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Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 9

for Evaluating an MHF Gas Well

James N. Bostic, SPE, Amoco Production Co.

Ram O. Agarwal, SPE, Amoco Production Co.

Robert D. Carter, SPE, Amoco Production Co.

Introduction

Low-permeability (less than 0.1 md) gas wells must

be stimulated with massive hydraulic fracture (MHF)

treatments to be commercial. Once a well has been

stimulated, it is important to determine the length

and conductivity of the resulting fracture as accurately as possible to predict rates and reserves and

evaluate the effectiveness of the stimulation.

Two types of data normally are available to

perform the required analysis. The first type is

routinely collected data such as gas flow rates and

flowing wellhead pressures. The second type of data

is that from specially designed tests such as pressure

buildup tests. There are various methods available

fo~ analyzing both kinds of data, but all of the

methods have certain limitations.

Current analysis techniques are satisfactory for

finite-flow-capacity fractures when formation flow

capacity kh is known and sufficient production data

without shut-in periods is available to perform a

type-curve match as shown by Cinco et al. 1 and

Agarwal et al. 2 However, one disadvantage of MHF

treatments is that they often cause the stimulated

wells to produce large volumes of load water

(returning fracture fluids) for several weeks or

months. Production data obtained during this

01492136/80/00108280$00.25

Copyright 1980 SOCiety of Petroleum Engineers

cleanup period usually are not applicable for typecurve matching purposes with the currently available

type curves. Since type curves normally are plotted

on a log-log scale and exhibit the most character at

small dimensionless times, the loss of the early-time

production data disproportionately reduces the

length of the available data band and is critical to the

problem of obtaining a satisfactory match.

The purpose of this paper is to present a method of

combining the production and buildup test data so

that their concurrent analysis overcomes some of the

limitations of either individual data set. The

superposition principle is used in this combination,

and the analysis of the resulting data set should

provide a more accurate result than previously

possible. This combination has the potential to

generate field data curves of sufficient length that the

shape of the data curve may be sufficiently definitive

to determine formation flow capacity by type-curve

analysis. Additionally, this method makes it possible

to use production data that contain occasional shutin periods of long duration.

The superposition principle, on which this paper is

based, was described by van Everdingen and Hurst 3

and was used by Hutchinson and Sikora, 4 Mueller, 5

and Coats et al. 6 to calculate pressure functions for

the analysis of aquifers associated with water-drive

oil reservoirs. Those pressure functions were called

postfracturing buildup data for analysis on the same constant-rate type curve. This

combination of buildup and production data is accomplished through the use of the

superposition principle. The method allows the use of production data that contain

occasional shut-in periods of long duration.

OCTOBER 1980

1711

functions and are similar to the pressure function

P FCN presented in this paper.

In 1965 Jargon and van Poollen 7 applied the

superposition principle to single-well drawdown test

data to generate a pressure function they called the

"unit response function." They then used this unit

response function in the analysis of variable-rate

variable-pressure drawdown tests of oil wells.

In 1975 Ridley 8 discussed a method of "unified

analysis" of well tests which used pressure data from

both drawdown and buildup periods. Ridley used a

statistical regression analysis method of parameter

estimation, but he assumed the fundamental form of

the pressure solution.

The method described herein extends these concepts to the combined analysis of buildup and

production data f!;'om MHF-stimulated gas wells. It

also appears to offer certain advantages in both

accuracy and ease of use, in comparison with the

currently accepted analysis techniques.

of Postfracturing Analysis

A number of techniques have been presented in the

petroleum engineering literature for the analysis of

post fracturing pressure and/or rate data. Raghavan 9

presented a very comprehensive summary of pressure

behavior of fractured wells in 1977. Cinco and

Samaniego 10 and Lee and Holditch 11 also have

discussed the advantages and limitations of the

various analysis methods. While some discussion of

the various available analysis techniques is included,

this paper is not intended to duplicate other competent and recent work by examining in detail all the

various analysis methods.

