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Set Works Analyses


For use with the revised GCSE Music specification

(for first teaching from September 2009)

Introduction: Purpose of the Guidance

Core Area of Study: Repeated Patterns in Music

Pachelbel: Canon in D major
Beethoven: Symphony No. 7 Allegretto (2nd movement)
Holst: The Planets Mars
Jenkins: Requiem Dies Irae


Optional Area of Study 1: Musical Traditions in Ireland

To follow

Optional Area of Study 2: Incidental Music

Mendelssohn: A Midsummer Nights Dream Overture
Grieg: Peer Gynt Suite Morning, In the hall of the Mountain King
Hans Zimmer: Pirates of the Caribbean (Dead Mans Chest) Davy Jones Theme
Ron Grainer: Dr Who Theme revised title theme 2005 series


Optional Area of Study 3: Vocal Music

Handel: Messiah
Recitative: There were shepherds, And the Angel and And suddenly
Chorus: Glory to God
Aria: Why do the nations?
Schubert: Die Erlknig (The Erl King)
Stephen Schwartz: Wicked
Chorus: One Short Day
Duet: What is this feeling?
Snow Patrol: Final Straw - Run



Introduction: Purpose of the Guidance

This guidance is designed to support the teaching of CCEAs Specification for GCSE Music (for
first teaching, September 2009). It should be read in conjunction with the specification, the
scheme of work and (when they become available) the exemplar assessment materials. This and
subsequent support material can be found on our subject microsite: www.ccea.org.uk/music.
These set work analyses provide a background, context and analysis of each work that appears in
the Core and Optional Areas of Study in the specification.
We have listed timecodes in reference to specific points in each of the set works. Throughout
the document we have listed the timings as, for example, (1:20) which indicates 1 minute and
20 seconds into the relevant recording. These timings are based on the recordings we have
suggested on our microsite. Where scores are available, we have also listed rehearsal marks or
bar numbers.
This material is intended as an aid to teaching, a resource to supplement teachers own research
and to fill in the musical detail of the set works. Whilst these analyses are relevant and pertinent
to the teaching of GCSE Music, it does of course go beyond the depth to which candidates
might reasonably expect to be questioned in a Listening and Appraising paper.
This material is available on the microsite as a pdf and as a Word document so that teachers may
incorporate their own existing notes into this document.
We hope that you find this aspect of our support useful in your teaching.
Best wishes

Roger Trigg
Subject Officer


Core Area of Study:

Repeated Patterns in Music

Pachelbel (1653-1706): Canon in D major

Biographical detail
Johann Pachelbel was born in Nuremberg, Germany in August 1653 and became one of the
great organist-composers of the Baroque era He died in Nuremberg on March 6th, 1706.
Pachelbel is principally remembered as a composer of church and organ music, especially his
chorale preludes and variations. Pachelbel is also credited with influencing the early keyboard
works of Johann Sebastian Bach. It is believed that the Canon in D major was written (along with a
Gigue in the same key) in or around 1680.

Background & Context

This work was not published until the 1920s with the first recordings emerging some twenty
years later. Canon in D major has undergone hundreds of transformations in the intervening years,
and has been recorded by artists as diverse as Pet Shop Boys and the Farm. It was the latters reworking of Pachelbels original for their 2004 hit release which became more widely recognised
in its use as the theme tune of the English Euro 2004 team (All together now). Frequently used as a
processional at weddings, this work has appeared in several films and also in television adverts
such as, British Gas, Pure New Wool and Ambrosia.

The Canon in D major was originally written for three violins and basso continuo. The original
version of the Canon is rarely played today and the basso continuo (Example 1) is frequently
undertaken by cello, harpsichord or organ.
Example 1

The term canon to describe this work, is true in that the parts follow in strict canonic order
throughout the work. The harmonic progressions heard above the ground bass (basso ostinato)
also never alter. The title Canon therefore, refers to the way the three violin parts work, playing
the same music (in this piece) 2 bars apart (Example 2).

Example 2

After the initial statement of the ground bass (Example 1), first violin enters with a simple
descending and ascending crotchet pattern. Two bars later the second violin adds to the texture
by playing in thirds with the first violin (Example 3 - 0:27). As the third violin enters with the
descending crotchet pattern, Violin 1 has begun the next variation, this time in quavers (Example
4 - 0:40).
Example 3

Example 4

Further progression occurs when a new scalic semiquaver variation begins. (Example 5 - 1:03) .A
more disjointed variation of the crotchet pattern exploiting octave leaps follows (1:27), followed
in turn by the fastest variation featuring demisemiquaver patterns (Example 6 - 1:50). This
variant features repeated half-bar sequences.

Example 5

Example 6

As the canon becomes increasingly dense towards the middle of the piece, other interesting
variants occur when the descending crotchet pattern (Example 2) is reworked and each note is
repeated in semiquavers (2:34).
Arguably the most melodically memorable legato variant is heard as the texture becomes
increasingly sparse with lighter scoring and less counterpoint (3:23). As the note values lengthen,
the piece gradually reverts to a less complex structure and after 28 repetitions of the original
ground bass (Example 1), the work ends.
The chord progression used in Canon ( I V vi iii IV I IV V = D major, A major, B minor,
F# minor, G major, D major, G major and A major) was to influence many composers including
Handel, Haydn, Mozart and the many hundreds of contemporary musicians who have used it.
The simplicity of the Canon is untypical of the Baroque era in that Pachelbel employs no complex
contrapuntal devices such as augmentation, diminution, inversion etc.

Performance detail
It is also important to note that the fashionable very slow tempo of performance currently heard
in most recordings contrasts with the much faster tempi employed by performers in the Baroque
Many recordings also feature an accompaniment over the opening ground bass (bars 1-2).

Beethoven (1770-1827): Symphony No. 7 in A Allegretto (2nd


Work on the Symphony began in 1811 and was completed in 1812.

First performance took place in Vienna in 1813 at a charity concert for soldiers wounded at
the battle of Hanau with Beethoven conducting.
The symphony is scored for a Classical Orchestra - 2 flutes, 2 oboes, 2 clarinets, 2
bassoons, 2 horns 2 trumpets, timpani and strings. This is unusual as Beethoven had used
larger forces in previous symphonies, particularly No. 5 where he included Piccolo, double
bassoon and three trombones.
There are four movements.
The 2nd movement is the only one of the four which is not dance-like in character, yet it is
the best known.
Its main characteristic is the repeated crotchet/two quaver figure (ostinato) that continues
throughout the piece not only in the bass but at other times on different instruments of the
Although it is the slow movement of the symphony, Beethoven marks it Allegretto ie
a little lively. It is this contrast between the steady march-like figure in the minor key and
the lightness which he expects the rhythm to be in performance that helps to give the
movement its strange appeal.

Theme 1

Theme 2

Theme 3



The movement opens with a chord of A minor played by the oboes, clarinets, bassoons
and horns. This begins f and quickly fades to pp establishing the key of the movement.


(Bar 3) Theme 1 is stated p by the violas against a strong rhythmic pulse of a crotchet and
two quavers which continues throughout the movement. The theme is 16 bars long with
the second eight bars being repeated.


(Bar 27) The violas and cellos introduce Theme 2 while the 2nd violins continue with
Theme 1 the cellos and double basses continue the regular pulse in an octave version
of the opening rhythm. Theme 2 is also 16 bars long with the second eight bars repeated.


(Bar 51) At this point the 1st violins take Theme 1 an octave higher while the 2nd violins
play Theme 2, with the violas and cellos providing a quaver accompaniment with a
modified version of the rhythm. From this point there is a gradual crescendo as the
music approaches the climax of this part of the movement.


