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Sociology Marx 2

3 issues that came out of the reading:

1) Ideology
2) Critique of Distribution of Labour
3) Critique of capitalism
1) What is ideology in its most basic sense?
(Idea of the American dream, if you work hard you can work your
way up)
-Implies that ideas are somehow illusionary (mechanisms,
processes, that are benefiting a certain group)
-Obscure certain parts of reality
- Not a coherent belief system groups people who believe in it
What is then the German ideology Marx makes the connection
with Hegel
(Revolutions happen in the realm of ideas) for Marx this is an
ideology (illusionary)
Feuerbach was a Young Hegelians after Hegels death two groups
emerged conservatives and group that sought to bring in
elements of sensory perception (young Hegelians) bring Hegel
down from heaven to earth not focus on spirit but human beings
(HUMANISM main focus was a deep critique of Christianity,
obscures potential of human beings)
Marx was a young Hegelian at one time and then stabs them in the
back with his critique of Feuerbach you say that you are taking
down Hegel from heaven to earth, but youre not you still deal in
the realm of words!
Marx critique of ideology always tied to the material world (not
the other way around)
Ideas originate in the economic sphere these ideologies and ideas
benefit a ruling class (justification feudal mode of economic
relations by stating that king is appointed by god)
we are still in the same realm in capitalism ideas will always
represent the ruling class maintain ruling condition (disguise as
common interest)

Capitalist society (bourgeois society, conflict between there interest:

maximise profit) and the common interest of the society (which
according to Marx is the working class (productive force))
smithian view of history: markets developing wealth increasing
goes up
marx and engels you go up bourgeois revolution (you have a
break) another step (technology) you go up again another
break: historical materialism then you have the communist
society and NO HISTORY anymore.
Smith: Division of Labour leads to wealth Who does what in the
labour process? I make the pin, the next person makes the board
Marx: Who does what? But also: Who gets what at the end of the
labour process?
Critique leads to four modes of alienation, to exploitation and to
private property.
Communist manifesto: Why abolish private property?
Workers can sell the market their labour power, which is sold for a
wage. Key for Marx is that sensuous human activity produces
SURPLUS. Marx: How can you price human activity?
Contradiction arises (that Smith does not see for him produces
collaboration of workers)
For Marx who gets what is privatized whats more the division
of labour in capitalism is natural (not innate but external to the
worker, as nature is imposed on us from the outside, rains, storms
and stuff) its forced division of labour
Not natural division of labour but forced (not hunt in the morning
without becoming it)
It does not matter what the commodity is, private property arises
out of the capital accumulation (deep, raw, exploitation embodied in
private property etc.)
Division of labour leads to alienation leads to private property
reverse it by removing private property double abolition of this in
Solution for Marx: socialize ownership to get rid of the mismatch
Marx is an analyst of the capitalist system and does not tell us how
communism will look like its not an utopia, but a real political
movement we look back at communist revolution as an idea, how

could this have worked Marx: -socialise ownership not only forces
of production
-As soon as we can imagine it from a political standpoint it becomes
Inherent contradiction in capitalist society.
Why does capitalism and market force produce its own
Capitalist mode of production (defined by relations and forces of

Relations of

Forces of production
Classless tribal
Class (have and have
ancient/feudal mode


Communist manifesto concerned with from class to classlessness.

How does that happen?
In capitalist society: how do you progress? Sell your stuff cheaper
than your competitors, exploit your labourers or build new
technologies, exploit new markets and resources.
Workers cannot live without being employed by a firm!
Misrecognition of dependency structure
actual capital depends on labour(er) not vice-versa.
(hes dealing with industrial capitalism as the final one financial
capitalism of nowadays is different of course)
Labourers need to engage in class struggle how do you get a
working class, which is suffering together and think of themselves
as dependent TO revolution and think of them as a collective force
CM very political whereas GI philosophical.
At some time there is a limit to resources and the exploitation
Marx underestimated that still elements today (1% vs. 99%)
1) Express anger at machines destroy them or rebel against
2) Workers form unions Marx is critical of them (short-sighted) still
in the realm of economics (they want short work days and stuff or
welfare benefits etc but these are all minor concessions that in fact

reproduce the capitalist system instead of undermining it) you do

not get to revolution this way
3) For real revolution you need a political party workers party!
Interest of working class is interest of the society as a whole
Idea of consciousness (this is key for Marx: how do the workers
suddenly recognise that they are the ones who drive the capitalist
can the bourgeoisie also develop a class
For Marx it is only the workers who can do it.
Bourgeois cant because they inevitably they would have to destroy
Discussion: Do not socialize private discussion, but means of
production. Factory owned by everyone but chair private property.
no class for itself as actor society as something alive (society
ordered you cannot structure it)
socializing will fail by failing to provide an actor?
form a class for a certain time but not forever?
Capitalism as precondition for COMMUNISM! In Russia there was
feudalism every proletariat has to fight its bourgeoisie first! Not
the case in Russia!
Lenin: what is to be done? what do you have to do in the specific
historical moment when the other revolutions dont follow.
Economic base produces state (in classless society the state will
represent the common interests) we still needs of subsistence
organize and try to reduce transaction costs (there needs to be
some structure left). Centralize all means of productive forces.
develop technology until you have robots and stuff, the rest of the
time you just enjoy life, write philosophy, build violins (romanticemncatory) .
marx deep belief in humanity, willing to share everything etc.