Basically, the various analysis techniques can be

divided into two major categories: conventional

analysis techniques and' type-curve matching

techniques. The majority of the conventional

methods are applicable only to infinite-flow-capacity

fractures. (The modified Millheim-Cichowicz method proposed by Lee et at. 11 is an exception to this

restriction, as is the analysis of the bilinear-flowperiod data using the one-fourth root of time plot

suggested by Cinco et at. 10 Both will be discussed in

more detail.) Of the various available type-curve

methods, some are applicable only to infinite-flowcapacity fractures, while others can be used with both

infinite- and finite-flow-capacity fractures. 1,2,10

Defining dimensionless fracture flow capacity

after Agarwal et at. 2 as

FCD

kXf

fracture only for high F CD values. Since MHF

treatments usually are associated with long finiteflow-capacity fractures, any technique used to

analyze MHF-stimulated wells should be applicable

to finite-flow-capacity fractures.

As mentioned previously, the only two conventional analysis techniques which address the

1712

Millheim-Cichowicz method and Cinco's "onefourth root" analysis of the bilinear-flow-period

data. However, as Lee et at. 11 and Cinco et at. 10

point out, both of these techniques require that

formation permeability be known a priori. However,

if this condition is met, the type-curve matching

techniques also are simplified greatly and both the

reliability and uniqueness of their answers are improved, as discussed in Ref. 2.

Since type curves are fairly reliable where formation permeability is known and still can be used, if

somewhat less effectively, in the absence of a known

permeability, we prefer the use of type-curve

methods over other methods for the routine analysis

of MHF-stimulated wells. This especially applies

when time considerations will not permit the application of all available methods. Agarwal et at. 2

have shown that their finite-flow-capacity verticalfracture type curves produce the same solutions as

the Cinco et at. 1 type curves. For simplicity

throughout the remainder of this paper, all examples

with and references to finite-flow-capacity verticalfracture type curves will use the Agarwal et at. type

curves.

Two sets of finite-flow-capacity vertical-fracture

type curves for an infinite reservoir were presented in

Ref. 2. One set of type curves was for a vertically

fractured well producing at a constant weI/bore rate.

The other set of type curves was for a vertically

fractured well producing at a constant weI/bore

pressure. While the latter set of curves is much more

likely to approximate a realistic producing scheme

for an MHF-stimulated well, the former set also is

valuable as it can be used to analyze pressure buildup

data.

There are some limitations on the use of these type

curves. One of these limitations is that separate type

curves must be used for the analysis of buildup and

production data. Trying to match two sets of field

data on two separate type curves can be a difficult

and time-consuming procedure, especially in the

absence of a dependable estimate of formation flow

capacity kh.

A second limitation applies to the Agarwal et at. 2

technique of matching 1/q (rate - 1) vs. time with the

constant wellbore pressure type curve. This

limitation is that the production must be continuous

from the time the well is placed on production. While

this limitation was not stated specifically in Ref. 2, it

is obvious since the rate data is to be matched with a

type curve generated under the assumption of a

constant flowing bottomhole pressure. However,

experience has indicated that many wells producing

in low-permeability gas plays are subject to occasional shut-ins of extended duration due to

demand restrictions or other problems.

Additionally, there are some limitations that are

inherent in the use of either buildup test data or longterm production data. One limitation of pressure

buildup data is that it is normally impractical or

impossible to obtain long buildups. Since the buildup

tests require the well to be shut in, economic conJOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY

be excessive. In addition, since the buildup data is to

be used for type-curve matching, the production time

immediately before the buildup must be much longer

than the buildup time. 12 Raghavan 13 has discussed

this limitation in detail and has provided guidelines

for estimating the extent of acceptable buildup data

based on prior production time.

While the buildup data suffers from an absence of

late-time data, the production data has the opposite

limitation. Early-time production data on MHFstimulated wells is normally not analyzable due to the

production of large volumes of returning fracture

fluids during the first several weeks following

stimulation. Since type-curve matching normally is

done on a log-log basis and it is the early-time data

which have the most characteristic curve shape, the

loss of this early-time data has an especially severe

effect on the quality of the analysis.

Superposition

The principle of superposition has been applied to

petroleum engineering problems for many years. Its

mathematical basis was described in the petroleum

literature by van Everdingen and Hurst in 1949. 3

Superposition can be used to apply known pressure

solutions for single-well constant-rate systems to

multiwell and/or multirate systems.

