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GRAD
DS

135

.G33
N68
1988

|fIGHT OF POGROMS
"KRISTALLNACHT"
NOVEMBER 9

1Q. 1938

"/ myself could scarcely believe that such things


"
could occur iu a twentieth century civilization.
franklin Delano Roosevelt
President

of the United States

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November

U.S. Holocaust

Memorial

15. 1938

Council/ 2000 L Street. N.W., Suite 588. Washington.

D.C.

5~

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

In the compilation of a packet of this kind, many people


contribute their skills.
We especially wish to thank
Professor Raul Hilberg, preeminent Holocaust scholar and Member
of the Archives and Museum Content Committees of the U.S.
Holocaust Memorial Council; Robert Wolfe, Specialist for Captured
German Records at the National Archives, and Member of the
Archives and International Relations Committees of the Council;
and Norbert Wollheim, Kr istallnacht eyewitness and Member of the
International Relations Committee of the Council.
also wish to thank the members of the staff of the
States Holocaust Memorial Council, particularly Michael
Berenbaum, United States Holocaust Memorial Museum Acting
Project Director; Brewster Chamberlin, Director of Archives;
Sybil Milton, Research Curator for the United States Holocaust
Memorial Museum; Isaiah Kuperstein, Director of Education; Steve
Goodell, Expert Consultant; and Marian Craig, Director, Days of
Remembrance.
Our special thanks are expressed to Ruth Dickens,
Assistant to the Director of Days of Remembrance, and Rosemarie
Carey, Executive Secretary to the Director of the Council, for
their patient and efficient preparation of these manuscripts.
We

United

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Our thanks to the authors and publishers who granted


permission to reprint excerpts from their publications.

us

_ t- * *

C s

CONTENTS

Letter from Harvey

Memorial Council,

Council's
Message

Days

of

from James

M. Meyerhoff, Chairman, U.S. Holocaust


and Benjamin Meed, Chairman of the
Committee
Remembrance

I.

Freed

- Eyewitness to "Kr istallnacht"

Architect for the United States Holocaust Memorial

Museum
How

;
7

to Use the Booklet

Background

the

on

Night of Pogroms

Documents

11
15

Nazi Paperwork on Re ichskr istallnacht


Dispatches from American Diplomats...
Eyewitness Accounts
Responses Selected from the Print, Media and the

Literature

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17
32
35
47

Suggested Program Ideas For Schools


and Community Observances

71

Study Aids

77

Highlights of Events, March 13, 1938 through


January 30, 1939
Photograph of Burning Wiesbaden Synagogue, Germany
Map of the Destruction of the Synagogues,
9

November

1938

82

Resources

83

Sources of Additional Information and/or Materials


Bibliography
Selected List of Films on the Holocaust

List of U.S.

78
80

Holocaust

Memorial Council Members

84
94
96

102

United States Holocaust Memorial Council

Dear

Friend:

November
9-10 marks the anniversary of the Night of Pogroms
It was
in Nazi Germany, Austria and the occupied Sudetenland.
during that night in 1938 that well organized violence erupted
when SS, SA and Nazi stormtrooper s disguised in plain clothes
burst into the synagogues, shops and homes of Jews, violating
their rights of security. Lives were lost, but, more
importantly, a dynamic culture and unique way of life was
For over a thousand years, the People of the Book had
shattered.
lived and worked and contributed to the intellectual, scientific
They nurtured their
and cultural inheritance of these lands.
families, built homes, created great schools of learning.
But,
in the Third Reich, where bigotry was the government's
philosophic cornerstone, this rich culture was vilified,
condemned
and destroyed.

"Kr istallnacht

significant

"

as

it

the

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unleashed to destroy
The violence enacted on the
major step toward the Nazis'
was

question

was dubbed

"

by the German

public,

was

In a world proud of its


event.
potent evil of prejudice prevailed;
people and to alter human conscience.
night of November 9-10, 1938, was a
"final solution of the Jewish

twentieth-century

civilizations,

advanced

it

still

in the twentieth century and here in the United


important to study the lessons of this great
History teaches us that to forget is to risk
repetition. We know you share our conviction that hope for an
enlightened future lies in the careful study of the past.
Now,

States,
tragedy.

it is

Please join the members of the United States Holocaust


Memorial Council in remembering the Night of Pogroms.

Sincerely,

Chairman, U.S. Holocaust


Memorial Council

2000

Street

NW, Suite

Remembrance

588, Washington,

D.C.

20036-4907,

Committee

(202) 653-9220

James Inoo Freed

Eyewitness to Kristallnacht
Archictect of the U.S. Holocaust
Memorial Museum

In

mother,

born.

seemed

things

denied

father

for example,

we

could

no

longer enter

public park.

Early in the day of

November 9, my father received a warning


would be wiser for him and me not to go home that night.
was assumed that my mother and 3-year-old sister would remain

that

It

1938, I was 8 1/2 years old, living with my


and baby sister in Essen, Germany, where I was
My family and I already had experienced what, to a child,
Simple
unrelated events. I could not understand them.
which children normally take for granted were mysteriously
November

it

and be

safe there.

my father and I boarded first one street car,


another, riding endlessly throughout the night. Twice
our journey took us past the main synagogue of Essen which was in
flames. I asked my father why it was burning, but he reminded me
Although we remained unharmed that night, for the
not to speak.
first time, I realized the world we had known the world of my
parents and grandparents was not going to be my world.

In the evening

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and then

My

sister

and

I left

Germany

in early

1939

for France,

and,

from Paris on a children's refugee train, traveled on to


We came to the United States at the end of 1939;
Switzerland.
Although my immediate
our parents followed us in late 1940.
family escaped, most of my mother's family perished in the

Holocaust

We set about making our home in Chicago.


It is not entirely
surprising that in this new world a child 9 or 10 years old would
And, as one grows up
chose to suppress frightening memories.
daily
the
in
one's immediate
events
energy is focused upon
surroundings.
I did not forget my past. I simply did not think
about it, as I did not think about many of the things that might

to us then.
But two years ago when I was asked to
the Architect for the National Holocaust Memorial Museum,
I knew that I would have to remember. And more, I would have to
learn about matters that I had deliberately chosen to repress.
In retrospect, this former attitude of mine, not altogether
unique, seems to be a strong argument for the need for the United
States Holocaust Memorial Museum.

have happened
become

During the past two years, I have immersed myself in the


history of the Holocaust, speaking to survivors, visiting
concentration and death camp remains, and the sites of destroyed

I have come to believe that memory must be


and that this living memory must be transmitted to
Further, I
those who have not personally had such experiences.
have come to the conclusion that this Memorial Museum needs to
needs to have visual and
speak to more than the mind
Indeed, I believe that one must spiritually
visceral impact.
leave the normal world one knows and enter into another time,
into other space. One must become physically and morally
receptive through a structure that can be read on the outside but
only experienced on the inside, an architectural means to prepare
communities.

awakened,

it

for the singularly unbelievable but horribly true story of the

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Holocaust

How

to Use The Booklet

to offer this collection of materials on


"Kristallnacht " ) to encourage all Americans to
the tragic event and learn its lessons.

are pleased

We

Night of Pogroms
remember

This booklet is not intended for the Holocaust scholar or


but rather is for the student or lay
person who seeks to understand this event and its historical
significance.
It is not a definitive or an extensive study; new
information is coming to light through continuing research. The
materials contained herein merely suggest the wealth of

professional historian,

interpretative literature

and documents available on


have chosen pieces which should provide
material for a variety of commemorative observances . Educators
should find this booklet useful as they prepare lesson plans and
an aid in developing book
study units; librarians should find
exhibits and film programs.

"Kristallnacht."

We

it

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A brief historical background to the event orients the user


to the salient facts of what transpired.
The documents that
follow describe not only the official actions taken by the Nazi
Government,
but also the response of U.S. diplomats in Germany.
Eyewitness accounts of victims and the reactions of those who
heard about the event in the United States politicians,
educators, religious leaders, among others -- are also included.
The
community

booklet contains

some

suggestions

for school

and

activities. We have included study aids to help users


appreciate the historical context and to identify the affected

geographical locations.

Finally, in order to stimulate

knowledge about "Kristallnacht,"

the pursuit of additional

included a brief
bibliography and filmography. These should help the user in a
search of local library holdings.
Also included is a list of
Holocaust resource centers in the United States which may have
more information and materials.
we have

There are many lessons to be derived from the study of

this dark period in twentieth-century history. We hope the


reader will be inspired to pursue more knowledge about the event,
to reflect upon its significance, and to remember and commemorate
the Night of Pogroms

Background on the Night of Pogroms

silence not a sound to be heard in the town. The


in the street, the lights in the shops and in the
It is 3:30 a.m. All of a sudden noises in
houses are out.
the street break into my sleep, a wild medley of shouts and
shrieks. I listen, frightened and alarmed, until I
distinguish words : Get out , Jews ! Death to the Jews ! " *
"Dead
lamps

With methodical precision during the night of Wednesday,


November 9th, and early morning of Thursday, November 10th, 1938,
SA, SS and Nazi stormtroopers , disguised in plain clothes,
assembled in pre-arranged meeting places and fanned out to
selected targets in the Jewish communities of Germany, Austria
Following
and the occupied Sudetenland (the Third Reich).
Gestapo instructions, these Nazi agents axed windows, demolished
furnishings, wrecked houses, smashed store fronts, ravaged
merchandise, torched synagogues, and arrested thousands of Jews.
As the well coordinated destruction took place, most "neighbors"

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just watched.

By Friday morning, November 11, nearly 100 Jews were dead,


7,500 Jewish businesses had been destroyed, 275 synagogues had
been razed or burned, and 30,000 Jews had been arrested, the
majority of whom were sent to the German concentration camps of
Dachau, Sachsenhausen and Buchenwald.
Carpets of crushed glass
and debris covered the streets in the towns and cities of the

Third Reich.

public labeled this event "Kristallnacht

or the
Night of Broken Glass.
dubbed it
Some American newspapers
"Black Thursday," while others, comparing the destruction with
the physical attacks against Jews in Czarist Russia, called it
the Night of Pogroms.
The German

"

Within days of the event, Hermann Goering, Reich Minister of


the Four-Year Plan, issued the Decree Eliminating the Jews from
German Economic Life.
A 25 percent "flight" (thousands of Jews,
in response to "Kristallnacht," began seeking refuge in other
countries) tax on all Jewish property being removed from German
territory and, in a perverse maneuver, levied a fine of one
*Bentwich, Norman.
"Kristallnacht:
Pogrom in Emden."
Jewish
Youth Comes Home .
In: Eisenberg, Azriel. Witness to the

Holocaust

New

York: The Pilgrim Press,

11

1981,

page 84.

billion

marks ($400 million) on the Jewish communities to


Goering
compensate for the damages wrought by the Nazis.
transferring
businesses
by
remaining
Jewish
expropriated
their ownership to "Aryan" hands. Thus, surviving Jews were not
only robbed and assaulted, but they were made to absorb the cost
of destroyed property belonging to them without any means of
income .

all

Thousands packed
Panic pervaded the Jewish communities.
Western European and American consulates pleading for exit visas.
Only a small percentage managed to escape, since the total
requests far exceeded the stringent immigration rules and
regulations established by such countries as France, Great
Britain, the United States, Canada and others. In desperation,
A few thousand others managed to
some Jews committed suicide.
Palestine, South
emigrate to Shanghai (China), British-controlled
America, South Africa and Australia.
Of approximately 560,000
Jews remaining in the Reich at the time of "Kristallnacht , " a
group representing barely one percent of the total population,
about 160,000 were able to get out (nearly one out of every

three

. )

"Kristallnacht" marked the intensification of a 5-year antiSemitic program initiated by Adolf Hitler, Chancellor of
Between January
Germany, soon after he assumed power in 1933.
30, 1933, and November 9, 1938, through a series of laws, Jews

civil

rights within the


had been systematically denied their
community and gradually deprived of the right to gainful
The violent physical violations of November 9-10
employment.
were the
attacks on Jews to go beyond the borders of
Germany, affecting incorporated Austria and the newly occupied
German

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first

Sudetenland

These events were widely reported in the United States


News stories filled the front pages of papers and close
media.
Americans reacted
to a thousand editorials were printed.
initially with outrage. Offers of humanitarian relief spanned
the entire political, religious and social spectrum of U.S.
society. The local and national press and radio echoed the
ordinary citizen's empathy; pledges streamed from parishes,
congregations and school districts to adopt and shelter Jewish

families

and

their children.

Calls for

an economic

and

political

boycott of Nazi Germany poured into Washington from trade unions,


civic associations, parent-teacher associations as well as from
leaders of both political parties.
President Franklin
On Tuesday, the 15th of November,
Roosevelt announced the recall of Hugh Wilson, the U.S.
Ambassador to Germany, and issued a special press release
expressing shock and dismay. Notwithstanding the public outcry,
the Department of State decided not to alter U.S. immigration
laws

.
I
i

12

The events

of November 9-10 were

significant

advancement

of the Nazis' "final solution of the Jewish question." Within


two months following "Kristallnacht , " Hitler, in a major address
to the German Parliament, promised the destruction of the Jewish

Thus, the Jews


people throughout Europe should there be war.
were inexorably consigned to the Nazis' Kingdom of Night.
Under what pretext had the Nazis unleased such blatant

In Paris,
France, on Monday, November 7, 1938, Herschel Grynszpan, a
teenage immigrant Jew, shot Ernst vom Rath, the Third Secretary

criminal violence against the Jews at this time?


in the

German

Embassy

in Paris.

