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EEE C364 / INSTR C364

Analog Electronics

In this courseOP-AMP basics


Special purpose OP-AMP circuits
Active Filters
Non-linear OP-AMP circuits
Signal Sources & Phase lock loop
Voltage Regulators
IC Power Amplifiers
Tuned Amplifiers
Data Converters-D/A, A/D Converters
IC sensors and Analog Systems

List of experiments: (TB2)


1. Common Emitter Amplifier

(Exp.2)

2. High Input Resistance Transistor Amplifier (Exp.3)


3. Basic Configuration of OPAMP (Exp.5)
4. Study of Feed Back Amplifiers Using OPAMPs (Exp. 8)
5. Instrumentation and Programmable Amplifier (Exp.7 )

List of experiments: (Contd)


6. Study of Active Filters Using OPAMPs --LP, HP,BP
(Exp.9 )
7. Precision Circuit (Exp.12)
8. Sinusoidal and Non-Sinusoidal Oscillators (Exp.15)
9. Integrated Circuit Timer and Phase Locked Loop
(Exp.16, Exp.17)
10. IC Fixed and adjustable Voltage Regulators (Exp.19)

Evaluation Components:
9Test-I

-------

40 M

9Test-II

-------

40 M

9Tutorials -------

40 M

9Library Assignment I ------

10 M

9Assignment II --------

10 M

(Laboratory Computer Simulation /Circuit Fabrication )

9Experiments Day/Day -------

30 M

9Laboratory Test ----------

30 M

9Comprehensive --------

100 M

INTRODUCTION:

Electronic System:
9This system measures unknown weights
9Indicates the weights by measuring the proportional dc
current in a permanent magnet moving coil (PMMC) meter.

Inverting Amplifier,
with Rin=

G1 extention R + R

VS
VS
Vo =
R
[ R R ]
2R
2R

G2 compression R R

Rth = ( R || R) + [( R + R) || ( R R)]

VS R
| Vo |=
2 R

Thermocouple: (-200 oC to 2300 oC)


Thermocouple is created whenever two dissimilar metals
touch and the contact point produces a small open-circuit
voltage as a function of temperature.
9e.g. Platinum Rhodium Platinum, Copper -Constantan
This thermoelectric voltage is known as the Seebeck
voltage, named after Thomas Seebeck, who discovered it in
1821.
Commonly found in engines and burners

V = S T
Where:
V :change in voltage
S : Seebeck coefficient
T :change in temperature

Resistance temperature detectors (RTDs):


T,R (-100 oC to 800 oC)
operate on the principle of changes in the electrical
resistance of pure metals.
These are characterized by a linear positive change in
resistance with temperature.
9e.g. nickel (Ni) , copper (Cu) and platinum (Pt)

A high electrical output can be obtained by using the RTD


with many types of simple resistance bridges.
Resistance Thermometers can be used for a wide variety of
industrial applications

Thermistors: (-20 oC to 150 oC)


A thermistor is an electronic component that exhibits a large
change in resistance with a change in its body temperature.
Applications: air conditioning, electronics, refrigeration

It can have large


9positive temperature coefficient of resistance (PTC)
9large negative temperature coefficient of resistance
(NTC).

Piezoelectric sensors:

Piezoelectric sensors convert force to voltage


The piezoelectric effect: some crystalline materials
(e.g. quartz) generate a small voltage when they are
distorted.
Used to measure force, pressure or acceleration

(Vacuum or Ambient)

Integration of transducers on chip

9e.g. AD590 (1A/0K)

Integrated Circuit (IC) Sensors consist of:


9 Silicon semiconductor
transducers (SMTs)

sensor

9as well as signal processing

or

silicon

micro

Mechanical elements along with electronic circuits are


currently being integrated into silicon substrate:
9micro electro mechanical systems (MEMS).

