Tirana

Lek

Albanian

Andorra

Andorra la Vella

Euro

Catalan

Austria

Vienna

Euro

German

Belarus

Minsk

Belarusian
ruble

Belarusian
Russian

Belgium

Brussels

Euro

Dutch
French
German

Bosnia and
Herzegovina

Sarajevo

Convertible
mark

Bosnian
Croatian
Serbian

Bulgaria

Sofia

Lev

Bulgarian

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Croatia

Zagreb

Kuna

Croatian

Czech
Republic

Prague

Czech
koruna

Czech

Denmark

Copenhagen

Danish
krone[a]

Danish

Estonia

Tallinn

Euro

Estonian

Faroe Islands

Trshavn
Self-governing territory of the Danish
Realm

Faroese
krna

Faroese
Danish

Finland

Helsinki

Euro

Finnish
Swedish

France

Paris

Euro
CFP franc

French

Germany

Berlin

Euro

German

Gibraltar

Gibraltar
Overseas territory of the United
Kingdom

Gibraltar
pound

English

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Greece

Athens

Euro

Greek

Guernsey

Saint Peter Port


British Crown dependency

Pound
sterling

English
French

Hungary

Budapest

Forint

Hungarian

Iceland

Reykjavk

Icelandic
krna

Icelandic

Ireland

Dublin

Euro

English
Irish

Isle of Man

Douglas
British Crown dependency

Pound
sterling

English
Manx

Italy

Rome

Euro

Italian

Jersey

Saint Helier
British Crown dependency

Pound
sterling

English
French

Kosovo

Pristina
De facto sovereign state recognized
by over 80 UN member states
A United
Nations mandate in Serbian territory
was put in place starting in 1999.

Euro

Albanian
Serbian

Latvia

Riga

Euro

Latvian

Liechtenstein

Vaduz

Swiss franc

German

Lithuania

Vilnius

Euro

Lithuanian

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Luxembourg

Luxembourg

Euro

Luxembourgish
French
German

Macedonia

Skopje

Macedonian
denar

Macedonian

Malta

Valletta

Euro

Maltese
English

Moldova

Chiinu

Moldovan
leu

Moldovan

Monaco

Monaco

Euro

French

Montenegro

Podgorica

Euro

Montenegrin

Amsterdam

Euro
US dollar
NA guilder
Aruban florin

Dutch

Norway

Oslo

Norwegian
krone

Norwegian
Bokml
Nynorsk

Poland

Warsaw

Zoty

Polish

Portugal

Lisbon

Euro

Portuguese

Romania

Bucharest

Romanian
leu

Romanian

Russia

Moscow

Russian
ruble

Russian
27 others coofficial

San Marino

San Marino

Euro

Italian

Serbia

Belgrade

Serbian
dinar

Serbian

Slovakia

Bratislava

Euro

Slovak

Netherlands

Flag

Name

Slovenia

Capital

Ljubljana

Currency

Official
language

Euro

Slovene

Spain

Madrid

Euro

Spanish
Catalan
Galician
Basque

Svalbard

Longyearbyen
Special territory
of Norway (recognized by
international treaty)

Norwegian
krone

Norwegian

Sweden

Stockholm

Swedish
krona

Swedish

Switzerland

Bern

Swiss franc

German
French
Italian
Romansh

Transnistria

Tiraspol
De facto sovereign state lacking
general international recognition
Recognized by United Nations as de
jure part of Moldova

Transnistrian
ruble

Russian
Moldovan
Ukrainian

Ukraine

Kiev

Ukrainian
hryvnia

Ukrainian

United
Kingdom

London

Pound
sterling

English

Vatican City

Vatican City

Euro

Italian

Notes
1.

Transcontinental countries in Europe and Asia, classified as West Asian countries by


the United Nations Statistics Division:
Azerbaijan,
Georgia,
Turkey,
Armenia.
In West Asia, but a member of the European Union:

Cyprus.

North America[edit]
North America

Area

24,709,000 km2(9,540,000 sq mi)

Population

528,720,588 (2008, 4th)

Pop. density

22.9/km2 (59.3/sq mi)[b]

Countries

23 (list of countries)

Languages

List of languages

Time zones

UTC-10 to UTC

Main articles: North America and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America
See also: Americas and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Americas
Further information: Geography of North America
For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in North America with geographical data
such as area, population, and population density, see here.
North America is a continent wholly within the Northern Hemisphere and almost wholly within
the Western Hemisphere. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[19] It is
bordered to the north by theArctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by
the Pacific Ocean, and to the southeast by South America and the Caribbean Sea.

