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1620

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER

APPARATUS

AND SYSTEMS,

VOL. PAS-88,

NO.

11,

NOVEMBER

1969

The Quadrature-Axis Equivalent Circuit of the

Synchronous Machine with a Grill


STANIMIR B. JOVANOVSKI

Abstract-The complete equivalent circuits of a synchronous


machine with a grill (open end rings) are analyzed. Because the
direct-axis equivalent circuits for both the squirrel-cage and the
grill machines are the same and are well known, the paper develops
only the quadrature-axis equivalent circuit for a machine with a
grill.

INTRODUCTION
THE equivalent circuits of a synchronous machine with a
squirrel cage proposed by Rankin [1] have been considered
the most complete. In certain cases, however, synchronous
machines are designed with a grill (open end rings; i.e., without
connections between the adjacent poles). The structure of the
rotor circuits along the d-axis is the same for both machines.
Therefore, the direct-axis equivalent circuit is the same for both
types of machines. On the other hand, the grill circuits along the
q-axis are different from those defined for a squirrel cage.
In this paper the grill q-axis circuits are defined, and the
formulas for all parameters needed to represent the complete
equivalent circuit are given. Thus, this paper may be considered as an extension of [1].

Fig. 1. Quadrature-axis circuits of squirrel-cage synchronous


machine.
d

GRILI-CIRCUIT DEFINITION
Originally [2], one circuit of the squirrel cage was defined as
formed by two bars symmetrically located with respect to the
centerline of d- and q-axes. These two bars are normally made of
the same material, and the air gap as well as the whole electromagnetic structure of the machine is symmetrical with respect
to these bars.
In Fig. 1, a simplified scheme of a two-pole synchronous
machine with its q-axis circuits is presented. The squirrel-cage
q-axis electrical circuits, and the induced current that flows
through them during the transient asynchronous operation, are
indicated. The linkage flux c?gnnq, created by any circuit of the Fig. 2. Quadrature-axis circuits of synchronous machine with grill.
cage has the same direction.
In the case of a grill, the end rings are open. The current E = 1
I^ will now flow through the outermost bars (Fig. 2). The is now composed of the outermost bars located at the edges of the
direction of the current in the two outermost bars and in any pole tips and any other bar of the corresponding pole halves.
other bar of a pole tip are opposite. Thus, the linkage flux -f11, Thus, the first grill circuit is composed of the bars 1 and 2, the
created by the first circuit opposes the linkage flux 4'1,nnQ, of the second circuit of the bars 1 and 3, etc.
nth circuit.
The grill q-axis electrical circuits may be replaced by two
PARAMATERS FOR QUADRATURE-AXIS GRILL CIRCUITS
identical systems, symmetrically disposed with respect to the
The
grill q-axis circuit per-unit parameters may be determined
centerline of the quadrature axis (Fig. 3). One circuit of the grill
from the corresponding parameters of the squirrel cage [1] as
shown in the following.
Paper 69 TP 41-PWR, recommended and approved by the Rotating Machinery Committee of the IEEE Power Group for presenta- vth Grill-Circuit Parameters
tion at the IEEE Winter Power Meeting, New York, N. Y., January
The vth grill-circuit resistance and reactance are
26-31, 1969. Manuscript submitted September 9, 1968; made
available for printing November 7, 1968; revised February 7, 1969.
The author was with the Department of Electrical Engineering,
= l q b+
Rq
(1)
Clarkson College of Technology, Potsdam, N. Y., on leave from the
University of Skopje. He is now with the Electromechanical Faculty,
(2)
X" = Xqb1 +x Qev + Xq v
University of Skopje, Yugoslavia.

1621

JOVANOVSKI: QUADRATURE-AXIS EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

Fig. 4. Armature quadrature-axis MMF and flux waves.

Mutual Reactance Between Armature and vth Grill Circuit


The mutual reactance between the armature circuit and Pth
grill circuits is (Fig. 4)
Xqa =Xanq

where
RqeP -rq
=

(3)
(4)

2xqe"

*e

Xqgy = Xgnnq - Xgllq, v = n - 1.


(5)
of
the
same material the bar
If all bars are identical and made
parameters are
(6)
Rq = 2Rbnnq
=

2Xbnnql5

(9)
XQbVp = 3Xbnnfl
If the bars are different, their parameters are determined by
(10)
Rqb = 2(rbl + rbnq)
(11)
Xq bp = 2(Xi1i + Xbnq)
and, for the last grill circuit
(12)
Rq = 2(rblq + 2rbnq)
(13)
X = 2(Xblq + 2XInq).