Signal Frequency Range:


Microphone: 500Hz-12kHz
Temperature: 0.01Hz 20Hz
Biomedical equipments: 0.001 Hz to 10Hz
Electrical output Range:
Industrial Standard Output for instruments ( 4mA-20mA
transmitters)
Pressure Reading
3psi
4mA

15psi
20mA

Voltmeter:
Case 1: Calculate the error in Measurement voltage across R2
by a voltmeter having internal resistance of 100K.

Let , V = 100 V ,
R 1 = 100 K & R 2 = 100 K
V 2 = 50 V
Voltmeter Reading :
50 K
100 = 33 .33V
150 K
50 V 33 .33 V
100 = 33 .34 %
% error =
50 V

If voltmeter have internal resistance of value then it


doesnt load source.

Electronic instruments (EVM) should have high input


resistance (1M)
Case2: Calculate the error in measurement voltage across R2
by a voltmeter having internal resistance of 1M .

Let , V = 100 V ,
R 1 = 100 K & R 2 = 100 K
V 2 = 50 V
Voltmeter Reading :
90 .90 K
100 = 47 .61V
190 .90 K
50 V 47 .61 V
% error =
100 = 4 .78 %
50 V

Signals and Sources

2
= v s dt
T 0

Vm
=
2
T

V S ( rms )
V S ( rms )

4V m
1
1

V (t ) =
sin 0 t + sin 3 0 t + sin 5 0 t + ...
3
5

Signal sources
Independent sources.

Dependent sources.

AV 0

V0
=
Vi

RL =

A is

I0
=
Ii

RL =0

Rm

V0
=
Ii

RL =

Gm

I0
=
Vi

RL =0

A v 0 v i = A is i i R o
v i = R i ii
A v 0 R i i i = A is i i R o
Av 0

Ro
= A is
Ri

Av 0 = G m R o

Av 0 V i = R m I i
Av 0 ( R i I i ) = R m I i
Av 0

Rm
=
Ri

9KVL
9KCL
9Thvenins Theorem
9Nortons Theorem
9Maximum Power
Transfer Theorem
9Superposition Theorem
9Millers Theorem
9Nodal analysis
9Mesh analysis

9BASIC DEVICES
9Diodes
Ideal Diodes
Practical diode
Zener diode

9BJT
9FET
JFET
MOSFET
MESFET

9OPAMP
9Types of Feedback

ELECTRONIC CIRCUITS ANALYSIS AND DESIGN


1. Definition of specifications/requirements of the system
2. Identifying the functional blocks/circuits
3. Definition of specifications for individual functional
blocks/circuits
4. Integration of functional blocks into the desired system
5. Simulation or modeling
6. Testing and verification.

Design Center Activities:

Foundrys Activities:

Amplifier circuit Symbol operated by two power supplies:

Linear Amplifier (operated by two power supplies) except


for output saturation

L-/Av vI L+/Av

Non Linear Transfer characteristics and Biasing


using single power supply.

Quiescent means no signal condition

Non-linear distortion in Linear Amplifier:

vo = A1vI + A2 vI2 + A3vI3


where, vI = vm cos t
vo = A1vm cos t + A2 vm2 cos 2 t + A3vm3 cos 3 t
Non linearity generates the frequency in multiplies of input. It
is called harmonic distortion or non-linear distortion
Considering only two terms:
2
m

v
vo = A1vm cos t + A2 (1 cos 2t )
2
vo = B1 cos t + Bo + B2 cos 2t
vo = Bo + B1 cos t + B2 cos 2t

Non linear distortion in Linear Amplifier:

D2 =

B2

D3 =

B3

B1
B1

*100 % second hormonic distortion


*100 % Third hormonic distortion

D = THD = D22 + D32 + ......Dn2

Differential pair or differential amplifier:


Basic Building Block in analog integrated Circuits.
Input stage of every OP-AMP is a differential amplifier.
Why Differential? (Advantages over single-ended)
Differential circuit are much less sensitive to noise and
interference than single-ended circuits. (difference between
the two wires is sensed, therefore it will eliminate interference
component)
Differential amplifier configurations enable us to bias and to
couple amplifier stages without the need for bypass and
coupling capacitors as used in discrete-circuit amplifiers.