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BUSINESS PLAN

COMCO RICE Complex Private


Limited

Office: 33- C Mazzanine Floor, Lane 1,


Rahat Commercia Phase VI Area ,
Defence Karachi, Pakistan.
Tele: (+92) (021) 35846029
fax: (+92) (021) 35846030
Email: crcomplex100@gmail.com.

BUSINESS PLAN

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BUSINESS PLAN

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Table of Contents

Executive Summary................................................................2
Project Cost ....................................................................2
Background and History..........................................................4
Agriculture and Pakistan..................................................4
Introduction of Rice.........................................................7
World Production and Trade.............................................7
Economical......................................................................7
Major Producing Areas.....................................................9
Main Varieties .................................................................9
Rice Export...................................................................... 10
Benefits of Rice Furtures Contract...................................10
Benefits to Industry from Futures Trading........................11
Benefits to Exchange Member.........................................11
Description of Products...........................................................12
Rice Description .............................................................12
Definations......................................................................12
Types and Forms of Rice..................................................12
Basics ............................................................................ 13
Whitening............................................................13
Grading...............................................................13
High Nutriational value of B Vitamins .................13
Minerals..............................................................14
Process Sequence ..........................................................4
a- Paddy to Parboiled Rice ..................................4
Paddy Selection ..................................................4
Paddy Cleaning ..................................................4
Soaking ..............................................................4
Steaming ............................................................4
Drying ................................................................4
Milling.................................................................4
Paddy Selection...................................................4
Varieties of Rice Grown in Pakistan..................................4
Basmati...............................................................4
Basmati Rice Other Varieties...............................4
Rice Facts........................................................................4
Project
............................................................................ 6
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Project Cost ....................................................................7


Raw Material Cost ..........................................................7
Administrative Cost ........................................................7
Financial Projections................................................................6
Income Statement...........................................................7
Cash Flow Analysis..........................................................11
Balance Sheet.................................................................12
Financial Ratios...............................................................13
Appendices 15
Letters of Endorsement...................................................15
Resumes of Management................................................15
Product Labels.................................................................15

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EXECUTIVE SUMMARY
Name of project:
Nature of

Location of project
Sheikhupura
Rated Capacity:

Comco Rice Complex Private Limited


(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)

Paddy processing
Rice Reprocessing
Parboiled Processing
Parboiled Rice Reprocessing
(5) Coal Power Generation Plant
Main G ,T Road Muridke District

Paddy 345,600 MT and Raw Rice 72,000 MT/Annam

Units

Technology

1. 4 lines of 12 TPH each Paddy Processing

1. Paddy Cleaning Schmidt Seeger Germany

2. 5 lines of 10 TPH each Rice Reprocessing

2. Paddy Receiving, Drying, Parboiling and Silos Storage from


Germany & USA.
3. Dryer Schmidt Seeger Germany

3. Paddy parboiled 2 lines continuous pre cooker of 12


Tph each
4. Paddy Driers

4. Silos Storage Brock USA

5. Parboiled Paddy Driers

5. Color Sorting Buhler Germany

6. Paddy Drying Capacity Increasing From 100 TPH to 150


TPH
7. Paddy Storage capacity Increasing from 100000 Tons
to 250000 Tons
8. Coal Power Generation Plant 7 MW

6. Grading Schmidt Seeger Germany

9. Automated Preformed Packaging Equipment

9. Polishing (8 pass) Satake Japan

7. Cleaning Schmidt Seeger Germany


8. Processing, Reprocessing from Buhler & Satake Japan

10. De-Stoning Buhler Germany


11. Whitenign (4 pass) buhler Germany
12. Husking Buhler
13. Grading Schmidt Seeger Germany
14. Whitening (2 pass) Buhler Germany
15. Color Sorting Buhler.
16 Perboiling Unit Indus India

Project Cost
The COST of project

USD IN MILLION
360

Means of finance:
Sponsor S Equity 10%
Total cost of project
Land & Development
Building & Civil Work
Plant & machinery and equipment
Vehicles:
Total Capital cost
Working capital:
Total project cost
Infrastructure:
Basic raw material:

Debt:
324
36
360
10.30
11.12
77.90
7.20
106.52
253.48
360
Available within the proposed Area.
100% Available within the project Area
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Agriculture of Pakistan

Paki
stan has an agri-based economy with well developed agriculture sector; around 60% of Pakistan's population (mostly
residing in the rural areas) is directlly indirectly connect with agriculture. The agriculture sector of Pakistan contributes more
than 26% to the GDP, more importantly it is the largest employing sector as it absorbs around 45 % of the country's labor
force, 70% of exports are agricultural & agri-processed products. Corporate Agriculture Farming Package is being
developed. Pakistan has an agriculture base of more than 79.6 million Hectares of total area with 22 million Hectares land
under cultivation. 18 million Hectares of land is under cultivation through irrigation system while 4 million Hectares of land
relies its cultivation exclusively on rain. Agriculture sector of Pakistan is a primary supplier of raw materials to various
industries, contributing significantly to exports, and it also proves to be a major market for other products like fertilizers,
pesticides, tractors, and other agricultural tools Agriculture is the backbone of Pakistan`s economy. Punjab`s agricultural
sector is responsible for 21.8% of its GPP. Over 1.7 million hectares of arable land is available for investment in agriculture
production, out of a total arable area of over 16.5 million hectares. The existing agriculture activity, which includes the sum
of arable land USD 2.6 billion annually, and over 6300 animal feed units, engages 35 million people, and offers an ideal
opportunity to invest in the introduction of new production technology, handling and packing technologies and growing
methods as well as offering opportunities for the development of marketing networks and the marketing of tools, seeds.
Pakistan has a rich and vast natural resource base, covering various ecological and climatic zones; hence the country has
great potential for producing all types of food commodities. Agriculture has an important direct and indirect role in generating
economic growth. The importance of agriculture to the economy is seen in three ways: first, it provides food to consumers
and fibres for domestic industry; second, it is a source of scarce foreign exchange earnings; and third, it provides a market
for industrial goods.
The total geographical area of Pakistan is 79.6 million hectares. About 27 percent of the area is currently under cultivation.
Of this area, 80 percent is irrigated. In this regard, Pakistan has one of the highest proportions of irrigated cropped area in
the world. The cultivable waste lands offering good possibilities of crop production amount to 8.9 million hectares. Growth in
cropped area is very impressive: from 11.6 million hectares in 1947 to 22.6 million hectares in 1997.
Much of the Pakistan's agriculture output is utilized by the country's growing processed-food industry. The value of
processed retail food sales has grown 12 percent annually during the Nineties and was estimated at over $1 billion in 2000,
although supermarkets accounted for just over 10% of the outlets.

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The Federal Bureau of Statistics provisionally valued major crop yields at Rs.504,868 million in 2005 thus registering over
55% growth since 2000 while minor crop yields were valued at Rs.184,707 million in 2005 thus registering over 41% growth
since 2000. The exports related to the agriculture sector in 200910 are Rs 288.18 billion including food grains, vegetables,
fruits, tobacco, fisheries products, spices and livestock.Pakistan is one of the world's largest producers and suppliers of the
following according to the different sources i.e. Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations and FAOSTAT
given here with ranking:Chickpea (2nd) Apricot (6th)Cotton (4th) Milk (5 th Date Palm (5th)Sugarcane (5th)Onion (7th)
Kinnow, mandarin oranges, clementine (6th)Mango (4th)Wheat (7th)Rice (14th) Pakistan ranks eighth worldwide in farm
output, according to the List of countries by GDP sector. ,
Pakistan being an Agro-based economy has a natural abundance of all agricultural products including food items. Rice is
the third largest crop after wheat and cotton.It has grown over 10% of the total cropped area. Rice is highly valued cash crop
and is also a major export item. It accounts for 6.7% in value added in agriculture and 1.6% of GDP. Pakistan grows enough
high quality rice to meet both domestic demand and allow for exports of around one million ton per annum
Rice production in Pakistan holds an extremely important position in agriculture and the national economy. Pakistan is the
world's fourth largest producer of rice, after China, India and Indonesia. Each year, it produces an average of 6 million
tonnes and together with the rest of the South Asia, the country is responsible for supplying 30% of the world's paddy rice
output. Most of these crops are grown in the fertile Sindh and Punjab region with millions of farmers relying on rice
cultivation as their major source of employment. Among the most famous varieties grown in Pakistan include the Basmati,
known for its flavour and quality.
Pakistan produces one of the best quality rice in the world. Basmati rice is the mostsuperior variety of rice produced in
Pakistan. The proximity of Middle Eastern rice has enabled Pakistans rice to compete with the International rice. In Pakistan
The area under rice cultivation is the third largest after the area under which wheat and cotton crops. Total area under rice
cultivation is over 2.5million- hectare rice cultivation is over 2.5million- hectare (6.175 million acres).In Pakistan, rice is
grown under diverse climatic and edaphic conditions. Basmati predominates in traditional rice tracts of Punjab (zone 2). In
Swat (zone 1) at high altitude mountain valleys, temperate Japonica rices are grown. In the South of NWFP, Sindh and
Balochistan (zones 3 and 4) IRRI type long grain heat tolerant tropical rices are grown.The rice crop is sown in during the
months of June/July and harvested in September/October. It is a high water intensive crop. It needs flood irrigation during
the entire season. There are different varieties of crops sown in Pakistan, which differ in taste and aromas. Two main
varieties of rice i.e. Basmati and Irr i are the most commonly grown in Pakistan. The average yield of Basmati rice is 1,560kg
per acre. Basmati rice is considered to be the most superior variety of rice.
Pakistan's principal natural resources are arable land and water. About 25% of Pakistan's total land area is under cultivation
and is watered by one of the largest irrigation systems in the world. Pakistan irrigates three times more acres than Russia.
Agriculture accounts for about 21.2% of GDP and employs about 43% of the labor force. In Pakistan, the most agricultural
province is Punjab where wheat and cotton are the most grown. Some people also have mango orchards but due to some
problems like weather, they're not found in a big range.
Rice is unique among cereal grains in that the entire polished grain is eaten while othercereals are usually processed before
they reach the consumer. Grain quality in rice is, therefore, a very sensitive issue. Interests and priorities of different sectors
of rice industry are different. Farmers are interested in early maturity and high yield that would give them high returns in the
form of good produce and provide enough time for sowing subsequent crops including wheat. Miller's interest is high head
rice recovery. Traders prefer attractive physical appearance (shape and size), whiteness and uniform grain size. For
consumers, quality encompasses a complete range of visual, sensory and palatability criteria that include impressive
appearance of raw as well as cooked rice texture in terms of stickiness/flakiness and appealing aroma. Rice grain quality
depends on intrinsic quality of rice variety (appearance, milling quality and cooking characteristics), environmental
conditions (temperature, humidity, rainfall) and management practices such as use of healthy seed; optimum sowing time;
balanced and timely application of fertilizers; proper harvest and post-harvest operations, use of modern milling and
polishing machinery etc.
Rice trade in Pakistan was liberalized after the release of the Rice Export Corporation of Pakistan in 1990. With minimal
government interventions in the sector from over the two last decades, the market has been able to grow and rice exporters
have been able to respond positively to the changes in the international market. In terms of acreage, rice utilizes up to 11
percent of the cultivable land in Pakistan and has now grown to the second largest earner of export revenue. Rice exports
valued approximately $2 billion by the end of 2012.

