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BE 3rd SEMESTER QUESTION BANK

BASIC ELECTRICAL MACHINE


UNIT-1
(b) Find the saving in copper by using the autotransformer instead
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of two winding transformer of same rating.

(c) A 10 KVA, 500/250 V, single phase transformer has its


maximum efficiency of 94% when delivering 90% of its rated output
at unity power factor. Estimate its efficiency when delivering its full
load output at power factor of 0.8 lagging. 7
(d) Describe the four phasor groups pertaining to three phase
transformers. Draw the connection schemes and phasor diagram for
each group.

(b) A 30 KVA, single phase transformer has an iron loss of 457 W


and copper loss of 125 W, when delivering half the full load. At what
% of full load will the transformer have the maximum efficiency?
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(c) Derive an expression for saving of copper in auto-transformer as


compared to an equivalent two winding transformer. Also, draw &
explain phasor diagram of auto-transformer.

(d) The following is the data pertaining to a 3-winding transformer:


HV in star: 10 MVA, 33 KV

MV in star: 7.5 MVA, 11 KV


LV in star: 7.5 MVA, 3.3 KV
The per unit leakage reactances are :
x 12 j 0.092
measured on hv sidex 23= j 0.069 measured on mv side
x 13 j 0.062

For Y equivalent circuit find the coil leakage reactance in pu &


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also in ohms.
(b) Draw and explain phasor diagram of single phase auto

transformer. (Step-up).

(c) Draw and explain DY11 connection of 3-phase transformer. 7


(d) A single - phase three winding transformer gives the following
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data for short circuit test.


Secondary shorted,
Tertiary shorted,

ry

I ry

excited: 120V, 30A, 750W.

excited: 135V, 30A, 810W.

ry
Tertiary shorted, II excited: 30V, 125A, 815W.

The ratings of

ry

II

ry

and tertiary windings are

respectively 3300 V, 100 KVA; 1000, 50 KVA; and 400V, 50 KVA.


Find the resistances and leakage reactances of the star
equivalent circuit. Also calculate their values for each winding.

(b) The maximum efficiency of a 3300/440volt single phase


transformer is 97% and occurs at full load at unity power
factor. If the impedance is 9%, Calculate regulation at full load
0.8 power factor lagging.

(c) A 2000 KVA 6600/400 volt, 3-phase transformer is delta


connected on the h.v side and star connected on the L.v.side.
Determine its percentage resistance and percentage reactance
drops, efficiency, regulation at full load 0.8 power factor leading.
Given the following data:
S.C. Test:

400 V, 175 A, 17 KW h.v side.

O.C Test:

400 V, 150 A, 15 KW L.v side.

(d) A three winding transformer is star/star/delta has the following


ratings:
Primary:

10 MVA,

33 KV

Secondary:

5 MVA,

11 KV

Tertiary:

5 MVA,

3.3 KV

The short-circuit tests on this transformer gave the following


results.
Secondary shorted, primary excited; 3000 V, 160 A, 100 KW.
Tertiary shorted, primary excited: 200 V, 12 A, 1.25 KW
Tertiary shorted, secondary excited: 100 V, 40 A, 1.5 KW

Calculate resistances and reactances in ohms of the star


equivalent circuit of the three winding transformer. Also determine
the p.v. values of leakage impedances.

b) Does the flux in a transformer core increases with load?

2. What are the distinguish features of

yY Y

in 3-

connections. Compare their advantages and disadvantages.

3. Why is the wave shape of magnetizing current of a transformer is


non-sinusoidal? Explain the phenomenon of inrush of magnetizing
current.

4. For what purpose tertiary winding is used in transformer? Give


the equivalent circuit diagram and any 3-applications of 3-winding
transformer.

(b) Find the saving in copper by using the autotransformer instead


of two winding transformer of the same rating.

(c) A 10 kVA, 400/200 V, single phase, 50 Hz transformer has a


maximum efficiency of 96% at 75% of full load at unity power
factor. Calculate the efficiency of full load 0.8 power factor lagging.