Grynszpan was protesting the

Nazi Government's forced expulsion of his family from Germany


back to Poland as part of the Nazis' anti-Jewish policy (known as
the Zbaszyn

Incident).

Following on the news of vom Rath's death at 4:00 p.m. on


November 9, what purported to be "spontaneous" attacks on Jews,
synagogues, and other Jewish property broke out throughout the
Third Reich. These were surreptitiously organized by local Nazi
Party officials, instigated by the anti-Semitic Reich Propaganda
Leader, Dr. Josef Goebbels.
The actions were carried out by SA
As
and SS men in plain clothes, as well as other Party members.
the depredations spread, and murder and mayhem were mingled with
arson against synagogues and Jewish-owned stores and shops,
uniformed police cordoned off the areas and did not interfere
with the ongoing handiwork of the perpetrators . Firemen stood by

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only to prevent the spread of the raging fires to Aryan property.


Meanwhile, the Gestapo carried out their orders to arrest 20,000
to 30,000 preferably affluent Jews. The rampage continued
unabated all that night and well into the next morning.
The Nazis attempted to camouflage their viciousness under
the cloak of vindication, but the world decried these acts as
barbarism. The tremor of protest over "Kristallnacht" soon
passed, however.
As for the 17-year-old Herschel Grynszpan, for over a year
the French developed elaborate plans to bring him to trial . The
proceedings were never initiated.
He fell into the hands of the
Nazis after their occupation of France.
Dr. Josef Goebbels was
to have staged a showcase trial, but again the plans were never
carried out. No records have emerged since the war disclosing
conclusive evidence of this young man's fate.

Fifty years later, why should we commemorate this event?


Americans should remember the tragedy of "Kristallnacht" as an
event which demonstrates the need for national resolve to respond
to government-sponsored persecution anywhere in the world .
Remembrance also calls for national rededication to the
principles of tolerance and freedom of choice which form the very
foundation of our democratic society.

13

"...Anyone who closes his eyes to the past is blind to


present. Whoever refuses to remember ... is prone to
We must erect a memorial
new risks of infection....
to
thoughts and feelings in our own hearts."
the

Excerpt

Germany,

from

speech by the President of the Federal Republic


von Weizsacker, May 8, 1985, on the 42nd
the conclusion of World War

Richard

anniversary of

II.

"Seeking to forget makes exile all the longer.


secret of redemption lies in remembrance."

Jewish

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NOTES:

Wisdom

of

[Baal

Shem

Tov

(ca.

The

1700-1760)].

Please see "Highlights of Events, March 17, 1938 through


January 30, 1939" in this booklet for a chronological
sequence of events.
References

was drawn

from which the material in this "Background"


are listed in the "Bibliography."

14

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15

Nazi Paperwork on Reichskristallnacht


Robert Wolfe

National Archives
The so-called Reichskristallnacht (Reich Crystal Night), the
November 9-10, 1938, destruction of synagogues and other Jewish
property accompanied by arrest and murder of Jews throughout the
Greater German Reich, was not, as the Nazis asserted, a

spontaneous expression of public outrage over the assassination


It was the first
of a German diplomat by a young Polish Jew.
organized mass attack on Jews in Nazi Germany, although many
individual Jews had been attacked and even killed since the Nazi
"seizure of power" on January 30, 1933.

were three "nights of broken glass"; on


8-9, as well as November 9-10.
Shortly after
the first radio reports of the shooting of vom Rath on the
afternoon of November 7 , pogroms led by plain-clothes SA and SS
men and other local Nazi party members erupted in the city of
Kassel and a few lesser localities, ending by 10:00 p.m. thfft
evening.
On the following night, November 8-9, as vom Rath lay
dying, sporadic pogroms broke out in more than a dozen other
(mainly Hessian) localities.
These latter actions were abruptly
terminated by telephone calls on the morning of November 9 from
the Gauleiter in Kassel to his Kurhessen county leaders,
confirmed in writing by the following order:

Actually, there

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November 7-8 and

All anti

Jewish demonstrations are to cease


immediately.
County leaders are fully responsible to
the Gauleiter for carrying out this order.
Further

instructions will follow.

[signed] Solbrig, SA-Brigade

Leader

cited in Wolfgang
"Die Pogrome vom 7-10 November, 1938," in
Volksgemeinschaf t, Volksfeinde, Kassel 1933-1945. Vol.
Fuldabrueck 1: Verlag Druckerei Hesse Gmblt, 1987, pages 193[Hauptstaapsarchiv Wiesbaden, #423/2948,

Printz,
198.

II.

trial

Whether premature or
pogroms were suspiciously

balloon,

similar in

all

tolerance to the organized nationwide

of these forerunner
spontaniety and police
pogrom of November 9-10.

sham

Facsimiles reproduced in the following pages, or


translations included here, are of captured Nazi documents placed
in evidence before the Nuernberg International Military Tribunal

17

which expose the Nazi leaders as the instigators of the pogroms,


and unmask their transparent attempts to cover up their
complicity. The original documents are in the National Archives
War Crimes Records, Record Group 238.
Collection of World War

II

Reinhard Heydrich, Chief of Security


(whose office acknowledged on
November 15 that the "General Field Marshal has been informed.
No steps are to be taken" ) :
On

November 11,

1938,

Police, reported to Goering

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In numerous cities looting of Jewish shops and


businesses has occurred. . . . The reported figures:
815 shops destroyed, 29 department stores set afire or
otherwise destroyed, 171 dwellings set on fire or
destroyed, give. . .only part of the real
destruction
[and] may exceed that many times
over. Of synagogues, 191 were set afire, a further 76
Further, 11 community centers,
were fully demolished.
cemetery chapels and such were set afire and 3 others
fully destroyed. Arrested were around 20,000 Jews,
further 7 Aryans and 3 foreigners. . . .reported were
The dead
36 deaths, as well as 36 critically injured.
[Nuernberg Document 3058 PS]
and/or injured are Jews.
[Facsimile of original, Document #1 following this
report . ]
This matter-of-fact report minimizes the true story. The
police not only failed to intervene against the "spontaneous"
anti-Semitic outbreak, they knew it was coming but did not
This is clear from the following Heydrich telegram
prevent it.
(translation below) to all police units (facsimile of original
German document,
Document #2 following this report) entitled

"Measures Against the Jews Tonight" sent at 1:20 a.m.,


10 from Munich (where Nazi leaders were attending the
annual gathering commemorating the failed "Beer Hall Putsch" of
November
1923)

Because of the assassination of Legation Secretary vom


Rath in Paris, demonstrations must be expected tonight
November 9 to 10, 1938 throughout the Reich. The
following orders are issued for dealing with these
events .
1)

Upon

receipt of this telegram, the chiefs of the


[Gestapo] stations or their deputies

political police

must immediately

contact the appropriate

political

authorities for their district [Nazi Party regional or


local administration - Gauleitung or Kreisleitung] by

telephone to arrange a discussion of the carrying out of


the demonstrations discussions which should include
the competent inspector or commander of the uniformed
police [ Ordnungspolizei ] . During this conference the
political authorities are to be informed that the German
police have received the following orders from the
18

Reichsfuhrer SS and Chief of the German Police to which


the actions of the political authorities should be
correspondingly adjusted:
a)

Only such actions may be carried out which do not


threaten German lives or property (e.g., burning of
synagogues

only

the surroundings
b)

d)

there is no threat of

fire

to

) .

Stores and residences of Jews may only be destroyed


The police are instructed to
but not looted.
supervise compliance with this order and arrest

looters

c)

when

Special care is to be taken in business streets to


provide absolute protection against damage to nonJewish stores.
Foreign citizens, even

be molested.

if

they are Jewish,

may

not

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Provided that the guidelines enumerated in paragraph 1 )


are followed, demonstrations in progress should not be
prevented by the police but only supervised for
compliance with the guidelines .
Immediately upon receipt of this telegram, existing
archival material is to be impounded by the police in
all synagogues and offices of the Jewish communities
Centers [Kultusgemeinden] to prevent its destruction in
the course of the demonstrations. This refers to
available historical material and not to more recent tax
lists, etc. The archival material is to be turned over
to the competent offices of the SD.

direction of Security Police [both political and


criminal divisions] operations relating to the antiJewish demonstrations resides with political police
authorities except when orders are issued by security
police inspectors.
Officials from the criminal police
as well as members of the Security Service (SD), of the
SS para-military units [Verf uegungstruppe : forerunner of
Waffen SS], and of the general SS may be called upon to
carry out security police operations .
The

of events during this night allows


the assigned police officers to be used for this
purpose, as many Jews particularly affluent Jews are

As soon as the course

to be arrested in all districts as can be accommodated


in existing detention facilities.
For the time being
only healthy male Jews, whose age is not too advanced,
are to be arrested.
Immediately after the arrests have
been carried out, the appropriate concentration camps
should be contacted to place the Jews into camps as
19

quickly as possible. Special care should be taken that


Jews arrested on the basis of this order are not

mistreated
6)

The contents of this order are to be passed on to the


competent inspectors and commanders of the uniformed
police and to regional and local divisions of the SD
with the addendum that the Reichs fuehrer SS and Chief of
The
the German Police has ordered this police action.
chief of the uniformed police has issued corresponding

orders to the uniformed police including the fire


brigades.
Close coordination is to be maintained
between

the security police and the uniformed police

during the execution of the ordered actions


Receipt of this telegram is to be confirmed by

political

police chiefs or their deputies by telegram addressed to the


Political Police Central Office [Gestapo], for the attention
of SS-Colonel

Standartenf uehrer

Mueller.

signed: Heydrich
SS-Major General
[3051

report

PS]

[Facsimile

SS-Gruppenf uehrer

of original, Document

#2

following this

. ]

This telegram had been preceded by one sent from Berlin at


minutes to midnight on November 9 (one hour and 25 minutes
before), presumably on Heydrich 's instructions, to all security
police stations and units by Gestapo chief Heinrich Mueller:
"In
shortest order, actions against Jews and especially their
These are not to
synagogues will take place in all of Germany.
Preparations are to be made for the
be interfered with. . . .
arrest of 20-30,000 Jews in the Reich. Primarily propertied Jews
are to be selected.
.
.
.Addendum
for Cologne Gestapo:
Especially important material is to be found in the Cologne
Synagogue."
[374 PS]

Generated on 2015-05-09 18:47 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022195989


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If the police become lawbreakers, the judiciary ought to


intervene, but a follow-up Heydrich telegram of November 10
reads:
"The Reich Ministry of Justice has instructed public
prosecutors not to procede with any investigation of the actions
against Jews." Notwithstanding this promised abdication of
judicial responsibility, some state prosecutors were
investigating the lack of "compliance with [Heydrich' s]
instruction. . .not to endanger German life or property. . .
[when] synagogues are burned. . .no plundering. . .[when] Jewish
businesses and homes are destroyed."
[3051 PS]
So the Nazi Supreme Party Court intervened because, "as a
matter of principle,
must be impossible that political
only from the viewpoint of the
offenses. . .which,
perpetrator, are willed as extra-legal measures by the Party,

it
if

20

should be investigated and judged by ordinary criminal


courts. . . . The Supreme Party Court has reserved for itself
tbie investigation of killings, severe mistreatment and moral

cirimes . "
[3063 PS]
[Facsimile of original, Document #3,
page only of three pages, following this report.]

This report of

to try

18

SA and

a Special Panel [Senat] of


SS men, and 5 Party members

local office holders,

accused of looting,

first

the Court set up

including four

and murder during


the pogroms of Kristallnacht , was transmitted from Munich on
February 13, 1939, by Walter Buch, Chief Justice of the Supreme
Party Court, and acknowledged by Goering on February 22. Except
for four men charged with looting or "racial shame" committed
against two Jewish women, one only thirteen years old, the panel
recommended that Hitler forestall trials in the regular courts by
decreeing light suspended sentences for two SA men involved in
the killing of two Jews (one a 16 year-old male), and dismissal
of charges for 24 men involved in the deaths of 21 Jews
(including four women) and the injury of three. The
justification for dismissal of charges or suspension of sentences
was that these murders were committed "on higher orders."

rape,

Special Panel report states that, on the evening of


get-together of Party leaders in Munich,
9 at the annual
against Jewish businesses
announced
that
outbreaks
Goebbels
already underway in Party Districts Kurhessen and MagdeburgAnhalt were, by Der Fuehrer's decision, "neither to be prepared
or organized, but spontaneous outbreaks were not to be
hindered. . . . These oral instructions were understood by all
Party leaders on hand to mean that the Party should not appear
outwardly to instigate the demonstrations, but in actuality
should organize and carry them out to avenge vom Rath." Most of
those present telegraphed instructions accordingly to their own
Party districts.
[3063 PS]

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The
November

The commander of SA Brigade 50 ( Starkenburg ) , for example,


from Darmstadt on November 11 on actions taken by his

reporting

against 35 synagogues, rather indiscreetly (or to


stated that he had received the following order on
November 10 at 3 a.m.:
"On order of the Group Leader, all Jewish
synagogues in the [area of] Brigade 50 are to be blown up or set
afire. Neighboring houses occupied by Aryans are not to be
The action is to be carried out in civilian clothing."
damaged.
[1721 PS]
[Facsimile of original, Document #4 following this
report . ]

five regiments
cover himself)

The Supreme Party Court ruled


quashed because the murders were:

that the charges were to be

order. . .presumed order. . .or without orders


for Jews, or. . .a decision suddenly formed in
An order shifts the responsibility from
its executor to the order-giver. . .a misunderstanding arose
in some link of the chain of command, especially

committed

by

...

out of hatred
excitement.

