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Soalan 1.

Schizophrenia merupakan suatu penyakit mental yang telah dikenalpasti


berabad lamanya.

A)

Berikan definisi Schizophrenia

(2 markah)
- The group of psychological illnesses conventionally referred to as
schizophrenia is diverse in nature characterised with impairment of
perceptive, cognitive and behavioural disturbances followed with
psychotic symptoms.
B)
Terangkan EMPAT (4) faktor etiologi bagi Schizophrenia
(8 markah)
- idiopathic, neurodevelopmental disconnection (genetic and multiple
environmental factors), non-specific neurological degradation, pro-longed drug
dependency, dopamine excessivity at synaptic junction, and social
predisposing factors, childhood trauma, stressful events, traumatic life events.
C)

Terangkan LIMA (5) data yang boleh diperolehi dari pemeriksaan


status mental (MSE) bagi pesakit Manic (Manic Episode).
(10 markah)

- Appearance: radiant or light clothing


- Behaviour

: socialise, excessive happy

- Mood

: hyperactive, irritated, anger

- Affect

: episodal depression

- Speech

: talkative, rapid, flights of ideas, can not be

understand
- Thought

: self-fishness ideas, delusion and hallucination.

Soalan 2.
1

Ketagihan dadah merupakan suatu fenomena yang melanda masyarakat kita.

A)

Nyatakan LIMA (5) kaedah pengambilan dadah yang anda


ketahui.
(5 markah)
- A state of drug addicts suffering from pressure or influence
with no capability to withstand it, require drug for survival
continuity.
- Drug injection (intravenous), smoking / inhalation, intrarectal,

B)

chewing (LSD), transdermal patches (fentanyl).


Terangkan pengurusan bagi pesakit yang mengalami ketagihan
dadah.
(10 markah)

C)

Nyatakan LIMA (5) jenis proses rawatan yang boleh dijalankan


ke atas pesakit ini.
(5 markah)
- Therapeutic communities
- Cognitive-behavioural therapy
- Anti-addictive drugs
- Behavioural programming (behavioral maritial therapy)
- Alternatives acupuncture; electrostimulation

Soalan 3.

Pesakit A berumur 20 tahun datang ke klinik otolaringologi dan beliau disahkan


mengalami otitis eksterna akut .
2

A)

Berikan definisi otitis eksterna akut.

(2 markah)
- Acute mucosal infection or the external auditory canal characterised
with diffuse inflammation of the ear canal mucosal tissue.
B)

Nyatakan EMPAT (4) etiologi otitis eksterna akut

( 4 markah)
- Bacteria (staph, strep, proteus, e.coli), fungus (aspergillus, candida),
virus (paramyxovirus, influenzae), allergic reaction.
C)

Nyatakan manifestasi klinikal otitis eksternal


(4 markah)

- irritation, mucopurulent discharge, pain, decline hearing, itchiness


(otomycoses), redness of the canal
D)

Terangkan pengurusan kes ini


(10 markah)

- initial assessments: discharge for microbiological studies, swab for


microbiological studies, otoscopy
- conservatives: analgesics, systemic ABx, localised ABx, antifungal,
antihistamine.
- Procedural: aural toilet.
- nursing managements: CRIB, IV, VS, IO, Complications, Full profiling,
rehabilitation
- Health education: hygiene, do not poke, hearing aid
- discharge