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CHF CORRELATIONS

Shah correlation:
A graphical alternative to the Chen correlation is that proposed by Shah (1976). His method is in
the form of a graphical chart and can be used for flow sub cooled boiling in both vertical and
horizontal channels. The ordinate is the ratio (hTP/hr) and the abscissa (Co) is

Gnielinski Correlation(1976):
It is valid for both the transition and fully turbulent flow regimes (Reynolds number > 4000)
were used in developing the correlation. While it is more complex to use than the Dittus-Boelter
equation it is more accurate and used here. The Gnielinski correlation is an adaption of the
Petukhov et al. turbulent flow correlation that extends its coverage to the transition flow regime.
It is given as:

Where the Fanning friction factor is obtained from:


f = [0.7904 In (Re) - 1 .64] - Z
And is valid for:
4000 < Re < 5,000,000
0.5 < Pr < 2000

Bjonard and Griffith (1977):


He has proposed the following simple interpolation between pool boiling CHF and MFB heat
fluxes.

RESEARCH WORK:
A comprehensive review of the published information on transition boiling under forced
convection conditions has been prepared by Groeneveld and Fung, Cheng and Newbold. Various
attempts have been made to produce correlations for the transition boiling region.
Cheng and N g (1976):
Transient and steady state test, high inertia. Copper block
Fung (1977):
Similar tests to Cheng and Ng
Newbold e t al. (1976):
Similar tests to Cheng and Ng. However, guard heaters were employed to reduce axial
conduction.
Hewitt (1977):
The paper provides the result of an experimental investigation on the occurrence of the critical
heat flux under transient conditions carried out at two phase flow model.
(Merilo, 1977)
Investigation dealing with CHF in horizontal and inclined large channels at very high flow rates
there is little difference between CHF in horizontal and vertical channels.

PRESSURE DROP CORRELATIONS


Shah Correlation (Condensation) (1977):
The liquid-only heat transfer coefficient is given by

And the overall heat transfer coefficient for a given quality

is given by

where
of
and

. The average condensation heat transfer coefficient between a quality


is given by

where the integral is evaluated numerically using adaptive quadrature. A sample plot of the heat
transfer coefficient as a function of quality is shown here:

Shah Correlation (Evaporation) :


This correlation is used to model the heat transfer coefficient for boiling fluid in a tube.
The non-dimensional groups of interest are the convection number

the Froude number

and the boiling number

The pure-liquid heat transfer coefficient is given by

If Bo > 0.0011 then F = 14.7, otherwise F = 15.43


If

then N = Co, else

If N is between 0.1 and 1.0 inclusive

If N<0.1

If N is very small in magnitude,


blows up to infinity, so to correct, at high
vapor quality, the value for the heat transfer coefficient between quality of 0.999 and 1.0 is
linearly interpolated to give better behavior at very high vapor quality (which yields very small
values of N). The pure vapor (x=1) heat transfer coefficient is given by

If N > 1.0 and Bo > 0.00003

If N > 1.0 and Bo < 0.00003

The average evaporation heat transfer coefficient between a quality of

and

is given by

where the integral is evaluated numerically. A sample plot of the heat transfer coefficient as a
function of quality is shown here:

REFRENCES:

Two-Phase Flow, Boiling, and Condensation: In Conventional and Miniature Systems By


S. Mostafa Ghiaasiaan
Convective boiling and condensation by john G. collier and john R. Thome, 3rd edition