21

.
.as a matter of course, in the days of Party
struggle [before coming to power in January 1933]. . .in
actions where the Party did not wish to appear as the
organizer, orders were not given with full clarity. . . .
[On November 9-10, 1938] subordinate leaders understood some
unfortunately-phrased oral or telephone orders. . .to mean
that Jewish blood would now have to flow; at any rate, the
leadership did not attach importance to the life of a Jew.
In the time of struggle, it may have been necessary in some
cases, in order to achieve political success without giving
the [Weimar] state the possibility of proving that the Nazi
Party was the instigator.
This viewpoint is no longer
necessary. The public, unto the last person, knows that
actions like that of November 9 were organized and carried
out by the Party.
When in one night all synagogues burn

because.

down,

it

must have been organized

in

some way,

which could

only be done by the Party.


But the soldier should never be
put in the position of having to ponder the real intention
of his commander, whether the order really means what it
says. . .[otherwise] the Nazi concept of discipline and

responsibility will be undermined. . . . When toward 2 a.m.


on November 10, 1938, the
case of the killing of a
Jew. . .was reported to Reich Propaganda Leader Dr.

first

the opinion was expressed that something would


to be done in order to prevent the entire action taking
a dangerous turn.
According to the testimony of the deputy
district leader [ stellvertrenden Gauleiter] of Munich-Upper
Bavaria, Dr. Goebbels replied, in essence, that his
informant should not get excited about one dead Jew; that in
the next days thousands of Jews will have to die.
[3063 PS]
Goebbels,

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Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

have

It

of Hitler,
"only
correctly that each
semantics

henchmen were

last

time that thousands even


be the victims of the extravagant
Goebbels, and other Nazi leaders, whose
following orders," and assuming quite
"order really means what
says."

would not be the

millions of Jews would

it

22

DOCUMENT

TJet Chef tier Sjidiertieitspolijei

II

5 4

BtttinSmil.

oen

# 1

li^.i^ecber

1gj.8.

Jhbg*|ilbtcd|t-Stra0c8

9716/33 g

f cnfpu^tc:

P 2 flora 0040

SriitiEHbricf

An

Goring

uinisterpr&sidenten
Generalf eldmarschall
z.Ed. von iiinisterialdirektcr Dr. Gritzbach
den Herrn

Berlin

"^"8.

leipziger otr.
retr

. : Auction

die Juden.

gegen

Die "bis jetzt *ir.ge::;.ngeneii -eldungen dar ataats-7

poliseistellen

haben

bis

folgendes Ge-

zue 11 -11.1938

santbild ergeben :Generated on 2015-05-09 18:48 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022195989


Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

In zahlreichen 3tii.it en

j lidi seller

sicii Pliinderur-gen

haban

laden und Geschaf tshiiuser ereignet .

ua v?eitere Ilunderungen zu varuaiden,


sciiaxf durcngegriffen.
174-

Tfei-en

rlLinderns

Is

r/urde,

in alien Fallen
wurden dabei

lexsonsn festgenoa\.xen.
-

Bar- Hsfan^

TTohniorgen

jiidischer Geschaf te

dar Zerstomngen

lasst sich bisher zii"f ernriisslg noch nicht be-

legen. Die in den fieri cht en auf cefolxrten


z erst "irt

Geschilfte,

aerator te Y..arenhauser

storte

and

.Vohnhauser

legungon lutndelt,

in

23
.

171

geb ?n,

nur

23

Brand gestec*:te

315

oier sons*

"in Brand ge set zie cier zersov;eit as sich nicht"- ttz Brar.d-

-.ine::

dea Z^r3torungn -.vi.^i-j-.

Zif f e^a:

_eil

"Tegen

dar

d.v:

..irhlich v-.riie^an-

Jri.- -lioh<ai: i it

DOCTMENT

3erichterstatt"urg
Ueldur.^en

che" oder

- ~

#1

sicii die bisher eir^egaarenen

mussten

lediglich auf all&eneir.ore Anga"oen, nie "zahlrsi"die meisten Gaschafte zarstcrt", beschrenlcen.

Die angee-ebenea Ziffern diirften daher un 3in

Vielf aches

iiberstiegen werden.
An Synagogentwurder.
76

191

in

vollstiindig deaoli-rt. Ferner

Friedhofslapellen
weitere

una

Brand

gesteckt, rei.ere

wurden

11

C-eneindehauser,

d2?gleichen in Brand resetzt und

vollig zerst-Jrt.

Festgenociuen wui"dea rund 20 000 Juden, feraer 7


una

in

Arier

Auslanders. Lex zt ere v/urdsn zur eigenen Sicherheit

Eaft

genois^en.

An 2odesf

geceidet.

alien

v/urden 36, an

Sch~erverletzten ebenfalls J.

Die Getb"teten, bezw. Yerletzten sind Juden. Ein

Jude wird noch vernisst. tinter den getoteten Juden cefia-

Generated on 2015-05-09 18:49 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022195989


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det sich ein, unter

d-sr.

Yerletzten

24

polniscb?-

Staatsange

REPRODUCED

FROM HOLDlNGS

Of

l ME NATlONAL

->Dg)P

ARCHlVES

JJ

DOCUMENT

,<+

# 2

AbBchrift dee Blitz-JernB&hreibene

iO.11.38

aue Munohen von

Uhr. 20.

alio

An

Staatepolizeileit

und

Staatspollzeistellen

alle

An

SS <-0berab8chnitte

und SD-Unterabschnitte*

flofort dem Loiter Oder


Stellvertreter vorlegen!

Dringendj
selnem

Betrifffrt
MaGnahmen gegen

Generated on 2015-05-09 18:57 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022195989


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heutigen Nacht.

rib

11.1938

Juden In der

Auf grand doe Attentats gegen den Leg.Sekretar

in Parle elnd

im ganzen

im Laufo der heutigen

Eoich

warten?ttr. die Behandlung

Lemons

trat ionen

Nacht

vom

auf 10*

er*

gegen die Juden zu

dleeer Vorgange ergehen die folgenden

Anordnungent

1) Bio Loiter der Staatepolizeistellen odor ihro Stell=

/ vertreter
/

den

haben

eofort nach Eingang dieeee Fernachreibens

fur ihren Bezirk zuet&ndigen politischen Leitungen

leitung" oder firfcieleitung


nehmen und*

- f ernmttndlich

eiltfl Beeprechung

mit
Oau

Yorbindung auf eu

Uber die Durchftthrung der Demon

stratiorien zu vereinbaren, zu der der zuetandige Jnspekteur

oder Kommandeur

der Ordnungspolizei zuzuziehen

ist.Jn

dieeor

REPROOUCED FROM HOLDlNGS OF


#

1HE NATlONAL

ARCH|VES

"JbSl

A*

DOCUMENT

Polizei

die Deutsche

Reichsfuhrer

vom

Polizei die folgenden

denen die Mafinahmen


anzupassen

# 2

1st der politischen Leitung mitzuteilen,dasB

Besprechung

Deutschen

W,

und Chef

Weisungen

erhalten hat,

politischen Leitungen

der

der

zweckmaasig

waren:

a) Es dttrfen nur solche Massnahmen

keine Gefahrdung

sich bringen

deutschen

getroffen werden, die

Lebene Oder Eigentums

z.B. Synagogenbrande

nur,wenn keine

Brandgef ahr fur die Umgebung vorhanden


b) Geschafte und Wohnungen

alt

ist

) ,

von Juden diirfen nur

zeretbrt,

nicht geplvlndert werden. Die Polizei ist angewieeen,die


Durchfuhrung dieser Anordnung zu Uberwachen und PlUn
derer

f e8tzunehmen,
ist

c) Jn Geschaf tsstrassen
das8

besonders darauf zu achten,

nicht jiidische Geachafte unbedingt gegen Schaden

Generated on 2015-05-09 18:58 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022195989


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gesichert werden.
d)

Aualandische

Juden aind

Staateangehorige

diirfen

auch wenn aie

nicht belaetigt werden.

2) Unter der VorausBetzung,

Richtlinien eingehalten

dasa die

unter 1) angegebenen

werden, sind die

stattf in^enden

.Demonstrationen von der Polizei nicht zu verhindern, son

dern nur auf die Einhaltung der Richtlinien zu Uberwachen.


3)

Sofort nach Eingang dieses Pernechreibens


nagogen und Geechafteraumen
das vorhandene
nahmen,damit

ea

iet in alien

der JUdischen Kultu8gemeinden

Archivmaterial polizeilich zu beechlag


nicht

im Zuge
26

Sy=

der Demonstrationen

zerstbrt

r. 0
ft f *b

iL

national archives

DOCUMENT

wird. Es

kommt

# 2

dabei auf das historisch wertvolle Material

an, nicht auf neuere Steuerlisten

ist

an die zustndigen

SB

usw. Das

Dienststellen

Archivmaterial
abzugeben.

Die Leitung der sicherheitspolizeilichen Massnahmen

sichtlich
.

der Demons-tot ionen gegen Juden

liegt bei

Staatspolizeistellen, soweit nioht die Jnspekteure


Sicherheitspolizei

Weisungen

erteilen.

der sicherheitspolizeilichen Massnahmen

hin
den

der

Zur Durchfhrung
knnen Beamte

der Kriminalpolizei sowie Angehrige des SB, der Verf


gungstruppe und der allgemeinen

Sobald der Ablauf der Ereignisse


Wendung

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so

viele Juden

insbesondere wohlha

festzunehmen, als in den vorhandenen

untergebracht
de

dieser Nacht die Ver

der eingesetzten Beamten hierfr zulest , sind

in allen Bezirken
bende

werden.

zugezogen

Haftrumen

werden knnen. Es sind zunchst nur gesun

mnnliche Juden nicht zu hohen Alters festzunehmen.

Nach Durchfhrung der Festnahme


den zustndigen

Unterbringung

ist

ist unverzglich

Konzentrationslagern

wegen

mit

schnellster

der Juden in den Lagern Verbindung aufzu


besonders darauf zu achten, dass die auf

nehmen

Je e

grund

dieser Weisung festgenommenen Juden nicht miss

handelt werden.
Der

Jnhalt dieses Befehls ist

pek teure

und Kommandeure

die SD-Oberabschnitte
geben mit

dem

an die zustndigen

der Ordnungspolizei

27

und an

weiterzu

und SD-Unterabschnitte

Zusatz, dass der Reichsfhrer

Jn

und Chef

A 0H3503

REPRODUCED FROM HOLDlNGS Ot THE NAiiONAL

ARCH|VES

"7

DOCUMENT

der Eeutschen

Pollzai

# 2

diese polizeiliche

Kasanahme

hat fur die Ordnungspolizet

Ber Chef der Ordnungapolizei

eohlieselioh der Petrerlbechpolizei entsprechende

teilt.Jn

angeordnet hat.

Weisungen

der Durchfuhrung der angeordneten Maeenahmen

Einvernehmen

ein

ist

er

engstee

zwisohen der Sicherheitepolizei und der Qrdnungs

polizei zu wahren.
Der Empfang dieses

ist

Fernschreibens

von den

tern oder. deren Stellvertretern durch PS an das


polizeiamt

z.Hd.H-StandartenfUhrer Ifiiller

zu

Geheime

Stapolei
Staats

bestatigen.

gez.Heydrich,

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M-Gruppenftihrer.

28

=
=

ED

AT

THE

NATlOWAt ARCHlVES

DOCUMENT

# 3

jOtationalfojkliifdje Beutfdje Arbeiterpartei


^berftes $)tte(geruf)t
&nd)m 33
fmwf so$\t$9$\s,

47

Schn/R,

Indien:

Geheim

loeu

Dm

Geheim

Bericht
ber

die Vorgnge und parteigerichtlichen Verfahren,


die im

mit den antisemitischen Kundgebungen

Zusammenhang

Generated on 2015-05-09 19:03 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022195989


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vom 9 November

Am

Abend des 9. November

gandaleiter Pg.Dr.

stehen.

1958

1958

Goebbels

schartsabend im Alten Rathaus

fhrern mit, dass es in

teilte
den

der Reichspropa

zu einem Kamerad

zu Mnchen versammelten

den Gauen

Partei

Kurhessen und Magdeburg-

Anhalt zu judenfeindlichen Kundgebungen

gekommen

sei, dabei

seien jdische Geschfte zertrmmert und Synagogen in Brand


gesteckt

worden Der

entschieden,
weder

Fhrer

habe

auf seinen Vortrag

dass derartige Demonstrationen von der Partei

vorzubereiten noch zu organisieren seien, soweit sie

29

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Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

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Dispatches

from American Diplomats

in Germany (Wilson)

The Ambassador

[Hull]

to the Secretary of State

November 10, 1938 - 2 p.m.