Mutual Parameters Between vth and kth Grill Circuits (k > v)


The mutual resistance and reactance of pth-kth grill circuit
(k > v) are
(14)
Rqk = Rqepp
(15)
Xq = Xqe"' + Xq

=
=

(16)

XqalIql

(17)

Xq2Iq2
xqlaIq, + XqllIql + Xql2Iq2
XqIq

(18)

(19)

If the armature resistance is neglected, and because the grill


circuit voltages are zero, the electromotive force (EMF) per-unit
equations for the motor operation are given by the following
expressions:

(7)

For the circuit formed by the bar lying directly on the polar
axis and the outermost bar (i.e., for the last grill circuit), we have
(8)
Rg b = 3RbnmQ

n - 1.

*4I
I,f2 = X2aIq + Xq2lIql + Xq22Iq2.

and (Fig. 3)

xqby,

DEVELOPMENT OF QUADRATURE-AXIS EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT


For a machine with five bars per pole, the flux per-unit equations written for the q-axis armature flux, and for the q-axis
grill-circuit fluxes (for both halves of the two adjacent pole tips,
Fig. 3), are

Fig. 3. Quadrature-axis grill circuits and air-gap flux wave.

Xqep

Xalq, v

Vq
0

jxq1l"q +

(ft

0 = jX2I5 +

jXqIq + jX5alIql
+
+

jxqil) I1l +

(ft

jXqa2JI
+

(20)

jXql2) I02

(21)

1X5221) I + (s-+ jX522) Iq2. (22)

Since the mutual parameters of two circuits have the same


values, substitution of the R14" and XqTM' from (1) and (2) into
(21) and (22), together with the conditions determined by (14)
and (15) results in the following EMF equations:
0

jX/'alI, +

'K

/fbi

jXqbll) Iqg

+ (B;1 + ;X:C11 + jXqgll)(Iq' +


0

jX5a2II

( +2

Xs2)

Iq' +(

Iq2) (23)

jX52b22

B5e22\
+ jXq522/ 152. (24)
+ q + jXqt22 +

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS, NOVEMBER 1969

1622

By adding and subtracting the term


(121 + jXq21)

= (R;

Iq2

jXell +j

Iq2

in (24), we obtain
0

+ jX6ell + jXqgll) (Iql + Iq2)

+
jX a2 (Rq
-R
b22

jX b22 +

ell

R ~~e22Rq

Xqell)

+ j(Xqe22

j(X022 Xq11) Iq2

(25)

According to the q-axis electrical circuit definition of the synchronous machine with a grill (Figs. 2-4), the armature winding
will be represented on the q-axis equivalent circuit by six seriesconnected reactances (for the considered machine with five bars
per pole). Because both halves of the grill q-axis circuits are
identical (Fig. 3), the corresponding mutual reactances between
armature and grill circuits on both halves of the equivalent
circuit are the same (Fig. 5).
At two points v = 2 of each half of the armature equivalent
circuit the corresponding grill circuits are connected. The
EMF equation of the armature equivalent circuit (Fig. 5) is

Fig. 5. Armature quadrature-axis equivalent circuit.

j(Xa4 + Xa3 + 2X02 + 2Xal)Iq + 2j(Xa2 + Xal)Iq2


+ 2jXalIqI' (26)
By comparing (20) and (26), and considering (16), one finds

Ve

Xa2q

Xa3q

Xalq

Ao2 =
Xa3

-2

Xa2q

Xalq

Xa4=

Xq -

Xa31.

Fig. 6. Half of armature quadrature-axis equivalent


circuit with grill added.

(27)

In Fig. 6 one half of the equivalent circuit, with grill circuits


Z2= R3 + jXb33a)
added, is represented. The EMF equation of grill-circuit I is
(28) if all bars are identical [(8) and (9) 1; or
0 = jXalIq + ZlIq' + (Z' + jXql)(Iql + Iq2).
Comparing (28) with (23) (divided by 2), we have
+
+ I(Xblq + 2Xb3q)
Z2 =
s
Rb22q

(29)

+ jX

if all bars are identical [(6) and 7)]; or


Z

rblq

rb2q

(30)

if all bars are not identical [(10) and (11) ].


Considering (3)-(5), and the first term of (27), the impedance
Z' is
Zi

rel+ jxqe11 + iXg22q - Xgllq


2

j Xa2q

Xalq

The EMF equation of grill circuit II (Fig. 6) is


O

j(Xal + Xa2)Iq + (Z' +

iXal)(IqI + Iq2)
+ (Z2 + Z" + jXa2)Iq2. (32)

Comparing (32) with (25) (divided by 2), we have

(34)

if all bars are not identical [(12) and (13) 1.


ell
r.r e22 _r
+
z

j(X,iq + Xb2q)

(33)

j(Xqe22

Xqell)

+ XQ33q

Xg22q

X_

av2

a2q

(35)