The general form of the superposition equation

describing the pressure history of an undamaged well

in an infinite system producing a slightly compressible fluid is

imposed on the well, Eq. 3 can be written as

1,424T

~(

~m[p(tn)]=~ j~ ~qj-qj-I)~

kh )

1,424T

.. (4)

1.28 X 10- 3 .

Simplifying Eq. 4 yields

n

~m [p(tn)] =

j=1

PpCN(t)

.... (6)

Thus,

(m [p(to) 1- m [pc (t) 11 that would be generated

SI metric units to avoid carrying a numerical constant in the following equations). Substituting Eq. 6

into Eq. 5 yields

n

~m [p(tn)] =

tj _ l )

j=1

n

= (q 1 -

q 0 ) P PCN (t n - to)

E

j=2

E [(qjBj-qj-IBj-I)[PD(tn-tj-I)DJ],

j=1

1,424T

m[p(to)] -m[p(tn)] =~m[p(tn)] = ~

forn~2

P PCN (t n ) = [

~m [p (t n ) ] - j~

(qj - q j - 1 )

E [(qj-qj-I)[PD(tn- tj-I)DXj1),

E (qj -qj-I)

j=2

............................. (2)

units, the numerical constant in the numerator is

1.84.

For a fractured gas well, Eq. 2 becomes

...... (3)

j=1

defined by AI-Hussainy et al. 14 and (tn -tj-I)Dx is

a dimensionless time difference based on the fracthre

half-length. In SI metric units, the numerical constant in the numerator is 1.28 x 10 - 3 .

Development of P FCN

Since

PD (tn - tj _ 1 )DXf

= [m[p(to)] -m[pc(tn-tj-I)J} (kh)

1,424Tqc

OCTOBER 1980

equivalent variable pressure history with a constant

rate. PPCN is similar to the influence function of

Coats et al. 6 or the unit response function of Jargon

et al. 7

Example

The following example shows how PpCN is

calculated for a fractured gas well which has

produced continuously at a constant flowing bot1713

production data, and lor (3) there are shut-in periods

in the production data.

--"L ACTUAL PRODUCTION HISTORY

PRODUCTION

HISTORY

o~

________________________ ______

~

t--

TIME

drawdown in terms of real gas pseudopressure is

Am [p (t n ) ] = m [p (t 0

) ] -

m (p wj )

= constant = Am (Pwj)'

The rate history for this example is given in Fig. 1

where the solid line is the actual producing history

and the dashed lines represent a stair-step approximation of this history where the size of the time

length of this approximation can be chosen as small

as necessary. If this well had been produced at an

e~uivalent constant rate of q c = 1 MscflD (or 1 std

m /d to avoid carrying a numerical constant), then

its pressure history would have been

n

PFCN(tn)

= [Am (Pwj) -

E (qj-qj-l)

j=2

for

......... (9a)

n~2and

.............. (9b)

that Eqs. 9a and 9b differ from Eqs. 8a and 8b only

in the substitution of the constant Am (p wj) for the

function Am [p(t n )].

Use of P FCN

The P FCN vs. time data now generated using

drawdown data can be matched with the constantrate type curves of Agarwal et al. 2 or other~.

Comprehensive instructions on the use of type curves

are given by Earlougher 15 and will not be repeated

here. Note that dimensionless pressure can be expressed in terms of P FCN (t n) as

PD =kh PFCN(t n ) /l,424T,

............. (10)

units, the numerical constant in the denominator is

1.28 x 10- 3

In the special case of constant drawdown

production, no advantage is obtained by using P FCN

vs. time as opposed to 11q vs. time with the constantwellbore-pressure type curve. The use of P FCN vs.

time will be preferred when (1) a well is produced

with varying flowing bottomhole pressures, (2)

1714

Combination of Production

and Buildup Data

The superposition transformation which results in

the calculation of P FCN (t) allows constant wellbore

pressure production data to be used with constantwell-rate type curves. This is valuable because

pressure buildup data also are analyzed with constant-well-rate type curves; thus, pressure buildup

data and production data can be evaluated on the

same type curve.