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A significant improvement in the quality of Pakistani milled rice has been observed from over the last decade. Increased
private sector investments into modern processing equipment have made Pakistani rice more competitive in terms of quality
and have therefore increased their demand in the international market.
In 2012, rice acreage grew by 8.7 percent from 2.3 million hectares sown in previous season to 2.5 million hectares sown in
the season under review. Domestic consumption of rice stood at 45 percent throughout the year 2012. A 17.5 percent
increase in yield per hectare was also witnessed mainly because of the improved seed quality and better agronomic
practices Not only the reduction in rice prices worldwide led to the stable rice exports of Pakistan but also entry into newer
markets led to an overall increase in rice exports. By the end of March 2012, rice worth nearly $1.9 billion were exported.
Increased demand from China also helped improve exports. Chinas one of the main importers of rice wasThailand; however
Thai exporters raised prices to $580 to $600 per ton as compared to $450 per ton offered by Pakistan. Hence, demand from
China alone accounted for 300,000 million tons of rice exports, earning Pakistan revenue of around $149 million. Other than
Iran, Pakistani exports to the markets of UAE, Saudi Arabia, EU and USA remained stable this season despite the decline of
global shipments to 31.5 million tons as compared to the 34 million tons during the same period of last year.
Experts have predicted a positive future for the export of Pakistani rice with the local consumption standing at 45 percent of
the total rice production. With these statistics, it is estimated that stocks would be sitting at 0.8 percent of the total production
by the end of the season. According to USDAs Grain and Feed Annual report 2012, rice production forecasts remain firm
and it is estimated that the production would be approximately 6.8 million tons for the MY 2012-13
Different varieties of rice are grown in Pakistan for example Super Basmati, Basmati PK-385,Roosi, GM Basmati, Kernel,
Supper, Dubai or Basmati-2000. D-98 Basmati Irri-6, Irri-9 and KS-282 etc. Pakistan is primarily known for its aromatic
rice (Super Basmati/Basmati PK-385/Basmati 1121)

Rice Production 2014/2015


May 2014
This month the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) estimates that the World Rice Production 2014/2015 will
be 480.72 million metric tons, around 5.15 million tons more than the previous month's projection. Rice Production last year
(*) was 476.09 million tons. This year's 480.72 estimated million tons could represent an increase of 4.63 million tons or a
0.97% in rice production around the globe.
World Rice Production by Country (Values in Metric Tons) China: 144,000,00, India: 106,000,000, Others: 38,808,000,
Indonesia: 37,700,000, Bangladesh: 34,800,000, Vietnam: 27,800,000, Thailand: 20,500,000, Philippines: 12,200,000,
Burma: 12,150,000, Brazil: 8,500,000, Japan: 7,700,000, United States: 6,811,000, Pakistan: 6,700,000,
Egypt:4,900,000, Cambodia: 4,900,000, Korea South: 4,150,000, Nepal: 3,100,000 Next Update will be June 11, 2014.
Rice: Important cash crop of Pakistan Rice In Pakistans agrarian economy rice plays multifarious roles. Firstly, it is second
staple food and contributes more than 2 million tonnes of national food requirement. Secondly, rice industry is an important
source of employment and income for rural people. Thirdly, it contributes in the countrys foreign exchange exchequer. For
instance, during 2011-12 about 3.29 million tonnes rice of worth US $ 2.06 billion was exported. The barter trade on
Afghanistan border was in addition to this export. In Pakistan, rice is grown under diverse climatic and edaphic conditions.
Basmati predominates in traditional rice tracts of Punjab. In Swat at high altitude mountain valleys, temperate Japonica rice
is grown. In the South of KPK, Sindh and Balochistan Irri type long grain heat tolerant tropical rices are grown.
Exports Export of rice from Pakistan decreased from US $2.18 billion in 2009-10 to US $1.92 billion in 2012-13, thus
showing decline of 19%. Pakistan mainly exports rice to UAE, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kenya and Afghanistan. UAE is the largest
importer of rice with market share of about 13% while Iran and Saudi Arabia are second and third largest importers of rice
with shares of 7% and 6% respec- tively.
Export of Rice from Pakistan Value: US $ million Year Basmati Other varieties To t a l 2008-09 1,070 913 1,983 2009-10 856
1,328 2,184 2010-11 963 1,197 2,160 2011-12 826 1,236 2,062 2012-13 658 1,261 1,919 Source: Trade Development
Authority of Pakistan and country-wise exports of rice are given in India kept basmati exports banned for around two years.

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but lifted the ban after it estimated to produce surplus crop last year. The neighbouring country is giving tough time in the
world markets such as Europe and Iran and India enjoys good relations with Iran than Pakistan. Pakistan and Iran cannot
have official trade since the United States has put economic sanctions on Iran. Banks in Pakistan are no more opening
letter of credits for goods to Iran. India is having no such issues with Iran and having good trade ties at the state level. The
cost of doing business has risen sharply in Pakistan after the country continued to face electricity amid the energy crisis.
This factor is also giving an edge to the Indian rice in the world market over Pakistani rice. India is selling rice at the world
markets at a price, which is lower than Pakistan. Irans decision to enhance import duty on rice imports from 45% to 90% as
an import reduction strategy has hit rice exporters in Pakistan. However, Pakistans exports to Iran had already been greatly
reduced due to the cheaper price of Indian rice and the reluctance of local banks to accept letters of credit, following US
sanctions on Iran, other exporting countries have suffered greater losses than Pakistan. According to sources, Iran makes
changes in duty according to the needs of the country to protect local prices of the commodity especially in the wake of
increased domestic rice production. There was no ban on trade, but the fresh move was just a strategy that many countries
use to protect their local markets and it would be reviewed.
Global Rice Market The global rice market has been dominated by a few exporters, namely, Thailand, Vietnam, India and
Pakistan, about 60 to 70% of the total exports. Thailand has remained as the top rice exporter in the world. Whereas, the
export has been dominated by a few exporters, the import side looks quite fragmented, with a large number of countries
each importing a small amount of rice. both China and India, the top two rice producers and consumers in the world, have
played a minor role globally with occasional exports and imports. Despite Indias rise as an exporter since the mid-1990s,
both these countries, which account for half of global rice production, have largely focused on domestic food security. Trade
is an afterthought for these two giants and it is mostly used to manage occasional surpluses and deficits. India and Chinese
governments are trying to expand rice production to keep up with the demand, but the rapidly rising costs of production and
pressure on rice area from other competing crops are likely to keep imported rice a lot cheaper than producing rice
domestically. Export of Rice from Pakistan Value: US $ million Year Basmati Other varieties Total 2008-09 1,070 913 1,983
2009-10 856 1,328 2,184 2010-11 963 1,197 2,160 2011-12 826 1,236 2,062 2012-13 658 1,261 1,919
Trade Development Authority of Pakistan, Exports of Rice (Major Countries) Value: Rs. 000 Country 2011-12 2010-11
U.A.E 279,692 299,080 Iran 154,011 355,219 Saudi Arabia 127,872 133,094 Kenya 122,418 74,147 Afghanistan 112,740
224,936 Oman 76,850 106,381 Philippines 83,761 5,621 Qatar 75,436 79,188 Yemen 72,692 44,924 Sri Lanka 69,397
8,013 Malaysia 66,822 20,174 Somalia 62,184 41,068 Bangladesh 56,389 774 United Kingdom 55,707 43,902
Mozambique 50,497 43,383 South Africa 45,402 22,403 All others 671,995 480,924 Total 2,183,865 1,983,231
Trade Development Authority of Pakistan 21 September - October 2013, Export of rice from Pakistan decreased from US
$2.18 billion in 2009-10 to US $1.92 billion in 2012-13, thus showing decline of 19%. Pakistan mainly exports rice to UAE,
Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kenya and Afghanistan. In Pakistan rice is an important cash crop of the country and the overall national
economy. Rice accounts 2.7% of the value added in agriculture and 0.6% of GDP. Rice ranks as second amongst the staple
food grain crop in Pakistan and it has been a major source of foreign exchange earnings in recent years. Rice provides 21%
of global human per capita energy and 15% of per capita protein. Although rice protein ranks high in nutritional quality
among cereals, protein content is modest. Rice also provides minerals, vitamins, and fiber, although all constituents except
carbohydrates are reduced by milling. On the other hand rice contains no additives or preservatives, making it an excellent
inclusion in a healthy and balanced diet. Rice also contains resistant starch, which is the starch that reaches the bowel
undigested. This encourages the growth of beneficial bacteria, keeping the bowel healthy. Rice Production Pakistan is the
world's largest producer of rice. Each year, it produces an average of 6 million tonnes and together with the rest of the South
Asia; the country is responsible for supplying 25% of the world's paddy rice output. Most of these crops are grown in the
fertile Sindh and Punjab region with millions of farmers relying on rice cultivation as their major source of employment.
Among the most famous varieties grown in Pakistan include the Basmati, known for its flavour and quality. Rice production
comprises 40% of Basmati (Fine) type and 60% of coarse types. Modern rice varieties In Pakistan, modern rice varieties
were adopted rather rapidly after Irri rice was introduced in 1968. The rice variety Irri was reportedly successful in Pakistan
because of high solar radiation and abundant irrigation water. When properly managed, Irri yielded three to four times as
much as local varieties and enabled the country to increase its rice production substantially. Rice sowing area and yield Rice
sowing area is estimated at 2.31 million hectares, 10.1% less than last years area of 2.57 million hectares. Production of
rice decreased from 6.95 million tonnes in 2008-09 to 5.54 million tonnes in 2012-13, thus showing decline of 20%. The
production decreased due to decrease in area and effects of monsoon rain and late receding of water period in rice fields
prolonged the sowing. Rice is grown in many areas of Pakistan. In Punjab it is cultivated in Sialkot, Wazirabad, Gujranwala,
Sheikhupura, district Gujrat, Sargodha, Faisalabad and Kasure. In Sindh, Jacobabad, Larkana, Badin, Thatta, Shikarpur and
Dadu district are important in rice cultivation. District Nasirabad and Baluchistan are also a rice producing area.