(Bar 67) The oboes and bassoons add off-beat chords


(Bar 75, Letter A) At this point we hear a full orchestral tutti ff. The Woodwind and
horns play Theme 1, the 1st violins play Theme 2 whilst the string section support with
arpeggios underneath. The violas, cellos and double basses accompany with triplet
figures against quaver movement in the 2nd violins. The trumpets and timpani punctuate
with loud tonic/dominant crotchets. This passage comes to an end on a long


(Bar 99) A two bar cadence is repeated quietly by the oboes, clarinets, bassoons and
horns. A one beat silence leads directly into the second part of the movement which is
in A major (Bar 101).


Theme 3 is much more lyrical and a direct contrast to music up until this point. This
theme in descending and ascending crotchets is played by the clarinets and bassoons
initially and then taken up by the other wind instruments. This melody is more serene
and lyrical but Beethoven keeps the insistent rhythm of Theme 1 in the cellos and double
basses and a running figuration in quaver triplets in the 1st violins, maintaining the
restless mood of the piece.


(Bar 117) As this part of the movement continues, the woodwind begin to take over the
persistent quaver triplets in a series of sequences and imitative phrases where the clarinet
and horn answer one another and the music begins to quieten again and move into C
major the relative major key of the movement.


(Bar 139) Again, we hear imitative phrases this time from the flute, oboe and bassoon.
Beethoven then brings the section to a close with downward scales in triplets through
the orchestra, emphasising the rhythmic quaver figure ff leading directly into


(Bar 150, Letter B) a repeat of the opening themes p with the woodwind playing Theme
2, the violins and violas answering each other in semiquaver arpeggio-like figures and the
cellos and double basses playing Theme 1.



(Bar 173) This section draws to a close with a ten bar tonic pedal (A minor) in the
trumpet, timpani and cellos and double basses emphasising the basic pulse again. After a
series of short sequences and as the music quietens down


(Bar 183) the 1st violins begin a fugal passage based on the first bars of Theme 1 against a
running semiquaver idea in the second violins. After 8 bars this is taken up by the cellos
and double basses with the violas having the semiquaver figure against them, the upper
strings continue with a syncopated counter-melody above. As this builds the woodwind
join in and there is a sudden surge as all the strings take up the semiquavers above a
pedal in the bass leading to


(Bar 214, Letter C) a full statement of the first 8 bars of Theme 1 in the tonic A minor by
the strings, brass and timpani accompanied by semiquavers in the woodwind.


(Bar 222) After a one beat silence (similar to that at 2:53), there is a repeat of the lyrical
Theme 3, again in the tonic major (exactly as before at 3:37). This is shorter than before
and is a preparation for the coda.


(Bar 248) This begins after two repeated cadences with the familiar opening rhythm in a
series of question and answer followed by the Coda proper where this idea continues
to the end with cadences in C major and A minor one after the other, followed by a
restatement of the Theme 1 (7:17, Bar 254) with falling antiphonal phrases. This is the
tonic A minor again on the oboes, clarinets, bassoons and horns f with a quick
diminuendo - exactly as the movement began.


Holst (1874-1934): The Planets Mars

Gustav Holst was an English composer most famous for his orchestral suite The Planets. He
studied at the Royal College of Music in London and his work was influenced by Grieg, Wagner,
Richard Strauss and fellow student Ralph Vaughan Williams. Through Vaughan Williams he
became inspired by English folksong and the music of the French composer Ravel. His music is
characterised by his use of irregular metres, pounding rhythms along with unusual haunting

The Planets

Seven-part suite was written between 1914 and 1917

Mars is the first movement in the suite
Music is characterised by use of irregular metre, pounding rhythms, haunting melodies

This is a 20th Century Orchestral suite scored for very large orchestra including; sixteen
woodwind; fifteen brass; two timpanists and three other percussionists; celesta; two harps; organ;
and strings.
Tempo Allegro Fast and lively
Written in 5/4 time (irregular)

The chief characteristic of Mars is the incessant repeated note rhythm, an ostinato
starting in the timpani, harps and strings (col legno with the wood of the bow).

Two bars later a slow moving motif can be heard in unison from bassoons and horns
rising a fifth gradually building up adding more instruments with a falling semitone as a

This is repeated and used in imitation extending upwards and also harmonised leading up
to Figure I.

At Figure I, the tenor and bass trombone take over with a rising sixth motif against the
ongoing ostinato figure.
Twelve bars after Figure I, the first violins move away from the ostinato and play a more
sustained repetitive figure against the continuing ostinato.


A two note motif in the form of an octave leap can be heard antiphonally in brass and
woodwind, growing in intensity, creating a fanfare-like effect building to a huge fff full
orchestra climax at Figure II.

Figure II
The strings, trumpets snare drum and timpani playing the ostinato in unison against a
sustained chord from woodwind, horns and trumpets.
Four bars after Figure II a new dotted chordal theme can be heard in the trombones and
tubas against the ostinato figure still in strings and timpani. The horns and some
trumpets join in with this theme two bars later.
Dotted chordal theme

Eight bars before figure III a new syncopated motif appears in the upper woodwind and
violins with the dotted chordal theme continuing in the brass, lower woodwind and
strings. Double basses, trumpets, trombones and timpani playing the opening ostinato.

Figure III
The orchestral texture thickens with the organ and trumpets playing part of the dotted
chordal theme fff. From figure III the original opening ostinato theme is replaced by the
dotted rhythm theme. The addition of the organ three note theme can be heard five
times more ending in discords with a fff (E minor) chord two bars before figure IV. At
this point the music quietens down with repeated notes on the strings alone.


Figure IV
Against a steady crotchet pulse of the strings, a solo tenor tuba starts a new military calllike theme using triplet figuration. This is answered two bars later by trumpet, seven bars
later by violins and flutes, and later by trumpets, horns and upper woodwind.


Figure V
Once again the tenor tuba followed by the trumpet in canon play the military call-like
theme against side drum taps and cymbal rolls.
Five bars before figure VI all the woodwind and strings play a semiquaver motif while
the tubas and trumpets play a variant of the motif heard in figure I. Semiquaver runs
lead to a ff tutti chord one bar before figure VI.


Figure VI 5/2
This quiet melodic idea which starts in the bass instruments is based on the dotted
chordal theme first heard four bars after figure II. There is a fragmented variation of the
opening ostinato played initially on side drum, then joined by trumpets and tenor
trombones. Violins, and then violas, play tremolo while horns play a sustained note with
timpani rolls. The texture builds up as more instruments join in with the melodic idea
leading to



Figure VII 5/4

A three bar orchestral tutti on the opening ostinato played in unison fff. This is followed
by a passage based on the opening melodic motif, accompanied by the continuing
ostinato throughout.


Figure VIII
The ostinato theme continues in the strings with imitation between tuba and trumpets
based on the military-like theme first heard at figure IV. Three bars before figure IX, the
dotted theme from figure II returns, this time in oboe, clarinet and horns.


Figure IX
The material from figure II is repeated with slight changes in the orchestration.


Figure X
The full orchestral texture continues, reaching a ffff climax on a discord reinforced by
the organ. At this point the metre changes to 5/2 and three repeated cadences occur
based on the opening motif.


Fig XI
The Coda begins with semiquaver figurations on strings, joined by woodwind, providing
a contrast to the previous section and leads into ..


A return of the opening ostinato figure ffff, distorted by the addition of rests and entries
from the brass, percussion and strings with harsh discords. The movement concludes
with a bare fifth chord on C with loud timpani rolls.


Jenkins (b. 1944): Requiem Dies Irae

Biographical detail
Karl Jenkins trained at Cardiff University and the Royal Academy of Music. He has enjoyed
popular success as a jazz musician, playing frequently during the 1970s with Ronnie Scotts Jazz
It was as a classical musician and composer that he first found longer term commercial and
artistic success, beginning with the multi-million selling album Adiemus; Songs of Sanctuary. The
work set the trend for Jenkins to explore world music and experiment with new orchestral and
choral textures and minimalism.