Since buildup tests (in the absence of wellbore

effects) provide early-time data but may be too costly

in terms of lost production to run for long periods,

and production data is generally available for long

times but is unanalyzable at early times due to

fracture fluid cleanup and/or other production

problems, these two types of data tend to complement each other. Together, they can provide a

much longer data band for type-curve matching.

Another way to use the superposition principle is

to convert pressure buildup data to the equivalent

rate-time data. Equivalent rate data can be calculated

from Eq. 8 for any desired drawdown Am [p(tn)] if

P FCN (t) is known. If the preceding producing

period is much longer than the buildup period,13

P FCN (t) can be estimated from the buildup data

using

PFCN(At) =[m[p(At)]-m[p(At=O)lJlqj' .. (11)

stabilized flow rate before buildup. Once obtained,

these calculated early-time rates are treated like any

other rate data and, thus, can be used in the P FCN

calculations.

When this early-time data is combined with

production data for about a year, the resulting data

band will be significantly longer than the data bands

available from either buildup or production data

alone. This may help to minimize the problem of

non uniqueness of results which may exist with typecurve analysis techniques.

It is important to note that to use the buildup data

accurately with draw down-generated type curves, it

was necessary to apply the "real gas pseudotime

t a (p)" concept of Agarwal 16 to the buildup data.

This is similar to the "real gas pseudo pressure

m(p)" of AI-Hussainy et al. 14 ta(p) compensates

for the variations of the effective JlC t product with

pressure, which appears in the dimensionless time

term. This quantity is given by

p

(~)

t,(p)=r

J po Jl(p)c t (p)

dp

............ (12)

term.

JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY

40 ,------------------------------,

38

0..

U

- SIMULATED EXAMPLE

34

&: ~:

c..

g32

Input Parameters

Formation permeability k, md

Formation thickness h, ft (m)

Reservoir temperature T, R (K)

30

10

20

30 40 50

70 100

t(DAYS)

technique.

With Unavailable Bottomhole

Pressure Measurements

Eqs. 7 and 8 can be used to obtain the PpCN function

for wells that have shut-in periods extending over

several days or weeks. When the bottonhole pressure

is available during these periods, the procedure

described previously can be used in a straightforward

way for this purpose, treating the data as in a

standard variable-rate situation. However, when

bottomhole pressure information is not available

during such shut-in periods, an extrapolation

technique is employed to synthesize the missing data.

An inspection of any of the dimensionless pressure

vs. dimensionless time solutions for fractured wells

shows that beyond very early time the 10gPwD vs. log

t Dx! curve is approximately linear over a short interval. This interval is usually at least twice the t Dx!

value of the last available pressure point. This observation, therefore, allows estimation of PpCN as a

function of time during shut-in periods, provided

that the shut-in time does not exceed the previous

producing time. Unacceptable extrapolations are

manifested in a computed P PCN curve that is

oscillatory.

This extension of the PpCN technique over long

shut-in periods is very significant. It serves to extend

the technique to a much larger group of candidate

wells and enlarges the amount of usable data on

many more wells.

Although the equations used to calculate P PCN (t)

appear simple in concept, they can become extremely

tedious in application. In practice, a computer is

needed to perform the calculations. Preparation of a

program to perform these calculations is relatively

simple, and for convenience the program can include

routines to calculate m(p)14 and t a (p).16 If these

routines are included, the required data need only

include times, pressures, rates, and gas property data

to generate PpCN(t). As with any computer program

or analysis technique, the final results depend on the

OCTOBER 1980

0.004

50(15)

740(411)

Analysis Results

Semilog slope m, [(psi 2 /cp)(McflD)]/cycle

([(MPa 2 /Pa s)/(m 3 /d)]/cycle I

Formation flow capacity kh, mdft

(mdm)

6.05 X 106

(10.1)

0.2(0.06)

rates or pressures will yield inaccurate values of

PpCN(t) .

repeated interpolation of some type to obtain the

terms PpcN~tn - tj _ l ) for j=2 to n. We agree with

Jargon et al. that a logarithmic interpolation is preferable here, due to the nearly linear nature of the log

PwD vs. log t Dx! relationship over the portion of the

curve normally subject to interpolation. Although no

support is presented in this paper, we also agree with

the observation of Jargon et al. 7 that it is possible to

obtain erratic and oscillatory results In the

calculation of PpCN when drastic rate and/or

pressure chages are encountered.