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Production and Yield of Rice Year Area (000) Production (000) Yield (Kgs/Hec.) 2008-09 2,963 6,952 2,346 2009-10 2,883
6,883 2,387 2010-11 2,365 4,823 2,039 2011-12 2,571 6,160 2,396 2012-13 2,311 5,541 2,398
Federal Bureau of Statistics, Government of Pakista 21 September - October 2013, Export of rice from Pakistan decreased
from US $2.18 billion in 2009-10 to US $1.92 billion in 2012-13, thus showing decline of 19%. Pakistan mainly exports rice
to UAE, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Kenya and Afghanistan. In Pakistan rice is an important cash crop of the country and the overall
national economy. Rice accounts 2.7% of the value added in agriculture and 0.6% of GDP. Rice ranks as second amongst
the staple food grain crop in Pakistan and it has been a major source of foreign exchange earnings in recent years. Rice
provides 21% of global human per capital energy and 15% of per capital protein. Although rice protein ranks high in
nutritional quality among cereals, protein content is modest. Rice also provides minerals, vitamins, and fiber, although all
constituents except carbohydrates are reduced by milling. On the other hand rice contains no additives or preservatives,
making it an excellent inclusion in a healthy and bal- anced diet. Rice also contains resistant starch, which is the starch that
reaches the bowel undigested. This encourages the growth of beneficial bacteria, keeping the bowel healthy. Rice
Production Pakistan is the world's largest producer of rice. Each year, it produces an average of 6 million tonnes and
together with the rest of the South Asia; the country is responsible for supplying 25% of the world's paddy rice output. Most
of these crops are grown in the fertile Sindh and Punjab region with millions of farmers relying on rice cultivation as their
major source of employment. Among the most famous varieties grown in Pakistan include the Basmati, known for its flavour
and quality. Rice production comprises 40% of Basmati (Fine) type and 60% of coarse types. Modern rice varieties In
Pakistan, modern rice varieties were adopted rather rapidly after Irri rice was introduced in 1968.
The rice variety Irri was reportedly successful in Pakistan because of high solar radiation and abundant irrigation water.
When properly managed, Irri yielded three to four times as much as local varieties and enabled the country to increase its
rice production substantially. Rice sowing area and yield Rice sowing area is estimated at 2.31 million hectares, 10.1% less
than last years area of 2.57 million hectares. Production of rice decreased from 6.95 million tonnes in 2008-09 to 5.54
million tonnes in 2012-13, thus showing decline of 20%. The production decreased due to decrease in area and effects of
monsoon rain and late receding of water period in rice fields prolonged the sowing. Rice is grown in many areas of
Pakistan. In Punjab it is cultivated in Sialkot, Wazirabad, Gujranwala, Sheikhupura, district Gujrat, Sargodha, Faisalabad
and Kasure. In Sindh, Jacobabad, Larkana, Badin, Thatta, Shikarpur and Dadu district are important in rice cultivation.
District Nasirabad and Baluchistan are also a rice producing area. The areas, production and yield of rice for the last five
years are shown such Production and Yield of Rice Year Area (000) Production (000) Yield (Kgs/Hec.) 2008-09 2,963 6,952
2,346 2009-10 2,883 6,883 2,387 2010-11 2,365 4,823 2,039 2011-12 2,571 6,160 2,396 2012-13 2,311 5,541 2,398.

Intro
duction of Rice
Rice Oryza Sativa L. a member of the grass family, along with wheat and corn, is one of the three crops on which the
human species largely subsists. Rice is now one of the most important crops at the global level, as it is used as a staple
food in most countries of the world and will continue to be for the foreseeable feature. Rice is intimately involved in the
culture as well as the food ways and economy of many societies. Indica type rice feeds more than two billion people,
predominantly in developing countries. In the coming 30 years, the world will require 70% more rice than that it requires
today. According to conservative estimates, 800 million tons of rice will have to be grown with considerate reduction in the

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input of agrochemical under sustainable conditions. It has been estimated that half the world's population subsists wholly or
partially on rice. Ninety percent of the world crop is grown and consumed in Asia. American consumption, although
increasing, is still only about 11 kg per person annually, as compared with 90181 kg per person in parts of Asia
RICE STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS & EXPORT
RICE HISTORY, CULTIVATION, CHARACTERISTICS, PROCESSING, STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS, &
HISTORY & INTRODUCTION
The history of Rice is as old as mankind, but probably not older than 2,800 B.C. as known to the historians. Originally Paddy
was a self growing plant in the low lying areas adjoining sea shores and river banks. In the sub continent, Rice grain
botanically known as oryza stiva is the staple food of almost half of the mankind. Its coarse varieties are consumed by
low-income people while the fine and improved types with varying recipes occupy the important place at elite class dinning
tables. No formal or informal occasion can afford to skip this important food item at homes or restaurants, hence consumed
in huge quantities all over the world. It is relished by the majority of people irrespective of class, rich or poor. Rice, being the
most enriched food grain, is grown all over the world and is a comprehensive food consisting of the following ingredients:-

Nutritional value per 100 grams (Energy 350 Calories)


(1). Protein: 6.4 grams (2). Carbohydrates: 79 grams (3). Dietary Fiber: 2.4 grams(4).Fat: 0.4 grams, (5). Calcium: 09 ml
grams (6). Iron: 04 ml grams (7). Thiamine: 0.21 ml grams (8). Riboflavin:0.05 ml grams (9).
Niacin: 03.8 ml grams.
For a conventional grain crop there are three major factors for its raising viz. fertile soil (land), desired water requirements
and fertilizers (mineral constituents), but rice is a crop which requires a warm, humid and damp climate from the period of its
sowing (transplantation) till its ripening and this factor rather becomes imperative for fine varieties of rice. The moist
atmosphere during this period helps in making the rice grain longer in size, transparent & lustrous in texture, aromatic and
palatable in taste. These typical environments prevail in Punjab where worlds finest varieties of Basmati Rice are grown in
fertile lands of Punjab irrigated by snow fed rivers of Himalayas. The Kallar Tract, a bowl shaped region in Punjab known to
produce Basmati has further premium over Basmati from other regions.

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CULTIVATION OF RICE CROP


Rice crop grown in Pakistan on just over 2.5 million hectares not only meets the domestic requirements but also a sizeable
surplus becomes available for export. Basmati rice, grown largely in Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Gujranwala, Narowal, Gujrat,
Lahore and Sahiwal districts of the Punjab province, is quite famous in the world for its peculiar taste and aroma. Super
and Basmati 385 are the two Basmati varieties of Pakistan

which are quite popular across the world. Non-basmati varieties, also known as coarse rice, largely come from Larkana,
Jacobabed, Dadu, Sukkur, Thatta, Badin, and Hyderabad districts of the Province of Sindh. These varieties are non
aromatic and richer in starch as compared to Basmati varieties. Export consignments of non Basmati consists of large
quantities mainly because these are procured by governments to ensure availability of food for their population. This rice is
also procured by welfare organization for distribution amongst the people in calamity stricken areas. The non basmati
varieties exported from Pakistan include: IRRI 9, KS 282 & IRRI-6.
BASMATI The superior quality rice
The Basmati Rice is one of the most favorite cereals consumed by people around the globe. The word Basmati was derived
from combination of two words i.e., BAS means fragrance and MATI means soil (earth). The grains are longer & straight in
look, but there seems to be a curve at the bottom of grain & near to its tip. Some of the grains are not pointed and the tips
appear to be round besides, if the grain is looked at from its head, the portion of lower end from where it grows, seems to be
little broken. The smaller grains show visible curve and are little thicker at their tips and slightly thinner at head. Some of the
grains are translucent. Aged Rice is 1 2 years old and as the moisture evaporates, the naturally present oil spreads
throughout the grain delivering its distinct flavor. The cooking of aged Basmati rice yields long grain rice, which grows twice
its length giving nice aroma and excellent taste. Each grain of rice is a complete package of nutrition, which provides health
and energy. It is no wonder that more than half of the worlds population is dependent on rice as their staple diet. In fact, rice
alone is capable of supplying 80% of the bodys daily nutritional requirements. The healthful and gluten free grain is one of
the best source of complex carbohydrates, the high energy fuel that powers the body. Although rice lacks a few essential
amino acids to make it a complete protein rich diet, yet this deficiency is compensated when eaten with small portion of
animal or vegetable protein. Rice is a light food and is easy to digest.
VALUE ADDITION & BLENDING
Rice sells on varied prices depending on its variety and grade. The supreme varieties of Pakistan Basmati, Super and
Kernel, sell on highest prices followed by Basmati 385. Varieties of rice are sub divided into grades based mainly in the
proportion of broken rice on a consignment. Moreover, a consignment may contain different varieties under an agreement
between buyer and seller. This nature of trade is prone to temptation for unreasonably excessive mixing of inferior varieties
to extract exorbitant profits from unwary consumers. This malpractice leads to distortion in the image of rice because
Pakistani Basmati rice is renowned the world over for its distinctive aroma and other cooking qualities like elongation and
non stickiness of grains in cooking. The mixing of inferior rice in basmati varieties has marring effect on these
characteristics and unbridled mixing of inferior varieties can result in loss of popularity of superior varieties, which, in turn,
would inflict irreparable damage to the export of rice.
OLD IS GOLD

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Rice is a food item which if stored raw having excessive moisture percentage (over 16% for brown and over 14% for white)
Perishes or gets damaged, but certainly the extra moisture should be exhausted through aging process in specified
conditions in ventilated stores. The proper aging means the grain should lose the extra moisture and come to the normal
moisture contents of 10 12%. Anything less than 9%, the grain becomes brittle and breaks. In- fact this is the moisture
content in which the grain has the ability to sustain its form and germinate if sown (paddy grain). Hence rice grains keep on
loosing moisture and improve cooking quality from 1-2 years, get stable and nearly after three years should start loosing
their cooking quality. So we can safely say that its shelf life could be maximum 3 years or so.
SHELF LIFE:
Rice is a food item which if stored raw having excessive moisture percentage (over 16% for brown and over 14% for white)
gets damaged, but certainly the extra moisture should be exhausted through aging in specified conditions in ventilated
stores. The proper aging means the grain should loose the extra moisture and come to the normal moisture contents of 1012%. Anything less than 9%, the grain becomes brittle and breaks. In- fact this is the moisture content in which the grain has
the ability to sustain its form and germinate if sown (paddy grain). Hence rice grains keep on loosing moisture and improve
cooking quality from 1-2 years, get stable and nearly after three years should start loosing their cooking quality. So we can
safely say that its shelf life could be maximum 3 years or so.