(5

In Fig. 7, the complete q-axis equivalent circuit of a machine


with a grill, with five bars per pole, is represented.
CONCLUSION
The solution of synchronous machine problems involving a
number of simultaneous equations (for instance the asynchronous torque-speed characteristic, the damper-bar currents, etc.),
is usually made by digital computers today. However, the
complete equivalent circuits, in which the armature circuit, the

field-winding circuit and the multiple damper-winding circuits

1623

JOVANOVSKI: QUADRATURE-AXIS EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT OF SYNCHRONOUS MACHINE

RI2kv

-2
F.1

Xa3q)]

[j(Xq

(Xa3q

Xc2q)j.1

2*i (Xa 2q

XGaiq)i

Fi

Vq

rbnq =

resistance of end ring, corresponding to the


length Lqe^P (two rings)
s
slip
Vq
armature q-axis voltage
armature q-axis reactance
xq
Xbnnqf, Xn reactance components of nth q-axis squirrelcage circuit due to bar-slot flux and air-gap
flux, respectively
Xqbv, Xq'ep, reactance components of vth q-axis grill circuit
due to bar-slot flux, end-ring flux, and airXqgl'v
gap flux, respectively
Xanq, Xqap mutual reactances-armature to nth squirrelcage circuit, and armature to vth grill circuit,
respectively
mutual reactance P,th-kth grill circuits (k > v)
Xqkv
rqelvlv

fiXaiqj
-2
q
3

[2 i(Xa3q

R
F
b33q qjX

22
F~~~~r
q

1(0

Xa2q)J

- lq
s

X)l)

x33q- Xg22q)

L- jfXa3q

b22q

lzj(xc2q
a2q

Xbn =q Xbnnq reactance of one damper bar due to slot flux

ellI1
q

re

Xqev
*I

mutual resistance Pth-kth grill circuit (k > v)


resistance of one damper bar

rell

(2

Ognnq

'~+ IXb22 q )J

L rbl,q rb2q).i(xbIq4xb2q)

P, k

I,

t*q, tTfqV

e Iq

j(X22q

Xg

9-i(X02q - jIIq
y
Fig. 7. Complete quadrature-axis equivalent circuit of machine
with grill for five bars per pole: (1)-bars identical; (2)-bars
different.
21

individually represented, remain a useful tool in analyzing


synchronous machine transient phenomena.
The synchronous machine equivalent circuits have been
analyzed in several papers, the most complete to date being
those developed in [1]. However, all these treatments have
considered only the squirrel-cage machine, even though the
synchronous machine with a grill is occasionally manufactured.
In this paper, a synchronous machine with a grill was analyzed.
The rotor d-axis circuits being similar to those of a machine
with a squirrel cage, the emphasis was on the rotor q-axis circuits.
The grill q-axis electrical circuits were defined and the formulas
for all parameters necessary when presenting the equivalent
circuit were assembled. From the established flux and EMF
equations, the complete q-axis equivalent circuit for a machine
with a grill was developed.

reactance of end ring, due to ring flux corresponding to length Lqe,,, (two rings)
grill circuits -v is general term, k refers to grill
circuit external to v (k > v)
nth squirrel-cage circuit average flux in air gap
quadrature-axis linkages-armature anld vth
grill circuit, respectively.

REFERENCES
[1] A. W. Rankin, "The direct- and quadrature-axis equivalent
circuits of the synchronous machine," AIEE Trans., vol. 64,
pp. 861-868, December 1945.
[2] T. M. Linville, "Starting performance of salient-pole synchronous motors," AIEE Trans., vol. 49, pp. 531-547, April 1930.

are

NOMENCLATURE
The symbols used in the paper are defined below. All quantities
are per-unit values unless otherwise specified. Vectors are
indicated by boldface type.
quadrature-axis currents--armature and Ath grill
Iq, Ig(

Laevv

circuit, respectively

length of end ring between two bars forming

grill circuit (see Fig. 3) (mm)


n
squirrel-cage circuit (general term)
bar resistance of nth squirrel-cage circuit
Rbnnq
R
R
"'
resistances of vth grill circuit-bar and end ring,
RqbnP,
respectively