N on-MHF Applications

This technique should be applicable to any situation

in which the superposition principle can be used. In

particular, it should be possible to use this approach

to analyze gas and liquid flow data from wells that

have been given at most a small stimulation treatment.

Since PpCN corresponds to a constant rate of 1

MscflD or 1 std m /d, this function plotted for

radial flow analysis on a semilog graph yields a

straight line of slope m from which formation flow

capacity can be calculated using

kh= 1,637T/m . ....................... (13)

numerator is 1.47 x 10 - 3 .

Fig. 2 is a plot of P PCN vs. t on semilog paper

which illustrates this analysis method. The rate vs.

time data used in the calculation of PpCN (t) for this

figure was obtained from a one-dimensional radialflow reservoir simulator. 17 (The important input

parameters and results of the analysis are given in

Table 1.) This method can be a useful way to analyze

wells which, for various reasons, could not be shut in

for buildup tests or held at constant flow rates for

drawdown tests.

1715

- SIMULATED EXAMPLE

psi a (MPa)

Formation permeability k, md

Formation thickness h, ft (m)

Hydrocarbon porosity HC

Reservoir temperature T, oR (K)

Initial gas viscosity Ui, cp (Pas)

Initial gas compressibility cgi'

psi- 1 (Pa- 1 )

Half fracture length

ft (m)

Fracture flow capacity k, w, md-ft

(mdm)

5,500(38)

0.004

50 (15)

0.035

740(411)

0.0284 (2.84 x 10- 5 )

0.0001286 (1.86 x 10- 8 )

1,000 (305)

x"

40 (12)

- SIMULATED EXAMPLE

k

(md)

l'

2

0.004

0.0032

0.0072

k,w

(md-ft) (md m)

X,

Match

No.

(ft)

(m)

995

1325

740

303

403

225

12.1

12.9

8.1

39.8

42.4

26.6

Preferred match.

50c0~-----------------------------,

q (MCFD)

2000

0

""

500

~

>-

=>

:r

Vl

200

320

240

40

t (DAYS)

oIMENS IONlSS

FRACTURE CA PAC ITY FC D

P

FCN

10

(JlSi~'CP \

I. MCFD 7

IO~-----'--------~l

w-

I

I

oo

=>

-----,

I

V>

V>

MATCH POINT

10-

V>

V>

__

~

V>

w-

I. 0

:

I

I

I

I

: ____ I

_____ I _____ L

~

10

, (DAYS)

100

1000

.k,w

FCD'

kif

covered by the production data to be analyzed, interference or boundary effects frequently will be

observed in the analysis of normal-permeability

wells.

Type-Curve Matching

Although type-curve matching is now an accepted

pressure transient analysis technique, the problem of

sometimes locating more than one possible match

remains. Agarwal et al. 2 suggested that if kh is

known from a pre fracturing buildup test, then a yaxis value of the type curve can be calculated for a

given y-axis value of the tracing paper overlay (field

data). With this relationship fixed, the tracing paper

overlay is moved in the x direction only until the best

match is obtained. This simplifies the type-curve

matching and usually results in only one acceptable

match.

When no acceptable match is obtained, it may be

because of inaccuracies in the prefracturing testing or

because the prefracturing test was representative of a

much smaller portion of the reservoir than that

examined by the post fracturing buildup and

production data. When this occurs, a "twodimensional" type-curve match must be attempted.

One method of limiting the range of possible typecurve matches is to calculate a value of kh from a

plot of P FCN vs. log t as discussed in the section on

non-MHF applications. For most MHF-stimulated

wells, the calculated kh from this type of analysis will

be somewhat optimistic since the well probably will

have not reached pseudoradial flow yet. This

calculated value, therefore, should be the maximum

possible value of kh for the well, and a PwD value

calculated from it could then serve as a maximum

PwD value. This should minimize at least partially the

freedom of movement during the matching process

and perhaps provide better answers.