EXPORT OF RICE FROM PAKISTAN


After textile, rice is the largest foreign exchange earner. Pakistani Basmati rice has established its good reputation and
credibility in the rice consuming countries due to its peculiar character traits, shape and palatability. Pakistans major
Basmati rice export markets are U.A.E, Saudi Arabia, UK, Yemen, Qatar, Bahrain, Kuwait, Malaysia, and USA and major
non basmati markets include Afghanistan, Iran, Ivory Coast, Dubai, Bangladesh, Kenya, Malagasy, Iraq, Indonesia,
Morocco, Malaysia, Cameroon, Kuwait, Mauritius, Nigeria, Portuguese Guinea, Qatar, Benin, South Africa, Sri Lanka,
Sudan, Oman, and Togo.
Our competing countries in case of non basmati rice include Thailand, India, Vietnam and Myanmar. In case of Basmati
rice the only competing country is India.
POLISH
It is a state of whiteness / polish and not the variety of rice. It is the processing of rice wherein 6-7 layers of bran are
removed through abrasive action of Polishers and mutual friction of rice grains. The rice grains are passed through series of
3 to 4 Polishers for gradual whitening of rice. These grains are further passed through wet/jet Polishers wherein rice grains
are passed through compressed air / water around stainless steel roller to give a cosmetic / silky effect on rice. What we
could gather is that double polish is better than silky polish, It may be true as in the double polish state of rice, less grain
nutrients are removed as compared with silky polish, hence it may be more nutritive and more palatable, of course Basmati
Super is better than Basmati pk-385.
COOKING METHODOLOGY
The ratio of rice versus water for all rice varieties is almost similar i.e., one for rice and 1.5 to 1.75 for water. For fresh crop
(6 months to 1 year old) 1.5 and for older than one year 1.75 of water is required.
Rice grains contain 0.2 to 0.4% oil contents and basmati rice is richer in oil contents than Irri 9 / Irri 6 (coarse variety) All rice
varieties are (boiled rice) easily digestible if consumed in the recommended quantity i.e., leaving at least 1/4th of belly empty.
OTHER USEFUL INFORMATION

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Paddy
Height of the plant

115cm.

Time of sowing nursery

20 May to 07 June

Time of transplanting

20 June to 07 July

Time of harvesting

20 Oct to 07 Nov

Maturity Period

120 days

STANDARD SPECIFICATIONS FOR PAKISTANI RICE


The standard Specification were adopted by the Pakistan Standard Institute on 25-01-1993 after the draft finalized by the
Cereal Pulses and their products Sectional Committee approved by the Agricultural and Food Products Divisional Council.
All quantities in this Standard have been given in International system of units. Rice standard means the quality of rice which
is set according to its varieties and grades. The quality is determined by the types of grains, grain composition as well as
milling degree set for each variety and grade of rice. The quality of rice may differ from season to season and thus for the
sake of comparison, standard rice samples will be established from time to time. Rice Crop in Pakistan not only meets the
domestic requirements of food and fodder, but also the major source of foreign exchange earning. The foreign exchange
earning due to rice exported abroad from Pakistan has also been increasing every year with increase in production.
The quality of rice is determined according to the combination following criteria:
a)

Grain Length Classification

b)

Milling process

c)

Variety or Type of Rice

d)

Grade

e)

Milling degree

The quality is determined by the combination of all above factors.

PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS


The moisture content shall not be greater than 14% (m/m). The maximum contents of extraneous matter and defective
kernels in husked and milled rice, whether or not parboiled, and determined in accordance with the method described in
Pakistan Standard Specification manual. All commercial contracts should show clearly the total percentage of broken
kernels permitted, classified according to the agreed categories and relative proportions of each category, and the total
percentage of extraneous matter and of defective kernels, determined in accordance with the method described in Pakistan
Standard Specification manual.

World Production and Trade

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According to FAOs latest forecast, world production in 2004/05 may have reached 606 MT of paddy rice (405 in white
equivalent), against 585 MT in the last year up by 3.5%. As a result of this increased production, world rice trade is
estimated at 25.9 MT, against 27 MT in 2004. Production grew mainly in China, where prices recovery and large utilization of
hybrid varieties have contributed to boost supply. In the rest of the world, production also raised due to the expansion of rice
areas and higher yields. For 2005/06, it is expected another increase, to 615 MT. Nevertheless, supply is still not enough
when compared to consumption needs (414 MT in white equivalent). It will lead to a new fall in world stocks, from 97 MT in
the year before to 95 MT, the lowest level since 1982.
Economical
Rice is the second most important crop which brings economic prosperity of the growers as well as earns billions of rupees
through its export for country. Pakistani fine rice commonly known as Basmati is world famous and enjoys monopoly in the
international market, due to its quality characteristics, strong aroma, slender and long kernel, gelatinization, temperature and
high degree of grain elongation on cooking. However, the grain yield of basmati rice varieties is very low. In order to remain
in the International market, we have to further improve the quality as well as yield of basmati varieties. Rice plays a pivotal
role in the agro-based and occupies a prominent position in agricultural economy of Pakistan.
Rice is a high valued cash crop and is also a major export item. It accounts for 5.7 percent of the total value added in
agriculture and 1.3 percent to GDP. Production of rice during 2004-05 is provisionally estimated at 4991 thousand tons,
which is 2.9 percent higher than last year. Rice was cultivated on an area of 2503 thousand hectares, showing an increase
of 1.7 percent over last year. The higher production is due to favourable weather condition.
Area,Production and Yield of Rice.
Major Producing Areas
Major producing areas include Gujranwala, Hafizabad, Sheikhupura, Sialkot, Jhang & Okara of Punjab and Larkana,
Jacobabad, Shikarpur, Badin, Dadu & Thatta districts of Sindh.
Main Varieties
In Pakistan, rice is mainly grown in the Sindh and Punjab. The Sindh is specialized in producing the Long grain white rice
IRRI-6 and IRRI-9, while Punjab is producing world class Basmati rice among IRRI-9 and other varieties. Punjab is the
biggest producer of rice in the country and contributes 58 per cent to national production while the provinces of Sindh,
Balochistan and NWFP to 29, 3 and 10 per cent, respectively. Some of the important varieties grown in the country are
Super Basmati, Kernel Basmati, Basmati 385, Basmati (1121) Basmati 386,Roosi Basmati, GM Basmati, Dubai, Basmati
2000, D 98, IRRI-6, IRRI-9, KS-282, DR-82 and DR-83. All rice is irrigated and mainly transplanted. On an average, each
household in Pakistan spends about 3.8 percent of its total food expenditure on rice and rice flour. It is the second staple
food and contributes more than 2 million tons to Pakistan's national food requirement.
Rice Export
Pakistan exports both high-quality Basmati rice which sells at a substantial premium in high-income markets as well as
intermediate and low quality non-aromatic long grain milled rice to developing countries, mostly in East Africa where it
competes with China and Vietnam, and in South Asia. Pakistans Basmati rice typically sells at a lower price than Indias
Basmati. For all rice, Sub-Saharan Africa, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Middle East and the EU are leading export
markets for Pakistan. Rice exports reached record US$ 932.3 million, showing an extraordinary increase of US$ 297.8
million (46.9 percent) during FY 05 despite a fall in unit values. Export values of basmati rice and other varieties stood at
US$ 439 and US$ 493.6 respectively.

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Benefits of Rice Futures Contract


Futures Contract of Rice would provide hedging platform for the following market participants.
Progressive Growers
Millers
Manufacturers of Value Added Products
Traders
Exporters
Investor
Rice futures price is important to farmers, millers, exporters. All groups can use futures price or price discovery as
information to direct their businesses or to manage their risk. In addition, exporters can use futures exchange as hedging
tools to manage their risk. They can buy rice futures contract and sell futures contract before the first delivery notice day
called "offset", then the exporters take profit or loss from contract price difference. If they buy high and sell higher, they will
gain from buying futures contract. In contrast, they buy high and sell low, they will lose from buying futures contract In cash
market, exporters can buy or sell rice futures contract in which they may take profit or lose as well. Fortunately, they gain in
futures exchange but lose in cash market. And the gain covers their losses, so they will take profit.
Benefits to Industry from Futures Trading.
Hedging the price risk associated with futures contractual commitments.
Spaced out purchases possible rather than large cash purchases and its storage.
Efficient price discovery prevents seasonal price volatility.
Greater flexibility, certainty and transparency in procuring commodities would aid bank lending.
Facilitate informed lending.
Hedged positions of producers and processors would reduce the risk of default faced by banks. * Lending for agricultural
sector would go up with greater transparency in pricing and storage.
Commodity Exchanges to act as distribution network to retail agri-finance from Banks to rural households.
Provide trading limit finance to Traders in commodities Exchanges.
Benefits to Exchange Member
Access to a huge potential market much greater than the securities and cash market in commodities.
Robust, scalable, state-of-art technology deployment.
Member can trade in multiple commodities from a single point, on real time basis.
Traders would be trained to be Rural Advisors and Commodity Specialists and through them multiple rural needs would be

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met, like bank credit, information dissemination, etc


Rice

Rice is the grain with the second highest worldwide production, after maize ("corn"). In Pakistan its the 3rd largest crop
interm of area after wheat and cotton.By and large average rice yield in Pakistan comparatively low than China, USA, North
Korea, South Korea, India, Bangladesh,Vietnam, Philippines, Brazil, Egypt, Iran, etc. It needs to increase in order to sustain
food security at home and maintain our share in world markets. The quality of produce also suffers due to defective
harvesting methods and out-dated processing technology and admixtures during various stages of processing and
marketing.Basmati is a premium long grain variety of rice, highly valued for its aroma and flavor and exclusively grown in
certain parts of the Punjab. The adulteration of basmati rice with other cheaper varieties has become an area for
potentexploitation. There is a need a develop a method that enables the differentiation of basmati varities from other longgrain rice in order to ensure consumer protection and for use in regulation of rice trade.
The demand of parboiled rice is increasing day by day because Parboiled rice boiled in the husk and makes rice easier to
process by hand, improves its nutritional profile, and changes its texture.
Polishing rice by hand, that is, removing the bran layer, is easier if the rice has been parboiled. It is, however, somewhat
more difficult to process mechanically. The bran of parboiled rice is somewhat oily, and tends to clog machinery. Most
parboiled rice is milled in the same way as white rice.
Parboiling rice drives nutrients, especially thiamine, from the bran into the grain, so that parboiled white rice is 80%
nutritionally similar to brown rice. Because of this, parboiling was adopted by North American rice growers in the early 20 th
century.The starches in parboiled rice become gelatinized, making it harder and glassier than other rice. Parboiled rice takes
more time to cook, and the cooked rice is firmer and less sticky. In North America, parboiled rice is generally partially or fully
precooked by the processor. There is immense potential for value addition in rice sector inpost harvest processing through
development of storagefacilities Silos, Parboiled rice processing plant, quality polishingand packaging. Parboiled rice is
one of the most popular rice products in Europe, Saudi Arabia, South Africa and other regions of the world. It has become
more important not only by the fact of improved nutritional value but also by the improved cooking and processing
properties. Saudi Arabia and USA are big markets for Basmati parboiled rice where 70% of the total rice demand coming
from Saudi Arabia is that of parboiled rice.
Definitions:
(A) RICE: means milled rice which includes cargo rice, white rice, glutinous rice and boiled rice, whether it be whole grain,
head rice, big broken, broken or small broken.
(1) Cargo Rice: (BROWN RICE, HUSKED RICE) means rice obtained from paddy of which only the husk has been
removed. This includes its whole grain, head rice, big broken, broken, and small broken.
(2) Plain or White Rice: means rice obtained from paddy which has been husked and milled while by removing its
bran layers. This includes its whole grain, head rice, big broken, broken, and small broken.
(3) Parboiled Rice: may be husked or milled rice processed from paddy or husked rice that has been soaked in water
and subjected to a heat treatment so that the starch is fully gelatinized, followed by a drying process.
B) GRAIN CLASSIFICATION: means the proportional mixture of rice of difference classes to form a grade
Rice Kernal is divided into four classes namely:
(1) Extra Long Grain: shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of 6.90 mm or more.
(2) Long Grain: shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of more than 6.0 mm but not more
than 6.90 mm.
(3) Medium Grain: shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of more than 5.0 mm but not
more than 5.9 mm.