(d) Explain vector grouping of transformers. Mention its usefulness.


(b) Explain the behaviour of transformer in rush current in the
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following points:
(i) Severety
(ii) Doubling effect
(iii) Time constant

(c) (i) In three phase transformer what is zigzag connection? Also


describe /z connection with the help of suitable vector
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diagram.

(ii) What are purposes of tertiary winding in a 3 phase transformer?


Draw single phase equivalent circuit of 3 winding transformer.

(d) A three phase transformer bank consisting of three single phase


transformer is used to step down the voltage of a 3 phase, 6600 V
transmission line. If the primary line current is 10 A, calculate
the secondary line current, line voltage and output kVA for the
following connection:
(i) Y /

Connection

(ii) /Y

Connection

The turn ratio is 12. Neglect losses.


(b) Explain excitation phenomenon in transformers in detail.

(c) A 10 kVA, 2500/250 V, single phase, two winding transformer is


used as an auto transformer to raise the supply voltage of 2500 V to
an output voltage of 2625 V. The LV winding of the two winding
transformer consists of two equal parts of 125 V each. If both parts
of the low voltage winding are used, determine:
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(i) Auto transformer kVA output.


(ii) kVA transformed and conducted.
(d) A single phase three-winding transformer gives the following
data for three short-ckt tests:

Secondary shorted; primary excited: 120 V, 30 A, 750 W.


Tertiary shorted, primary excited: 135 V, 30 A, 810 W.
Tertiary shorted; secondary excited: 30 V, 125 A, 815 w.
The ratings of primary, secondary and tertiary windings are
respectively 3300 V, 100 kVA; 1000 V, 50 kVA and 400 V, 50 kVA.
Find the resistances and leakage reactances of the star
equivalent circuit.
Also calculate their values for each winding.

. (a) List phase grouping of three phase transformers. What are uses
of phase group? Draw winding connection diagram for Yd11 and
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Yd1 group.

(b) What are applications of three winding transformer. How the


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circuit constants of three winding is determined?

(c) A single phase 2400/240 V 120 kVA two winding transformer is


connected as an autotransformer with additive and subtractive
polarity. Determine the kVA rating of auto transformer in both
cases. Also calculate the power transformed and power conducted.
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(a) Explain the clock method of angle designation for representing 3


phase transformer.
(b) Describe the four phaser groups pertaining to 3 phase
transformers. Draw the connection schemes and phasor diagrams
for each group.
(c) A 3 phase, 1000 kVA, 6600 V/1100 V transformer in delta
connected on the primary and star connected on the

UNIT-2
(b) How Scott connection are used to obtain two phase supply from
three phase supply mains.

(c) A 500 KVA, single phase transformer (A) having 0.015 Pu


resistance, 0.05 Pu leakage reactance is to share a load of 750 KVA
at 400 V and at 0.8 p.f. lagging with another 250 KVA, single phase

transformer (B) having 0.01 Pu resistance and 0.05 Pu leakage


reactance. Their secondary no-load emfs are 405 V and 415 V
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respectively.
Find:
(i)
(ii)

Circulating current at no load.


Current supplied by each transformer.

(d) Describe the open delta connection of transformer and show


that two transformer in open delta can be used to supply three
phase power. Also explain the VA rating of open delta as compared
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to closed delta.

(b) Two 110 V, single phase furnaces take load of 500 kW & 800 kW
respectively, at a power factor of 0.71 lagging & are supplied from
6600 V, three phase mains through a scott connected transformer
combination. Calculate currents in 3 phase lines & also draw the
phasor diagram.

(c) Describe the Sumpners test with neat circuit diagram. Two
similar 40 KVA, single phase transformers gave the following results
when tested by the back to back test method, W1 in supply line
measures 800 W, W2 in the secondary series circuit at rated current
measures 1000 W. Calculate the efficiency of each transformer at
full load unity power factor.