Once one or more potential solutions have been

obtained from type-curve analysis, the acceptablity

of the solutions can be checked using a twodimensional reservoir simulator such as the one

described by Agarwal et al. 2 This is done by making

a comparison of actual vs. simulated buildup and

production data to determine which of several

possible solutions is preferable. Lee et al. II have

suggested that a reservoir simulator could be used in

place of other techniques to determine k, xf' and

kfw, but experience indicates that such trial-anderror history matching techniques can be more timeconsuming and expensive than those suggested here.

Of course, systems with multiple layers, areal

heterogeneities, variable fracture flow capacities or

other nonuniform conditions may be analyzable, at

present, only through trial-and-error simulation.

Examples

DIM ENS IONlSS TIME, 'DX,

1716

Simulated Example

To test the P FCN analysis technique, the twodimensional reservoir simulator mentioned previously was run with the reservoir properties given in

Table 2. A well was produced with a constant flowing

JOURNAL OF PETROLEUM TECHNOLOGY

150 days, shut in for 30 days, and then produced at

1,238 psi a (8.538 MPa) for another 130 days. The

rate vs. time results of this simulation are shown in

Fig. 3.

Simulated rate-time data and buildup pressuretime data obtained at the end of the final production

period along with the appropriate gas properties then

were processed through a computer program to

compute PpCN (I). Next, a data plot of PpCN vs. t

was made on the same scale as the log-log type curve.

The resulting type-curve match is shown in Fig. 4.

Match point data are

~r-------------------------------~

\.

q (MCFDI

1000

\.

'----

500f-

1975

(PpCN) M

(I) M =

(tDXf) M =

(PwD) M =

FCD =

106 (psi2/cp)/(McflD)

[1.66 x 103 (MPa 2/Pas)/(m 3 /d)],

100 days = 2,400 hours,

2 x 10 - 2 ,

0.19, and

10.

length then were calculated from Eqs. 1, 10, and 14,

where Eq. 14 is

1976

Field Example

An actual field example of the use of the PpCN

analysis technique also is given. Fig. 5 shows the

reported 3-year producing history of a lowpermeability gas well. Both prefracturing and

post fracturing buildup tests were available on this

well. The reservoir properties estimated for this well

are given in Table 4, and the post fracturing buildup

data are contained in Table 5.

The available rate-time and pressure-time data

were used to calculate P PCN (t). A type-curve match,

which honored the kh calculated from the

prefracturing buildup test, then was made, and the

results are shown in Fig. 6. (Note that the buildup

portion of the data is indicated on Fig. 6.) The match

point obtained was

OCTOBER 1980

1977

psia(MPa)

Flowing bottom hole pressure Pwf,

psia (MPa)

-'

Formation permeability k, md

Formation thickness h, ft (m)

Hydrocarbon porosity cPHC

Reservoir temperature T, R (K)

Initial gas viscosity Ui, cp (Pa s)

Initial gas compressibility e g ,

psi - 1 (Pa - 1 )

I

0

constant in the numerator is 3.6 x 10 -9. The results'

are given in Table 3 as Match 1.

Although these results were in excellent agreement

with the simulator input data, it should be noted that

two other type-curve matches with the F CD = 10 and

F CD = 5 curves were possible. This is the "nonuniqueness of match" problem that frequently has

hampered type-curve matching methods. Analysis of

these other matches would have yielded the results

indicated as Matches 2 and 3 in Table 3.

These three sets of results illustrate the typical

range of answers that can be obtained from typecurve matching when estimates of kh from

prefracturing buildups are not available. If a

pre fracturing buildup estimate of kh had been

available, only the first (correct) type-curve match

would have been possible.

YEARS

5,100(35)

1,273 (8.777)

0.0027

56 (17)

0.035

725 (403)

0.0264 (2.64 x 10 - 5)

0.0001465 (2.12 x 10 - 8)

- FIELD EXAMPLE

Time

(hours)

0.0

0.1

0.4

1.0

2.0

4.0

8.0

12.0

16.0

20.0

24.0

32.0

40.0

48.0

56.0

63.0

100.0

118.0

130.0

134.3

Pressure

(psia)

(MPa)

1,273

1,415

1,567

1,692

1,803

1,947

2,040

2,193

2,292

2,358

2,415

2,507

2,583

2,647

2,703

2,746

2,929

2,996

3,037

3,051

8.78

9.76

10.80

11.67

12.43

13.42

14.07

15.12

15.80

16.26

16.65

17.29

17.81

18.25

18.64

18.93

20.19

20.66

20.94

21.04

m3/d).