[Received November 10 10:35 a.m.]

Berlin,

9, 5 p.m.
In
breaking of Jewish
owned shop windows throughout the Reich and the burning of the
principal synagogues in Berlin was carried out. Observers noted
no uniforms of Nazi organizations among the perpetrators of this
Nevertheless, it is not conceivable that this admirable
action.
body of police would have tolerated such infraction of order
unless general instructions to that effect had been issued.
605.
the

My

600,

November

8,

p.m.

and

603,

early hours of this morning systematic

nevertheless carries the following

The noon press

semi-official

November

German

news

agency:

release by the

of the death of the German diplomat and Party member


at the hands of a Jewish murderer became known
in the whole Reich developed.
spontaneous anti-Jew demonstrations
The profound indignation of the German people found expression in
considerable anti-Jewish actions in many instances."
"When

Vom

news

Rath

Editorial

continues along the same lines described in my


reference which seems to imply a continuation of
anti-Jewish measures. Moreover, an order by Himmler is published
forbidding Jews to possess arms.
This has given rise to
considerable apprehension in connection with the return of Vom
Rath's body to Germany.

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telegrams

comment

under

Although no arrests have been reported in Berlin the Consulate


Breslau reports arrests of Jews there this morning.

in

Wilson

Foreign Relations of the United States:

In :

1938.~Volume
and

Africa.

pages

II:

The

Washington
395-396.

British
,

D.C.

32

Diplomatic Papers,

Commonwealth, Europe,
Government Printing

Near

East

Office,

11)55 ,

David H. Buff urn, American Consul in Leipzig, November 10, 1938:

Violent anti-Semitic pogrom in progress in Leipzig.


Three synagogues in flames one next to Consulate
Hundreds of shop
burning but fire under control.
throughout

windows

lives molested

as

city

yet.

smashed

Fur

no

American property or
badly damaged.

district

In: Mendelsohn, John (ed.) and


Cable to the Secretary of State.
Detwiler, Donald S. (adv. ed.). The Holocaust. Selected
Volume 3: The Crystal Night
Documents in Eighteen Volumes .
Pogrom.
New York:
Garland Publishing, Inc., 1982, page 173,
Doc.

18.

Samuel Honaker, American Consul General


November 15, 1938:

in Stuttgart,

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Of all the places in this section of Germany, the Jews


of Rastatt, which is situated near Baden-Baden, have
apparently been subjected to the most ruthless
treatment.
Many Jews in this section were cruelly
attacked and beaten and the furnishings of their homes
Practically all male Jews in
almost totally destroyed.
that city were arrested and transported either to
prisons or to concentration camps....
Similar
developments occurred in other places, and there were
doubtless many outrages....
So far as Stuttgart is
concerned, I can state confidently that these so called
reprisals against the Jews were not a spontaneous

originating from the people as a whole....


For more than five days the office has been inundated
with people.
Each day a larger and larger crowd has
besieged the Consulate, filling all the rooms and
overflowing into the corridor of a building six stories

movement

high.

Today

there were several thousand....

from Honaker 's report covering Stuttgart and other


George S. Messersmith, Assistant Secretary of State.
In: Mendelsohn, John (ed. ) and Detwiler, Donald S. (Adv. ed.).
The Holocaust.
Selected Documents in Eighteen Volumes.
Volume 3: The Crystal Night Pogrom.
New York:
Garland
Publishing, Inc., 1982, pages 176-181.

Excerpts

cities to

David H. Buffum, American Consul in Leipzig, November 21,

At

1938:

1938, was unleashed a barrage of


3 A.M. November 10,
Nazi ferocity as had had no equal hitherto in
Germany. ...
In one of the Jewish sections an eighteen
year old boy was hurled from a three story window to
land with both legs broken on a street littered with

33

burning beds and other household furniture and effects


from his family's and other apartments....

in Leipzig were fired simultaneously


incendiary bombs and all sacred objects and records
desecrated or destroyed, in most instances hurled
through the windows and burned in the streets ....
Three synagogues
by

The most hideous phase of the


action, has been the wholesale

transportation

so-called Spontaneous'
arrest and

to concentration

camps

of male

Jews between the ages of sixteen and sixty,

Jewish

men

without citizenship.

as

German

well

as

. . .

The slightest manifestation of sympathy evoked a


positive fury on the part of the perpetrators, and the
crowd was powerless to do anything but turn horrorstricken eyes from the scene of abuse, or leave the

vicinity.

. . .

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Excerpts from Buff urn's report, "Anti-Semitic Onslaught in Germany


as Seen from Leipzig."
In: Mendelsohn, John (ed.) and Detwiler,
Donald S. (Adv. ed.).
The Holocaust.
Selected Documents in
Eighteen Volumes . Volume 3: The Crystal Night Pogrom.
New York:
Garland Publishing, Inc., 1982, pages 191-197,
Doc. 21.

34

EYEWITNESS ACCOUNTS

1 .

Vienna, Austria
Twenty

of the

years

fall

is

of

in

a long time
19 38 are burned

in the morning,
in the center of the city, I

November 10,

a man's

into

life,

but the events

my memory.

...

On

on the way to a friend who lived


happened to read at a newsstand

the headlines of the Neue Preie Presse, one-time mouthpiece


The "aryanized' paper reported the death of
of liberalism.
Herr vom Rath in inflammatory Jew-baiting language in the
vein of Julius Streicher's notorious Stuenner.

Cautiously I watched the expressions of my neighbors.


Apparently they were little influenced by the Nazi
editorials. A Jewish lad had killed a petty official in
Paris so what? By that time, the Austrians were more
concerned with the growing food shortage than with Nazi
politics . But I found it advisable to postpone my visit and
return home.
I rushed to the nearest telephone booth to call

friend.

up my

friend's wife talked very nervously. Jacob had gone to a


grocer two hours ago but had not yet returned ! I tried to
comfort her as much as I could when a man preemptorily
demanded that I leave the booth.
"I am sorry,' I said to
him, "you have to wait until I've finished my call.'
He
waited, hot with anger.
"We are not in Paris, mind youl' he
muttered threateningly, when I left the booth.
He wore the
badge of the veteran party members .
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My

decided to go home.
"Are you a Jew?'
The

But

after

a few

asked

minutes

was

this question

stopped.

had the
look of a criminal; he wore no badge.
Frequently Jews were
robbed in the streets of Nazi Vienna in broad daylight.
So
intimidated were the Jews that they often did not dare to
man

who

me

call for help.

I tried to elude the

with

me.

me.

man by walking faster.


He caught up
short struggle ensued. People gathered around

found out what

should have known

from the

start:

that not all Austrians were Nazi sympathizers.


Although all
of these people were wearing swastikas (for self -protection ) ,
they rallied to my aid, regarding my assailant as a common
gangster.
"Let him alone, at once!' they commanded my foe.
But the latter scornfully shouted at the crowd:
"Off with
you Gestapo 1'
He took a badge out of his pocket.
I had
never seen such a stampede

35

before....

I was dragged like a


put handcuffs on me.
the
crowded
streets
of my native
through
criminal
common
Vienna on that gloomy November day I shall never forget....
The Gestapo

man

Eventually I found myself in the cell of a police station


fifty or sixty other Jewish men arrested in the
myself, or dragged from their shops or homes.
like
streets
Our number increased as every five or ten minutes another
battered Jew was thrown into our already crowded cell.
along with

It was two o'clock in the afternoon when we got some water


Too exhausted for talk, we sat on the floor, or
but no food.
did whatever walking could be done in the small cell. Now
He would not tell us about the
and then a policeman came in.
looting of the few remaining Jewish-owned shops, or the
burning of the synagogues (of all this we were to learn much
later). In fact, he tried to reassure us, but with little
success. It was clear to us that he was uneasy and that he

even

felt

ashamed.

At eleven p.m. stormtroopers arrived to take charge of us.


We were herded into a dark prison van and driven to a Nazi
barracks. On our arrival we had to run the gauntlet of a wild
mob who beat us with sticks and iron bars.
The first to
enter the barracks was shot at once. On entering the hall,
he had stumbled against a Nazi guard, and another Nazi,
interpreting it as a hostile act, had pressed his trigger.
spent the night in the pitch dark rooms of what had been a
No one slept since we could hear the turmoil
going on in the street.
At about two a.m. the noise
gradually subsided, but few of us managed to fall asleep. We
What will become of us? What has happened to
kept thinking:

We

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school house.

our families?

A boy of eighteen
mad that night.
As his
commit suicide by jumping out of the window.
head smashed through the glass he was seized and pulled back
The man was too
by one of our men, a former police sergeant.
late. The boy had cut one of the arteries of his neck and he

Three or four persons went

tried to

died despite the frantic efforts of


to stop the flood of blood.

some

doctors in our midst

During the seven days that followed we got, now and then, a
The Nazis (some of
few slices of black bread and some tea.
them Germans, to judge by their accents, but the majority
Austrian riff-raff) played with us as nasty boys would play
with their "pets.' They did not allow us an hour of rest.
Once a grim-faced man, a devil, entered our room, demanding
that we should choose one among us who should pay with his
life "for the sins of the others.' We refused instan
taneously and declared that we would rather all die than
He was not satisfied with this offer.
accept this demand.
He chose a man himself, and we did not see the victim again.

36

Another Nazi singled out the youngest of our group, a boy of


seventeen, put his revolver on the youngster's chest and
The brave youth replied:
barked:
"Say your prayers!'
"
Shoot, you coward!'
Whereupon the Nazi beast became so
infuriated that he beat the youth with his revolver until his

victim collapsed.
evening

it

was the last we were to spend in the


of us, several hundred people, were called
from the classrooms into the big gym where one of the Nazis
made a short speech:
One

all

barracks

Jewry in all
help you

will

Rath,'

"
shouted.
Every one of
But our Fuehrer will destroy
parts of the world, and not even your Jehovah

"You have murdered Herr vom


you is a Herschel Grynszpan.
!

he

'

to perform physical exercises under the mocking


supervision of the Nazis. From ten in the evening to eight

Then we had

in the morning we were chased through the overheated


We had to run,
gymnasium.
Not
jump, kneel without pause.
only young strong men, but also the elderly and the sick had
to keep up the pace in spite of the exhaustion from a week's
dreadful strain and lack of food and sleep. Several men
collapsed.
The Nazis "took charge" of these "recalcitrant"
ones in such a way that in the morning two or three were
found dead and a number of others badly injured.
I
wonder how I was able to hold out....

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still

In the morning we were told to put on our coats and hats and
to go to the offices where we would be informed as to what we
could expect.
A ray of hope gleamed through our bitterness
and despair....
Perhaps .... the mortal foes had abated or
the democratic world powers (especially the U.S.), in whom we
believed, had intervened in our behalf.
We would be
released soon. We would see our families again. We would
shave and wash and go to bed sleep in our own beds.
We
would have a substantial meal next morning and again try to
get visas from the embassies of some South American or

still

African state (practically


hermetically

It

all

sealed to refugees

until

European countries were


from the Nazi terror) .

were herded into cattle cars and the


that our hopes of liberty sank. The
train, we understood, was carrying us off to that hell on
earth the concentration camp of Dachau.
was there that
learned from Bavarian, Prussian and Silesian Jews that
Austria and the whole of Germany had become Eretz ha-damim
was

train

not

began

to

we

move

It

(land of blood)

37

But the nations of the world


Poland was next on the agenda.
that had failed to grasp the importance of the " Black
Thursday' also failed to grasp the fact that the invasion of
I was in America after
Poland would initiate a global war.
a half year in Dachau, and a year
camp when a U.S. Senator naively

in a British internment
told an interviewer: "I

take no stock in the argument that the United States cannot


live peaceably in the world and live comparatively well '
economically if Europe is dominated by totalitarianism.

He

failed to realize that

happily in

mankind

could never hope to

world half slave and half free."

live

critic and historian, Alfred Werner, recounts his experiences


In: Eisenberg, Azriel. Witness
of the fall of 1938 in Vienna.
New York: The Pilgrim Press, 1981, pages 88to the Holocaust.

Art
91.
2 .

Duesseldorf,

Germany

[Rabbi Eschelbacher had just returned home at midnight on 9


the telephone rang.]
A voice, trembling with
horror, shouted "Rabbi, they're breaking up the synagogue
hall and smashing everything to bits, they're beating the
men, we can hear it from here.'
It was Mrs. Blumenthal who
lived next door....
I was just about to go there, but almost
at that very moment there was a violent banging at my own
door. I switched off the light and looked outside.
The
The next
square in front of the house was black with SA men.
moment they were upstairs, pushing in the front door of the
November when

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flat.

The

staircase

swarmed

rushed in on us shouting:

with

men,

Revenge

of

all

for Paris!

ranks.

Down

They

with the

They pulled mallets out of their pouches and in a


splintered glass flew from window-panes and mirrors,
splintered wood from the furniture.
The gang came up to

Jews!'

moment

and

with clenched fists, one of them got hold of me and


ordered me downstairs .
I felt certain I would be beaten to
death.
I went into the bedroom, put down my watch, wallet
and keys and took leave of Berta .

me

Downstairs the street was full of SA men.