(d) Two single phase transformers, one of 1000 KVA & other of 500
KVA are connected in parallel to the same bus-bars on the primary
side; their no-load secondary voltages being 500 V and 510,

respectively. The impedance voltage of the first transformer is 3% &


that of second is 5%. Assuming the ratio of resistance to reactance
the same & equal to 0.4 each. What will be the cross-current when
the secondaries are connected in parallel & the secondary voltage
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is 480 V.

(b) Explain with circuit diagram, how losses can be separated. 7


(c) Two single phase furnaces A and B are supplied at 100 V by
means of scott connection, from a 3-phase, 6 KVsystem. Furnace
A is applied from the teaser transformer. Calculate the line
currents on the three-phase side when:

(i) Each furnace takes 600 kW at p.f. 0.8 lagging.


(ii) Furnace A takes 500 kW at u.p.f. and furnace B 600 kW at 0.8
p.f. lagging.

(d) Two transformers A and B ratings 500 KVA and 250 KVA are
supplying a load of 750 KVA at 0.8 p.f. lagging. Their open circuit
voltages are 405 V and 415 V respectively. Transformer A has p.u.
resistance of 0.01 pu and 0.05 p.u reactance. Transformer B has
0.015 p.u . resistance and 0.04 pu reactance.
Find circulating current.

(b) Three two winding transformers of equal voltage ratio have the
following leakage impedances.
Transformer T1:

100 KVA, 0.02 p.v.

Transformer T2:

75 KVA, 0.03 p.v.

Transformer T3:

50 KVA, 0.025 p.v.

(i) How will they share a load of 225 KVA?


(ii) If no transformer is to be over loaded, calculate the greatest
KVA load that can be supplied by 3 transformers in parallel.

(c) In Scott connected transformer, teaser transformer supplies


unity power factor load of 500 KW at 200 V and the main
transformer supplies 0.8 power factor lagging load of 400 KW at
200 Volt. For a 3-phase input voltage of 6600 V, determine the py
line currents and the phase angles between them.

(d) Two single phase transformers of ratings 10 KVA, 230/400 V,


and 10 KVA, 230/410 V are employed for back to back test. The
LV side is fed from 230 V supply mains, where a voltage regulator
connected to the same 230 V mains feeds 25 A in series
connected HV windings. For a core loss 200 watt in each
transformer, calculate the readings of wattmeter connected on LV
side. Each transformer has its reactance equal to the 3 times of
its resistance.
2. Describe any one type of on-load tap changer with proper
sequence of operation for changing the voltage. What precaution
should be observed during the operation of on-load tap changer?
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3. Two single phase transformer one of 100 kVA and other of 50 kVA
are connected in parallel to the same bus bar of the primary side,
their no load secondary voltages are 1000 V and 950 V
respectively. Their resistances are 1.5% and 2.0% respectively and
their reactances are 8% and 6% respectively. Calculate the no-load
circulating current in the secondaries.

4. What is open delta system? In open delta transformer show that


the secondary line voltage form a balanced 3-phase system of
voltage, in case the supply voltages are balanced?

(b) Two transformers are connected in parallel to supply a common


load of 125 kVA at 0.8 power factor lagging. Rating of transformer
A is 100 kVA and has resistance and reactance of 0.9% and 10%
respectively. Rating of transformer B is 50 kVA and has resistance
and reactance of 1.0% and 5% respectively. How will the two
transformers share the common load?

(c) The full load copper loss and iron loss of a transformer are 920
watt and 430 watt respectively. Calculate:
(i) Loading of the transformer at which efficiency is maximum.
(ii) What would be losses for giving maximum efficiency at 0.85
of full load, its
Total full load losses are unchanged?

(d) Three single phase transformers are connected in mesh. If one


transformer is found faulty and removed, what will be the reduction

in rating of each of the other transformers? What must be rating of


each transformer in V-V connection to supply a three phase
balanced load of 200 kVA? If a third similar transformer is included
what will be the rated capacity of a set?
(b) Explain three phase to two phase conversion by scott
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connection.