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(4) Short Grain: shall be the head rice/whole grain having the average grain length of 5.00 mm or less.
(C) YELLOW KERNEL: means the kernel of which 25% or more of the surface area has turned yellow in color.
(D) CHALKY KERNEL: means the kernel of which 50% or more of the surface area is white like the color of chalk.
(E) GREEN RICE: means the kernel of green color in Cargo (Brown) rice which when broken is also green in color from
inside or in the endosperm

.
White Rice
At various times, starting in the 19th century, brown rice and wild rice have been advocated as healthier alternatives. [4] The
bran in brown rice contains significant dietary fiber and the germ contains many vitamins and minerals.Typically, 100 grams
of uncooked rice produces around 240 to 260 grams of cooked grains, the difference in weight owing to absorbed White
rice is the name given to milled rice that has had its husk, bran,and germ removed. This alters the flavour, texture and
appearance of the rice and helps prevent spoilage and extend its storage life. After milling, the rice is polished, resulting in a
seed with a bright, white, shiny appearance.The milling and polishing processes both remove important nutrients. A diet
based on unenriched white rice leaves people vulnerable to the neurological disease beriberi, due to a deficiency of
thiamine (vitamin B1). White rice is often enriched with some of the nutrients stripped from it during its processing. [1]
Enrichment of white rice with B1, B3, and iron is required by law in the United States, [2][3] although these nutrients are only a
small portion of what has been removed. As with all natural foods, the precise nutritional composition of rice varies slightly
depending on the variety, soil conditions, environmental conditions and types of fertilizers.cooking water.
Steam Rice
Raw rice (white rice) consumers prefer aged or seasoned rice. This is raw rice stored for 10 12 months. The cooking
quality , color and taste changes with aging Disadvantages of long storage: Chances of fungus and insects and rodents
Loss in weight Large storage space and blocking of capital Advantages of Steam Rice: After steam treatment of paddy,
the milled rice obtains cooking quality, color and taste as aged rice No need for storing for 10/12 months
Basmati Rice
The finest rice is from Pakistan whatever the brand name. Pakistan is the producer of the worlds finest long grained
aromatic basmati rice. Known as Basmati Pak-10, this rice can be obtained in double jute/Hussein bags in different weights
& consumer packs of 1 kg. Description: Basmati, the king of rice, is held in the highest regard world over. Among all the
other varieties of rice, none have the distinctive long grains or the subtle aroma for which this grain is considered so special.
This also justifies the premium this rice commands against all other rice of the world.It takes birth in the most fertile valleys
and plains of Pakistan. It is harvested by hand with delicate care, aged to perfection and then processed. The result is an
extra long, pearly white, delicate grain with an irresistible aroma and delectable taste bringing alive an age of nawabs and
emperors, glittering courts and legendary chefs.The name basmati originated from a Sanskrit word "BASH", which means
smell. This rice has special features, which make it's naturally long grain fragrant and delicious in taste. The legend says
that this rice was meant to be consumed by maharajas (kings), maharanis (queens), princes and royal families. This unique
rice is just one crop a year grown only in northern India and Pakistan, the region known as old Punjab - the land of five rivers
originating from Himalayas.
Types and Forms of Rice,
Super Kernel Basmati Rice:
Super Kernel Basmati Rice is king of all rice Varieties in the world, grown in the fertile land of Punjab and irrigation water
comes from foothills of the Himalayas and Kashmir through Indus River. Basmati Rice is rice from Pakistan has long
cylindrical shape with pointed edges and pearly white rice and is famous basmati long grain rice and has various names like

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aromatic rice, Pakistani rice, Indian Rice, queen rice, biryani rice, Punjabi Rice, Pusa basmati rice, Punjab Basmati Super
Kernel Rice and identifies by its long grain rice and aroma have made Super Kernel Basmati rice is long grain rice with a
slender kernel, four to five times longer that it's width. The grains are separate, light and fluffy when cooked, and mostly
used for recipes such as biryani, which require rice of a distinct shape and texture staple in almost every corner of the
world.
Basmati Rice 385:
Basmati Rice 385 is dry and separate when cooked, resulting in long, thin grains, since the long grain increases only in
length when cooked.
Brown Rice:
Brown Rice is the least processed form of rice, as the kernels of rice have had only the hull removed. The light brown colour
of brown rice is caused by the presence of bran layers, which are rich in minerals and vitamins, especially the B-complex
group. With a natural aroma and flavour similar to that of roasted nuts or popcorn, it is chewier than white rice, and slightly
more nutritious, but takes longer to cook. Brown rice may be eaten as is or milled into regular-milled white rice
White Rice:
White Rice belongs to the Indica (long grain) category. It is also known as polished rice orfully milled rice because most of
the outer layers- the husk and the bran layer are removed from the kernel, through the milling process.
Jasmine Rice:
Jasmine Rice, also called fragrant rice or Hom Mali rice, is recognized world wide as Thailands specialty. Thai Jasmine
rice belongs to the Indica (long-grain) category and could be divided into 4 sub categories: Kao Dok Mali, Go Kho 15,
Klongluang, and Suphan. The grains of Jasmine rice appear silky, smooth, and shiny. When cooked, Jasmine rice produces
an elegant aroma.
Brown Rice:
Similar to White rice, Brown rice belongs to the Indica (long-grain) category. The only difference between these two varieties
is the milling; milling removes both the husk and the bran layer of the kernal. Through the milling process, Brown rice
becomes White
rice. As a result, in Brown rice, only the husk is removed while the bran layer remains. Because of the brand layer, Brown
rice contains more nutrients than White rice. In particular, Brown rice is very high in fiber and vitamin B.
Glutinous Rice:
Glutinous rice, also called sticky rice or sweet rice, consists of amylose and amylopectin starch. With a chalky white texture,
glutinous rice is often used in producing starch and flour.
Broken Rice:
During the milling process, broken rice is separated from the White rice, whose shape remains intact. In other words, broken
rice is the damaged White rice and is normally used in animal feeding or other food & beverage processing, such as beer
brewing and
flour processing. A grain of broken rice gives a low fiber texture and low nutrient level, while retaining its high energy
content.
Short Grained Rice:
Short-Grained rice belongs to the Japonica (Short Grained) category and has a short, round, and plumpy kernel. When
cooked, short-Grained rice stick together, although not as much as glutinous rice.
Paddy:
Paddy is the most original form of a rice kernel. After the harvest, rice is separated from the ear into individual grains. After
drying, the end result is the Paddy, whose kernel is still inside the hull. After the milling process, the out hull is removed,
along with the bran layer. And the end product becomes White rice

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Black Rice:
Black rice could be either medium or long grain. Precooked black rice has white kernels inside the black bran. Once cooked,
the rice becomes deep dark purple with a nutty flavor and a whole grain texture. Black rice gives a particularly cohesive
characteristic and is made into various stir fry, stuffing, casseroles, and side dishes.
Red Rice:
has a shorter and wider seed than long-grain rice. A typical red rice plant has an unusually hard grain, which retains its
shape after an hour of cooking. Red rice has a distinctive chewy texture and a nutty flavor. Cooking intensifies its red color.
Hybrid Rice:
In Pakistan, new hybrid rice varieties are being developed which would give maximum yield by utilizing minimum input costs
during water scarcity, he added. He said the Rice Research Institute had developed new techniques to cultivate rice
through a broadcasting system instead of manual sapling plantation. Under the new technique, if farmers succeed in
planting 80,000 plants in a field, they will get 6-8 maund more production besides saving input costs up to Rs 14,000 per
acre. This technique is not only cheaper but also helps save 30-35 % irrigation water, he added D-98 Rice
D-98 is long grain rice, pearl white in color and aromatic rice. This rice is alternate to PK-385.
Pakistani Basmati D-98 Rice is famous for its Aroma and cooking all over the world. D-98 Basmati Rice is also known
as Sindhi Basmati. It is in more demand nowadays than PK 385 basmati rice.
1121 Basmati Rice:
The 1121 Basmati Rice is the worlds longest grain rice in Basmati Rice family. The length of uncooked 1121 basmati ranges
from 8.05 to 8.30mm. The varieties like 1121 Basmati White rice, 1121 Sella Rice 1121 Parboiled Rice and 1121 Basmati
Steam Rice are extremely popular in the market.
Pusa 1121:
Pusa 1121 is an essentially derived variety evolved through the process of hybridization over a long breeding process. The
variety of Basmati rice was developed by Indian scientists. This variety of rice is known for its extraordinary kernel (grain)
length, which can be as much as 8.2mm for a single grain, the longest ever known released cultivars in the world. It has very
high kernel elongation ratio ranging from 2 to 2.5 i.e length of cooked rice kernel/length of uncooked kernel. On cooking it's
rice does not turn sticky, possess minimum breadth-wise expansion, is aromatic with intermediate alkali spreading value and
amylose content. All these attributes make it rice as delicious food. It was developed by the Indian Agricultural Research
Institute (IARI) and released for commercial cultivation in kharif season of 2003. By 2007, the variety has become widely
popular with farmers, as Pusa-1121 is photo-insensitive, require less water, mature early and yield 19-20 quintals of paddy
per acre as compared to 9-10 quintals for traditional tall basmati.

KS 282 Rice:
KS 282 is the long grain non-basmati rice, slightly superior to Irri-6 rice, cultivated in Punjab. KS-282 has special demand in
the Middle East and various parts of world. It's cooking can be identified with no thickness in width on cooking.
Pk 386 Long Grain Rice:
PK-386 is long grain rice and stands second after Super Basmati rice in sale. PK-386 Rice is good in cooking and size and
this is good choice in reasonable price. We are producing best Long Grain PK-386 rice in our rice mill and our quality makes
us Leading rice exporter and rice supplier.