1717

DIMENSIONLESS

10

10

~

N-~~

.-~

~

'-.J

0...

r~ - - - - T - - - - - - , - - - I ~ 1

I

l[

I

61

2000

VI

VI

q (MCFD)

II 3

~

l!h ~~o

1000

,,

I

I

0

__ _

10-

_.1. _ _ _ _ _ _

10

t IDAYS)

500

100

CASE

CUM. PROD.

- \ SIMULATED - 818 MMCF

1000

F kfW

CD kx

f

10 -3 '------::_---'--;-_---'---::-_----'---::-_---'--::-_---'------'

10"'

10-4

10-3

10-2

10-1

DIMENSIONLESS TIME,

100 L..L..J....L..L-':-:19'=75.............L..L.L...L............-':-'::'--'-J....L..I...L.J....L...L..'-:1L,!97='7....L...L.1...LLJ....l...J...J

tox

(t) M

(tDX/)M =

(PwD) M =

FCD =

10 days = 240 hours,

2.2x 10- 4 ,

0.146, and

50.

14, were

k = 0.0027 md,

xf = 2,400 ft (730 m), and

kfw = 324 md-ft (99 md m).

The two-dimensional reservoir simulator then was

run using these parameters and the production

schedule of this well. The results of this simulation

are shown in Fig. 7. To predict reserves and future

rates for this well, the reservoir simulator then was

run in a predictive mode for the expected life of the

well with an appropriate drainage area assigned.

Conclusions

Based on the work presented in this paper, the

following statements appear valid.

1. Superposition can be used to generate

P FCN (t), which is the transformation to the

equivalent variable pressure history with a constant

rate of a well/reservoir system that has produced a

variable rate with a known pressure history.

2. Production and buildup data can be combined

into a single P FCN vs. time curve which can be used

for type-curve matching.

3. The combination of production and buildup

data offers a significant advantage because it

produces a much longer field data curve, which

greatly enhances type-curve matching by curve

shape.

4. The P FCN technique can be used to extend typecurve matching to wells with intermittent production

periods.

5. The P FCN technique also should be applicable

to data from non-MHF wells.

6. The re~ults of a type-curve match can be

checked and long-term rates and reserves can be

1718

comparison.

predicted

simulator.

with

two-dimensional

reservoir

Nomenclature

B

(m 3 /m 3 )

gas compressibility at initial reservoir

pressure, psi - 1 (Pa - 1)

total compressibility at initial reservoir

conditions, psi -1 (Pa - 1)

F CD

dimensionless fracture flow capacity

h

formation thickness, ft (m)

k = formation permeability, md

kf = fracture permeability, md

m = slope on a semi log plot, [(psi2/cp)/

(McflD)]/cycle {[(MPa 2 /Pas)/

(m 3 /d)/cycle J

m(p)

real gas ~seudopressure, psi2/cp

(MPa /Pas)

t::.m(p)

difference in real gas pseudopressure,

psi2/cp (MPa 2/Pa s)

P = pressure, psia (MPa)

Pi = initial reservoir pressure, psia (MPa)

PwD = dimensionless wellbore pressure

Pwf = flowing bottomhole pressure, psia (MPa)

P FCN = pressure function, (psi2/cp)/(McflD)

[(MPa 2 /Pas)/(m 3 /d)

flow rate, MscflD (std m 3 /d)

producing time, days

real gas pseudotime, hr / cp . psi - 1

(hr/Pa.s. Pa -1)

dimensionless time

dimensionless time based on half

fracture length of a vertical fracture

t::.t = buildup time, hours

T = reservoir temperature, 0 R (K)

w = fracture, width, ft (m)

xf = half fracture length, ft (m)

p- = viscosity, cp (Pa . s)

P-i = viscosity at initial reservoir pressure, cp

(Pas)

total porosity, fraction

hydrocarbon porosity, fraction

=

References

1. Cinco L., H., Samaniego V., F" and Dominguez A., N.:

"Transient Pressure Behavior for a Well With a FiniteConductivity Vertical Fracture," Soc. Pet. Eng. J. (Aug.