(c) Describe the open delta connection of transformer and show that
two transformer in open delta can be used to supply three phase
power. Also explain the VA rating of open delta as compared to
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closed delta.

(d) Two transformers of same voltage ratio rated at 315 MVA each
are connected in parallel to supply a load of 700 MBA at 0.8 p.f.
lagging. The per phase resistance and per phase reactance of first
transformer are 2% and 11% respectively and of second transformer
are 5% and 12% respectively. Calculate the load shared by each
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transformer.

(b) Explain three to six phase conversion in detail.

(c) An OC test is conducted on the delta side of bank of three phase


transformer give the following data:
VT (V)

: 214

171

128.4

85.6

f (Hz)

: 50

40

30

20

pin (W)

: 100

72.5

50

30

Determine the hysteresis and eddy current losses at:


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(i) 60 Hz
(ii) 40 Hz

(d) The single phase transformers of ratings 10 kVA, 230/400 V and


10 kVA, 230/410 V, are employed for back to back test. The LV side
is fed from 230 V supply mains whereas a voltage regulator
connected to the same 230 V mains feeds 25 A in series connected
HV windings. For a core loss of 200 W in each transformer,
calculate the readings of the wattmeter connected on LV side. Each
transformer has its reactance equal to the three times of its
resistance.

Q.2. (a) Show that in Scott connected transformers if secondary


load is balanced, primary side will also be balanced neglecting
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magnetizing current.

(b) (i) In back to back test, one transformer may have more
temperature rise than other. Explain:
(ii) How will you separate the no load loss of transformer into its
components?

(c) Two single phase transformers have kVA ratings of 200 kVA 100
kVA. The equivalent impedance of transformer having 200 kVA
rating is Z = 1+j5 ohms while equivalent reactance of other is 10 .
What should be equivalent resistance of 100 kVA transformer if
each transformer is to supply the load in proportion to its kVA
rating when operated in parallel?

Q.2. (a) How Scott connections are used to obtain two phase supply
from three phase supply mains?

(b) Two electric furnaces are supplied with single phase current at
80 V from 3 a phase. 11000 V system by means of two single phase
Scott connected transformers with similar secondary windings.
When the load on the main transformer is 800 kW and on the
teaser transformer is 500 kW, determine the currents in the three
phase lines at 0.5 pf lagging.
(c) Describe the operation of on load tap changer in 3 phase
transformer.

UNIT-3
(b) Explain Armature reaction in a d.c. machine. Explain how the
7

effect of armature reaction can be reduced.

(c) 250 V shunt motor on no-load runs at 1000 rpm and takes 5
amp. Armature and shunt field resistances are 0.2 and 250
respectively. Calculate the speed when loaded taking a current of
50 amp. The armature reaction weakens the field by 3%.

(d) Explain clearly how commutation takes place in a d.c. machine.


7 b) Explain
armature reaction & its harmful effects. Name the methods to
7

improve it.

(c) Determine the number of turns on each commutating pole of a 6


pole machine if the flux density in the air gap of the commutating
pole is 0.5 wb/m2 at full-load & the effective length of the airgap is
4 mm. The full load current is 500 A & the armature is lap wound
with 540 conductors. Assume the number of ampere turns
required for the remainder of magnetic circuit to be one-tenth of
that of air gap.

(d) The brushes of a certain lap connected 400 kW, 6-pole generator
are given a lead of 180 electrical. Calculate:
(i) The demagnetizing ampere-turns.
(ii) The cross magnetizing ampere-turns.

(iii) Series turns required to balance the demagnetizing component.


The full load current is 750 A & total number of conductors are 900
7

& the leakage coefficient is 1.4.

(b) What are the methods of attaining linear commutation?

(c) A 4 pole generator has a wave wound armature with 722


conductors and it delivers 100 A on full load. If the brush load is
8 , calculate armature demagnetizing and cross-magnetizing
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amper turns per phase.

