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GREEN MANUFACTURING

ABSTRACT
Green Manufacturing is a method for manufacturing that minimizes waste and
pollution achieved through product and process design. It slows the depletion of natural
resources as well as lowering the extensive amounts of trash that enter landfills. Its emphasis
is on reducing parts, rationalizing materials, and reusing components, to help make products
more efficient to buildGreen Manufacturing is a philosophy rather than an adopted process
because it motivates ongoing improvement efforts even though it may be impossible to
achieve. It is a holistic endeavor intended to result in less waste, cleaner products and
processes, a better and safer working environment, improved relationships between
companies and local communities, compliance with government regulations, and
enhancement of profitability.The reason it is such an important tool is because it intertwines
with todays manufacturing strategies of global sourcing, concurrent engineering, and total
quality.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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GREEN MANUFACTURING

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1 Introduction
Chapter 2Green manufacturings goal
Chapter 3Necessity of green manufacturing
Chapter 4Process of green manufacturing
Chapter 5different aspects in green manufacturing
5.1 Jit manufacturing
5.2 Zero emission strategy
5.3 Iso 9000 and iso 14000
Chapter 6Benefits of green manufacturing
Chapter 7 Examples
Chapter 8 Area of applications
Chapter 9 Conclusion
References

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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Chapter 1
INTRODUCTION
Green Manufacturing is generically defined as elimination of waste by re-defining
the existing production process or system. Several other jargons such as end-of-line
management mean the same thing. We have all come across company examples that take
their problem solving approach to the next level and develop innovative techniques towards
effective solutions. Such solutions result in cost savings from reduced work handling,
effluent control, process automation, etc. All these efforts are applications of green
manufacturing. This manufacturing concept is not just restricted to addressing the social and
environmental impact of a pollution-centric process. Green manufacturing addresses process
redundancy, ergonomics and cost implications due to faulty methods of producing goods.
Faster and cheaper are no longer the only two criteria in manufacturing a product or
evaluating an existing process line. Several other factors such as materials used in
manufacture, generation of waste, effluents and their treatment (or possible elimination), life
of the product and finally, treatment of the product after its useful life are all important
considerations. How does this relate to the blast cleaning and shot peening industries?
Surprisingly, in many important ways! Right from the early days of blast cleaning
components, this process has unfailingly generated dust. Every responsible blast equipment
manufacturer and operator has, with a great deal of concern, adopted traditional and
innovative means to contain, filter and dispose off this dust. This, at the grassroots level, has
been our initiation into green manufacturing. History has shown the effectiveness of this
process and its implementation in several industry sectors to clean, etch, de-burr and
strengthen metal components. Further development of the technique of blast cleaning
resulted in the creation of standards of cleaning and parameters of peening, eventually
increasing the application base. There are very few manufactured components that, at one
time during their manufacturing process, have not been through a blast machine!

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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GREEN MANUFACTURING

Chapter 2
GREEN MANUFACTURINGS GOAL
*Its goal is to achieve sustainability.
*Every company when it comes to green manufacturing should be conserving natural
resources for future generations.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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Chapter 3
NECESSITY OF GREEN MANUFACTURING
To answer the above question one has to ask questions about the Manufacturers
Responsibilities, so as to, Where does a manufacturers responsibility end? What is an
acceptable level of toxic emission? The questions further lead to more questions to be
answered, as to, Responsibility, does it end at the sale? Does a customer's responsibility end
at the landfill when they are finished using the product? Who should decide on the toxic
level? The people that live in the neighborhood of the government? In the end no one really
knows where anything stops and so therefore companies and individuals must take it upon
themselves to help eliminate waste. They should not wait for it to become a law............So
GO GREEN.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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Chapter 4
PROCESS OF GREEN MANUFACTURING
Companies move from traditional end-of-pipe control to new
technologies.
Examples of new technologies would be things like pollution prevention, production
process modernization, materials substitution. etc.

End-Of-Life Management
End of life management is the full life cycle starting from the virgin materials to the use and
disposal of the final product.

Waste source reduction on the spot & Recycling.


Global environmental standards like ISO 14000 are being introduced that emphasize
management systems that address environmental concerns, operations that consider energy
and natural resource consumption, and systems for measuring, assessing and managing waste
streams.
Reduction of wastage has also helped in the cost reduction in the long-term perspective.
Wastage reduction directly deals with the minimization of residuals. Any manufacturing
process produces residuals and/or generates wastage. Residuals are normally different from
the input resources, while wastage is the superfluous resources, which could not be tapped
into the transformation process.
Residuals can be reduced in manufacturing plants by three common methods. They are reuse,
remanufacture, and recycle. Reuse occurs when the component has minor changes made
before forming a part of the final product. Remanufacture, results in considerable change in
the component before it can be taken back into the product. Recycle requires maximum
transformation before it can be taken back into the manufacturing cycle. Most of the times
recycle involves out-of-industry treatment for the component to be made useful. For
example, printing may use recycled paper, which becomes useful only after the paper has
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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GREEN MANUFACTURING

been reprocessed in paper mills. Thus, reused, remanufactured and recycled components are
taken back into conversion process at different stages with recycled being taken back at the
earliest phase of production.

Virgin Materials are recycled


Virgin materials can be recycled through the process of distillation and filtering. The distilled
or filtered materials could be reintroduced in the life cycle wherever new materials aren't
required.

Invest in production process improvements rather than control


technology.
"Corporate companies spent $7.2 billion in pollution abatement and control expenditure of
which $3.2 billion were on production process enhancement.

