Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 19

Modern coal extraction methods with backfill

Los métodos modernos de extracción de carbón con relleno

Jan Palarski Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice Poland

Introduction

Content

European/Polish hard coal mining industry

Mine water and waste management

Backfill in Polish coal mines

Grouting technology in longwall operation

Conclusions

• Backfill in Polish coal mines • Grouting technology in longwall operation • Conclusions Prof. J.

Prof. J. Palarski

• Backfill in Polish coal mines • Grouting technology in longwall operation • Conclusions Prof. J.
 

CHARACTERISTICS OF POLISH HARD COAL MINING INDUSTRY (2010)

 
 

UNIT

 

Hard Coal resources (recoverable resources)

(Bt)

40 (4)

Hard Coal Production (Lignite)

(Mt)

76,6 (58)

Domestic Consumption

(Mt)

70

Waste Production

 

(Mt)

34

Underground Waste Disposal (backfill, grouting of

   

gob,

)

(Mt)

- waste rock + tailing + slime

4,0

-CCBs

 

2,7

Volume of Pumped Water and Sewages

(Mm

3 )

189

Total Chloride and Sulphate Loading

(Mt)

ca 1,5

Production of CCBs

(Mt)

13,0

Number of Longwalls

-

99

Number of Closed Mines (years 1989- 2009)

-

47

Length of Filling and Sealing Workings

(km)

ca 3700 (years 1993-2009)

Length of Filling Shaft

(km)

ca 110 (years 1993-2009)

(km) ca 3700 (years 1993-2009) Length of Filling Shaft (km) ca 110 (years 1993-2009) Prof. JAN

Prof. JAN PALARSKI

Mining Methods

Mining Methods Longwall with Grouting of Gob Longwall with Backfill Prof. J. Palarski SUT Gliwice, Pl

Longwall with Grouting of Gob

Mining Methods Longwall with Grouting of Gob Longwall with Backfill Prof. J. Palarski SUT Gliwice, Pl

Longwall with Backfill

Mining Methods Longwall with Grouting of Gob Longwall with Backfill Prof. J. Palarski SUT Gliwice, Pl

Prof. J. Palarski SUT Gliwice, Pl

Methane in Longwall

Methane concentration tendency: gathering in roof cavities and gob and creation of layer along the roof of working face (airways)

CH 4

CH 4

CH 4

CH 4

CH 4 CH 4 CH 4 70% CH 4 70 ÷ 100% CH 4 50%
CH 4
CH 4
CH 4
70%
CH 4
70 ÷ 100% CH 4
50%
CH 4
25%
25%
70% 70%
50%
CH 4
CH 4
CH CH
CH 4
4 4
CH 4
CH 4

CH 4

CH 4

50% CH 4 25% 25% 70% 70% 50% CH 4 CH 4 CH CH CH 4

Prof. J. Palarski

SUT Gliwice, Pl

TECHNOLOGIES IN UNDERGROUND

MINING

Underground fill technologies

With use of mine waste & coal combustion by-products

Backfill

Grouting of caving area

Backfill + CO 2 injection

Grouting + CO 2 injection

Filling of abandoned mine workings

Filling of old shallow voids in the rock mass

Construction of backfill packs and plugs

Liquidation of mine shafts/Shafts filling

Extinguishing underground fires and fire hazard control

Prof. J. Palarski

BACKFILL MIXTURE

MaterialMaterial

++

FlyFly AshAsh SlagSlag SandSand WasteWaste rockrock TailingsTailings

SlagSlag SandSand WasteWaste rockrock TailingsTailings WaterWater ++ MineMine waterwater SaltSalt contentcontent

WaterWater

++

MineMine waterwater

SaltSalt contentcontent << 7070 g/lg/l

waterwater SaltSalt contentcontent << 7070 g/lg/l BinderBinder CementCement FlyFly ashash BlastBlast

BinderBinder

CementCement FlyFly ashash BlastBlast furnacefurnace slagslag BinderBinder ((Minova,UTEXMinova,UTEX)) GroundGround wastewaste glassglass NaturalNatural pozzolanspozzolans GypsumGypsum

GroundGround wastewaste glassglass NaturalNatural pozzolanspozzolans GypsumGypsum Prof. J. Palarski
Prof. J. Palarski
Prof. J. Palarski

Prof. J. Palarski

Fill Plant

WASHERY REFUSE SILO TAILING SILO <2mm Feeder Feeder
WASHERY
REFUSE SILO
TAILING
SILO
<2mm
Feeder
Feeder
CEMENT SILO Feeder
CEMENT
SILO
Feeder
FLY ASH/ SLAG GYPSUM SILOS Feeder pump
FLY ASH/
SLAG
GYPSUM
SILOS
Feeder
pump