(d) A 4-pole. 220V, dc shut motor has 540 lap would connected
conductors. It takes 32A from supply mains and has an output of
5.6 kW, the field winding takes 1A. The armature resistance is 0.9
and flux per pole is 0.03 Wb. Calculate:

(i) the output torque at shaft.


(ii) Torque developed.
(b) Give the concept of reactance voltage in dc machines. Discuss
how the reactance voltage causes delayed commutation in dc
machines.

Explain

how

good

minimizing the reactance voltage.

commutation

is

achieved

by

(c) A 6-pole lap wound dc generator has 240 coils of 2 turns each.
Resistance of one turn is 0.03 ohm. The armature is 50 cm long
and 40 cm diameter. Air gap flux density of 0.6 T is uniform over
the pole shoe. Each pole subtends an angle of 40

mechanical.

For armature speed of 1200 rpm find (i) generated emf at no load
and (ii) the terminal voltage at full load armature current of 40 A.

(d)

What

do

you

understand

by

demagnetizing

and

cross

magnetizing effects of armature reaction in a dc machine? Derive


the expressions for demagnetizing & cross magnetizing ampereturns per pole for a p pole dc machines.
2. Derive an expression for electromagnetic torque developed in d.c.
7

machine using BIL concept?

3. Describe the process of commutation in D.C. machine. Hence


show that e.m.f. induced in a coil undergoing commutation is given
by the formula

2 I a /a
;
Tc

is the commutating period;


machine.

Ia

where
a

is the armature current and

Tc

is the no. of parallel paths in d.c.


7

4. A 22.38 kW, 440 V, 4 pole, wave wound d.c. shunt motor has 840
armature conductors and 140 commutator segments. Its full load
efficiency is 88% and the shunt field current is 1.8 A. If the brushes
are shifted backward through 1.5 segments from the geometrical

neutral axis, find the demagnetizing and distorting amp-turns/pole.


7
(b) Prove that torque developed in d.c. machine is directly
proportional to the product of flux and armature current.

(c) Explain clearly how commutation takes place in a d.c. machine.

(d) A 6-pole lap wound shunt motor has 500 conductor in the
armature path is of 0.05 . The resistance of the shunt field is 25
. Find the speed of motor when it takes 120 amperes from d.c.
source of 100 V supply. Flux per pole is 20 m Wb.
(b) Derive the expression for the torque in a d.c. machine using BIL
7

approach.

(c) (i) Explain the purpose of compensating winding in a d.c.


machine.
(ii) What is ideal commutation? Give reasons for delayed
commutation and write the names of method to improve
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commutation.

(d) A d.c. shunt generator driven by a belt from an engine run at


750 rpm. While feeding 100 kW of electric power into 230 V
mains. When the belt breaks it continues to run as motor drawing 9
kW from the mains.

At what speed would it run?


Armature resistance = 0.08
Field resistance = 115
b)Explain the methods of attaining linear commutation in detail.7

(c) What is armature reaction? What are its effects? How will you
7

neutralize its effects?

(d) A 220 V, dc shunt motor runs at 500 rpm. When the armature
current is 50 A, calculate the speed if the torque is doubled.
Given that

Ra=

0.2 .

(b) An eight pole d.c. generator has 480 armature conductor with
wave winding. The armature current is 200 A. Find the armature
reaction demagnetizing and cross magnetizing ampere turns if (i)
brushes are on geometric neutral plane (gnp) (ii) brushes are shifted
by 6 electrical from gnp.

(c) A d.c. series generator is running at 800 RPM and supplying a


load of 6 kw at 120 V. The speed is increased to 1200 RPM and load
is increased to 9 kW. The sum of armature and field resistance is
0.4 ohm. Find new value of armature current and terminal voltage.

Q.3. (a) Prove that the torque developed by a DC motor is directly


proportional to the flux per pole and armature current.
(b) Explain Armature reaction in a DC machine. Explain how the
effect of armature reaction can be reduced?
(c) A 4 pole, lap wound separately excited generator has an ampere
resistance of 0.4 ohm and is driven at 750 rpm. The armature has
720 conductors and the flux per pole is 0.03 wb. If the load
resistance is 12 ohm, determine the terminal voltage of the
machine.