Short Grain Basmati Rice


During the rice process, we separate the rice length wise and short grain rice separated from whole length grain
and length will be of the whole grain.
Our short Grain Basmati Rice is best in cooking and aroma and very famous among the people and has a very
good demand all over the world.
Broken Rice
During the milling process, the white rice grains which are broken by the milling process are classed as broken rice.
These broken rice taken out and packed separately as Broken Rice.Our broken rice is best for sweet dishes, infant
diets, and for rice flour.
Characteristics and Usage of Broken rice
100% Broken rice is used by food industry for making many baby foods, sweet dishes and cereals.
It is also used in other food & beverage processing, and flour processing. The rice flour industry is growing in some
countries and tends to use the higher quality broken rice.
Rice by products
Byproducts from the growing and processing of rice create many valuable new products. Rice husks, rice stubble,
rice bran, broken rice and rice straw are used as common ingredients in horticultural, livestock, industrial,
household building and food products
Rice Flour

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Rice flour (Rice Powder) is a form of flour made from rice. It is distinct from rice starch, which is usually produced
by steeping rice in lye Rice flour may be made from either white rice or brown rice.
Rice Flour is used in processed foods, rice noodles, Rice bread (Rotti), puddings, deserts, steamed rice cakes,
tortillas, and many other dishes.

We use polished and cleaned rice for the rice flour with accordance to the customers demand and usage.
Rice shell or Husk: encloses the brown rice, consists mainly of embryo and endosperm.
Bran layer: a very thin layer of differentiated tissues. This layer contains fiber, vitamin B, protein and fat.
The most nutritious part of rice resides in this layer

Rice Grain
A kernel of rice consists of several layers. In the figure below is an example of a rice grain called true fruit or brown
rice (Caryosis). In general, each rice kernel is composed of the following layers.

World Production Areas


S.E Asia 22% Africa 2% S. Asia 24% E. Asia 45%
L. America 4% Rest of the world 3%

Varieties of Rice grown in Pakistan


Pakistan produces a varieties of rice, out of which following are the popular export varieties.

Basmati:
Basmati 2000 Basmati 385 Basmati 198 Super Basmati Basmati 370 Kernal Basmati
Shaheen Basmati, Basmati 1121, Basmati 386,Roosi Basmati, GM Basmati, Dubai

Basmati Rice Other Varieties


1) IRRI 6 IRRI 9 PG ( IRRI) KS 282 DR Japonica
INTERESTING FACTS & FIGURES REGARDING RICE

The Chinese Word for Rice is the same as their word for food.

Rice is the main food for half the people in the world.

There are more than 40,000 different varieties of rice.

Of the 40,000 varieties more than 100 grow world-wide, but only around 10% are marketed and sold.

Rice is a symbol of life and fertility, which is why it was a tradition to throw it at weddings, confetti has now replaced
rice.

To see how many a children a newlywed couple will have the finns count the number of grains of rice in the brides
hair.

Grains of rice in a salt cellar will help to keep the salt free flowing.

Rice is cultivated in over 100 countries and on every continent except Antarctica.

There are over 29,000 grains of rice in one pound of long grain rice.

The average person in the UK eats approximately 4.4kg of rice each year.

On cooking rice swells to give at least three times its original weight.

96% of the worlds rice is eaten in the area in which itis grown.
Parboiled Rice

Parb
oiled Rice is rough rice that has gone through a steam-pressure process before milling. It is soaked, steamed, dried, and
then milled to remove the outer hull. This procedure gelatinises the starch in the grain, and is adopted at the mill in order to
harden the grain, resulting in less breakage, thus ensuring a firmer, more separate grain. Consumers and chefs who desire
extra fluffy and separate cooked rice favour parboiled rice.

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Parboiled rice
Parboiled rice (also called converted rice) is rice that has been partially boiled in the husk. The three basic steps of parboiling
are soaking, steaming and drying.
[1] These steps also make rice easier to process by hand, boost its nutritional profile (other than its vitamin-B content,
which is denatured) and change its texture. About 50% of the worlds paddy production is parboiled. The treatment is
practiced in many parts of the world such as India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Myanmar, Malaysia, Nepal, Sri Lanka,
Guinea, South Africa, Italy, Spain, Thailand, Switzerland, USA and France.
[2] Rice is easier to polish by hand (removal of the bran layer) after parboiling but mechanical processing is harder
since the bran becomes somewhat oily and tends to clog machinery. Most parboiled rice is milled in the same way
as white rice. Parboiling drives nutrients, especially thiamine, from the bran to endosperm,
[3] Hence parboiled white rice is 80% nutritionally similar to brown rice.[citation needed] Because of this parboiling was
adopted by North American rice growers in the early 20 thcentury.[citation needed]. The starches in parboiled rice
become gelatinized, then retrograded after cooling. Through gelatinization, alpha-amylose molecules leach out of
the starch granule network and diffuse into the surrounding aqueous medium outside the granules
[4] Which, when fully hydrated are at maximum viscosity.
[5] The parboiled rice kernels should be translucent when wholly gelatinized. Cooling brings retrogradation whereby
amylase molecules re-associate with each other and form a tightly packed structure. This increases the formation of
type 3-resistant starch which can act as a prebiotic and benefit gut health in humans.
[6] However, this also makes the kernels harder and glassier. Small amounts of milk are often added to parboiled rice
as a means to stop over-hardening.[citation needed] Parboiled rice takes less time to cook and is firmer and less
sticky. In North America parboiled rice is either partially or fully precooked before sale. Minerals such as zinc or iron
are added, increasing their potential bioavailability in the diet.
Parboiled rice has more fiber than regular white rice.Parboiled rice might sound like it's precooked, but it's not. Instead, it's
processed quite differently from other types of rice. The resulting grain is cooked and served just as you would white or brown
rice. However, because of the special processing, parboiled rice is a better source of fiber, calcium, potassium and vitamin B6 than regular white rice.
What is Parboiled Rice
This type of rice is produced through the process of parboiling or partially boiling. During this process, the harvested paddy
(rice with husk) is hydrated and then steamed, before drying. Once dried completely, the husk is removed. Traditionally, rice
husk removal is done manually and not mechanically. The process of parboiling makes it easier for the husk to be removed
by hand. Another advantage of parboiled rice is that the process of steaming or heating the hydrated paddy, forces the
nutrients (especially, vitamin B1) in the husk to get absorbed into the grains, making the rice nutritious. While parboiling, the
cracked kernels inside the husk may get glued together, thereby reducing the number of broken grains. Parboiling process
also helps in the sterilization of harvested rice, which may contain impurities and insect eggs.
Parboiled Rice Vs Brown and White Rice
When you compare the different types of rice, some of the important aspects that come to the fore are nutrition and ease of
cooking. While brown rice is said to be high in nutrition, as compared to white rice, parboiled rice has almost 80% of the
nutrients in brown rice. So, among the three, the most nutritious is brown rice, followed by parboiled type and then white
rice. It is said that the process of parboiling is responsible for retaining a good amount of nutrients in rice. As far as ease of
cooking is concerned, white rice tops the list and is followed by parboiled types and then brown rice. When compared to
white rice, parboiled version takes longer to cook and is not sticky. Once cooked, the rice will be firmer and retains its shape
too. But, it takes lesser time for parboiled rice to get cooked, if you compare it with brown rice. Parboiled type is easily
digestible and is delicious too.
Basics
After rice is harvested, its inedible hull is removed to produce brown rice. If rice is put through a second step of processing to
remove the bran, it becomes white rice. Unlike brown and white rice, the process for parboiled rice begins before the hull is
removed. The complete grain of rice is soaked, steamed and dried, then the hull is removed to make parboiled rice. The
steaming enables the rice to absorb nutrients and changes the starch so that it cooks into a firmer, less sticky dish of rice
than regular white rice. The steaming does not precook the rice, so it still takes about 20 minutes to prepare.
Carbohydrates
One cup of cooked parboiled rice provides 41 grams of total carbohydrates, or about one-third of the recommended daily
intake of 130 grams. The same portion has 1.4 grams of fiber, which supplies 4 percent of mens and 6 percent of womens
daily fiber. Parboiled rice has double the fiber than you'd get from cooked white rice. It has a low glycemic score of 38,
compared with a high 89 for white rice, notes Harvard Health Publications. A low glycemic score indicates that the
carbohydrates in parboiled rice do not cause a large spike in blood sugar. section. The first step of milling is the removal of
husk. The whole grain that remains after husk removal is brown rice (from the Parboiled rice). Its light brown color is caused
by the presence of the rice germ and several bran layers

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High Nutritional Value Of B Vitamins


Parboiled rice is especially rich in niacin, providing 4 milligrams, or 23 percent of the recommended daily intake in 1 cup of
cooked rice. Youll also get 19 percent of the daily intake of vitamin B-6. These values are about double the amount you
would get from non-enriched white rice. Your body needs B vitamins to metabolize food into energy, but they also fill other
roles, such as helping make hormones and neurotransmitters. Vitamin B-6 removes the amino acid homocysteine from your
bloodstream by turning it into other substances. This might help keep your heart healthy; high levels of homocysteine are
associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Whitening
Two different types of machines are used for whitening of rice. A). Emery-wheel. B) Cast Rotor
Both of these machines remove bran layers of rice grains, creating abrasive and friction forces respectively, thus revealing
smooth glittering white rice.
Grading
Broken, smaller and shriveled
grains are separated from the head rice by using Plan Sifters, Width & length Graders. Hence great care is taken to ensure
the uniformity in size.
Minerals
One cup of cooked parboiled rice supplies 2 to 3 percent of the recommended daily intake of calcium, iron, magnesium and
potassium. You'll get a slightly bigger boost of zinc, with 1 cup containing 0.58 milligrams of zinc. That amount represents 5
percent of mens and 7 percent of womens daily needs. Zinc performs vital roles throughout your body, from forming the
structure of proteins to regulating DNA. If you dont get enough zinc, your immune system becomes impaired; it needs zinc to
produce the cells that fight bacteandinfections.
4U Rice (Parboiled) Nutritional Value
Uncooked 100g 4U Rice (Parboiled) provides :
Energy

363.03

Protein

7.8g

Carbohydrate

82.57g

Fat
(Which are saturated)

0.35g
0.14g

Fiber

0.4 g

Cholesterol

Not Detected

Health Benefits
Parboiled rice is better than regular rice as it usually goes through a process where the starch gets
stabilized
Parboiled by the volume (1 cup for example) has less calories, but it is because parboiled rice is slightly
puffed and weighs less for its size.
Rice is wonderful in treating diarrhea in children.
Being low in fiber is extremely soothing to the digestive system

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Hat is the difference between white rice and parboiled rice?