Contextual background
Jenkins own programme note indicates that his Requiem (from which the Dies Irae comes) was
dedicated to his late father whom he describes as a musician and an inspiration.
A Requiem is a Mass for the souls of the dead and Jenkins has blended the traditional Latin text,
for many of the traditional movements, with many influences from his travels throughout the
world. In the Requiem, the addition of Japanese Haiku death poems is innovative and much in
keeping with Jenkins interest in Western and Eastern texts.
The Dies Irae is a medieval poem describing the day of judgement when the biblical
interpretation speaks of the last trumpet sounding to summon souls before the throne of God
where their eternal fate will be decided. Jenkins does not use the full text.
The work is scored for SATB choir, shakuhachi (Japanese Flute), 2 horns in F, timpani, harp,
strings and 3 percussion players using conventional orchestral percussion and others of ethnic
origin (for example, surdo, darabuca, mark tree, rainstick, bamboo chimes).

The Dies Irae is in 4/4 and begins with an ff 8 bar introduction in D minor which introduces
musical elements that are developed further in the movement:

The 2 bar bass ostinato theme of 8 crotchet beats (Example 1) played in the lower
strings and accompanied by bass drum and tam tam. (There is a slight variation of the
8 crotchet beat pattern in the rhythmic accompaniment when the third beat is played
as 2 quavers);
The driving relentless (Jenkins own performance direction) triplet upper string
accompaniment; and
The two-quaver horn motif which is repeated in the first entry of the chorus (Example


Example 1

Example 2


(Bar 9) The chorus entry replicates the horn motif of the introduction with the first
lines of the Latin text. The homophonic texture of the SATB chorus is heavily accented
and sung sempre ff This 8 bar choral introduction only uses the first two lines of the
text- Dies irae, dies illa.


(Bar 17) The full first stanza of the text is heard from the choir this time in unison (note
D). The natural speech rhythm used here is repeated for other stanzas of the text.


(Bar 20) A recurrent three chord motif suggesting the dominant briefly interrupts the
flow of the music. The rhythmic impetus then continues as before.


(Bar 25) A new bass ostinato is used as the chorus return to another 8 bar repeat of the
opening choral introduction (Example 3). Both the string and percussion
accompaniments remain unaltered. Harmonic ambiguity is caused by the fluctuation
between B and B in the lower string ostinato.

Example 3


(Bar 29) After 4 bars, a chromatic rising scale idea played by the horns is heard for the
first time and this too is the basis of a new choral theme later on.


(Bar 33) The Tuba Mirum theme which follows (Example 4) comprises two crotchet
beats a third apart rising in sequence.

Example 4


(Bar 37) The driving bass ostinato changes for the first time, as the choir sing, in
harmony, a falling sequence, exploiting the interval of a third and finishing on a unison
D and with a re-introduction in the accompaniment of the ostinato.


(Bar 45) The first of two sections follows where the word Dies is given syllabic
rhythmic treatment and for the first time a polyphonic texture is created, comprising
different layers of ostinati.
The underlying instrumental bass ostinato and percussion accompaniments continue
for another 8 bars, and lead to the second stanza of text (1:45, bar 53) ie. mars stupebit
et naturo, sung similarly and with the same rhythmic accompaniment and one bar
bridge motif from the horns. The sopranos are now one octave higher than in verse


(Bar 61) A return of the opening choral introduction, accompanied by the new bass
ostinato, features a bass voice vocal version of the horn chromatic scale idea heard
earlier (Example 5).

Example 5


(Bar 69) The first key change to E minor follows as we hear an instrumental bridge
section using the Tuba Mirum theme in the horns for the first time. The string triplet
accompaniment and horn ornaments are noteworthy.


(Bar 77) The final section of the text used by Jenkins is heard after this instrumental
bridge (Iudex ergo). The bass ostinato changes to a rising chromatic scale idea.


(Bar 85) The next key change (F minor) introduces the second example of syllabic
treatment of the words Dies Irae. In this extended section we hear many of the
rhythms Jenkins himself indicated were hip-hop influenced. A more complex
rhythmic variation than the first, features greater use of syncopation and strong


accented beats, further emphasised by melodic leaps of an octave in the soprano line.

(Bar 93) The twelve bar Tuba Mirum choral theme is then used to lead to the third
syllabic variation on the words Dies Irae, this time featuring changes in the soprano


This eight bar segment leads directly to another key change (F# minor, bar 113, 3:45),
another syllabic variation given extra momentum by the frequency of the octave leaps
in the soprano line and the more exciting syncopated sextuplet bass vocal part.


The addition of a syncopated horn motif eight bars later, combined with the soprano
constant F# repetition and the prominent cymbals, continues the excitement and builds
towards the thunderous and abrupt climax to the movement seventeen bars later
featuring prominent cymbals.



Optional Area of Study 1:

Musical Traditions in Ireland

(To follow)



Optional Area of Study 2:

Incidental Music



Mendelssohn (1809 1847): A Midsummer Nights Dream


Mendelssohn was a German composer, pianist, organist and conductor of the early
Romantic period.
His work includes symphonies, concerti, oratorios, piano and chamber music
Inspired to write this overture after reading the play A Midsummer Nights Dream by
William Shakespeare
Written originally (at the age of 17) as a piano duet in 1826. It was rescored with extra music
added to be performed as incidental music for performances of a new dramatic production
(by Ludwig Tieck) of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, in 1843.


An overture is an instrumental composition written as an introduction to a work such as an

opera or oratorio, or as an independent piece to be performed in the concert hall
This is an example of an 19th century Concert overture which is an independent piece of
music complete in itself composed with concert performance in mind

It is important to recognise how Mendelssohn interprets themes from the original play and
presents them through a variety of ways using Sonata form structure in this orchestral overture.
The main ideas presented are the fairy/court theme, the love theme, the characterisation of the
comic figure Bottom disguised as a donkey, and the overall magical atmosphere created by the
subtle changes in orchestration throughout the piece.

Structure: Sonata Form
Instrumentation - two flutes, two oboes, two clarinets, two bassoons, two trumpets, timpani,
strings and ophicleide (the lowest instrument of the keyed bugle family).
0:00 1:06 Bars 1-61
The piece begins softly with four sustained woodwind chords. At bar 6 the upper strings
change tonality from E major to E minor to introduce the evocative flurry of the fairy
theme (1st subject) remaining in the key of E minor before the tonality starts to change
with the introduction of pizzicato violas at this point. The momentum of the rushing
quaver movement is interrupted at Bar 39 (0:46) with a diminished 7th chord in the


0:33 Bars 24-40 are then repeated with the viola part now played by the second violins. The
strings continue until it reaches a perfect cadence at bars 61-62.
1:06 Bars 62-98
There is an immediate shift back to the tonic chord of E major played ff by the full
orchestra, including the ophichleide and punctuated by the timpani, introducing a new
stately court theme (second half of the first subject).
At bar 96 the music is modulating from the tonic key of E major towards the dominant
key of B major at bar 98.
1:38 Bar 98
The fairy theme continues in the strings becoming more developed by use of a rising
sequence in preparation for the new key of B major.
2:06 Bar 130
The second subject is now presented in the clarinets in the key of B major. It is very
lyrical in character representing the love theme of the work. This theme continues for
some time with increasing orchestral density before being continued by the strings at Bar
138 (2:14) over a tonic pedal in the cellos and basses.
This theme is repeated and at Bar 162 (2:37) the violins play a two bar repeated figure
taken from bars 140-141. Woodwind, brass and timpani interject with a small fanfare
which is repeated (probably used to represent royalty).
The love theme grows in intensity until it ends with a descending scale at bar 192-194
reaching the second section of the second subject.
3:06 Bar 194
This section of the music is played by the full orchestra and represents the group of
workmen who rehearse a play to perform in front of the Duke.
Bottom, one of these characters, is transformed into a donkey during the course of the
action, hence the use of falling ninths and tenths in violins and clarinets (Bars 199 205,
214 - 221), which suggests the braying of a donkey.
The cellos, basses, horns, ophecleide and timpani accompany with a repeated tonic pedal.
At bar 196 an F# is played by oboes, bassoons, and violas to create bare fifths in a drone
like manner.
3:32 Bar 222
This section comes to a perfect cadence in the dominant. At bar 222 we hear brass
fanfares which are later imitated between brass and strings (Bar 238) bringing the
exposition to a close at Bars 249-250 with a short codetta based on the hunting call from
the court music.
By the end of the exposition all the character themes from the play have been introduced
and the music has revealed many contrasting themes illustrating the diversity of the play.