North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles),
about 4.8% of the planet's surface or about 16.5% of its land area. As of July 2008, its population
was estimated at nearly 529 million people across 23 independent states. North America is the thirdlargest continent in area, following Asia andAfrica, and the fourth in population after Asia, Africa,
and Europe.

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Anguilla

The Valley
Overseas territory of the
United Kingdom

East Caribbean
Dollar

English

Antigua and
Barbuda

St. John's

East Caribbean
Dollar

English

Aruba

Oranjestad
Constituent country of the
Kingdom of the Netherlands

Aruban florin

Papiamento
Dutch

Bahamas

Nassau

Bahamian Dollar

English

Barbados

Bridgetown

Barbadian Dollar

English

Belize

Belmopan

Belize Dollar

English

Bermuda

Hamilton
Overseas territory of the
United Kingdom

Bermudian Dollar English

Kralendijk
Special municipality of the

United States
Dollar

Bonaire

Dutch

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Netherlands

British Virgin
Islands

Road Town
Overseas territory of the
United Kingdom

United States
Dollar

English

Canada

Ottawa

Canadian Dollar

French
English

Cayman Islands

George Town
Overseas territory of the
United Kingdom

Cayman Islands
Dollar

English

Clipperton Island

uninhabited
Overseas territory of France

Euro

French

Costa Rica

San Jos

Costa Rican
colon

Spanish

Cuba

Havana

Cuban peso

Spanish

Curaao

Willemstad
Constituent country of the
Kingdom of the Netherlands

Netherlands
Antillean guilder

Papiamento
Dutch

Dominica

Roseau

East Caribbean
Dollar

English

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Dominican
Republic

Santo Domingo

Dominican peso

Spanish

El Salvador

San Salvador

United States
Dollar

Spanish

Greenland

Nuuk
Self-governing territory of
the Danish Realm

Danish Krone

Greenlandic

Grenada

St. George's

East Caribbean
Dollar

English

Guadeloupe

Basse-Terre
Overseas department of
France

Euro

French

Guatemala

Guatemala City

Guatemalan
quetzal

Spanish

Haiti

Port-au-Prince

Haitian gourde

French

Honduras

Tegucigalpa

Honduran
lempira

Spanish

Jamaica

Kingston

Jamaican Dollar

English

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Martinique

Fort-de-France
Overseas department of
France

Euro

French

Mexico

Mexico City

Mexican peso

Spanish

Montserrat

Plymouth (official)
Brades (seat of government)
Overseas territory of the
United Kingdom

East Caribbean
Dollar

English

Navassa Island

Insular area of the United


States of America

United States
Dollar

English

Nicaragua

Managua

Nicaraguan
cordoba

Spanish

Panama

Panama City

United States
Dollar
Panamanian
balboa

Spanish

Puerto Rico

San Juan
Insular area of the United
States of America

United States
Dollar

English
Spanish

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Saba

The Bottom
Special municipality of the
Netherlands

United States
Dollar

Saint Barthlemy

Gustavia
Overseas
collectivity of France

Euro

French

Saint Kitts and


Nevis

Basseterre

East Caribbean
Dollar

English

Saint Lucia

Castries

East Caribbean
Dollar

English

Saint Martin

Marigot
Overseas
collectivity of France

Euro

French

Saint Pierre and


Miquelon

Saint-Pierre
Overseas
collectivity of France

Euro

French

Saint Vincent and


the Grenadines

Kingstown

East Caribbean
Dollar

English

Sint Eustatius

Oranjestad
Special municipality of the
Netherlands

United States
Dollar

Flag

Name

Official
language

Capital

Currency

Sint Maarten

Philipsburg
Constituent country of the
Kingdom of the Netherlands

Netherlands
Antillean guilder

Trinidad and
Tobago

Port of Spain

Trinidad and
Tobago Dollar

English

Turks and Caicos


Islands

Cockburn Town
Overseas territory of the
United Kingdom

United States
Dollar

English

United States

Washington, D.C.