1978) 253-264.

2. Agarwal, R.G., Carter, R.D., and Pollock, C.B.:

"Evaluation and Performance Prediction of LowPermeability Gas Wells Stimulated by Massive Hydraulic

Fracturing," J. Pet. Tech. (March 1979) 362-372; "Type

Curves for Evaluation and Performance Prediction of LowPermeapility Gas Wells Stimulated by Massive Hydraulic

Fracturing," J. Pet. Tech. (May 1979) 651-654; Trans.,

AIME,267.

3. van Everdingen, A.F. and Hurst, W.: "The Application of the

Laplace Transformation to Flow Problems in Reservoirs,"

Trans., AIME (1949) 186, 305-324.

4. Hutchinson, T.S. and Sikora. V.J.: "A Generalized Water

Drive Analysis," Trans., AIME (1959) 216,169-177.

5. Mueller, T.D.: "Transient Response of Nonhomogeneous

Aquifers," Soc. Pet. Eng. J. (March 1962) 33-43; Trans.,

AIME (1962) 225,33-43.

6. Coats, K.H., Rapoport, L.A., McCord, J.R., and Drews,

W.P.: "Determination of Aquifer Influence Functions From

Field Data," J. Pet. Tech. (Dec. 1964) 1417-1424; Trans.,

AIME,231.

7. Jargon, 1.R. and van Poollen, H.K.: "Unit Response Function From Varying Rate Data," J. Pet. Tech. (Aug. 1965) 965969; Trans., AIME, 234.

8. Ridley, T.P.: "The Unified Analysis of Well Tests," paper

SPE 5587 presented at SPE 50th Annual Technical ConferenceandExhibition, Sept. 28-0ct.l, 1975.

9. Raghavan, R.: "Pressure Behavior of Wells Intercepting

Fractures," Proc., Invitational Well Testing Symposium,

Berkeley, CA (1977).

10. Cinco L., H. and Samaniego V., F.: "Transient Pressure

Analysis for Fractured Wells," paper SPE 7490 presented at

SPE 53rd Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition,

Houston, Oct. 1-3, 1978.

OCTOBER 1980

Pressure Transient Testing in Low Permeability Gas Reservoirs. Part I: Theoretical Background," paper SPE 7929

presented at SPE Symposium on Low Permeability Gas

Reservoirs, Denver, May 20-22,1979.

12. Agarwal, R.G., AI-Hussainy, R., and Ramey, H.1. Jr.: "An

Investigation of Wellbore Storage and Skin Effect in Unsteady

Liquid Flow: 1. Analytical Treatment," Soc. Pet. Eng. J.

(Sept. 1970) 279-290; Trans., AIME, 249.

13. Raghavan, R.: "The Effect of Producing Time on Type Curve

Analysis," J. Pet. Tech. (June 1980) 1053-1064.

14. Al-Hussainy, R., Ramey, H.J. Jr., and Crawford, P.B.: "The

Flow of Real Gas Through Porous Media," J. Pet. Tech.

(May 1966) 624-626; Trans., AIME, 237.

15. Earlougher, Robert C. Jr.: Advances in Well Test Analysis,

Monograph Series Society of Petroleum Engineers, Dallas

(1977) 5,24-27.

16. Agarwal, R.G.: " 'Real Gas Pseudo-Time' - A New Function

for Pressure Buildup Analysis of MHF Wells," paper SPE

8279 presented at SPE 54th Annual Technical Conference and

Exhibition, Las Vegas, Sept. 23-26,1979.

17. Carter, R.D.: "Solutions of Unsteady-State Radial Gas

Flow," J. Pet. Tech. (May 1962) 549-554; Trans., AIME, 225.

ep X 1.0*

ell ft x 2.831 685

psi x 6.894 757

Conversion factor is exact.

E-03

E-02

E+OO

Pas

m3

kPa

JPT

20, 1979. Paper accepted for publication April 18, 1980. Revised manuscript

received Aug. 11, 1980. Paper (SPE 8280) first presented at the SPE 54th Annual

Technical Conference and Exhibition, held in Las Vegas. Sept. 23-26. 1979.

1719

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