3:58 Bar 250

This is the beginning of the development section. The tonality changes suddenly to B
minor with the violins playing the first subject fairy theme with soft woodwind
interjections. Gradually the lower strings are added at bar 264 while the bassoons and
flutes sustain a long chord. At bar 270, arpeggios are added by the woodwind section and
at bar 284 the rhythm changes to the fanfare idea first heard at bar 166.
4:35 Bar 294
The sudden ff single note in the horn rapidly dies away against a pp timpani roll. The
woodwind play the fanfare motif rising in pitch, against part of the fairy theme quaver
movement in the violins over a tonic pedal in the cellos.
This material continues for some time and all the instruments apart from the ophicleide
play at some point in the development. The hushed pp dynamics contrasted with the ff
notes in the horn help to create the magical suspense.
4:51 Bar 306
Features a rising bass line reaching a perfect cadence in D major at bar 316. At bar 324
the cellos and double basses develop the first subject against sustained chords on
woodwind and brass ending at bar 334 in C# minor. At this point violins play a reiterated
C with descending pizzicato crotchets on cellos and Basses reaching a perfect cadence in
bar 341 in D major. A pedal note D can be heard at bar 342 and this continues on flutes
with the strings playing a descending crotchet scale movement. At bar 376 there is a
reference to the end part of the love theme and gradually the music quietens down on a
repeated chord of C# minor bringing the development section to an end at bar 393.
6:19 Bar 394
Recapitulation begins with the opening fairy horn calls although this time it is extended
with three extra bars, the orchestration has changed and the key has subtly moved into E
major. The fairy theme is as before with the addition of long held notes added to the
texture along with interjections in various instruments including the ophicleide. A soft
timpani roll is also added to give effect. However there is no reference to the previous
court-like theme therefore making this section shorter.

The transition is also much shorter and leads to the love theme at bar 450. The 1st
section of the second subject is in the tonic key of E major and this (apart from the key)
is identical to the exposition. The dance-like theme which is the second section of the
second subject is also the same as before.
The descending wind scales which were first heard preceding the second subject appear
again with an added timpani roll. The scale passages are developed and modulate briefly
before returning to E major.


A perfect cadence in E major at bar 586 brings back the descending scale passage of bar
231 which is a short reference to the court theme. The second part of the court theme,
the hunting call (first heard at 70 and also at 238) follows at 594. Accented plagal
cadences occur from 594 leading to the end of the recapitulation in the tonic key at bar


9:50 Bar 620

The coda starts with the fairy theme in quavers in E minor, similar to the opening of the
development section. Parts of other motifs used in the development section can also be
heard. The momentum of the piece suddenly comes to a pause at bar 643 (10:10).
This chord first heard at bar 31 resolves into a series of semibreve chords which
gradually get softer until at bar 657 clarinets and bassoons are the only remaining
instruments playing a soft reference to the opening court theme. The strings take over
the court theme in augmentation. A tonic pedal in the cello starting at bar 675 heralds the
end of the piece and a sustained E major tonic chord in the strings is followed by the
original fairy horn call to finish the work.
Recommended score: Eulenberg no. 613, ISBN: 0975768152


Grieg (1843-1907): Peer Gynt Suite Morning, In the hall of the

Mountain King
Biographical background

Grieg is a Nationalist Composer one who uses or reflects the folk music of his country in
his compositions.
He is known to have used folk melodies from Bergen which is on the western shores of
His music inspired other composers such as Percy Grainger, an Australian Composer, to
emulate his research by looking into his own countrys music.
Grieg was writing for the common people and due, in part, to his music being tuneful and
easily understood, helped make him a hero of his own country.

Peer Gynt

Henrik Ibsen (the author of the play) invited Grieg to write incidental music for it. Not only
for between scenes but also to accompany the action.
It was first performed in 1876 and although a success at the time, because of its huge length
and complex plot, it is not performed very frequently today.
The music proved so popular that Grieg arranged two suites for concert performance, and
these have remained popular ever since.


In the play, this music is the introduction to a scene on the North African coast. However it
seems Griegs inspiration was a little closer to home and he referred to it as the sun rising
over the forests and fjords on a clear Norwegian morning.
Although based loosely in E Major it has a decidedly pentatonic flavour which gives it a
close link to folk music.

Main theme:

The movement is scored for an orchestra of double woodwind, horns, trumpets, timpani and

It begins Allegretto pastorale with a rising and falling motif of four bars by the flute which
is then imitated (0:12, bar 5) by the harder sound of the oboe an octave lower
modulating towards G# major.



(Bar 9) The flute answers the oboe with the original motif in the new key for a further
four bars, and the oboe responds an octave lower again (0:32, bar 13) modulating to the
dominant (B major).


(Bar 17) The two instruments play the second bar of the theme answering each other and
then, as the music crescendos, echo one another with two downward dominant
arpeggios which lead into a full statement of the first four bars of the theme (0:52, bar
21) by the whole orchestra leading with an ascending sequence (1:06, bar 30) where
semiquaver arpeggios lead to a short theme on the cellos. An upward trumpet figure
leads to a repeat of the cello theme in F major and then into D major (1:19, bar 37).


(Bar 49) The semiquaver arpeggios return in the woodwind and the horn plays the
opening four bars again followed by two chords on the upper strings. At 2:17 (Bar 56)
the oboes and bassoons restate the original theme for four bars back in the tonic key,
repeating the final notes to extend the music leading into the
Coda at 2:38 (Bar 62) where, after three sustained horn notes the violins repeat the
opening phrase, completed by the clarinets with flute trills, perhaps imitative of birdsong,
then at 2:54 (Bar 68) the horns enter with an altered version using just three notes and
then repeating it as a two bar phrase with the clarinets and flutes three times. At 3:19
(Bar 78) the horns usher in the final bars where the flute repeats the opening 2 bars of
the piece and the bassoons echo it two octaves lower. Three long sustained chords end
the piece quietly with a plagal cadence.

In the Hall of the Mountain King


In the play, Peer has found himself inside the mountain kingdom of the Trolls. The music
accompanies the scene describing his quiet footsteps and the chase by the trolls when he is
At the end of the piece, the King appears just as Peer escapes the mountain as it collapses
killing all those within it.
A general translation of the original chorus parts is as follows:
Kill him!
He has bewitched the Mountain Kings daughter!
Hack off his fingers!
Tear out his hair!
Boil him up into soup!
Roast him on a spit over the fire!


The piece is scored for a full orchestra: piccolo; double woodwind; four horns; two trumpets;
three trombones; tuba; timpani; cymbals; bass drum; and strings.


The piece begins with a quiet unison F# (the dominant of the home key, B Minor).


(Bar 2) Immediately the first four bars of the theme are played staccato by the cellos and
double basses and repeated by the bassoons.


(Bar 10) The second four bars of the theme are played by the lower strings and once
again repeated by the bassoons with the fourth bar altered to end in the tonic key.


(Bar 18) Cello and basses repeat the first four bars of the theme again echoed by the
bassoons as before, with the fourth bar altered to end in the tonic key.


(Letter A, bar 26) The upper strings pizzicato have the theme echoed by the woodwind
in the same pattern as the first section by now the music is beginning to gather


(Bar 34) The upper strings and woodwind continue with the second four bars of the
theme and as the speed increases so too does the volume.