United States
Dollar

English

United States
Virgin Islands

Charlotte Amalie
Insular area of the United
States of America

United States
Dollar

English

South America[edit]
South America

Area

17,840,000 km2
(6,890,000 sq mi)

Population

387,489,196 (2011, 5th)

Pop. density

21.4 per km2 (56.0 per sq mi)

Countries

12 (list of countries)

Languages

List of languages

Time zones

UTC-2 to UTC-5

Main articles: South America and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America
See also: Americas and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in the Americas
Further information: Geography of South America
For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in South America with geographical data
such as area, population, and population density, see here.
South America is a continent located in the Western Hemisphere, mostly in the Southern
Hemisphere, with a relatively small portion in the Northern Hemisphere.[20][21]
It is bordered on the west by the Pacific Ocean and on the north and east by the Atlantic
Ocean; North Americaand the Caribbean Sea lie to the northwest. It is formed by twelve sovereign
states
- Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil,Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Guyana, Paraguay, Peru, Suriname, Uruguay,
and Venezuela - the French Guiana, which is an overseas region of France, and the Falkland
Islands, a British Overseas Territory. In addition to this, the ABC islands of the Netherlands may also
be considered part of South America, as well as Trinidad and Tobago. The South American states
that border the Caribbean Sea Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana
are also known as Caribbean South America.

South America has an area of 17,840,000 square kilometers (6,890,000 sq mi). Its population as of
2005 has been estimated at more than 371,090,000. South America ranks fourth in area
(after Asia, Africa, and North America) and fifth in population (after Asia, Africa, Europe, and North
America). The word America was coined in 1507 by cartographers Martin
Waldseemller and Matthias Ringmann, after Amerigo Vespucci, who was the first European to
suggest that the lands newly discovered by Europeans were not India, but a New World unknown to
Europeans.

Flag

Name

Capital

Argentina

Buenos Aires

Currency

Official
language

Peso

Spanish

Bolivia

Sucre (official)
La Paz (seat of government)

Boliviano

Spanish
Quechua
Aymara

Brazil

Braslia

Real

Portuguese

Chile

Santiago

Peso

Spanish

Colombia

Bogot

Peso

Spanish

Ecuador

Quito

United States
dollar

Spanish

Falkland
Islands

Stanley
Overseas territory of the
United Kingdom

Falkland Islands
pound

English

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

French
Guiana

Cayenne
Overseas department of
France

Euro

French

Guyana

Georgetown

Guyanese dollar

English

Paraguay

Asuncin

Guaran

Spanish
Guaran

Peru

Lima

Nuevo sol

Spanish

Suriname

Paramaribo

Surinamese dollar

Dutch

Uruguay

Montevideo

Uruguayan peso

Spanish

Venezuela

Caracas

Bolvar fuerte

Spanish

Oceania[edit]
Oceania

Geopolitical Oceania

Area

8,560,000 km2
(3,310,000 sq mi)

Population

38,304,000 (2013, 5th)

Pop. density

4.47 per km2 (11.57 per sq mi)

Countries

14 (list of countries)

Languages

List of languages

Time zones

UTC-2 to UTC-5

Main articles: Oceania and List of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania
See also: Australia (continent) and Pacific Islands
Further information: Geography of Oceania
For a table of sovereign states and dependent territories in Oceania with geographical data such as
area, population, and population density, see here.
Australia (UK /on/ or /osn/;[22] US /oini/)[23] is a region centered on the islands
of the tropicalPacific Ocean.[24] Opinions of what constitutes Oceania range from the coral atolls and
volcanic islands of theSouth Pacific (ethnologically divided into
the subregions of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia)[25] to the entire insular region
between Asia and the Americas, including Australasia and the Maritime Southeast Asia.The term is
sometimes used more specifically to denote a continent comprising Australia and proximate islands,
[26][27][28][29]
or biogeographically as a synonym for either the Australasian
ecozone (Wallacea and Australasia) or the Pacific ecozone (Melanesia, Polynesia, and Micronesia
apart either from New Zealand[30] or from mainland New Guinea).[31]

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

American
Samoa

Pago Pago
Insular area of the United
States of America

United States dollar

Ashmore and
Cartier
Islands
External
territory of
Australia

Australia

Canberra

Australian dollar

Baker Island

Insular area of the


United States of
America

Cook Islands

Avarua
Self-governing parliamentary
democracy in free association
with New Zealand

New Zealand dollar


Cook Islands dollar

Coral Sea
Islands

External territory of
Australia

Fiji

Suva

Fijian dollar

French
Polynesia

Papeete
Overseas

CFP Franc

Official
language

English
Samoan

None[c]

English
Cook Islands
Mori

French

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

collectivity of France

Guam

Hagta

Insular area of the


United States of
America

Howland
Island

Insular area of the


United States of
America

Insular area of the


United States of
America

Insular area of the


United States of
America

Kingman
Reef

Insular area of the


United States of
America

Kiribati

South Tarawa

Marshall
Islands

Majuro

Micronesia

Palikir

Jarvis Island

Johnston Atoll

Official
language

Flag

Name

Capital

Midway Atoll

Nauru

Yaren (seat of government)

