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(a) Lithium and magnesium exhibit a diagonal relationship in some chemical properties.
Explain the meaning of diagonal relationship.
Diagonal relationship occurs between certain sets of elements in periodic table
(for example Li and Mg, Be and Al, Bi and Si) that have upper left AND lower
right relative location. These pair of elements share similar properties due to
similar size and electronegativity. Opposing effect occurs as we go across and
desending the periodic table.
It is because of increase in the charge of the ion and decrease in the size of ion as
we move along the periodic table. If we went down the table, the elements decrease
in the charge of the ion, and increase in size due to more electron shell. These both
cancelled up when we move diagonally along the table.

How does lithium resemble magnesium in its reaction with oxygen and nitrogen?

For the central metal ion in the complex coordination of (NH4)2[CoF4]

calculate the oxidation state.

(NH4)2[CoxF4]y = 0
NH4+ x 2= (NH4)2+
+2 + y = 0, y = 2F- x 4 = -4
[CoxF4]2x + (-4) = -2
x = +2


write electron valence of d-orbital.

Co atomic number
Co4+ electronic congfiguration

= 27
= 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d7
= 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d5

electron valence of d-orbital

= 3d5

state the coordination number.

Number of ligands attached to Co4+ = 4
Coordination number = 4


find the number of unpaired electron.

Unpaired electron = 1, since the other 4 electron from F- fills the d-orbital








write the expected spin-only magnetic moment (s).

s = 2 S (S +1) , where S = spin quantum number


1 1 1 1

= + 2 + 2 + 2+ 2+ 2
=+ 2

= 4 S(S+ 1)


( 52 )](( 52 )+1)

= 5.9161

(a) Discuss the industrial extraction of aluminium from its ore.
Aluminium is extracted from bauxite. Alumina or aluminium oxide (Al2O3),
is manufactured from extracted ore. Alumina is made into aluminium through
electrolytic reduction. One tonne of aluminium is produced from every two tonnes
of alumina. Bauxite is composed of 40-60% alumina, alongside with earth silicon,
ferrous oxide, and titanium dioxide. The Bayer process is used to separate pure
alumina. First, the ore is heated in an autoclave with caustic soda. It is then cooled
and a solid residue is separated from the liquid. Aluminium hydroxide is then
extracted from this solution and calcined to produce pure alumina.
The final stage is the reduction of aluminium using the Hall-Heroult process.
In the Hall-Heroult reduction process, coal anodes are consumed very quickly
and should be replaced with new ones. Aluminium production is very energyintensive. It is for this reason that the most efficient place to construct aluminium
smelters is in remote regions, where there is free access to power sources.

(b) What is the difference between substitution reaction and redox reaction? Give an
example of each.
A substitution or single displacement reaction is described by one element being
displaced from a compound by another element. It does not involve changes in
oxidation number.
example :
Zn + 2 HCl ZnCl2 + H2
In a redox reaction the oxidation numbers of atoms are changed. Redox reactions
may involve the transfer of electrons between chemical species.
example :
2 S2O32(aq) + I2(aq) S4O62(aq) + 2 I(aq)