UNIT-4
(b) What is the need of starter? Explain the three point starter with
all protecting devices.

(c) Explain the nature of no-load, external and armature


characteristics of a d.c. shunt generator. Why does external
characteristics of this generator turns back as the generator is over
loaded.

(d) A 240 V, 50 Amp, 800 rpm, d.c. shunt motor has armature
circuit resistance of 0.2. If load torque is reduced to 60% of its full
load value and a resistance of 2 is inserted in series with
armature circuit, find the motor speed. Armature reaction weakes
the field flux by 4% at full load and by 2% at 60% of full load.
(b) A 60 kW, 240 V short shunt compound generator operates as a
shunt generator, required an increase in field current of 3 A to
provide an over compensated voltage of 275 V at rated load

current of 250 A. The shunt field has 200 turns per pole & series
field has 5 turns per pole with resistance of 240 & 0.005,
respectively.
(i) Calculate the required diverter resistance.
(ii) If no load voltage of compound generator is also 240 V,
calculate the air gap mmf/pole at no load & at full load.

(c) Explain how back emf Eb acts like a governer in dc motor.

(d) A shunt motor runs at 600 rpm from 250 V supply & takes a
line current of 50 A. Its armature & field resistances are 0.4
& 125, respectively. Neglecting the effects of armature reaction &
allowing 2 V brush drop, calculate:
(i) no load speed if the no-load line current is 5 A.
(ii) % reduction in the flux per pole in order that speed may be 800
7

rpm when armature current is 40 A.

b) Draw and explain the starter useful starting DC series motor.7


(c) The OCC of separately excited DC generator driven at 1000 rpm
is as follows:
Field current: 0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

EMF Volts

55

75

90

100

110

115

: 30

If the machine is connected as a shift generator and driven at 1000


rpm and has a field resistance of 100. Find:

(i) Open circuit voltage and exciting current.


(ii) Critical resistance
(iii) Resistance to induce 115 Volts on open circuit.

(d) A 10 kW, 250 V, dc shunt generator has total no-load rotational


loss of 400 Watts.

Ra

= 0.5 ,

Rsh

= 250 . Calculate shaft

power input and efficiency at rated load. Also calculate maximum


efficiency and corresponding power output.

(b) Explain how the shunt generator is self-protective against the


accidental short circuit.

(c) A 250 volt, 15 KW, shunt motor has a maximum efficiency of


88% and a speed of 700 rpm, when delivering 80% of its rated
output. The resistance of the shunt field is 100 . Determine the
efficiency and speed when the motor draws a current of 78 A from
the mains.

(d) A series motor runs at 500 rpm when taking a current of 60 A at


460 volt. The resistance of the armature circuit is 0.2 and that of
the field winding is 0.1 . Calculate the speed when a 0.15
diverter is connected in parallel with the field winding. Assume the
torque to remain unaltered and flux to be proportional to the field
current.

2.

Explain

the

nature

of

no-load,

external

and

armature

characteristics of a d.c shunt generator. Why does the external


characteristics of this generator turns back as the generator is over
7

loaded?

3. Explain why a starter is required for starting a d.c. motor. What


do you understand by the drum controller for d.c. series motor?
7

4. A shunt generator delivers 50 kW at 250 V, when running at 400


r.p.m. The armature and field resistance are 0.02 and 50
respectively. Calculate the speed of the machine when running as a
shunt motor and taking 50 kW input at 250 V. Allow IV per brush
for constant drop.

(b) What is critical resistance? Explain with reference to the series


& shunt generator.

(c) A dc shunt motor running at 900 rpm takes a total current of 5


A from a 240 V dc supply. The armature circuit resistance is 0.75
and field circuit resistance 240 ohms. Calculate the value of series
resistor to be inserted in the ampere circuit to reduce the speed to
700 rpm, the torque remaining constant.