WATER SILO

MIXER ROCK AGGREGATE SILO (<40mm) SLURRY SILO HOPPER
MIXER
ROCK
AGGREGATE
SILO (<40mm)
SLURRY SILO
HOPPER
INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL
INSTRUMENTATION
AND CONTROL

Prof. J. Palarski

TO UNDERGROUND

ROCK AGGREGATE SILO (<40mm) SLURRY SILO HOPPER INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL Prof. J. Palarski TO UNDERGROUND
ROCK AGGREGATE SILO (<40mm) SLURRY SILO HOPPER INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL Prof. J. Palarski TO UNDERGROUND
ROCK AGGREGATE SILO (<40mm) SLURRY SILO HOPPER INSTRUMENTATION AND CONTROL Prof. J. Palarski TO UNDERGROUND

FILL PLANT - 3000 m 3 /day

Fly ash discharge and storage

FILL PLANT - 3000 m 3 /day Fly ash discharge and storage Prof. J. Palarski
FILL PLANT - 3000 m 3 /day Fly ash discharge and storage Prof. J. Palarski

Prof. J. Palarski

Surface plant – preparation of mixture

Surface plant – preparation of mixture Prof. J. Palarski
Surface plant – preparation of mixture Prof. J. Palarski
Prof. J. Palarski
Prof. J. Palarski

Prof. J. Palarski

GATE FILLING

GATE FILLING Prof. J. Palarski

Prof. J. Palarski

GROUTING OF CAVING

Method is based on longwall with caving

Method allows to separate extraction from filling process

Method doesn’t need to keep open room behind support

FlyFlyFlyFly ashashashash TailingsTailingsTailingsTailings WaterWaterWaterWater CavingsCavingsCavingsCavings
FlyFlyFlyFly ashashashash
TailingsTailingsTailingsTailings
WaterWaterWaterWater
CavingsCavingsCavingsCavings areaareaareaarea
totototo bebebebe filledfilledfilledfilled
withwithwithwith groutgroutgroutgrout
LongwallLongwallLongwallLongwall
ShaftShaftShaftShaft
GroutGroutGroutGrout transporttransporttransporttransport
pipelinepipelinepipelinepipeline

Prof. J. Palarski

GROUTING OF CAVING

Fill mixture:

fly ash, tailing, binders, polluted water (salted)

Advantages:

Reduction of spontaneous combustion,

Reduction of ventilation problems,

Reduction of surface damages,

Underground fines waste disposal.

of ventilation problems, • Reduction of surface damages, • Underground fines waste disposal. Prof. J. Palarski

Prof. J. Palarski

GROUTING TECHNOLOGY - THE SURFACE BOREHOLES

Mixture preparation and injection plant

Pump Boreholes
Pump
Boreholes

Grouting of gob area

Pillar

Prof. J. Palarski

FILLING OF WEBER VOID

Pipeline

FILLING OF WEBER VOID Pipeline Void Sandstone Shale Mixture Prof. J. Palarski
Void
Void
FILLING OF WEBER VOID Pipeline Void Sandstone Shale Mixture Prof. J. Palarski

Sandstone

Shale

FILLING OF WEBER VOID Pipeline Void Sandstone Shale Mixture Prof. J. Palarski

Mixture

Prof. J. Palarski

VOIDS FILLING IN UCG

Filling voids in UCG can be considered in order to achieve following goals:

Reduction of subsidence, as in ordinary underground mining Reduction of fracturing evolution to reduce the capacity of contaminants migration paths Isolation and stabilization of UCG residues to minimize groundwater potential for absorption and transfer of contaminants Limitation of underground generator space volume for improved circulation and reaction of gases Placement of chemical catalysts, absorbers, and other substances into the UCG area for improvement of process efficiency and/or product gas quality, sequestration of carbon dioxide and other reasons

Prof. J. Palarski

Gasification in a thick seam with use of vertical directed caverns (VDC)

in a thick seam with use of vertical directed caverns (VDC) 1–coal seam, 2–floor of the

1–coal seam, 2–floor of the seam, 3–overburden, 4–oxidant well (directional), 5–oxidant injection point, 6–UCG active zone, 7– ash and residues falling on the floor of the caver, 8–syngas well, 9–backfilled cavern, 10–liquidated well, 11–filled redundant part of oxidant well

Prof. J. Palarski

Super Daisy Shaft method – gasification and filling process

Super Daisy Shaft method – gasification and filling process Prof. J. Palarski

Prof. J. Palarski

Conclusion

Conclusion Backfill and presented grouting technology can be effective treatment alternatives for remediation of solid

Backfill and presented grouting technology can be effective treatment alternatives for remediation of solid mining waste, CCB-s and polluted mine water.

effective treatment alternatives for remediation of solid mining waste, CCB-s and polluted mine water . Prof.

Prof. J. Palarski