Counting those in
the house there must have been between fifty and sixty
altogether. The shout met me: "Give us a sermon!' I began
to speak of the death of Vom Rath, saying that his murder was
more a misfortune for us than the German people, that we were
in no way guilty for his death. ... On the corner, in the
Stromstrasse, the street was covered with books that had been
thrown out of the window, together with papers, documents and

letters.

myself

was

ruins of my typewriter were there also....


I
gripped by an SA man and hurled across the street

The

38

against the house .... The party Kreisleiter (district


"You are under arrest.'
leader) said to me:
[Rabbi Eschelbacher was then escorted to Duesseldorf police
headquarters by SA men who sang in unison "Revenge for Paris!
Passers-by joined in the chorus.]
Down with the Jews!"
Kochan, Lionel.
Witness

Azriel.
1981,
3 .

page 87.

Pogrom:

10

In: Eisenberg,
York: The Pilgrim Press,

November 1938.

to the Holocaust.

Potsdam

(suburban metropolitan

[Lionel

Kochan

New

Berlin),

recalled the morning of

Germany
November 10,

1938.]

I knew at once
never forget the sound of that bell.
Scantily dressed, I opened the door and my
fear was confirmed.
Five men in mufti faced me. The leader
said he was a Gestapo official and put me under arrest. Any
attempt at escape would be met by the use of arms, he warned.
He too was
At that moment my son came out of his room.
We had to dress under the supervision of the
arrested.
officials and then they ordered me to hand over the keys of
the synagogue and of the community records . When I replied
that the keys were kept by an Aryan janitor and that the
records were with the Treasurer, we were both taken out to
the car. . . .
I shall

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what

it

meant.

The main synagogue door had resisted the attack of between


twenty and twenty-five men, so that I was forced to show the
leaders a side entrance....
They smashed the door down and I
led the ringleader through the back entrance into the
synagogue....
"We want to see the Holy of Holies!....'

In a few minutes the whole interior of the synagogue was


transformed into a heap of ruins.... the Scrolls of Law ripped
into shreds, the great Menorah used as a battering ram.

In: Kochan, Lionel. Pogrom,


Deutsch, 1957, pages 74-75.
4.

10

November 1938.

London: Andre

Dins 1 aken , Germany


was awakened by the shrill ringing of the
sense of foreboding I opened the front
door. Three men, two Gestapo officers and a policeman in
mufti, entered announcing:
"This is a police raid! We are
looking for arms in all Jewish homes and apartments and so we
shall search the orphanage too!' The three commenced their
task at once. They searched only the ground floor,
especially the small office and the work-room of the
children. In the office they cut the telephone wires and

Early one morning I

door

bell.

With

39

lockers and drawers of the young students


searching for money. Unobserved for a moment, the Gestapo
officer Schneider whispered in my ear: " During the night all
But there is no
the Jewish men in Dinslaken were arrested.
Nothing will happen to you ! You will
need for you to worry.
Schneider, I later found
remain in charge of the children.'
out, was a former Social Democrat and had always been
friendly to Jews. After the search, which lasted for 25
minutes and which as was to be expected yielded no
opened the

tangible results, the Nazi officers left the building and


following order: " Nobody is to leave the house
before 10 a.m.! All the blinds of the building which face
Shortly after 10 a.m. everything
the street must be drawn!
gave the

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will

be over

'

About one hour later, at 7 a.m., the morning service in the


Some
synagogue of the institution was scheduled to commence.
people from the town usually participated, but this time
Only the teacher of the Jewish primary
nobody turned up.
school and two Polish Jews, who escaped during the
Polenaktion [expulsion of the Polish Jews who were living in
Germany to the Polish border] of October, attended the minyan
[prayer service which requires the presence of ten men].
Then I heard the ringing of the house bell.
The sound of the
bell, which I hastened to answer, became louder and louder.
When I opened the door a strange man faced me.
In the dim
light of the street-lamp I recognized a Jewish face. In a
few words the stranger explained to me:
"I am the president
of the Jewish ^co-mmunity of Duesseldorf.
I spent the night in
the waiting-room of the Gelsenkirchen Railway Station.
I
have only one request let me take refuge in the orphanage
for a short while. While I was traveling to Dinslaken I
heard in the train that anti-Semitic riots had broken out
everywhere, and that many Jews had been arrested.
Synagogues
everywhere are burning.'
With anxiety I listened to the man's story; suddenly he said
with a trembling voice:
"No, I won't come in!
I can't be
safe in your house! We are all lost!' With these words he
disappeared into the dark fog which cast a veil over the
I never saw him again.
morning.

this Job's message I forced myself not to show


emotion.
Only thus could I avoid a state of
the children and tutors.
Nonetheless I was of
that the young students should be prepared to
brave the storm of the approaching catastrophe.
About 7:30
a.m. I ordered 46 people among them 32 children into
the dining hall of the institution and told them the
following in a simple and brief address:
"As you know, last
night a Herr vom Rath, a member of the German Embassy in
Paris, was assassinated. The Jews are held responsible for
this murder. The high tension in the political field is now
being directed against the Jews, and during the next few
In spite of
sign of
panic among
the opinion
any

40

hours there

will

will certainly

happen even

in our

be

town.

anti-Semitic excesses.
It is my feeling and

This
my

impression that we German Jews have never experienced such


calamities since the Middle Ages. Be strong! Trust in G-d!
I am sure we will withstand even these hard times. Nobody
will remain in the rooms of the upper floor of the building.
The exit door to the street will be opened only by myself!
From this moment on everyone is to heed my orders only! '
were sent to the large study-hall
The teacher in charge tried to keep them

After breakfast the pupils


of the institution.
busy.

the main gate rang persistently.


I
about 50 men stormed into the house, many
of them with their coat-or- jacket-collars turned up. At
first they rushed into the dining room, which fortunately was
empty, and there they began their work of destruction, which
was carried out with the utmost precision.
The frightened
and fearful cries of the children resounded through the
building. In a stentorian voice I shouted:
"Children, go
out into the street immediately! ' This advice was certainly
contrary to the order of the Gestapo.
I thought, however,
that in the street, in a public place, we might be in less
danger than inside the house. The children immediately ran
down a small staircase at the back, most of them without hat
or coat despite the cold and wet weather.
We tried to
reach the next street crossing, which was close to
Dinslaken's Town Hall, where I intended to ask for police
protection. About ten policemen were stationed here, reason
enough for a sensation-seeking mob to await the next
development.
This was not very long in coming; the senior
police officer, Freihahn, shouted at us: "Jews do not get
protection from us! Vacate the area together with your
children as quickly as possible! ' Freihahn then chased us
back to a side street in the direction of the backyard of the

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At 9:30 a.m. the


opened the door:

orphanage

bell at

Yitzhak S.
"Kristallnacht at the Dinslaken Orphanage."
In: Gutman, Israel and Schatzker, Chaim. The Holocaust and Its
Significance. Jerusalem: The Zalman Shazar Center, The

Herz,

Historical Society of Israel,


5.

Berlin,

1984,

pages

47-48.

Germany

fourteen-year-old boy, M. I. Libau, had gone to bod that night


home in Berlin.
Suddenly, at six o'clock in the morning,
the doorbell rang, waking him up.
His mother went to the door

in his

and opened

it.

He

heard the

seemed

to

me

told

shrill,

what happened then:

barking, yelling voices of

there were at least twenty.

41

men.

It

Then I heard
"Are here Goyim or Ivrim [Gentiles or Jews]?'
I understand
speak
"Please
German.
calm voice.
my mother's
we
to
are
know
wish
whether
you
well,
but
very
Jews,
we
are
Jews!'
or
Christians

if

it

I heard
they?' they yelled.
glass. I could not
breaking
noises of falling furniture and
I stood behind my bed when one
imagine what was happening.
He stepped back a
Nazi in full uniform entered the room.
fraction of a second when he saw me; then he began to yell,
I won't do any harm to you.'
do nothing to you.
"Where are the Jews?

Where are

"I'll

A smell of bad
Now he stood near me, his face sweating.
He took another glaring look
alcohol came out of his mouth.
at me and began to destroy everything within reach. While he
was breaking the closet door, my mother came into the room.
He commanded her to hold the clothes for him so that he would
be able to tear them better.
Desperately my mother called
out, "Those are all our clothes ! What shall we wear?'

"You wear?

clothes!

It

Nothing!'

he

shouted.

You can go naked now.'

"You

don't need any more

my heart when I saw him take my father's best


"Don't
This is my father's best suit,' I called out.
tear it! Don't! '

almost broke

suit.

watched the men destroy the whole apartment of five


All the things for which my parents had worked for
eighteen long years were destroyed in less than ten minutes.
Piles of valuable glasses, expensive furniture, linens in
short, everything was destroyed; nothing was left untouched.
After those ten minutes, the apartment was a heap of ruins.
.We

. .

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rooms.

mother and I looked at everything without shedding a tear.


The Nazis left us,
felt as
we had lost our minds.
yelling, "Don't try to leave this house! We'll soon be back
again and take you to a concentration camp to be shot . '
My

if

We

Mr. Libau, who had been


But the Nazis did not come back then.
railroad, came home and
on
the
nights
working
as a forced laborer
Many of
went into hiding in the cellar of a Christian friend.
the family's friends committed suicide that night, some went
insane, and some were murdered.

Meltzer, Milton.

In:

Forget:
1976,

6 .

The Jews
pages 52-53.

Leipzig,

Ge

Never to
"The Night of Broken Glass."
of the Holocaust. New York: Harper & Row,

raany

Jewish dwellings were smashed into and the contents


In one of the Jewish sections,
demolished or looted.
42

an

eighteen-year-old boy was hurled from a three-story window to


land with both legs broken on a street littered with burning
Jewish shop windows
beds and other household furniture....
by the hundreds were systematically and wantonly smashed
throughout the city at a loss estimated at several millions
of marks.... The main streets of the city were a positive
litter of shattered plate glass.... The debacle was executed
by SS men and Storm Troopers, not in uniform, each group
having been provided with hammers , axes , crowbars and
incendiary bombs ....
describing what he saw. In: Meltzer,
The Jews
Never to Forget:
Night of Broken Glass."
1976, page 52.
Row,
New
York:
&
Harper
Holocaust.
of the

An

American eyewitness

Milton.

7.

"The

Emden , Germany
Dead

lamps

silence not a sound to be heard in the town. The


in the street, the lights in the shops and in the

It is 3:30 a.m. All of a sudden noises in


houses are out.
the street break into my sleep, a wild medley of shouts and
shrieks. I listen, frightened and alarmed, until I
distinguish words: "Get out, Jews! Death to the Jews!'
I
jump out of bed and call my parents, who do not seem to have
heard anything.
I stop and listen. "They' are at our
neighbour's house. Suddenly I hear shots.... Then again:
"Death to the Jews!'
What shall I do?
In a second they will
Perhaps I should
be here.
Is there
a hope of escape?
try to crawl over the roof into the house of our Christian
neighbours?
They would not give me away.
Or perhaps?....
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still

Fists

are hammering at the door.


The shutters are broken
We can hear the heavy cupboards crashing to the floor;
the whole house trembles and shudders.
Two Storm Troopers
rush upstairs, shouting at the top of their voices:
"Out
with the Jews!'
I run out of my room, and down the stairs.
There I meet my parents, and silently we exchange a look.
They shot at us from the street.
We were forced to descend
the steps during the shooting, my eyes looked straight into
the guns.
Fear left me.
I knew there was no escape from the
bullets.
"I am hit,' stammers my father, before he breaks
down on the stairs.
I am forced to go on, but I can see
blood on the stairs and a dark stain on my father's back.
My
mother takes him back to the bedroom.
I have reached the
street, and one of the Storm Troopers holds me by the neck.
The others rush upstairs and compel my mother, despite her
pleading, to leave my father and come with them.
open.

are led through the dark streets of Emden.


Where are we
We do not know.
going?
We pass the savages
at work in all
the Jewish houses.
The sky reflects a red glare:
our
synagogue has been set on fire.
We reach a big square

We

up

by

searchlights

and

hemmed

43

in

by Storm

Troopers.

We

lit

were

first to arrive, but the square is gradually crowded.


our friends and relatives join us . Some are clad only in
A young woman whispers into my
a coat, others are barefoot.
ear: Had I seen her husband who was separated on the way? I
I had seen the Storm
know the answer, but I did not reply.
Troopers knock him down and torture him to death.
the

All

Now
Then I saw Troopers dragging my father to the square .
and then he broke down, and every time they beat him until he
got up and stumbled on. When he reached the centre of the
and remained lying on the ground, and they
square, he
We were forced to follow the Troopers.
drew a sack over him.
"Lie
One ordered us to form a circle round him, and shouted:
down !
Get up ! ' And we had to obey .

fell

At seven the sun rose. Police appeared in the streets.


There was great excitement among the population who went to
their work. In front of every Jewish house that had been
wrecked crowds were gathering.
The police came to our square
and called for the Jewish doctor to examine the wounded and
bandage them.
My father was wounded in the lungs, and the
ambulance came to take him to the hospital.
The police
behaved decently and assisted the Jewish doctor in his task.

little

over sixty-five, women and children, were


not among them, but when I said good-bye to
"I am sure you will be home before
my mother, she said:
night.' Then she left the square, alone.
A

released.

later

men

was

it

was followed
For us who remained a terrible day began, and
A group of men and boys, and I
by a more dreadful night.
among them, were taken in to a big hall which was normally a
During the night we had to
on the floor and
gymnasium.
close our eyes.
In the darkness Storm Troopers sat round a
big table. That was the "Tribunal.' When one of us was
called, he had to get up, walk over to the table, and answer
The "Accused' was almost blinded by a
every question.
powerful searchlight. One of my friends was called and

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Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

lie

accused of "Rassenschande'
passed:
Death.