(Letter B, bar 50) The full orchestra now take up the theme ff with the brass joining in
the repeats.


The orchestra continues with the second four bars - the piece now much faster and
louder and the pitch an octave higher.


(Letter C, bar 65) We have the final full repeat of the theme at a very fast tempo.


(Letter D, bar 73) The music stops abruptly with crashing off-beat chords interrupting its
flow for eight bars before the coda.


(Bar 81) The chords are repeated and emphasised eight times before one silent half bar
which is followed by a timpani roll in crescendo on the tonic (B). The bass instruments
of the orchestra give a ff tonic B, followed by a thunderous, full orchestral ff tonic B
minor off-beat chord which closes the movement.

Note: When the piece is performed in its original form the chorus parts begin at (Bar 50) 1:21.
The recommended recording of this suite does not include these choral parts.
Recommended score: Eulenberg no. 1318, ISBN 9783795761097


Hans Zimmer: Pirates of the Caribbean (Dead Mans Chest)

Davy Jones Theme
Biographical detail
Hans Zimmer was born in Germany on September 12, 1957 but moved to England as a
teenager. His career in writing music for films began even before his move to the United States,
where his score for the film Rain Man truly launched his career. Since 1988, Zimmer has worked
on over 100 film scores and won seven Academy awards (Oscars) including best musical score
for the Gladiator, The Lion King , The Thin Red Line and The Preachers Wife. Other film scores like
those for Pearl Harbor, The Last Samurai, Da Vinci Code and Frost/Nixon have won Golden Globe
Presently, Zimmer is the head of the Film Music division at DreamWorks studios, and
collaborates with other composers through the company which he founded, Remote Control
Productions. His film scores are most notable for combining electronic music sounds with
traditional orchestral arrangements.

Contextual detail
The first film in the Pirates of the Caribbean trilogy was released in 2003 and featured a score
produced by Hans Zimmer but including insufficient original material by him to be credited as
composer. The sacking of legendary Disney composer Alan Silvestri had given rise to a hastily
put together score by composer Klaus Badelt and the team from Media Ventures. Media
Ventures (now called Remote Control Productions) had won a reputation for their electronicallyenhanced orchestral scoring used in film soundtracks.
When Zimmer assumed the role of soundtrack composer for Dead Mans Chest, the second film
in the trilogy, the result was a score which developed some of the musical themes from the
original, but brought new orchestral and choral textures to the fore, while still relying on the
bass-heavy, electronically-aided music which was a Hans Zimmer hallmark.
The score features new character-related themes and a wider range of rock styles, musical dance
forms (i.e. jigs and waltzes), orchestral and non-orchestral sounds. This score and other swashbuckling action film music from Zimmer and his contemporaries, has continued the tradition
introduced by composers like Erich Korngold and developed by others like John Williams and
John Debney.

A soft music box in D minor begins the Davy Jones theme. The 16 bar melody in 3/4 time
gently rises by step and is heard over a tonic dominant ostinato for the first four bars (Example


Example 1

The use of a diminished 7th chord in the 11th bar (0:24) continues the harmonic interest. The
melody comes to a close in a perfect cadence in the tonic key, however the dominant chord
includes a modal C.
The strings join (0:36), with added interest provided by the oboe repeating the opening theme,
along with the continuing music box. The lower strings and the bass serve to give a mystifying
darkness to the tone which is very much in keeping with the Davy Jones character in the film.
Bass-heavy tones are a recognisable trait of Zimmers film music (especially, however, in action
A sudden change to a moderately fast tempo, introduces a pulsing organ ostinato (1:14)
(Example 2). This organ sound is another departure for Zimmer who did not include it in the
previous Pirates of the Caribbean score.
It is accompanied by a thundering bass drum rhythmic ostinato (heavy first and second beats,
echoing the opening accompaniment rhythm) which continues throughout this section. The
main theme is also played by the organ and can be clearly heard over the ostinato (which
emphasizes the dominant, A) and its accompaniment.
Example 2

The orchestral texture thickens in the next repeat (1:39) to now include the organ ostinato,
added percussion and synthesised/organ brass tones playing the music box theme, all in a new
key of B minor. A choral unison version of the music box theme is also heard, whilst the quaver
accompaniment figure in quavers continues.
As the dynamics increase once again, another key shift to G# (2:01) further heightens the tension
and drama. Heavier percussion, including dramatic cymbal crashes, combine with a much heavier
bass line, the organ ostinato, choral lines and the music box theme (again played by brass).


This final repeat of the Davy Jones theme is brought to a sudden halt (2:23) as only the heavily
accented pulse on the bass drum and very quiet organ pedal note and lower strings remain.
The return of the opening tempo also sees a return of the actual music box in B minor to
announce the theme. This time sustained upper strings accompany with an inverted (new) tonic
pedal and as the melody progresses, these rise up an octave (2:45) and eventually die away (3.00)
just as the lower strings take over the sustained note and decrescendo for the next four bars.
The work comes to a peaceful end leaving only the music box to play the closing notes of the


Ron Grainer (1922-1981): Dr Who Theme revised title theme 2005

Biographical detail
Ron Grainer was born on 11th August 1922 in Queensland, Australia and he studied music at the
Sydney Conservatorium, but it was not until his move to Britain in the 1950s that his talents first
came to prominence. He collaborated with the newly formed BBC Radiophonic Workshop on a
number of television series themes and in 1963 wrote the theme music for Dr Who. He was very
impressed with Delia Derbyshire from the workshop and her electronic realisation of his theme
remained the standard version of the series for 18 years. Grainer and Derbyshire were initially
refused credits for the music, since the BBC had wanted to keep the members of their
Radiophonic Workshop team anonymous.
Grainer did not repeat the immense artistic or commercial success of Dr Who, but other
television themes like Tales of the Unexpected survive. He died in Sussex, at the age of 58.

Digital Manipulation Techniques

An analogue recording of a single plucked string was the source of the manipulation of Grainers
music by Derbyshire and her Radiophonic Workshop team. Sophisticated alteration of the
tempo combined with white noise and harmonic wave-forms of test-tone oscillators, resulted in
the unique sounds first heard in the 1963 version of the theme.
Murray Golds arrangement of theme for the re-launch of the 2005 series, featured samples from
the 1963 original with additional orchestral sounds including strings, percussion and horns. It
was the addition of the Dalek ray-gun and Tardis materialisation sound effects which so grabbed
the attention of the Sci-Fi followers of the television show.

The re-launched series of Dr Who featured the signature tune of the original and brought
many of Ron Grainers iconic melodies and rhythms to a new generation. The theme music
for the 2005 series (and those since) comprises the following:

A four-bar rhythmic ostinato in the bass instruments (Example 1)*

A triplet quaver layer added to this ostinato
The first melodic theme (Example 2) featuring a rising 9th at the start
The modal tonality (B Phrygian) used at the beginning of the music
A second melodic theme (Example 3) this time in the major key
The use of digital sound effects and sound manipulation techniques

(Throughout these notes, reference is made to the purely orchestral sounds made in the
recording. Many of these will have been digitally enhanced, altered and combined with other
sound manipulation techniques in the studio mix.)