(d) State and explain the various losses takes place in a d.c.
machine.

(b) (i) Derive and draw the characteristic of d.c. shunt and series
motor with the help of basic equation.
(ii) What are main reasons for necessity of starter in d.c.
7

machines. Give example of starters.

(c)(i) Describe the various methods of speed control of d.c. motors.


7

(ii) Explain the ward-Leonard speed control system.

(d) A 220 V, 7.5 kW d.c. series motor is mechanically coupled to a


fan. When running at 400 rpm the motor draws 30 A from the
main. The torque required by the fan is proportional to the square
of speed.

Ra=0.6

Rse =0.4

. Neglect armature reaction and

rotational loss. Also assume the magnetization characteristic to be


linear.
(i) Determine the power delivered to the fan and torque
developed by the motor.
(ii) Calculate the external resistance to be added in series to
the armature circuit to reduce the fan speed to 200 rpm. 7
(b) What is the need of starter? Explain three point starter, with all
protecting devices.

(c) A shunt generator delivers 195 A at terminal voltage of 250 V.


The armature and shunt field resistances are 0.02 and 50
respectively windage and friction losses equal to 950 W.

Find: (i) Emf generated by the generator


(ii) Total copper losses
(iii) Output of Primemorer
(iv) Commercial, mechanical and electrical efficiencies.

(d) The magnetization characteristics for a 4-pole, 110 V, 1000 rpm


7

shunt generator as follows:


Field Current : 0

0.5

OC Voltage :

50

85

1.5
102

2.5

3A

112

116

120V

Armature is Lap-connected with 144 conductors. Field resistance is


45 ohms.
Determine:
(i) Voltage the machine will build up at no-load.
(ii) Critical resistance
(iii) The speed at which the machine fails to excite.
(iv) Residual flux per pole.

(a) Explain the process of voltage build up of D.C. shunt generator.


Hence explain how the shunt generator fails to self excite.
8
(b) A 220 V shunt motor has armature resistance of 0.5 ohm.
Armature takes 40 A on full load. By how much must the main flux
be reduced to reduce the speed by 50% if developed torque is
8

constant.

(c) Draw the diagram of three point starter and explain its working.
Explain how the drawback of this starter has been removed.
8
Q.4. (a) Discuss various methods of speed control used for DC
shunt motor.
(b) Two separately excited DC generators having emfs of 230 V and
226 V; armature resistance of 0.5 ohm and 0.04 ohm respectively
are operating in parallel. Find the load shared by the two generators
when the load resistance is 0.5 ohm.
(c) Describe the operation of 3 point starter.

UNIT-5
(b) Explain the Hopkinsons test to determine the efficiency of d.c.
machine.

(c) Describe the various methods of breaking in d.c. motor.

(d) Two d.c. shunt generators run in parallel to supply together


2,500 A. The machines have armature resistances of 0.04 and

0.025, field resistances of 25 and 20 and induced emfs of 440


V and 420 V respectively. Find the bus-bar voltage and output of
each machine.

7
7

(b) Explain Swinburnes test with neat circuit diagram.

(c) The results of Hopkinsons test on two similar dc machines are


as follows :
Line voltage 220 V, Motor armature current 23 A, Generator
armature current 20 A, Generator field current 0.4 A, Motor shunt
field current 0.3 A, Armature resistance of each machine is 0.5 .
7

Calculate the efficiency of each machine.

(d) Two shunt generators running in parallel have each armature


resistance of 0.1 & field resistance of 100. Total current in
external circuit is 220 A. The field are excited so that the emf
induced in one machine is 270 V & the other is 250 V. Calculate the
bus-bar voltage & output of each machine.

7
7

(b) Explain Hopkinsons test in detail.

(c) A 220 V, DC shunt motor at no load tak a current of 2.5 A. The


resistances armature and shunt field are 0.8 and 200
respectively. Calculate the efficiency of the motor when the input
current is 20 A.