Discussion
Philip L. Alger (Schenectady, N. Y.): This problem of how to
calculate the performance of a synchronous machine with open end
rings has been of interest to me for many years. In my opinion, the
two most important papers in this area have been those by I. Giaever
[3] and W. A. Lewis [4]. I regret that the author has not referred to
either of these, since they both record material advances over the
early papers, [ 1] and [2].
In my opinion, the transient performance of a synchronous
machine with a grill can be materially improved either by placing
the end bars in the lower portions of the pole tips with their slots
opening into the inner pole-tip surface, or by adding extra bars
located in the pole body just below the pole tips, so that all the
flux in the q-axis will be linked by the squirrel cage. Such a bar
arrangement is readily possible with cast aluminum windings. It
appears to me that because of the disadvantages of outside end rings
with bolted joints for high-speed machines, and the alternative
disadvantages of the usual grill construction due to the high q-axis
subtransient reactance, it should be worthwhile to provide squirrel
cages with end bars below the pole tips.
Since the currents in the various bars are so widely different,
their temperature rises may also be very different. If so, failure is
likely to occur on brazed windings after frequent starting due to the
unequal expansion of the bars. This difficulty is overcome by making
the pole face winding of cast aluminum.
The great objection to cast aluminum pole face windings for
synchronous machines has been the difficulty of making good end
ring connections between poles. The location of the end bars below
Manuscript received February 3, 1969.

1624

IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER APPARATUS AND SYSTEMS, VOL. PAS-88, NO. 11, NOVEMBER 1969

the pole tips, which obviates the need for end rings between poles,
should make the cast alurninum construction eminently satisfactory.

REFERENCES
[3] I. Giaever, "A complete equivalent circuit of a synchronous
machine," AIEE Trans. (Power Apparatus and Systems), vol.
77, pp. 204-209, June 1958.
[4] W. A. Lewis, "A basic analysis of synchronous machines-pt.
I," AIEE Trans. (Power Apparatus and Systems) vol. 77, pp.
436-456, August 1958.

A Digital

Model for

STUART D. T. ROBERTSON,

MEMBER, IEEE, AND

NOMENCLATURE
damping coefficient
fundamental source frequency
general current vector, instantaneous
actual rotor phase currents, instantaneous

D
i

ia )ICib,8

actual stator phase current, instantaneous

rp* i8

transformed rotor currents, instantaneous


transformed stator currents, instantaneous

* 8

?,

iTY8

Manuscript received March 19, 1969.

Three-Phase Induction

Abstract-A digital model for a three-phase induction machine


is developed, which is particularly adapted for studying its dynamic
performance when fed from an inverter. Conventionally, the induction motor is analyzed in terms of its d-q variables, while the
operation of the inverter generally needs continuous monitoring of
the state of its phase quantities. Thus in a study of the composite
inverter-induction-machine system, one is faced with the problem
of matching the two sets of variables. The proposed model overcomes this problem by describing the machine behavior directly in
terms of the stator phase variables, at the same time retaining a
computational simplicity comparable to that of the d-q equations.
Furthermore, it is shown that the machine equations, expressed in
terms of the stator terminal variables, can conveniently handle
the various terminal conditions, like open phases, that may arise
when the machine is fed from an inverter. Detailed equations in a
form suitable for digital solution are also presented for possible
terminal constraints of this nature, with or without the machine
neutral connected to supply.

Stanimir B. Jovanovski: The author is indebted to Mr. Alger for


his interest in the paper, and for the additional references concerned
with the equivalent circuits of synchronous machines.
Mr. Alger's suggestion of how to improve the transient performance of a synchronous machine with a grill is very interesting
one, and deserves further consideration.

Paper 69 TP 6-PWR, recommended and approved by the Rotating


Machinery Committee of the IEEE Power Group for presentation
at the IEEE Winter Power Meeting, New York, N.Y., January
26-31, 1969. Manuscript submitted February 12, 1968; made available for printing October 15, 1968.
The authors are with the University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont.,
Canada.

Machines

KATTINGERI M. HEBBAR, MEMBER,

IEEE

i7'
transpose of i
lar, lJT transformed rotor current phasors, rms
Ia8, Ib,8 actual stator current phasors, rms
Ics
Io , Ie', transformed stator current phasors, rms
'I JR

J
kr

ks

[LI

Lr

Ls

17
1O

Lp,,T

Lp,
M
n

p
Pi
Pm

angular moment of inertia of the rotating system


coefficient of coupling between two rotor coils
coefficient of coupling between two stator coils
general inductance matrix
self-inductance of one rotor phase
self-inductance of one stator phase
effective stator self-inductance for zero-sequence
currents

effective rotor self-inductance of one phase for


positive or negative sequence currents
effective stator self-inductance of one phase for
positive or negative sequence current
maximum of the mutual inductance between a stator
phase and a rotor phase
number of pole pairs
differential operator d/dt
electrical input power into the machine, instantaneous
mechanical power developed by the machine, instantaneous

Vc

general resistance matrix


rotor resistance per phase
stator resistance per phase
slip
torque developed by the machine, instantaneous
load torque
general voltage vector, instantaneous
actual rotor phase to neutral voltages, instantaneous

Vuc
t,X

actual stator phase to neutral voltages, instantaneous

[R]

Rr

RS
T
v

Scr

vc8