["race-violation"].

Judgment was

we had been ordered to keep our eyes closed, I


But
them from time to time to see what was happening.
I did not realise that one of the Guards stood by my side.
I went to the table, and the
He shouted:
"Get up!'
searchlight was directed on my face.
blinded me. My
name was written down; then I was asked:
"Are you a student
"No.'
"Do you know the Talmud?'
"I know
of the Talmud?'
that there is a book called the Talmud.
Its contents are not
"Is
true that a sack of stones is put into
known to me.'
the graves of your dead so that they may stone Jesus in the

Although
opened

It

it

other world?'
yard. Again
shouted:

After that, I with others was taken into the


made to run in a circle, again they
up. Lie down.'

we were

"Get

44

One of the Guards


At seven the next morning that was over.
explained
He
that
soon some
down.
lie
ordered us to
question how we
arriving,
and
to
their
be
would
"Gentlemen'
Gestapo officers
"Very well.'
had slept, we should answer:
arrived. The asked us, and we replied as we have been
instructed. Then we were marched to the railway station.
During that time I had never lost my self-control, but when
we passed the hospital where my father was dying, I could
hardly keep going.

It

All of us had had our last meal on


were taken by train to Oldenburg, and
The Hitler Youth were
led through the streets of the town.
lined up and abused us as we marched. At midday we continued
the journey to our unknown destination. Where will they take
All we knew was
Everyone brooded over this question.
us?
that we were going towards an
fate.
was

Friday morning.

Wednesday evening.

We

ill

At eight in the evening,

We could not see


the train stopped.
The Guards opened the doors , and ordered us
to get out. As soon as some had left the train, we heard
screams.
Storm Troopers set upon
those who had got out,
striking them with the butt-ends of their rifles. I hid in a
corner of my compartment and waited. Outside hundreds of
Storm Troopers had suddenly appeared out of the darkness .
All the carriages were emptied. We were about two thousand
A mad hunt began.
Jews from our town, Bremen and Hamburg.
We were driven to a forest-path, and forced to run as fast as
we could.
Those who stopped were beaten.
We ran and ran,

where

we

were

all

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Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

without seeing anything; we stumbled over roots, against the


trees we knew we ran for our lives. If one could not drag
himself any further, if the beating was of no avail, he was
thrown on a van.

lights and searchlights [loomed] in front of us.


of Storm Troopers came towards us. We were driven
through big gates, and found ourselves in a huge open space
surrounded by high walls.
Barbed wire on top of the walls,
watch-towers in the four corners, Storm Troopers with
to the
machine-guns . We knew where they had taken us :
concentration camp.
Suddenly,

Crowds

A Youth Aliyah immigrant,


Norman Bentwich,

aged

sixteen,

British-Israeli jurist

related this story to

and

writer.

Eisenberg, Azriel. Witness to the Holocaust.


Pilgrim Press, pages 84-86.

45

New

In:

York: The

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Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

Responses Selected from the

The

first

four pages
page headlines
12 and 13, 1938.

front
11,

library for

Print,

Media

and the

Literature

of this section are copies of the


of the New York Times, November 8,
Please check with your local

the complete

47

articles .

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Generated on 2015-05-09 19:17 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022195989


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Generated on 2015-05-09 19:17 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022195989


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8861

Franklin

D.

The news

Roosevelt, President of the United States:


of the past few days from Germany has deeply shocked

public opinion in the United States . Such news from any part
of the world would inevitably produce a similar profound
reaction among American people in every part of the nation .

in

could scarcely believe that such things could occur


twentieth century civilization.

myself
a

With a view to gaining a first-hand picture of the current


situation in Germany I asked the Secretary of State to order
our Ambassador in Berlin to return at once for report and

consultation

The Public Papers and


Samuel I. (compiler).
of Franklin Delano Roosevelt with a Special
Introduction and Explanatory Notes by President Roosevelt.
"The Five
Volume:
The Continuing Struggle for Liberalism.
Hundredth Press Conference, (Excerpts), November 15, 19 38."
New York:
MacMillian Company, 1941, pages 596-597.

In:

Rosenman,

Addresses

1938

Herbert Hoover, former President of the United States (1929-

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1933)

This rise of intolerance today, the suffering being inflicted


upon innocent and helpless people, grieves every decent
American.
It raises our every sense of indignation. It
makes us fearful for the progress of civilization,
and it is
our hope that those springs of tolerance and of human
compassion which lie deep in the German people may yet rise
to control Germany.
But in the meantime our condemnation of
these leaders should be without reserve.
They are bringing
to Germany moral isolation from the entire world.

In:

New

York Times

November 15,

19

38, page 4.

Harold L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior:

I speak.... not as a Cabinet Officer or a political spokesman,


but as a Christian and as a human being.... These assaults
are at the bottom not assaults against Jews alone....
They
are assaults against reason; they are assaults against
civilization.

. . .

It is

an old stratagem of tyrants first to make hated those


they intend to rob. Once before the world has had to
appeal to the reason and humanity of people over the heads of
leaders who had alienated all the rest of the world. The
civilized people of the world are appealing tonight to those
in other lands where assaults are being made against

whom

53

civilization,

to do unto others as they would that others

would do unto them.

In:

New

Alfred

. . .

York Times, Tuesday, November 15,

page 4.

Presidential Candidate of

Landon, Republican

M.

1938,

1936:

All

free people are shocked and horrified at the inhumanity


intolerance visited upon the Semitic race in the Nazi
countries ....
and

...the

mind

that views brutality and injustice with

indifference because it primarily affects the Jews is not


awake to the real danger....
Tolerance and freedom go hand and hand.
So too tolerance and
law and order go hand in hand.
When law and order break down
to the extent where intolerance can break out into
persecution then all freedom of mankind is in danger.

In:

New

York Times

Robert F. Wagner,

Tuesday,

November 15,

U.S. Senator from

New

1938,

page 4.

York:

are no ordinary flare-ups of bigotry


intolerance, no sudden outburst of national passion.
They are the latest and cruelest phases of the pogrom that
has been raging in Germany since the advent of the Nazi

These recent outbursts


and

We know today that we are dealing with a determined


deadly force, directed not merely against the Jewish
people, but against every manifestation of the democratic

regime.

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and

ideal

In:

New

....

York Times

November 21,

1938,

page 8.

George Measer smith, Assistant Secretary of State:

all the many acts of the present German Government against


innocent and defenseless peoples, these last are the
culmination.
For a Government to order and to carry through
such a wholesale action against a part of its people, and to
threaten the rest of the world with further action if it
should even pass censure, is an irresponsible and mad act
that our Government cannot pass unnoticed.
Of

it

be known where we stand


have throughout our history let
Whenever such
on matters of principle and the decencies
acts in the past have been committed, or permitted by
Governments, in countries which the world has considered less
civilized, we have spoken and acted. . . .
We

54

....

country which vaunts its civilization as superior


in cold blood and with deliberation acts worse than
those we have in the past dealt with vigorously, the time has
come, I believe, when it is necessary for us to take action
beyond mere condemnation.

When

commits

It is

belief that unless

we take some action in the fact


of the last few days, we shall be
behind our public opinion in this country.
my

of the events in
much

Germany

Cable to Secretary of State Cordell Hull, November 14, 1938. In:


Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1938.
The British Commonwealth, Europe, Near East and"
Volume II:
Washington , D.C. : Government Printing Office, 1955.
Af r ica .
pages 396-8.
Thomas

E. Dewey,

New

York

District Attorney:

In protest against the anti-Semitic acts in Germany, Mr. Dewey


appealed to world opinion to halt "the savagery and barbarism"
which he declared had inspired "the bloody pogrom."
Mr. Dewey brushed aside the statement of Propaganda Minister
Josef Goebbels to the foreign press that the riots had not been
staged by the German Government.

If

gang of cowardly ruffians set upon and beat a


on the street you would not stand silent.
you saw a fanatical mob pillage and burn a church or a
you saw a brutal
synagogue you would not stand silent.
band drive helpless families from their own homes, you would
Multiply those incidents by
speak out and promptly.
thousands and you have the sickening spectacle of what has
occurred in Germany.... No amount of lame excuses by the
German Minister of Propaganda can make the picture any

you saw

helpless

If

man

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If

different

outbursts of plundering,

looting

arson in leading
same time, are the
unmistakable earmarks of an organized plot to crush the
The authorities did nothing to interfere.
Jewish people....
A careful reading of newspaper accounts shows that the raids
The looting of shops, we are
were staged as a Nazi rampage.
told by newspaper reports, is called by Nazi apologists an
act of God.'
Never has there been more offensive blasphemy
by any government in the history of the world.
The

cities of

Germany

and

Austria, all at

and

the

since the days of medieval barbarism has the world been


to look upon such a spectacle as this. Never.... was
human cruelty so well organized on a national scale.

Not

forced

The
and

violation of the homes of Jews and the cowardly beating


mauling of the aged and helpless was not enough.
Houses
55

of worship were systematically desecrated. These shocking


desecrations are only another step in the long series of
attacks upon religious and human liberties by a government
founded on terrorism and maintained by fear....
must not forget that true democracy means respect for
those who worship in other faiths than our own, whatever
that any government entitled to
We must not forget
may be.
the respect of the world must respect those who hold
different political beliefs from those of the group there in
takes a tragic instance to remind us of
Sometimes
power.

We

it

our

own

it

precious heritage.

attack on a minority group in any country is an attack on


democracies everywhere . Democracies are founded on tolerance
The
and on the protection of the liberties of minorities.
destruction of those liberties for any group attacks the very

Any

heart of self-government. The pogroms yesterday were


evidence that civilization in Germany has been abandoned.
Any attack on the helpless is an attack on civilization

itself

unfortunate victims of this terrifying mob violence


their friends and relatives everywhere, the people of
The civilized
this country extend their heartfelt sympathy.
world must express the most vehement protests against such
barbarism. We recognize the futility of appealing to the
leaders of the country where such outbursts are permitted.
But in the name of humanity, we appeal to the verdict of
world opinion.
Our appeal must be effective, lest such
barbarism spread through the world and cause the utter
destruction of civilization.
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To the
and to

appeal to Christians everywhere to recognize that this


struggle is our struggle. Men of good-will everywhere must
stand together lest the forces of darkness overcome all of

We

us

In:

New

James

J.

York Times, November 12, 1938, page 4.


Walker,

Former

New

Tork City Mayor:

I thought of a visit to Europe and uppermost in my mind was


an occasion when I placed a wreath upon the tomb of the
That soldier is unknown.
His name
unknown German soldier.
is unknown. His religion is unknown. But now that unknown
soldier may have his aged father and mother driven across the
Continent by persecutions unknown to the civilized world.

56

That unknown soldier may have a sister who has been driven
Let us not be
out of her home and her savings confiscated.
The architect who could
emotional but let us not be blind.
build such unprecedented discrimination against a helpless
people that architect could build a hell on earth.

In:

New

John

W.

York Times, November 17, 1938, page 12.


Studebaker,

The answer

U.S. Commissioner of Education:

to barbarism has always been enlightenment,

this is still the answer. We shall measure men of all


We shall not turn our eyes back to
by their humility.

Middle Ages.

In:

New

and

races
the

York Times, November 18, 1938, page 4.

Charles Seymour,
Connecticut :

President of Yale University,

New Haven,

All civilized

peoples are appalled by the brutality of the


imposed by the German government on private
individuals, a brutality that betrays the noble German ideals
of the past. Not by reason of any political philosophy but
by the judgment of humanity itself such cruelty stands

measures

condemned

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In:

New

York Times, November 16, 1938, page 10.

John L. Lewis, presiding officer of the American Federation of


Labor convention:
At the opening session this morning Chairman
German

Government

"atrocities,

as a "mad,
indignities and

Lewis

criticized

bloodthirsty wolf" in the

brutalities"

now

being

inflicted

asserted that this nation may have to meet the


German dictator as he tries to extend his domain into the
"Western Hemisphere," and urged that if that day arrived labor
would be depended upon to protect American institutions .
the Jews.

He

the
on

I have every confidence that our government and our State


Department will make emphatic representations to the German
Government protesting the actions of that government in
permitting these atrocities to be inflicted on the Jewish

people

In:

New

"

York Times, November 15, 1938, page 1.

57

William Green, President of the American Federation of Labor:

in scathing terms the action of Adolf


in
Germany in depriving 500,000 Jews in
Hitler's
that country of their political and civil rights and levying a
tax penalty on them of $400,000,000 as punishment for the action
of a maniacal Polish Jewish refugee for murdering Ernst vom Rath,
secretary of the German Embassy in Paris.
President Green denounced
Nazi Government

I cannot express the deep sense of horror I experienced over


It is
the treatment accorded Jewish people in Germany.
shocking to one's sense of justice.