As per my understanding white rice is milled and polished rice whereas parboiled rice is steamed beofre the milling and
polishing step. So nutritionally parboiled is superior and All rice begins brown, but processing or "milling" turns it white.
Brown rice is the whole grain, which includes the outer hull (also called the "bran.") It's unprocessed and contains the most
fiber and vitamins.
White rice is brown rice that has had the bran removed through that milling process I discussed earlier. This means that it
loses some of its fiber and most of it's nutrients, since many of the vitamins are concentrated in the bran.
Parboiled rice is white rice that has been "pre-cooked" before being packaged. Minute Rice is par-boiled. This means you
can cook it in just a few minutes, versus 20-30 minutes for brown or white rice. However, it has the lowest amount of
nutrients of all three types of rice, since some of the vitamins and minerals have leached out during the parboiling process.
It's certainly convenient, but not particularly healthy.
In terms of the impact that each type of rice has on gaining fat, rice overall is only fattening because of how each type
impacts blood sugar, which controls how the body uses and store carbohydrates as fat. Any time you eat more calories than
your body needs, whether that's fresh veggies or parboiled rice, the excess calories will be stored as fat.
However, unprocessed fiberous foods have certain advantages over processed foods in that they do not spike blood sugar,
which discourages fat storage even when you overeat. So when you eat unprocessed whole grain brown rice, the fiber
slows digestion and doesn't cause a rapid increase in blood sugar. This means that you don't have acarb crash"a few hours
after you eat.
Parboiled rice, on the other hand, can cause a fast release of insulin which will spike blood sugar levels. When your blood
sugar levels are too high, the body has problems burning the sugar as fuel, and instead socks it away as bodyfat. I'm
oversimplifying a complex metabolic process, but you get the point.
Bottom line is choose the brown over the white and leave the parboiled alone.
Parboiled (one cup) White Rice (one cup)
(1) Calories 232 223 (2) Protein 4.88 g 4.10 g (3) Carbohydrate 49.7 g 49.6 g (4) Fat 1.17 g 0.205g(5) Dietary Fiber 3.32
g 0.74 g (6)Thiamin (B1) 0.176 g 0.223 g (7) Riboflavin (B2) 0.039 mg 0.021 mg (8) Niacin (B3) 2.730 mg 2.050 mg (9)
Vitamin B6 0.294 mg0.103mg (10) Folacin 10 mcg 4.1 mcg (11) Vitamin E 1.4 mg 0.462 mg (12) Magnesium 72.2 mg 22.6
mg (13) Phosphorus 142 mg 57.4 mg (14) Potassium 137 mg 57.4 mg (15) Selenium 26 mg 19 mg (16) Zinc 1.05 mg 0.841
mg
Healthy
After milling, parboiled rice still contains
about 80 percent of the vitamins and
minerals contained within the paddy
rice, making it particularly valuable in
nutrition terms with regard to ones daily diet.
Keeps Longer
Even after keeping it hot in a Bain Marie,
cooked parboiled rice stays particularly
fluffy.
Consistently separate and fluffy
During the parboiling process, the
grain's starch gelatinises, giving an extra
hard grain. When cooked, parboiled rice
does not produce the stickiness that is
typical of other rice varieties and is
fluffier
Economical
Due to its special processing, parboiled
rice absorbs more water than conventional
white rice and is particularly economic.
And rice is an absolute bargain in comparison to other side dishes!
Parboiling Of Rice is a pre milling process which was adopted by South Asian farmers centuries ago. During early 1900,
nutritionists found that Beri Beri disease was controlled by eating parboiled rice. After this discovery, parboiling process
was introduced in Europe & America and it became a patented process. In 1999 modern parboiling plant was developed in
Pakistan. The successful running of the mechanized plant opened the door to the production of Quality parboiled rice in

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Pakistan.
Process Sequence

Paddy To Parboiled Rice


Paddy Selection
Experienced and well trained personnels are involved for the selection of best paddy, with healthy grain. Paddy is thoroughly
examined and only the pure and finest paddy (free from any mixing of inferior varieties) is selected.
Paddy Cleaning
Paddy cleaners remove impurities such as straw, dirt and debris. Unhealthy and immature grains are also blown off during
paddy cleaning. PRE-STEAMING Sometimes paddy is subjected to steam before soaking. This process of pre-steaming
softens the paddy. Pre-steaming is carried out according to the need of the variety or customers demand.
Soaking
The paddy is soaked in the huge water-filled vessels for a specific time & temperature for a specific variety of rice. Special
care is taken during soaking as different varieties require different water temperatures.
Steaming
The soaked paddy is then transferred to the steaming vessels where it is kept at a certain temperature for a short time.
Drying
Drying of the paddy is carried out in steps. Firstly it is dried in the Pre-Dryer and the paddy moisture is reduced to a certain
level. Secondly, paddy is shifted to the Column Dryer for further reduction in moisture and temperature gradually . The
modern technology of Smoke free hot air, generated through steam heat exchangers, is used to dry the paddy at these dry
Milling
The dried paddy enters the milling PARBOILED RICE. Parboiling process gelatinizes the starch and results in the retention
of most of the nutrients and minerals, and has added Iron and Vitamins B-Complex, thus serving as complete diet

.
Parboiled rice is a type of rice, often white rice, which has been partially cooked during the milling process and then
packaged for sale for use in homes and restaurants. The process was originally developed in Asian nations to simplify the
process of removing the raw white rice from its husk and was later determined to have increased nutritional benefits as well.
Though parboiled rice is often confused with instant rice, the processes by which they are prepared are quite different and
parboiled rice can often require longer cooking times to properly prepare, rather than shorter cooking times.
White rice, once it has been gathered, is typically brought to a location for processing and milling before being packaged for
sale and use in cooking. The processing and milling of the rice is intended to remove the grains of white rice from the harder
husks that they naturally grow within. This is often a meticulous and time-consuming process, and machine milling can
damage grains as they are removed from the husks, reducing the final quantity. Rice producers looked for ways to more
easily remove the grains from the husks, while increasing the number of grains successfully retrieved during the

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process.What was developed was a process in which rice grains, still inside their husks, were first soaked in liquid to begin to
soften the husk. The rice is then steamed in a pressurized environment, before finally being dried out. At the end of this
process the rice can be more easily removed from the husk, while the heating and cooling also serves to gelatinize the
starches in the rice, making broken grains inside the husk often reform into whole grains during the process.
Once this process for manufacturing parboiled rice became popular, it was discovered that it also increased the nutritional
benefits of the rice. The vitamins and minerals within the husk are loosened up during the soaking process, then released by
the steam and pushed inward into the rice grains due to pressure during the steaming. This results in white rice grains that
are much closer in nutritional value to the traditionally healthier brown rice.
Some people use the term parboiled rice interchangeably with instant rice, but this is inaccurate and they are two different
processes. Instant rice is cooked in hot water just as rice is prepared in home and restaurant kitchens, then dehydrated. The
instant rice is then cooked simply by rehydrating the rice for several minutes, and is then ready to serve. Parboiled rice,
however, is not actually cooked during the process and can take longer to cook during preparation. In North America, many
manufacturers also partially cook the rice after parboiling to make preparation for consumption faster
Parboiling rice drives nutrients, especially thiamine, from the bran into the grain, so that parboiled white rice is 80%
nutritionally similar to brown rice. Because of this, parboiling was adopted by North American rice growers in the early 20 th
century.The starches in parboiled rice become gelatinized, making it harder and glassier than other rice. Parboiled rice takes
more time to cook, and the cooked rice is firmer and less sticky. In North America, parboiled rice is generally partially or fully
precooked by the processor.
Trading in rice both in domestic and international markets has become more quality conscious. Even in the local markets
buyers now demand quality rice. In order to meet the challenges under the WTO regime, it is now very essential for the
country to put together its rice production and marketing strategies to match the demand of international markets.

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Rice ProcessinStory

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Rice Parboiling Improves Quality


PARBOILING is partial cooking of rice to gelatinise the starch and harden the endosperm, making it translucent. There is also
a slight change in flavour which some people prefer. The toughening process makes the seed more resistant to insect attack
and to shattering during husking. It also helps prevent absorption of moisture from the air during storage.
Parboiling consists of three steps, soaking, steaming and drying.
Soaking: The main objective of soaking is to achieve quick and uniform water absorption. The lower the water temperature,
the slower the soaking process. However, temperature should not exceed the gelatinisation temperature or the paddy will be
cooked. Gelatinisation is the process by which stat granules change to a gelatinous or jelly form, filling the voids and
cementing the fissures in the grain. Soaking time can be reduced by first subjecting paddy to a vacuum for a few minutes or
by soaking it under pressure in hot water.Rice soaked in water at ambient temperature (20-30C) will take36to48hoursto
reach 30 per cent moisture content. In hot water (60-65C), it will takes only two to four hours. If soaking time is too long, part
of rice dissolves in water, the seed begins to germinate, and starch fermentation occurs.Water temperature and length of
soaking time affect the solubility of substances in rice as well as colour,smell, and taste.

The mineral content, sulphides , and pH of the soaking water also affect the results of the process. During cold soaking,
starch fermentation occurs because of respiration of paddy grains and the release of carbon dioxide. Fermentation can cause

