General Synoptic Questions From Unit 5 Scientific Article Questions

Jan 2011

Name one ‘retinal photoreceptor protein’ (second paragraph on page 2) and describe its function.


Suggest why genes are only partly responsible for the development of cancer and heart disease.


Explain how RNA templates are used to specify the chemical structure of a protein.


About 10 million years ago, an event led to the production of antifreeze protein in one Antarctic fish. Explain
why almost all Antarctic fish now contain antifreeze protein.

Jun 2011

Describe how adenoviruses in the blood ‘are recognised and destroyed by the immune system’ (page 3,
paragraph 4).


Explain the connection between high blood pressure and atherosclerosis.


A proteasome is ‘a barrel-shaped multi-protein complex that chops proteins down into their component amino
acids for reuse’.
Explain how muscle protein can be chopped into amino acids inside a cell.


Explain what is meant by repolarisation of a cardiac muscle cell or a nerve cell.


Suggest why large numbers of mitochondria are found in muscle cells.

Jan 2012

Describe two symptoms of Parkinson’s disease.


Patients with Parkinson’s disease have little of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the motor cortex of their
Explain how ‘dopamine agonists’ might be a useful treatment for Parkinson’s disease (paragraph 10).


Dopamine is not given to the patients as it is not effective. However, the precursor L-Dopa (levadopa) can be
given to patients.
Suggest why L-Dopa might be a useful treatment for patients with Parkinson’s disease.


Describe how fMRI can be used to monitor the activity of different areas of the brain (paragraph 62).

June 2012

Describe the structure of triglyceride fat found in white adipose tissue (WAT).

Jan 2013

A larger VO2max means more oxygen can enter a mitochondrion and therefore more energy can be
released from fuel (paragraph 8).

Give one source of each of these gases. (2) June 2013 20) Give two structural differences between cellulose and starch. (2) 16) Describe the structure of glycogen (paragraph 11). (2) 21) Describe the role of the human nervous system in returning a slightly raised body temperature to its normal level. (4) 19) Name two greenhouse gases that contribute to climate change. Describe how the mechanism involved in the control of breathing rate in humans would respond to this ‘rank air’. Describe the structure of a nucleus. DNA profiling is a technique that can be used in genetic screening. (3) . Complete the table by naming two nucleic acids involved in each of the processes described. that need to enter the mitochondrion to enable energy to be released from fuel.Name two substances. (3) 17) The ACE gene codes for the synthesis of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) (paragraph 25).B. cells’ (paragraph 4). other than oxygen. 5% CO2] (5) Jan 2014 25) The unique merger ‘gave rise to all complex. [N. (3) 24) If we had to breathe the ‘rank air’ found in the tunnels of naked mole rats. (4) 22) Explain how shivering generates heat to return a slightly reduced body temperature to its normal level. or eukaryotic. (2) 23) Suggest how Buffenstein and Horsby introduced cancer-causing genes into cells from naked mole rats (paragraph 13). “rank” air has approx. The presence of a nucleus is characteristic of eukaryotic cells. it would leave us ‘gasping for air’ (paragraph 33). Suggest how DNA profiling could be carried out to identify this variant of the APOE gene (paragraph 27). (2) 18) A variant of the APOE gene could put individuals at increased risk in contact sports.

Suggest how this mutation in MELAS syndrome causes lactate to accumulate in the body. This causes lactate (lactic acid) to accumulate in the body. Name one non-animal alternative that can be used in research and give an advantage of this alternative method. N. (3) 29) Suggest how cells sensitive to pH are involved in controlling heart rate. a mutation can occur in a gene that codes for an enzyme involved in oxidative phosphorylation. (4) 37) The article states that drug-resistant infections “are a major problem in both developed and developing countries” (paragraph 22). it was found that in the F2 generation (second generation of offspring). (4) 30) Explain how the structure of the cell surface membrane of a motor neurone is related to the conduction of a nerve impulse along its axon. State four chemical elements found in both telomeres and telomerase. draw genetic diagrams to describe and explain the genotypes of the parents and their offspring in the previous two generations. Explain how drug-resistance evolves in organisms that cause infection. Poliovirus was able to infect HeLa cells (paragraph 25). In the space below. (6) 31) Poliovirus. is a retrovirus. (1) June 2014 (GCE) 28) MPF triggering (paragraph 6) starts the process of mitosis. HeLa cells are human cells (3) 32) Scientists had studied genes by breeding animals ‘then breeding their offspring to see how genetic traits are passed from one generation to the next’ (paragraph 33). Discuss this statement by making reference to the molecular mechanisms involved in switching genes on and off. Give three differences between the structure of the genetic material in poliovirus and the genetic material in HeLa cells. (i) Give a reason why people may wish to use preimplantation genetic diagnosis. When this was done using a brown mouse and a white mouse. Suggest three events that occur at the beginning of mitosis in a plant cell that may be triggered by MPF. (1) (ii) Give an ethical reason why people may not wish to use preimplantation genetic diagnosis. like Human Immunodeficiency Virus.B. (5) 27) Preimplantation genetic diagnosis cannot ‘help women whose mitochondria are all mutant’ (paragraph 46). (2) 36) The article states that “Molecular mechanisms and those involved in cell differentiation and propagation are frequently identical across a wide range of species” (paragraph 11). (2) Jan 2015 (IAL) 34) Scientists are encouraged to use non-animal alternatives in their research (paragraphs 3 and 5). 75% of the mice were brown. (4) 33) Scientists knew that ‘there was a string of DNA at the end of each chromosome called a telomere’ (paragraph 60) and they also knew that ‘human cancer cells contain an enzyme called telomerase’ (paragraph 61). (2) 35) Explain why new medicines are tested on animals before they are tested on humans (paragraph 7).26) In MELAS syndrome (paragraph 40). .

(3) 38) The article discusses absolutism as an ethical position with regard to animal testing (paragraphs 28 and 29). (2) 39) The article states that there is an “alternative to such absolutism” (paragraph 29). Suggest what is meant by the term absolutism. These scientists used kittens to investigate brain development. Suggest the opinion a relativist would have with regard to using animals in research. (1) 40) The article states that scientists who use animals for testing are expected “to reduce the number of animals used in research to the minimum required for meaningful results” (paragraph 37). (3) 42) An investigation that used animals was carried out by Hubel and Weisel. People who believe in this alternative ethical position are called relativists. (5) . (2) 41) Suggest how gene therapy for “motor neuron degeneration diseases” such as ALS might be carried out (paragraph 42). Explain why reducing numbers below the minimum required could produce results that are not meaningful. Explain how this work helped to develop explanations of human brain development.

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