The music opens with a descending glissando whistle sound effect which leads into the
introductory music (0:04), comprising detached percussive minor chords accompanied by a
frequently changing snare, bass ostinato (Example 1), bass drum and timpani. The harmonic
content of this introductory section is predominantly minor and the interval of a minor third
is fully exploited. The sustained brass chords heard also emphasise the minor tonality. Theme
1 is written in the mode of E Phrygian (Example 2). Throughout the score, this appears as E
minor with accidentals (where necessary) for the altered modal notes.
Example 1

Example 2

Theme 1 (0:16) is heard accompanied by the triplet motif which is also reinforced by a
rhythmic upper string countermelody. Strong rhythmic accompaniment from the snare, bass
and timpani drums adds to the forward drive of the piece.
Theme 1 is then repeated (0:35), although the second half is now played by the upper strings.
The triplet motif and rhythmic accompaniment remain as before and as a crescendo occurs
and the brass instruments form a major chord, a second theme is heard.
Theme 2 (Example 3) features a synthesised tone and the brass section, in particular the
trumpets and horns (0:54) which also features a change in rhythmic accompaniment, with the
notable absence of the snare drum. There is a much stronger timpani and brass texture
throughout this section. Another short crescendo leads to the return of Theme 1.
Example 3


The relentless drive of the piece continues with this repeat of Theme 1 (1:08) and there is a
much more dense texture, mainly involving the brass instruments to which the melody and
the triplet motif have been transferred.
A whirring sound effect (1:29) announces the return to Theme 1 (1:40) and continues to
feature the bass ostinato, triplet motif and percussive accompaniment. The same chordal build
up acts as a link from Theme 1 to Theme 2.
The return of Theme 2 (2:00) features a similar change of rhythmic accompaniment as
occurred in its first presentation. Similarly there is again a greater emphasis on the timpani
As the piece moves to its dramatic end, the triplet motif returns to the brass section (2:14) and
the opening three notes of Theme 1 are frequently repeated, building a crescendo and leading
to the final ff orchestral E minor chord ending with 3 accented triplet quavers starting on beat
Note: * Examples feature the music originally written by Ron Grainer



Optional Area of Study 3:

Vocal Music



Handel (1685-1759): Messiah

Recitative: There were shepherds, And the Angel and And suddenly
Chorus: Glory to God
Aria: Why do the nations?

Biographical background

Composer: George Frederic Handel, 1685-1759

A German-English Baroque composer
Famous for his operas, oratorios and concerti grossi
Born in Germany died in England
Works include Messiah, Water Music and Music for the Royal Fireworks

Background to Work

Messiah is an oratorio
Most famous of all Handels works
Based on a libretto by Charles Jennens
Composed in Summer of 1741
First performance in Dublin in 1742
Libretto is in three parts
Part 1 - prophecies from the Old testament
Part 2 - concerns Christs suffering and death
Part 3 - relates to the second coming of Christ

The original version of Messiah is scored for SATB soloists, SATB chorus, 2 oboes, bassoon, 2
trumpets, strings, timpani, and basso continuo (there are also orchestrations by Mozart and

0:00 0:14

There were Shepherds abiding in the field

This is number 14 from the part 1 of the work. Key - C Major.
This is recitativo secco (dry recitative) where the accompaniment provided by the
continuo is very sparse with only two chords. It is performed by a soprano and
goes straight into

0:14 0:32

And Lo the Angel of the Lord Came Upon them

This begins with a short introduction on upper strings playing semiquaver
arpeggios against quaver movement in the lower strings in the key of F major. It
is recitativo stromentato (accompanied recitative) where the accompaniment is
fuller and in a definite and rhythmically steady metre. This short recitative ends
with a perfect cadence in F major.


0:33 1:06

And the angel said unto them

The third recitative follows on immediately and again is performed by a soprano,
accompanied by the continuo. It starts in the key of A major and is a recitativo
secco. A perfect cadence can be heard on the words great joy with modulation
to the key of E major and a perfect cadence at the word people. The music
continues to modulate until it reaches a perfect cadence in the key of F# minor
on the last two chords.

1:07 1:25

And suddenly there was with the Angel

This recitative begins with a short introduction in semiquavers in the upper
strings in the key of D major against a tonic pedal in the lower strings. The
soprano enters at the anacrusis to the fourth bar. This is a recitative stromentato.
It ends with a perfect cadence in the key of A major (the dominant) leading
straight into the chorus.
The change from one type of recitative ie. the declamatory to the lyrical, was a
common feature of the late Baroque era. The emphasis on this style of singing is
to move the text forward in preparation for what comes next.
Glory to God
This is scored for strings, trumpets and timpani, and is based on three main
thematic ideas each associated with their own words.
(a) 0:00 Glory to God
(b) 0:10 And peace on earth
(c) 0:40 Goodwill towards men
This is performed by the full SATB choir. The choir begins homophonically in
D major with the (a) motif easily recognised by its characteristic dotted rhythm.
This is performed by the three upper parts of the choir and is accompanied by
lightly scored semiquaver passages in the orchestra without bass instruments.
Motif (b) appears in the tenor and bass parts - note the octave drop in the bass
part contrasting with the preceding material. Motif (a) returns again (Fig A on
the score) with the same accompaniment as before followed by motif (b) again in
the tenors and basses although this time on the tonic note.
The third motif (c) is introduced fugally (Fig B) in the order of bass, tenor, alto
and soprano. This contrapuntal texture only lasts for six bars before returning to
the previous homophonic texture. At Fig D, motif (c) is extended and treated
sequentially to create a final climax ending with a perfect cadence in the key of D
major. This is followed by an eight bar orchestral passage, lightly scored with no
bass instruments, gradually getting softer and ending pp with a perfect cadence in
the tonic key.
Throughout the chorus the harmony remains diatonic. Many of the typical
Baroque features are present i.e. diatonic harmony, dotted rhythms, semiquaver
orchestral passages, cadential points, contrast of homophonic textures with
polyphonic textures. Sudden contrasts of dynamics, use of ornamentation etc.
The use of the three main thematic ideas is a good example of Handels skill in
developing melodic ideas through fragmentation and extension.


Why do the nations so furiously rage together?

This is a Bass Aria taken from Part 2 of the work. It opens with the full
orchestra playing with the upper strings playing fast and furious semiquavers and
the basso continuo underpinning the basic diatonic harmonic structure. The
tonality is enforced with a tonic pedal in C followed by brief modulations to the
sub-dominant in bars 5-6, the dominant in bars 6-7 and returns to the tonic in
bars 9-10 ending the introduction with a perfect cadence in the key of C major
as the bass soloist enters.
The bass part starts with an ascending arpeggio in the tonic followed by a
descending scale passage. This figuration along with the coloratura triplet
passage that follows provides the main musical material for this aria.
In keeping with the nature of the text, the music modulates frequently, i.e. at the
first statement of a vain thing it reaches the key of D major. Word
painting, a commonly used feature of this era can be heard on the word rage
(0:36) where the composer uses triplet figuration in a descending sequence to
emphasise the word.
The words so furiously together are invariably set to a descending figure.
On the phrase why do the people imagine the music starts to modulate
again going to G major, ending the coloratura phrase on a perfect cadence in G.
This phrase shows examples of sequence and repetition, devices commonly used
in the Baroque period.
The phrase, why do the people is treated sequentially and ends with a
perfect cadence again in the tonic key. Another repeat of this phrase follows
starting in the key of C major but ending once again in the key of G major where
it remains until near the end of this section when it modulates back to the key of
C major (Fig D on the score). A six bar orchestral interlude follows based on
material taken from the opening ritornello.
The kings of the earth rise up starts the final section of the movement. It
is in the key of A minor. Note the use of word painting on the phrase rise up.
Once again a triplet coloratura figure is used on the word counsel beginning
with a descending sequence ending this phrase with a perfect cadence in A
minor. The music begins to modulate and finally rests on a perfect cadence in E
Recommended score: Novello (Editor: Ebenezer Prout)


Schubert (1797-1828): Die Erlknig (The Erl King)

Schubert is a composer of the Classical/Romantic Period

He composed over 600 Lieder
Lied is the German word for song and in Schuberts time became associated with art
songs in German which had piano accompaniment
The songs were usually settings of poems, some by distinguished poets, and the
accompaniments added colour and reflected the mood and content of the poetry.
Schubert was followed by Schumann, Loewe, Wolf and others who all wrote lieder in the
19th Century.
The Erl king is a setting of a poem by the famous German poet Goethe and Schubert set
the poem in 1815 when he was only 18.
The song is through composed and is a very difficult work for both singer and pianist
to perform.
The pianist has to sustain, for most of the song, octave triplets in the right hand at a very
fast speed. This momentum continues through the whole song up to the dramatic pause
at the end before the final cadence.
The singer alters his voice to help interpret the role of the narrator, the child, the father
and the Erl King it is a very dramatic song.