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an off-flavour and can lead to excessive development of fungi and other micro organisms in paddy. During hot water soaking
(60-65C), the grain absorbs moisture faster and reaches a moisture level of 30-35 per cent in two to four hours depending
on the variety. Respiration and fermentation are restricted.
The shortest period of soaking time is achieved by maintaining a constant water temperature. This requires continuous
recirculation and reheating of water. Hot soaking keeps the grain at a higher temperature which will reduce the steaming time
needed to complete the process.
After soaking is completed, water is drained with moisture around 30 per cent for either cold or hot soaked paddy. The
amount of water required for soaking paddy is about 1.3 times the weight of paddy.
Steaming: Use of steam for gelatinising the starch is preferred to other methods of heating as it does not remove any
moisture from rice. Condensation adds water and increases the total quantity of water absorbed. The moisture content of
paddy increases to about 38 per cent during steart.
When heating paddy with non-pressurised small variations are found in colour, quantity of soluble starch, and the amount of
swelling of the milled parboiled rice. Heating has a considerable effect on colour. When the steaming temperature exceeds
100C, the colour becomes considerably deeper and the grain becomes harder. Longer steaming times also cause rice to be
harder and darker. Keeping steamed paddy in a heap on the drying floor is equivalent to prolonged steaming and induces the
same effect. Saturated steam at a pressure of one to five kg/cm is normally used for steaming. Steaming duration depends
on the steaming arrangement.
Drying: Parboiled paddy should be dried to 14 per cent moisture for safe storage or milling. Parboiled paddy is more difficult
to dry and requires more energy than field paddy because its moisture content is much higher. However, higher air
temperature help reduce the drying time. If drying is done too fast, internal stresses develop in the grain and cause breakage
during milling. After drying is completed, paddy should be allowed to stand for at least several hours -- preferably for one or
two days -- before it is milled, to permit internal moisture differences and stresses to equalise.
Moisture reduction takes place rapidly during the first part of drying from 36 to 18 per cent moisture level, but is slow from 18
to 14 per cent. The drying process should be stopped at about 18 per cent moisture to allow paddy to temper or equalise for
several hours before continuing the drying to 14 per cent.
Most parboiled paddy is sun-dried on large drying floors close to rice mill. A large number of workers are required to
constantly turn and mix the paddy to achieve rapid, uniform drying. For best results, paddy should be spread about 2.5 cm
thick over the floor.
In contrast with field paddy, parboiled paddy requires air temperatures of up to 100C during the first drying period. During the
second period air temperature should be kept below 75C. Maintaining higher air temperature will not decrease the drying
time but will result in increased drying cost and more damage to milled rice quality. The first drying period takes about three
hours including dryer loading and unloading time. After tempering, the second drying period takes about two hours.
Continuous-flow dryers are available in many sizes to match the capacity of the parboiling system. A 24-5/day parboiling plant
needs an eight ton (holding capacity) dryer.
Parboiling causes physical and chemical changes and modifies the appearance of rice.
Change Description__Taste and Texture_Change in taste and texture of the rice, preferred by some consumers and disliked
by others.__Gelatinisation of Starch_Gelatinization of starch making the grain translucent, hard, and resistant to breakage
during milling which increases milling recovery for head rice and total white rice yields.__Enzyme Inactivation_Inactivation of
all enzymes which stops biological processes and fungus growth.__Milling_Easier removal of the hull during milling but more
difficult bran removal.__Cooking_More rice swelling during cooking and less starch in the cooking water.__
The following table provides potential advantages and disadvantages associated with parboiling:
Rice millers in Pakistan are still reluctant to adapt this useful technology. Rice mill owners and
Exporters should realise the situation and should evaluate the usefulness of parboiling the rice. We areconfident hat the
storage life and export quality of premium quality basmati rice will be improved by opting to this technology

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Parboil Rice

Rice Facts
Rice, white, long-grain, precooked or instant, enriched, prepared
Calorie Information
Calories
193 (808 kJ)
From Carbohydrate

Amounts per 1 cup (165g)


Amounts Per Selected Serving
10%
172 (720 kJ)

From Fat
From Protein 13.7 (57.4 kJ)
From Alcohol
Fats & Fatty Acids
Total Fat
Saturated Fat
Monounsaturated Fat
Polyunsaturated Fat
Total trans fatty acids
Total trans-monoenoic fatty
acids
Total trans-polyenoic fatty acids
Total Omega-3 fatty acids
Total Omega-6 fatty acids
Protein & Amino Acids
Protein
7 Tryptophan
Threonine
Isoleucine
Leucine
Lysine
Methionine
Cystine
Phenylalanine
Tyrosine
Valine
Arginine
Histidine
Alanine
Aspartic acid
Glutamic acid
Glycine
Proline
Serine
Hydroxyproline
Fluoride ~ Sterols
Cholesterol
Phytosterols

6.9 (28.9 kJ)


0.0 (0.0 kJ)
Amounts Per Selected Serving
0.8 g
0.0 g
0.1 g
0.0 g

%DV

%DV
1%
0%

~
28.1 mg
Amounts Per Selected Serving
3.6 g
49.5 mg
132 mg
165 mg
317 mg
101 mg
85.8 mg
74.2 mg
190 mg
107 mg
228 mg
315 mg
87.4 mg
210 mg
386 mg
673 mg
172 mg
231 mg
175 mg
~
Amounts Per Selected Serving
0.0 mg
~

%DV

%DV
0%

Carbohydrates
Total Carbohydrate
Dietary Fiber

Amounts Per Selected Serving


44.4 g
1.0 g

Starch
Sugars
Vitamins
Vitamin A
Vitamin C
Vitamin D
Vitamin E (AlpTocopherol)
Vitamin K
Thiamin

43.4 g
0.0 g
Amounts Per Selected Serving
0.0 IU
0.0 mg
~~
0.0 mg
0.0 mcg 0%
0.1 mg

Riboflavin
Niacin
Vitamin B6
Folate
Food Folate
Folic Acid
Dietary Folate Equivalents
Vitamin B12
Pantothenic Acid
Choline
Betaine
Minerals
Calcium
Iron
Magnesium
Phosphorus
Potassium
Sodium
Zinc
Copper
Manganese
Selenium
Other
Alcohol
Water
Ash
Caffeine
Theobromine

0.0 mg 1%
2.9 mg
0.1 mg
115 mcg
1.7 mg
114 mcg
195 mcg
0.0 mcg
0.1 mg
3.5 mg

%DV
15%

%DV
0%
0%
0%
8%
14%
4%
29%

0%
1%

Amounts Per Selected Serving


13.2 mg
2.9 mg
8.3 mg
61.1 mg
14.8 mg
6.6 mg
0.8 mg
0.1 mg
0.6 mg
7.9 mcg
Amounts Per Selected Serving
0.0 g
119 g
0.4 g
0.0 mg
0.0 mg

%DV
1%
16%
2%
6%
0%
0%
5%
3%
28%
11%
%DV

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Project
Project Cost
The COST of project

USD IN MILLION
360

Means of finance:

Debt:
324
36
360

Sponsor S Equity 10%


Total cost of project
Land & Development
Building & Civil Work
Plant & machinery and equipment
Vehicles:
Total Capital cost
Working capital:
Total project cost
Infrastructure:
Basic raw material:

10.30
11.12
77.90
7.20
106.52
253.48
360
Available within the proposed Area.
100% Available within the project Area

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Administrative Staff Salaries

Designation
General Manger
Finance Manger
project Manger
Production Manger
Purchas Manger
Sale Manger
Shipping Manger
Accountant
Senior Clerk
Assistant Manger
Super Visor
Cashier
Clerk
Computer Operator
Personal Assistant
Total

No. of
Employe
1
1
27
27
3
3
27
6
6
20
10
6
4
9
1
151

Gross
Salary in
USD/Month
10000
5000
5000
2000
3000
3000
1200
1000
400
500
250
1000
300
500
500
33650

Per
Annum
0.12
0.06
1.62
0.648
0.108
0.108
0.3888
0.072
0.0288
0.12
0.03
0.072
0.0144
0.054
0.006
3.45

No. of
Employe

Gross
Salary in
USD/Month

Per
Annum

Engineering Staff Salaries


Designation
Engineers

27

1500

0.486

Sub Engineers

27

1000

0.324

Computer Operator for Plants


Total

27
81

500
3000

0.162
0.97

Gross
Salary in
USD/Mont
h
300
250
1000

Per
Annum
0.1944
0.216
0.288

250
1800

1.62
2.32

General Staff Salaries

Designation
Helper
Security Guard
Laboratory Worker

No. of
Employe
54
72
24

Unskilled Labour
Total

540
690

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Cost of Sale
Account Descriptions
Sampling
Loading & UN loading
Freight
Packing Material
Commissions Brokerage
Wages & other benefit
Telephone charges
Fuel & power charges
Printing & stationary
Computer expenses
Repair & maintenance
Traveling & conveyance
Auditors remuneration
Entertainment
Office expenses
Misc,expenses
Total

COMCO RICE Complex Private


Limited

USD in
Millions
0.1
0.6
0.55
4.85
1.5
1.3
0.078945
5.5
0.090948
0.05105
1.5
0.043
0.025315
0.5
0.1
0.2
16.99

Raw Material Cost


1.Per Day Paddy Raw material requirement
2.per day Raw Rice Raw material requirement
1. Per Annam Total 300 Days
2. Per Annam Total 300 Days
Total Cost in Million
1. Per Tons Paddy Raw Material Cost $ 518
2. Per Tons Raw Rice Raw Material Requirement
Cost $1050
TOTAL Raw material cost

Tons
1152
240
345600
72000
USD In
Million
179
75.6
254.6

Page 32 of 38

BUSINESS PLAN

COMCO RICE Complex Private


Limited

PRODUCTION COST
Per Annam Tons
Total 300 Days Paddy to Rice Finishgoods
Total 300 Days Raw rice to rice Finishgoods

Tons
216000
69120

USD in
Millions

Rice 100% From Paddy


Rice 100% From Raw Rice
Total

216000
69120
285120

Brokan
Brokan
Total Broken
Grand Total

34560
1440
36000
321120

Rice 100% Sale Cost par Ton $ 1450


Broken Total Cost per Ton $ 600

285,120
36000

413.424
21.6

18720
77760

4.3
0

Poliah Total Cost per Ton $ 230


Toto Total Cost per Ton
Grand Total

439.324

INCOME STATEMENT
Description
Amount USD In
Millions
Sales

439.32

Less: Cost of Sales

254.6

Gross Profit

184.72

Adminstrative & General Expenses

23.74

Net Profit Before Tax

160.98

Less: Provision for Taxation

15

Profit After Tax

145.98

Financial Charges

62

Net Profit

83.98

Page 33 of 38

BUSINESS PLAN

COMCO RICE Complex Private


Limited

Vehicle
Schedule

Sr.
1
2
3
4
5
6
Tot
al

For
Department
s
Executive
Cars
Non
Executive
Cars
Executive
Staf
Non
Executive
Staf
Plant
Plant

USD
Rate:
Type of Vehicle

Cars

Brand

Honda CITY

Cars

Suzuki Cultas

Requir
ed Qty.
6

Honda VTI

Cars

Costers 30
Seaters
Trackters with
Tralla
Trucks with
Traller

Descripti
on

Toyota Costers
Millat Furgoson
Pakistan

385
Model

Hino Pak

FM-2

95
Purchase
Value
Each
Vehicle in
PKR
2,37
4,000

PKR
Purchase
Total
Value
USD
1
49,937

11

1,80
0,000

08,421

19

1,03
4,000

06,800

6,72
6,000

24,800

2,22
4,000
15,00
0,000
29,15
8,000

1,4
74,863
4,7
36,842
7,2
01,663

63
30
135

2
2
4

Page 34 of 38

BUSINESS PLAN

COMCO RICE Complex Private


Limited

Page 35 of 38

BUSINESS PLAN

COMCO RICE Complex Private


Limited

BUILDING SCHEDULE

Page 36 of 38

BUSINESS PLAN

COMCO RICE Complex Private


Limited

Page 37 of 38

BUSINESS PLAN

COMCO RICE Complex Private


Limited

Page 38 of 38