It seems inconceivable that at this period in the development


of modern civilization the Jewish people should be subjected
to such inhuman treatment as press reports indicate.
In the name and in behalf of the millions of members of the
American Federation of Labor I register my vigorous protest
against the barbarous and brutal treatment accorded the
Jewish people in Germany.

In:

New

York Times

November 15,

1938,

page 1.

Miller, German-American group chairman of the


National League of American Citizens of Foreign Descent:

Augustus H.

citizens of German descent we must do our share


in expressing our indignation over those intolerable events
We
now unfortunately prevailing in the Germany of today.
German-American citizens do not want to be under the stigma
which the outrageous happenings in the Fatherland may place

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As American

upon us

In:

New

...

York Times, November 18, 1938, page 4.

Professor Johan J. Smertenko, Executive Director of the


Nonsectarian Anti-Nazi League:
At last, Hitler has disclosed exactly what he is after in
persecuting the Jews. In order to bolster up the crumbling
economic position of Nazi Germany, he has decided to
The 1 billion mark fine
pauperize the victims of his terror.
will complete the destruction of the entire Jewish race in
Germany and will leave a half million starving people who can

neither find

In:

New

work

York Times

nor

relief.

November 13,

58

1938,

page 5.

"Great Germany"
A

Polish Jew,

a boy

telling him that


frontier, victims of the

of 17, receives

postcard from his

they have been dumped on the Polish


sudden mass deportation order by the
German authorities to express protest against a ruling of the
Polish Government and displeasure against the attitude of Poland
in opposing German wishes on the Ruthenian question. The parents
cannot go back to Germany; they have nowhere to go in Poland.
The boy is himself a refugee, hiding with relatives because he
At 17 he has no permit to live
has no permit to live in France.
Half -crazed by the despair of his parents and his own
anywhere.
sufferings, he goes to the German Embassy, determined to shoot
the first representative of the German Government he meets . The
victim happens to be the Third Secretary. Unfortunately he dies
of his wounds, and the assailant is taken to a Paris prison,
parents

where he

is

now

awaiting

trial.

In revenge, reprisals are taken against the entire Jewish


In a day of terror surpassing
population of Germany and Austria.
anything even the Third Reich has seen, synagogues have been
burned, shops sacked and looted, homes raided, a number of

and thousands jailed.


In Vienna a new wave of.
over a people already broken and terrorized beyond
These victims have never seen Poland or Paris.
endurance.
They
were not Poles and Germans.
Nor were they set upon by "mobs."
The patriots arrived in automobiles, went about the work of
destruction with method and precision, wore the boots which go
with the uniform of Storm Troopers and other Nazi units. The
police looked on until, after fourteen hours of violence, the
orgy was officially called off by Dr. Goebbels .

citizens beaten

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suicides

swept

Thus does a great Government take revenge for the act of a


maddened boy, a Government which exercises supreme and
unquestioned power over 80,000,000 people, boasts of the order
of Central
maintains and aspires to spread this order over
Recently this Government has extended its domain with
Europe.

all

it

the consent of the Western Powers, who acquiesced in its


bloodless victories as the prelude to European appeasement.
Instead they were the prelude to the scenes witnessed yesterday,
scenes which no man can look upon without shame for the
degradation of his species .

In j

New

York Times

November 11,

59

1938,

editorial

page.

"Nazi Day of Terror a Threat to

All Civilization"

It is difficult

to write calmly about what has happened in


one who has watched the
German people in the dark days of revolution and hunger they have
endured since the war, who has seen close the hopelessness of the
"little men" described in the novels written in monotone by Hans
Fallada and has tried to understand what otherwise would be
incomprehensible: how Hitler was able to create a mighty
movement by stirring up the dregs of bitterness, envy and hate
that rise from the bottom of any society in a period of defeat
and despair.
It is difficult because it is no longer a defeated
people, and the suffering they inflict on others now that they
are on top again passes all understanding and mocks all sympathy.
Germany.

It is especially difficult for

darkest day Germany experienced in the whole post-war


not so dark as Thursday.
In all the humiliations
experienced by a penalized nation, it has not been so humiliated
as on that day of terror when organized gangs recruited from the
ruling party pounded like an enemy army through the main streets
of German cities and systematically sacked the shops, the homes
All
and the altars of a helpless minority of German citizens.
the reporters on the ground agree as to the methodical character
of the terror.
They agree that in a day more property was
destroyed than in the revolution of 1918. Glass is scarce and
precious in Germany, yet the windows in nearly every Jewish store
and restaurant throughout the country were smashed to atoms .
The

period

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was

Pitiable Exhibition

The German people were never more pitiable than when they
stood by and watched this thing done. For the raiders who were
let loose on the streets and given a day to sate the lowest
instincts of cruelty and revenge were indeed an enemy army. No

foreign invader could

have done more harm.

This

is

Germany

in

the hour of her greatest defeat, the best overcome by the worst.
While many protested at the outrages, and millions must have been
sickened and shamed by the crimes committed in their name, many
others looked on stolidly or approvingly while the hunters hunted
There are stories of mothers who took
and the wreckers worked.
their children to see the fun.

This highlights a tragedy more portentous than the tragedy


of the Jews. It means that the millions who detest this
brutality have lost the power to protest and that other millions
have no desire to protest because they have been worked on by
And this shows what the Nazi
years of anti-Semitic propaganda.
mentality plus the Nazi police power has done to an intelligent
people.

60

It is

quite true that the cruelty and violence exhibited in


latent in every country. No nation is free of
primitive passions and prejudices that can be exploited by
We have all experienced
unscrupulous or reckless leaders.
The
outbreaks of the mob spirit and realized its savage force.
difference is that in most countries the fundamental aim and
purpose of government is to keep this lurking beast under
control. Civilization is a process of subduing the savage in man
and teaching him to live by the rule of reason.
In National

Germany are

Socialist

Germany the

mob

spirit is deliberately cultivated,

canalized and employed as an arm of government. As in Thursday's


orgy of sadism, it can be turned on and off at will.

Terror

May React

lift

But suppose the time comes when those who


the lid can't
down again?
Terror as an instrument of policy is not a
Once, in Russia, at a time when there was a great
new weapon.
round-up of class enemies and all the poor remnants of the
submerged classes quaked, the writer asked a high Soviet official
why a strong government found it necessary to use this method
"Because when
again and again.
was used against us in the old
was effective,"
he answered.
"If you cut a swath of
days
terror through the population at regular intervals, you can keep
the opposition down."
screw

it

it

it

But the dosage of terror not only has to be repeated.


It
to be increased, as Russia has demonstrated under two
tyrannies, or it does not work. Therefore it is an invariable
symptom of the weakness of the system in which it has to be used.
A day of "punishment" for the Jews was permitted immediately
after Hitler came to power to satisfy the violence he had aroused
among his followers, and it is noteworthy that the raids made
then did not compare in extent or intensity with the present
Does that mean that the dissatisfaction among the
pogrom.

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has

disciples demands more and more outlet? And what would


this savagery, whether cultivated or suppressed, breaks
and

turns on the leaders themselves?

happen
bounds

if

This isn't very probable at present, but Germany's Black


Thursday suggests either that the scapegoat has to be publicly
beaten for internal reasons or that a whole people have become
callous to savagery.
And this is a danger far greater than antiSemitism on the rampage.
It raises up in the heart of Europe, in
a civilized country, a threat to the civilization of the world.

In:

New

York Times, November 12, 1938,

61

editorial

page.

Excerpts Selected from Christian Newspapers


In an editorial
Companion said:

entitled,

"It Is

Hard

and

Publications:

to Believe,"

The Lutheran

The recent brutal attacks on Jewish lives and property in


Germany were described by Dr. Goebbels as " typical,
We do not believe
spontaneous, popular demonstration.'
They bear the earmarks of official Nazi planning and
constitute a deliberate act of government policy. They do

it.

not

reflect

the

spirit

of the

From an editorial in The Friend,


"The Necessity of Pessimism" :

German

Quaker

people....

publication, entitled

which comes out of Germany can hardly fail to


spread the deepest gloom.
It is possible, of course, that
the newspaper stories are exaggerations of the truth, but
they are accompanied by photographs that are most convincing.
Perhaps the most distressing was the picture of destroyed and
looted buildings, with the faces of the passers-by wreathed

The news

in smiles. It is a terrible thing for a power-mad dictator


to seek to ruin thousands of innocent persons, but it is a
far more terrible thing for a great people to give
wholehearted assent to such efforts, and to find brutality
amusing.
The smiles on those faces haunt us....

Christian Century published the most comprehensive and


continuous coverage of the events in Germany from the shooting of
vom Rath on November 7, 1938, to November 13, 1938, when the
looting and burning and the arrests and persecutions of Jews
slowed through the remainder of 19 38. Accurately, the Century
had noted that Kristallnacht had taken place on the fifteenth
anniversary of the beerhall putsch and that Hitler was in Munich
to give a speech. That the speech was never given on that
November-ninth evening is now known.
After a hurried conference
with Goebbels, Hitler left early....

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The

At opposite poles in the Protestant community in the United


States, Advance (Congregationalist ) and The Sunday School Times
(non-denominational fundamentalist) gave major editorial space to
the events of November 9-13 in Germany.
The editor of Advance

wrote

The

Jew in Paris, crazed by the


and his people, has led to reprisals
Germany that have shocked the world
group brutality and betrayal of every
humanity, and government. What the world

thoughtless deed of

suffering of his parents


against Jewish people in

by

their calculated
justice,

element of

a young

62

has witnessed is not government, but the unrestraint of moral


and political perverts.
is incredible that the German
people as a whole should approve of what was done, though one
is sadly forced to conclude that Germany has gone far in
decadence and degradation as a nation....

It

editor of The Sunday School Times devoted the two pages


regularly assigned for the lead editorial to the events in
Consistent with the theological commitment of this
Germany.
periodical, the editorial headline read, "Germany Brutally
The

Fulfills

Prophecy."

that rang out at Sarajevo, Yugoslavia, in 1914,


Archduke Ferdinand of Austria was assassinated, was
heard around the world, for it precipitated the Great War.
Another shot is reverberating through the world today, for on
November 7 Herschel Grynszpan, seventeen year old Polish Jew,
wounded Ernst Vom Rath, Third Secretary of the German
Embassy at Paris, and two days later the German attache died.
The echoes of that shot might have been shortlived
Nazi
Germany had not turned upon the Jews in brutal reprisals that
have outraged the civilized world.
The shot

when

if

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In: Ross, Robert W. So It Was True: The American Protestant


Minneapolis:
Press and the Nazi Persecution of the Jews.
University of Minnesota Press, 1980, pages 109-116.

a week after the Kristallnacht , Pastor


"
Jan preached to his congregation in Swabia:
Houses
of worship, sacred to others, have been burned down with
impunity men who have locally served our nation and
conscientiously done their duty, have been thrown into
concentration camps simply because they belong to a
different race. Our nation's infamy is bound to bring about
Divine punishment.'
On

J.

16

von

November 1938,

Dragged

out of his Bible class by a Nazi mob,

Pastor Jan

brutally beaten, then thrown on to the roof of a shed.


just as, a week earlier,
mob then smashed his vicarage,
many

Jewish houses had been smashed.

imprisoned

Pastor Jan

was

The
so

was

In: Gilbert, Martin.


"The Seeds of a Terrible Vengeance."
The
Holocaust: A History of the Jews of Europe During the Second
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1985, page 73.
World War.
New York:

63

that the members of the Board of Foreign Missions


Resolved:
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, profoundly shocked by the
unspeakable persecution in Germany of members of the race to

which humanly speaking the Savior of all men belonged, in the


name of outraged humanity do now most vigorously re-emphasize
the historic Christian attitude of love and goodness against
all this wicked hatred and cruelty and express their deep
sympathy ... for the suffering Jews....

In:

New

York Times, November 21,

Rev. Dr. William H. Roberts,


79th Street, New York City:

19

38, page 16.

First Baptist

Church,

Broadway

and

deplore and denounce the assassination of the German


representative in Paris by a half -demented lad, but to avenge
his act by organized ferocity against the whole race is to
trample the ideals of civilization under foot and to adopt
the law of the jungle.

We

In:

New

York Times

November 21,

Bishop Edwin H. Hughes,


Churches of Christ:

page 16.

representative of the Federal Council of

Reich, the outrages appear to have two forms.


represented by a deliberate legal process
intended to hinder the Jews in a commercial way and doubtless
so to harry them as to drive them from the land ....
The
second form is mob-like rather than law-like.
A poor,
misguided boy, tormented and probably demented, fires a hasty
shot and drops the spark into the magazine of terror.
At
once the revenge speeds away to visit itself upon the
innocent who had no more to do with the youth's mad deed than
In the

The

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1938,

German

first is

did any one of

my

radio

listeners....

of - us who have traveled in Germany cannot believe that


these dreadful happenings are sanctioned by the people who
have laid emphasis upon the glory of their culture. . . .

Many

In:

New

York Times, November 15, 1938, page 4.