The image above is of the first page of an original manuscript from Die Erlknig.


This lied (song) is set in a fast common time (4/4) metre in the key of G minor.

The song begins with the piano setting the scene the galloping horse suggested
by the thundering octaves in the right hand, given a sense of urgency by the
rising scalic triplet figure in the bass which recurs as a motif throughout the
piece. This urgent triplet figure continues in octaves or chords throughout the
song until the father and child reach their home and the dramatic announcement
that the child is dead.


(Bar 15) The Narrator sets the scene describing the night-ride with the father
riding home clutching his child closely to him. The minor tonality is established
by the time we hear the first line of text reflecting the ride in the nacht (night)
and wind (wind). In the second line of text (Father is holding his child), the
Father is painted heroically by the music modulating (0:35-0:40, bars 21-24) to
the relative major, B.


(Bar 36) The Father notices the child has become white with fear.


(Bar 41) The Child tells him that he can see the Erl King wearing a crown and
shroud. In bars 43 (1:12) and 47 (1:17), the Erl King is introduced and each time
the text is accompanied by a diminished chord which perhaps emphasises the
childs fear.


(Bar 51) The Father tries to reassure him that its only a Nebelstreif (strip of
fog) that he sees. On nebelstreif, as if to reassure the child, the music has again
moved to the relative (B) major.


(Bar 57) The Erl King is tempting the boy to come with him, to play games in a
land of blossoming flowers and rich clothes. This is reflected with the major key
and a pp dynamic. A more playful mood is also established with the altered
right-hand accompaniment. This section is more like a lullaby or childrens song
than what has preceded.


(Bar 72) The Child becomes terrified and tells the Father that the Erl King has
spoken to him. Here the music moves back to the minor again.


(Bar 80) The Father tries to reassure him again that its only his imagination. As
if to perhaps suggest the child is gradually being convinced, there is a modulatory
passage through all of the Fathers text: from B minor (2:11, bar 81) to G major
at bar 85 (2:18).


(Bar 86) The Erl King tries again to tempt the boy, describing his beautiful
daughter who will dance with him (here Schubert subtly changes the bass line to
give the impression that the rhythm is more dance like). To reflect the mood of
the text again, this section is set at ppp and in C major, a more remote key,
perhaps suggesting an even more dream-like atmosphere.


(Bar 97) The Child becomes even more afraid and tells the Father he can see the
Erl Kings daughter in front of them.



(Bar 105) The Father once again soothes him by saying it is only a tree that he
sees. However, the music accompanying the Fathers text here ends in G minor
(3:02, bar 112) which may suggest he cannot convince the child or alter the
childs ultimate destiny.


(Bar 116) The Erl King makes a final attempt to lure the boy away and threatens
him to seize him by force if he doesnt obey. The music for the Erl Kings text
starts gently, as before, in a major key (E major). However, as the mood in the
second line of text changes the music moves to a fff chord on G minor the
first minor cadence in the Erl Kings text, exhibiting his more sinister intentions.


(Bar 123) The Child is now hysterical and calls for the Father to hold him tightly
as the Erl King has seized him with his hands.


(Bar 135) At this point the tempo begins to quicken as the Narrator describes
the final race to their home, the Father holding the child tightly in his arms. As
they reach the courtyard the tempo slows and stops.


(Bar 146) On a quiet chord on the piano, the narrator describes (in recitative, A
major) the child in the Fathers arms - interrupted by another chord followed by
a short pause and the final words was dead! and a loud and deliberate
(Andante) perfect cadence in G minor.


Stephen Schwartz (b. 1948): Wicked

Chorus: One Short Day
Duet: What is this feeling?
Biographical detail
Wicked was written by Stephen Schwartz who was born on March 6, 1948. He is an American
musical theatre lyricist and composer. In a career already spanning over four decades, Schwartz
has written many successful musicals such as Godspell (1971), Pippin (1972) and Wicked (2003).
He has collaborated with Disney composer and lyricist Alan Menken and has also contributed
lyrics for a number of successful films including Pocahontas (1995), The Hunchback of Notre Dame
(1996), The Prince of Egypt (1998; music and lyrics) and Enchanted (2007). Schwartz has won the
Drama Desk Award for Outstanding Lyrics, three Grammy Awards, and three Academy
Awards and has been nominated for six Tony Awards.
Schwartz won one of his Grammy Awards for his work as composer and lyricist and producer
of cast recording for Wicked.

Based on Wicked: The Life and Times of the Wicked Witch of the West by Gregory Maguire, a novel
which re-imagined the stories and characters created by L. Frank Baum in The Wonderful
Wizard of Oz, Wicked tells the untold story of an unlikely but very deep friendship between
two girls who first meet as sorcery students. The plot traces their extraordinary adventures in
Oz and the genesis of their alter-egos: Glinda the Good (Glinda, the Good witch of the
North); and Elphaba, the Wicked Witch of the West. The name Elphaba derives from the
initials of L. Frank Baum.
The premise of this musical is that the audience has never been told the whole story about
the Land of Oz. It encourages the listener/viewer to look at things very differently by
exploring the themes of friendship, trust, tolerance, bullying, the use of propaganda and the
manipulation of public opinion.
What is this feeling is regarded by Stephen Schwartz as the roommate song. It is the
fourth song in Act 1 and is the first time we see the future friends, Galinda and Elphaba, as
enemies. This initial loathing turns to a deep bond of friendship later on.
One short day is performed as Elphaba sets out to meet the Wizard, who she is hoping will
help her to make Oz a better place. Both she and Galinda enjoy a day of sightseeing in the
Emerald City and even take in a Wizomania musical performance.

Analysis What is this feeling?

The song opens with Galinda and Elphaba verbalising letters they have written to their
families about their first experiences at college. The unison melody in C major is
accompanied by sustained chords in lower woodwind instruments with harp, glockenspiel
and triangle for added colour (0:05 - 0:38)


A short recitative, comprising only two notes is sung by Galinda (0:28), accompanied by
strings, and leads directly to the song proper (0:39). The rock-style instrumentation includes
full electric ensemble (electric, rhythm and bass guitars and synthesizers) with added acoustic
strings, woodwind (including saxophones) and brass accompaniment. As What is this
feeling, so sudden and new?... is sung, kit percussion featuring particularly the closed hi-hat is
prominent in the seven bars that follow, highlighting the offbeat accented chords on the last
quaver beat of the bar. More rhythmic percussion accompanies both performers for the text
What is this feeling, fervid as a flame (0:58).
A four bar pedal on the note C, (preparing us for a C7 chord) that leads to the Loathing
theme (Loathing! Unadulterated loathing) a syncopated melody comprising leaping 4ths in
the key of F major (1:13, Example 1) accompanied by punctuated chords.
This theme continues with two interesting musical ideas; first a rhythmic motif stated first
(1:21) in the instrumental line, (Example 1) then in thirds by vocals and instrumentally
repeated an octave higher; the second a sequential motif on the words evry little trait,
repeated for the words makes my very flesh a third lower. This is accompanied by much
stronger guitar instrumentation and continues with a very rhythmic quaver ostinato featuring
strongly accented syncopated beats (1:31).
Example 1

A sudden change of key heralds a short homophonic a cappella section by the mixed voices
(of the students) (1:56), with a rallentando into a short melismatic section by Galinda (2:08)
followed by a build up of the choral texture. This announces a return to familiar material.
The students now accompany Galinda in singing the recitative sung at the beginning to the
words What is this feeling?(2:27). Against this, Elphaba sings the Loathing theme. The
texture at this point is much more dense and the close harmonies of the students (chorus)
add extra colour. The crisp rhythmic quaver ostinato (originally heard 1:31) gives strong
forward movement to the song.
A key change (up a tone) to G major adds more excitement accompanied by a heavier rock
beat. Elphaba and Galinda sing together with choral interjections as the song reaches its
conclusion. The opening leaping 4ths motif is heard for the last time, in augmented note
values (and I will be loathing, for forever loathing) elongating the melody.
The song is brought to an end by the two characters singing together accompanied by the full
orchestra quaver ostinato and a series of syncopated chords, followed by a sudden break of
one all but silent bar where we hear the two characters scream Boo! and Aah!. This is
followed by the final sforzando tonic chord of G major.