(d) Explain in detail parallel operation of DC series generators. 7

(b) Hopkinsons test on two shunt machines gave the following test
results for full load.
Line voltage = 250 V
Line current excluding field current = 50 A
Motor armature current = 380 A
Field currents are 5A and 4.2 A.
Calculate the efficiency of each machine. Armature resistance
of both machines is 0 .02 .
(c) The terminal voltage of shunt generator G1 falls from 500 Volt at
no load to 470 V when delivering a current of 600 A. For a second
generator G2, the figures are 505 Volt at no load and 470 V at 400
A. They are connected in parallel supplying a total load of 400 KW.
Assuming

that the voltage power

characteristics are linear,

determine the common bus bar voltage and the current supplied by
each machine.

(d) Explain, why the series generators are not suitable for parallel
operation? What remedial measures are taken for its successful
parallel operation?
2. Explain briefly Hopkinsons test for determination of efficiency of
d.c. shunt m/c. what are the main advantages of this test? 7

3. What is meant by braking of d.c. motors? Describe briefly any


7

two methods of braking of d.c. shunt motor.

4. Two d.c. shunt generator are connected in parallel to supply a


load of 1500 A. One generator has an armature resistance of 0.5
and e.m.f. of 400 V, while the other has an armature resistance
of 0.04 and an e.m.f. of 440 V. The resistance of shunt fields
are 100 and 80 respectively. Calculate the currents
I2

I1

and

supplied by individual generator and terminal voltage V of

the combination.

(b) With neat circuit diagram explain, how to perform Swinburnes


test on a d.c. shunt motor.

(c) Explain the Hopkinsons test to determine the efficiency of d.c.


machine.

(d) Two d.c. generators are connected in parallel to supply jointly a


load of 2000 amperes. The machines have armature resistance of
0.04 ohm and 0.03 ohm, field resistance of 25 and 20 and give
emf of 440 V and 420 V respectively. Determine the current
supplied by each machine and common terminal voltage.
(b) Explain Swinburnes test on d.c. machine.

(c) Describe the various methods of breaking in d.c. motors.

(d) A 30 kW 220 V d.c. shunt motor with a full load speed of 535
rpm is to be breaked by plugging. Estimate the value of resistance
which should be placed in series with it to limit the initial breaking
current to 200 A. What would be the value of initial breaking
torque?

Q.5. (a) Discuss Swinburne test to determine the efficiency of DC


machine.
(b) A 500 V, 20 kW, DC shunt motor took 2.5A when running light.
Its armature resistance is 0.6 ohm and field resistance is 1,000
ohm. Determine its full load efficiency.
(c) Describe the plugging operation employed to series motor.

secondary. The primary resistance per phase is 1.8 ohm and


secondary resistance per phase is 0.025 ohm. Determine the
efficiency on full load at unity power factor.

(b) Explain with figure. Hopkinsons Test carried on two dc shunt


7

machines.

(c) A 220 V, dc shunt motor at no load takes a current of 2.5 A. The


resistances of the armature and shunt field are 0.8 and 200
respectively. Calculate the efficiency of the motor when the input
7

current is 20 A.

(d) Two dc shunt generators, operating in parallel, share a load


current of 200 A. Each generator has an armature resistance of
0.10 and field resistance of 100 . Their no-load generated emfs
are 250 and 245 volts. Calculate the bus bar voltage and the power
output of each machine.

. (a) Explain method of Electrical braking of d.c. motors. 8


(b) Hopkinsons test on two identical shunt machines gave the
following readings.
Supply voltage = 240 V, field currents : 6 A and 5 A.
Line current 40 A, Armature current of motor = 240 A.
Armature resistance of each machine = 0.014 .
Voltage drop per brush = 1V.
Find efficiency of each machine.
8

(c) Two shunt generators having armature and field resistance of


0.05 and 100 are operating in parallel. The emf induced in one
machine is 250V, whereas that in another is 260 V supply a
common load of 1500 A. Calculate terminal voltage and output of
each machine.