Advanced manufacturing systems promotes green design and production


strategies.
Manufacturing systems promotes green design because both strategies are based on the
dedication to product improvement, cost reduction, and technology innovation.
Development of innovative manufacturing systems.
Improving the manufacturing system simultaneously minimizes cost connected with
environmental compliance.

Reduction in leapfrogging from lily pad to lily pad. (Bergstrom, 50)


Leapfrogging from lily to lily pad means not to jump on every chemical that initially
describes itself as more environmentally safe but later on it creates even more problems than
the original material.

Substitute renewable sources for finite ones.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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Substituting renewable sources for finite ones might not be completely safe as found in a
study between petroleum and plants. The study concluded that even though plants could be
used as a substitute the cost in the end might be more and more environmentally dangerous.
(Gerngross, Daily University Science News)

Funding research facilities.


Companies can fund researches that includes finding substitute chemicals and materials that
will eliminate pollution at the top.

Companies must decide whether to make-or-buy.


Little things like recycling paper and soda cans can reduce a lot of waste cost. Companies
that produces materials can decide whether or not they want to contract another company to
make certain parts because those companies might have better equipment and higher vertical
control technology

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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Chapter 5
DIFFERENT ASPECTS IN GREEN MANUFACTURING
JIT Manufacturing
Zero Emission Strategy
ISO 9000 and ISO 14000
5.1JIT MANUFACTURING
Aspect of Supply Chain Management Collaboration between companies and their
suppliers creates opportunities for new design products and processes that are more
efficient and environmentally friendly.
Emphasis on continuous cost reduction and quality improvement Continuous
improvement creates an incentive for waste reduction and cost saving.

5.2 Zero Emission Strategy

Elimination of all environmentally damaging by products from the

production process.
16% of companies actively pursuing zero emission.
85% of companies are pursuing reduced emission strategies

5.3ISO 9000 and ISO 14000


International Quality Standards used by companies on a voluntary basis. Motivates
changes
Companies is following quality standards that are recognized.
Study done on National US Manufacturing firms found that most companies were
moving from ISO 9000 to ISO 14000 such as Sony Corp and Safety Kleen.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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Chapter 6
BENEFITS OF GREEN MANUFACTURING
Creates a great reputation to the public.
The reputation of a company to the public is always an important thing because it can
float or sink a company. If a company pollutes its neighborhoods, people would begin to
move away creating a lack of employees which might damage their production numbers.

Saves useless cost.


Eliminating waste saves money because companies wouldn't have to figure out what to
do with parts in the end when it could be recycled.

Promotes Research and Design


Firms that are using green manufacturing create 2x the products due to its research and
development. (Richard Florida in California Management Article)

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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Chapter 7
EXAMPLES OF GREEN MANUFACTURING

Murray Ohio Manufacturing CompanyWanted to develop ways of reducing scrap

metal.
Scrap metal was created because of the depth of the draw on the metal sheets and

since the machines created severe deep draws it would tear and mar the metal sheets.
Murray Ohio ManufacturingUsed a chlorinated oil with an additive of graphite to

create heightened lubricity.


Oil was used as a stamping lubricant

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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Chapter 8
AREAS OF APPLICATIONS

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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Chapter 9
CONCLUSION
Green manufacturing is a relatively new concept about which there is currently
significant confusion and misunderstanding regarding its components, costs, benefits, and
implementation. Its future trends, therefore, are also uncertain. It is likely; however, that
customers will increasingly demand low-cost, quickly produced and designed, high-quality
products characterized by extensive variety. They will also demand that such products be
produced by processes that are environmental responsible.
Whether green manufacturing is good business or a bad investment is being argued.
On one hand, eliminating waste has potential for reducing cost and increasing value. On the
other hand, investments can result in negative returns, decreasing dividends for shareholders.
Middle managers are often focused on quality and productivity rather than environmental or
marketing issues. This perspective can hinder development and implementation of green
manufacturing.
To ensure success in green manufacturing, corporate cultures need to be developed in
which the organization clearly defines its vision of green manufacturing and defines its
objectives for implementation, establishes a plan for achieving the objectives, and recognizes
the consequences and costs of not achieving these objectives. Along with support of top
management, a team approach with representation from engineering, production, purchasing
and human resources has been found to be necessary, rather than reliance on plant-level
environmental experts or consultants.
Training of the team in the techniques of total quality management would certainly help.
Green manufacturing is likely to be an increasingly important issue because it is a crucial
component in the international trend towards sustainable development. Sustainable
development has been a long term goal to meet the needs of the current generation by
developing systems and processes that do not compromise the needs of future generations.
Achieving this will require interdisciplinary cooperation between politicians, economists,
scientists and engineers.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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REFERENCE

Bergstrom, Robin. Fighting the Good Fight at Northrop,Manufacturing

Management
Bergstrom, Robin. On Giving Due Thought to Afterthought,Manufacturing

Management
Bergstrom, Robin. Stamping Made Cleaner, Manufacturing Management

http://www.ce.cmu.edu/GreenDesign/

http://csspub.snre.umich.edu/css_proj/

http://www.enme.umd.edu/greenmfg/links.html

http://www.leidenuniv.nl/interfac/cml/

http://www.indiainfoline.com/bisc/mdigm04.html

Green,inc. by francescairncross,Publisher: Island Press (September 1, 1995)

Business Transformation Through ISO 14000, By Lt Gen H LalDirector General,


FICCI Quality Forum

www.northland.edu/studentlife/ELLC/index.html

http://www.environmental-center.com/articles/article684/.htm

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Belgaum.

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