New
Caledonia

Nouma
Sui generis
collectivity (special
collectivity) of France

Currency

Official
language

Insular area of the


United States of
America

CFP Franc

French

Wellington

New Zealand Dollar

Maori
New Zealand
Sign
English

Niue

Alofi

Self-governing
parliamentary
democracy in free
association with New
Zealand

Norfolk Island

Kingston

Self-governing territory
of Australia

Saipan

Insular area of the


United States of
America

New Zealand

Northern
Mariana
Islands

Flag

Name

Palau

Capital

Currency

Official
language

Ngerulmud

Palmyra Atoll

Papua New
Guinea

Port Moresby

Pitcairn
Islands

Adamstown

Samoa

Apia

Solomon
Islands

Honiara

Tokelau

Nukunonu (main settlement,


although each atoll has its
own administrative centre)

Tonga

Nukualofa

Tuvalu

Funafuti

Vanuatu

Port Vila

Insular area of the


United States of
America

Overseas territory of
the United Kingdom

Dependent territory of
New Zealand

Vanuatu vatu

Bislama
French

Flag

Name

Capital

Currency

Official
language

English

Wake Island

Insular area of the United


States of America

United States dollar

Wallis and
Futuna

Mata-Utu
Overseas
collectivity of France

CFP Franc

French

Antarctica[edit]
Antarctica

Area

14,000,000 km2 (5,400,000 sq mi)[32]

Main article: Antarctica


Further information: Geography of Antarctica
Antarctica ( /ntrtk/ or /ntrktk/)[d] is Earth's southernmost continent, containing the
geographic South Pole. It is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost
i

entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean. At 14.0
million km2 (5.4 million sq mi), it is the fifth-largest continent in area after Asia, Africa, North America,
and South America. For comparison, Antarctica is nearly twice the size ofAustralia. About 98% of
Antarctica is covered by ice that averages at least 1 mile (1.6 km) in thickness.
Antarctica, on average, is the coldest, driest, and windiest continent, and has the highest
average elevation of all the continents.[35] Antarctica is considered a desert, with
annual precipitation of only 200 mm (8 inches) along the coast and far less inland.[36] The
temperature in Antarctica has reached 89 C (129 F). There are no permanent human residents,
but anywhere from 1,000 to 5,000 people reside throughout the year at the research stations
scattered across the continent. Only cold-adapted organisms survive there, including many types
ofalgae, animals (for
example mites, nematodes, penguins, seals and tardigrades), bacteria, fungi, plants, andprotista.
Vegetation where it occurs is tundra.
Although myths and speculation about a Terra Australis ("Southern Land") date back to antiquity, the
first confirmed sighting of the continent is commonly accepted to have occurred in 1820 by
the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail
Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny. The continent, however, remained largely neglected for the rest of the
19th century because of its hostile environment, lack of resources, and isolation. The Antarctic
Treatywas signed in 1959 by 12 countries; to date, 49 countries have signed the treaty. The treaty
prohibits military activities and mineral mining, prohibits nuclear explosions and nuclear waste
disposal, supports scientific research, and protects the continent's ecozone. Ongoing experiments
are conducted by more than 4,000 scientists from many nations.
Antarctica is regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, which defines it as all land and ice shelves
south of 60S, and has no government and belongs to no country. However, the following territorial
claims in Antarctica have been made:

Argentina: Argentine Antarctica

Australia: Australian Antarctic Territory

Brazil: Brazilian Antarctica (unofficial)

Chile: Antrtica

France: Adlie Land

New Zealand: Ross Dependency

Norway: Peter I Island and Queen Maud Land

United Kingdom: British Antarctic Territory

(Unclaimed: Marie Byrd Land)

Moreover, the following dependent territories are situated in the wider Antarctic Region:

Flag

Name

Capital

Bouvet Island
Dependent territory
of Norway

Currency

Official
Language

French Southern
Territories

Alfred Faure (Crozet Islands)


Port-aux-Franais (Kerguelen
Islands)
Martin-de-Vivis (Saint
Paul and Amsterdam Islands)
Overseas territory of France

Euro

French

Heard Island and


McDonald Islands
External territory of
Australia

South Georgia and


the South
Sandwich Islands

King Edward Point


Overseas territory of the United
Kingdom

Pound
sterling

English

See also