Analysis One Short Day

A spoken cue from Elphaba (encouraging Galinda to join her in the Emerald city), introduces
the unison chorus on the opening theme - a bright upbeat syncopated melody in F# major.
The rising bass of these opening three chords is a feature replicated in other songs in the
show. Another spoken cue, this time from Galinda (0:09), introduces a varied repeat of the
opening theme over the same harmonic progression. The introduction of a triplet crotchet
2/4 bar on the world Emerald leads to a surprising end to the phrase exploiting the rising
perfect 5th first heard at the beginning of the theme (Example 2).
Example 2

As the chorus hold this C#, the tempo quickens to the joyfully bouncy tempo (as per score
instruction), there is a gradual crescendo and the accompaniment thickens in texture as the
guitars, keyboard, kit percussion (especially closed hi-hat) and sustained upper strings lead
into the main theme (0:26, bar 12). This is sung by the chorus in unison and features a
stronger snare drum rhythmic accompaniment.
A two bar link ending to a IV - V- I cadence in the tonic key, heralds an unexpected new key
of D major for the first of Elphabas solo lines (0:46, bar 22), before quickly moving into the
key of F (0:50, bar 24). The chorus rests in this section so the main characters solos are
easily heard. This second theme is repeated four bars later as a sequence (wonders like
Ive never seen..) with an altered ending as both characters extol the virtues of the Emerald
Elphaba & Galinda sing together in parallel thirds (1:01) briefly before reverting to solo lines
as the second section comes to a close with a rising chord sequence above a C pedal.
Another unusual key change (back to F# major, 1:17, bar 37) heralds the return of the
chorus with the opening One short day theme, this time with the chorus singing in parts
instead of unison. This section concludes with the two characters in unison.
A rallentando, followed by another vocal cue (warning that the Wizomania musical
production is about to begin), heralds a pastiche of a standard Broadway musical dance
number in G major.
The unison staccato choral (1:44) singing at the opening of Wizomania theme is
accompanied first by detached woodwind and brass chords, but eventually by a much faster
quaver beat drum rhythm and scurrying upper strings. The addition of swanee whistle (1:56)
adds colour and gives the impression of a pantomime performance. The close harmonies of
the chorus are particularly noticeable in the glissando oohs heard at 2:03.


A return of the One short day theme (2:09, Example 3), this time with much less
syncopation and augmented note values, introduces a section of choral counterpoint. As the
male singers sing in unison the Wizomania theme, the females have the altered One short
day theme. The counterpoint is accompanied by a new 2 bar rhythmic motif played by brass,
woodwind and the rhythm section (Example 4).
Example 3

Example 4

The repeat of the altered One short day theme (2:22) sees the chorus revert to unison
(What a way to be seeing the city) and a ritardando announces the concluding bars of
the song. As the tempo reduces significantly and short vocal phrases are given instrumental
repeats, the rhythmic drum accompaniment stops and we hear the predominant upper strings
As the dramatic and powerful shift from enemy to friend unfolds in these closing bars, the
tempo decreases further and the girls declare they are not only good, but best friends.
This is achieved musically by rhythmic augmentation in the bar which gives added emphasis
to the word best which indicates its textual significance.
No sooner have the words been sung by Elphaba and Galinda, than a sudden return to the
lively tempo brings the song rushing to an end, incorporating the chorus singing in parts.
The final spoken cue, the Wizard will see you now leads to the final flourish in G
Recommended score: Hal Leonard: Piano/Vocal selections (112 pages) ISBN-10:


Snow Patrol: Final Straw - Run

Biographical background
Northern Ireland students Gary Lightbody, Michael Morrison and Mark McClelland originally
formed an alternative rock/indie band Shrug when they were students at the University of
Dundee in 1994. Early performances at University gigs, on the local club circuit and even
record deals failed to bring them commercial success. The departure of Michael Morrison, a
second (and third!) band renaming and the arrival of Jonny Quinn as permanent drummer, saw
the band re-launch as Snow Patrol.
The band has undergone many changes in its line up in the intervening years and now
comprise five members: Gary Lightbody (lead vocals, rhythm guitar and piano), Nathan
Connolly (lead guitar and backing vocals), Paul Wilson (bass guitar and backing vocals), Jonny
Quinn (drums and percussion) and Tom Simpson (keyboards and samples).

The commercial failure of Snow Patrols first two albums on the Jeepster label saw the band
dropped from that label in 2001. This move saw major labels beginning to take an interest in
the band, but it was Fiction Records who were to sign up the disillusioned performers. This
resulted in the production of the album Final Straw which was to bring meteoric success.
The band have never looked back from those early days, enjoying world wide commercial and
artistic success and completing sell out tours.
The song Run from the 2003 album Final Straw is said by Lightbody to have been a response
to his life being saved by his fellow band member Jonny Quinn. Lightbody writes, The words
'Light up, light up' gave this sense of a beacon. There had to be a light at the end of a tunnel."
The song Run was covered in 2008 by Leona Lewis and gained further worldwide acclaim for
the band.

The song is in a steady 4/4 metre and the opening four bar introduction features electric
guitar strumming of eight quaver beats per bar. It is joined (0:13) by bass guitar, drum-kit
percussion and a lead guitar melodic riff which is also to recur several times.
A simple chord sequence (A minor - Fmaj7/A - Gsus) forms the harmonic basis of much of
the song. This sequence of chords is frequently repeated in the verses of the song and
undergoes several variations with added 7ths and suspensions adding colour.
The vocal cue used for the first vocal entry (0:24) uses two of the opening three chords from
the introduction (A minor and Gsus4). A small vocal range is used for the verses of the song
(a fifth, A E, see Example 1).


Example 1

A lead guitar solo line is heard again above the repeated quaver chords of the existing guitar
line (0:46). This melodic riff is heard frequently and leads directly to the second verse (0:51),
once again featuring the same three chords from the opening bars. The addition of a thicker
string tone from the keyboards accompanies verse 2 of the song. The solo guitar riff (first
heard at 0:13) leads to the chorus (1:17).
The chorus features much heavier distorted guitar tones and keyboard string pads. There is a
much stronger major tonality (moving to the relative C major) and the driving repeated guitar
quaver chords maintain the momentum. There is also a much wider vocal pitch range for the
chorus almost an octave higher than the majority of notes in the verse (Example 2). A
short triadic guitar build up links the two sections of the chorus.
Example 2

A four bar link played by keyboard, featuring the lead guitar motif and the opening chord
progression (2:09) leads directly to the third verse. This verse features the same
instrumentation as the first verse, but unlike the first verse, is followed by the chorus.
The four bar link featured after the first chorus, does not recur after the chorus which follows
the third verse. Instead, the song moves to a third and fourth repeat of the chorus.
The chord progression of the chorus continues for this new instrumental section which
features a lead guitar solo line in octaves above the repeated quaver chords (4:30). This scalelike motif is played over the same chord sequence as the chorus and on its repeat features a
strong complimentary string tone overlay (4:56)
On the final repeat of the chorus (5:22) the instrumentation changes with the heavy distorted
guitar omitted. The feeling here is more subdued with a noticeable dynamic change. The
instrumentation accompanying the vocal now consists of string pad sound (sustained
semibreves), bass guitar, clean (non-distorted) rhythm guitar and percussion. The song comes
to a close with a plagal (IV - I) cadence.