"Catholics

Register Strong Protest on Jewish Persecution"

Most Reverend Peter L. Ireton: Tonight we speak not with


bitterness but with sadness. The world is shocked. Our
sense of justice is outraged by the persecution of the Jew in
We speak with sadness for the desecration of our
Germany. ...
nature by the few who have risen to lord it over the many,

64

to which an insensate

and for the degradation


descend

....

mob

can

Right Reverend Joseph Corrigan, S.T.Dx Where, in the light


of the fury of inhumanity raging in Germany.. lis the
tolerance of our vaunted advance in civilization? Where is
the brotherhood of man enjoined by Divine command? Where is
the Christianity that once reigned in a Christian nation?....
The world should not forget nor cease to protest, with
earnest sincerity and growing vigor, until it be cleansed of
the poisonous cancer even now gnawing at the very vitals of
organized society and just government.
Hia Excellency,

Persecution,

the Most Reverend

like

John Mark Gannon:

crawling serpent, has raised

its

loathsome head in every age and among almost every race of


man to the horror and paralyzing fright of those who look
on.... In our very hour of existence .. .we the most
civilized, free, cultured, are forced to look with burning
shame and indignation on scenes of mad madness, protected
There
rowdyism and racial and religious persecution....
appears to have broken through the veneer of modern

civilization

connected series of violent,

cruel hates which


without mercy or shame on their
helpless victims....
This horrible specter of persecution
has broken loose in Germany where the Jewish people, a small
helpless minority, less than 1 percent of the population,
are subjected to the fierce passions of the mobs, the harsh,
unjust decrees of dictators, and the almost total loss of
civic and moral rights. In the face of such injustice toward
the Jews of Germany, I express my revulsion, disgust and
a

dictators

modern

inflict

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grief ....

His Excellency, the Most Reverend John J. Mitty, Archbishop


Twenty years ago we laid away our
San Francisco:
implements of war, but we did little to lay away those inner
things of mind and heart by which those weapons were designed
and created and set in deadly action; and those creative
powers of mind and heart have reasserted themselves again in
all their evil, so that in this latest day of civilization
the frontiers of every country are studded with all the
mussed instruments of death and overhead the sky is black
with the buzzards of war waiting for carrion.

of

The civilized world stands shocked


Governor Alfred Smith:
at the recent news coming from Germany and quite naturally is

asking

some

questions.

Can

it

possible that Germany,

be

after producing some of the world's greatest scientists,


writers, physicians and statesmen, is becoming a barren
nation,

it

intellectually, culturally

possible that the rank

and

file

scientifically.

Can

of the German people


desire to set back the hands of the clock of progress to the
dark ages? Can it be possible that there are not
restricting influences in the German official family? Can it
be

65

and

possible that nobody in a position of authority cares


about public opinion throughout the civilized world? If this
is possible, then all we can say is that Germany has fallen
from her high position in the family of nations into the
hands of a band of ruffians....

be

from the transcript of a nation-wide broadcast


and sponsored by the Catholic University of America,
Participants included Rt.
Washington, D.C., November 17, 1938.
Rev. Monsignor Joseph M. Corrigan, S.T.D., Rector of the
University; Rev. Dr. Maurice S. Sheehy, S.T.B., head of the
University's Department of Religious Education; Archbishop John
Mitty of San Francisco; former Governor Alfred E. Smith of New
York; Bishop Peter L. Ireton of Richmond, Virginia; and Bishop
John M. Gannon of Erie, PA.

Excerpts

originated

J.

Excerpts Selected from Jewish Newspapers


The

three major

Journal,

New

York Yiddish

and Forward,

all

dailies,

and

Publications:

The Day,

reacted with alarm.

Morning

The newspaper, The Day, gave the most complete news coverage of
the three and editorialized daily on the plight of German Jewry
Day after day, bold
from November 11 through November 26.
headlines on the front page and on several inside pages screamed

the highlights of the dreadful story; news reports supplied the


grim details, and columnists interpreted the significance of the
tragedy .

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all,

however, the readers were moved by the editorial pen


Most of
of Samuel Margoshes, the passionate advocate for his people, who
empathized with his suffering brethren in Germany. . . .

that have destroyed the synagogues and schools


our blood boil, do not give us rest and force us to take
to the streets and scream in pain so the whole world should

The flames
make

hear.

. . .

quiet for some time, hoping that the Nazis would


of their murderous ways, believing in quiet diplomacy
We
and being dubious about the efficacy of our own protests.
But now our patience is at endl
have been patient.

We

have been

We

can no

tire

longer be silent.

intercessions

behalf.

rely

We cannot
We are dealing

on

private

here with an
enemy which will not give up our sacrifices .. .which begrudges
us life and which misses no opportunity to embitter our

existence

on our

....

Let our leaders lead

Let them not delay and postpone.

66

Let the General Jewish Council meet and deliberate


The Jewish masses are waiting to go out into
immediately.
the streets, to close their places of business, to stop all
work, to declare a fast and to demonstrate to the entire
world that we will no longer allow ourselves to be
slaughtered by a barbaric regime.
Those who do not deal immediately
Time will not stand still.
The
with this crises forfeit their right to leadership.
masses are waiting; they will not wait for long.

The Morning Journal reflected the same concern and sense of


The editors were deeply
urgency that one could feel in The Day.
concerned, single-minded in their mourning over the tragedy, and
their feelings accurately reflected the mood that prevailed in
their community, especially the religious community.
The Jewish Telegraphic Agency Daily News Bulletin (JTA), as the
source of news in English for the Anglo-Jewish press, served
its function competently in the months of November and December.
The German-Jewish tragedy was the main subject for most of the
took up most of a six-to ten-page issue,
period.
Often
The brutal facts
expanded from the normal four-page bulletin....
from abroad were covered; the world Jewish response was reported;
the American public reaction was recorded. . . .

main

it

publication of the American Jewish Congress, known as


the Congress Bulletin, reflected the most comprehensive reaction
to the crisis. From November 18 through December 30, its fourpage issues were almost entirely devoted to reportage and
analysis of the tragedy. In the December 2 issue there was a
day-by-day record of events from November 8 through November 30
entitled "A Month in Nazi Germany. ' This included a lengthy
report of the brutal beatings in Sachsenhausen .

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The weekly

The magazine's response was emotional and intellectual.


Outrage
and indignation, compassion and pity, deep concern and a sense of
urgency were
reflected by the editors and evoked in the
readers. While no specific way of alleviating the plight of
oppressed brothers was suggested, the need to act was clearly
enunciated. The entire episode was viewed as the greatest crisis
in Jewish history. Not only was German Jewry being destroyed,
but
was clear that other Jewries in Europe were also in

all

it

jeopardy, for other states "seek the solution of their internal


problems through a forcible migration and expulsion of Jews' a
reference to Poland, Romania, and Hungary.

The

frightening implications of Kristallnacht

were

set forth

almost prophetically by the Congress Bulletin in an editorial on


December 16, 1938.
Commenting on the spread of Nazism to Poland,
Romania, and a proposed "independent Ukraine,' the writer
asserted that this "means Nazi domination over a Jewish
population of some six million people.
It means the total ruin

67

of the Jewries of Poland, Ukraine, Rumania [sic] and others


the actual extermination of European Jewry. '

--

Jewish Record did its usual competent job of


recording the event and the reactions and of interpreting the
Its November 1938 issue contained a special supplement on
news.
events in Germany from November 7 through November 14, in
addition to reports on world reactions, statements by leading
Americans, and a record of the position taken by the General
The best summary of all the material and the
Jewish Council....
The Contemporary

interpretations

January

on

Kristallnacht

and

its

aftermath

issue of this bimonthly chronicle.

1939

Stephen Wise's Opinion was

... totally

was

absorbed in the

in the

crisis.

The

issue featured reactions from Wise himself, two


Smith Leiper and the frequent contributor,
(Henry
Protestants
John Haynes Holmes, in his column "Through Gentile Eyes') and a
Wise's article began with a tribute to
Hindu (Taraknath Das).
the American reaction and particularly to President Roosevelt,
This was a theme that Wise
"the voice of America's conscience.'
It
was to sound again and again during the Holocaust.
represented the thinking and judgment of most American Jews at
December 1938

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the time.

The Jewish Frontier, led by the patriot-polemicist Hayim


Greenberg, provided one of the strongest responses to this crisis
and, for that matter, to all the news of the Holocaust as it
In its lead editorial in the December 1938 issue...
developed.
the writer deplored the madness of a world that accepted
Germany's right to plunder and expel part of her citizenry and
then close its doors to the victims. There were 600,000 German
Jews to be saved ... .This issue had five editorials on various
In one of them, the writer applauded
aspects of the crises.
Roosevelt's statement and recall of Wilson but, he asserted,
words were not enough.
America must admit refugees from a
Germany

that "had

now become

a huge

Concentration

Camp.

'

Reconstructionist reflected the crisis editorially, urging a


strong American Jewish response.
The National Jewish Monthly
Its
demonstrated concern over the seriousness of Kristallnacht.
December 1928 issue recorded the Christian world's reaction to
Its lead editorial,
the event rather than the event itself.
"In all these dreadful years,
entitled "The Pogrom,' stated:
Jews have been speaking for themselves vainly; now the world was
speaking for justice to the Jew. '
The

organized in
four major Jewish
the American Jewish Committee,,
defense organizations that day:
The American Jewish Congress, B'nai B'rith, and the Jewish Labor
Committee, was mandated to coordinate activities of the four
organizations (and eventually additional groups) that were
concerned specifically with safeguarding the equal rights of
The General

Jewish Council,

Pittsburgh, June

Jews

13,

1938,

an umbrella group
and comprising the

68

In its regularly scheduled meeting of November 13, Henry Monsky,


president of B'nai B'rith, offered four proposed courses of
action in response to the crisis:
1 .

That the General Jewish Council issue a statement


addressed to American Jewry and the American people.

efforts be made through various newspapers, both


locally and in smaller communities, to gather and

2. That

express the opinion of prominent people in regard to the


German

situation.

3. That members of the Council should communicate with


such non-Jewish agencies as possible to seek their
advice and cooperation.
4.

That a day of prayer and intercession be appointed, at


which Jews and Gentiles together should gather and
express their feelings of sorrow at the present tragedy
and suffering of our people.

of prayer, already a matter of consultation between the


Council of Churches and the National Conference of Jews
and Christians, was set for Sunday, November 20.

The day

Federated

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The

following [public statement]

was

approved:

The world is aghast at the latest news which has come from
In the hour of their oppression we offer our fellow
Germany.
Jews in Germany the assurance of our deepest sympathy and
understanding. In the midst of our grief we derive a measure
of solace from the fact that the world has come to realize

that this barbarism directed against Jews is violence against


the whole of humanity.
This reaction of the entire world is
a recognition
that we are here confronted with an issue which
goes far beyond the persecution and torture of a particular
minority and that today it is civilization itself that is
under attack.
All Americans Protestants, Catholics, and
Jews alike have reacted to these hideous accounts from
abroad as a national calamity.
of the public protests that were staged in the
following Kristallnacht were the following:

Some

A two-hour

the German

River.

of about 150 pickets on November 14, as


"Bremen' docked at 45th Street and the Hudson
staged by the American League for Peace and

demonstration

liner

This

Democracy,

weeks

was

fellow-traveler organization.

"massive demonstrations' in Columbus Circle were announced in


under the auspices of the Jewish People's
Committee and the American League for Peace and Democracy, but
neither of these was reported upon in any other newspaper.

Two

the

"Frieheit,'

69

large protest was called by Fiorello LaGuardia, mayor of


York, in Carnegie Hall on December 7. Sponsored by nonJews, it was nevertheless actively supported by the Yiddish press
It
and, behind the scenes, by the General Jewish Council.
attracted several thousand listeners both inside and outside the
A

New

hall.

The United Wholesale and Warehouse Workers Union and the Down
dry goods stores
town Dry Goods Jobbers Association closed
for half the day on November 20. Meetings were held during that

all

half -day to plan

how

to strengthen

the anti-Nazi boycott.

only large demonstration was held under the auspices of the


Jewish People's Committee on November 21 in Madison Square
Twenty thousand jammed the Garden, according to the
Garden.
The

York Times, and an additional 5,000 listened through


loudspeakers in the street, according to The Day.
Addressed by a
variety of speakers ... the meeting produced a resolution
condemning Nazi barbarity, praising Roosevelt's statement, urging
a total boycott of German goods, and asking Roosevelt to call an
international conference of England, France, and the Soviet Union
to solve the refugee problem that had been created.
New

In:

New

Lookstein, Haskell.
Were We Our Brothers'
York: Vintage Books, 1985, pages 45-63.

Rabbi William F. Rosenblum, Temple

Israel,

New

Keepers?

York City:

plight of the Jews in Germany is tragic and


indescribable, and the prayer that we offer up for them
comes from the very depths of Jewish and Christian sympathy
and commiseration.
But I find it in my heart as a rabbi to
pray for a group of people in Germany who are more deeply
troubled and in greater pain than the Catholics and Jews
whom the Nazis are despoiling
and destroying.
I pray for the

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The

hundreds of thousands of decent Germans who want to cry out


against the terror and are compelled at sword's point or
rifle threat to keep quiet.

In:

New

York Times, November 22, 1938, page 16.

Rabbi Samuel H. Goldenson,

Temple Emanu-El , New

York City:

In this saddest and blackest day in Jewish history, let us


hold fast to those things which belong to the spirit. The
day of triumph can only come if we remain faithful to this
spirit. It is a costly wrong, yet I would rather a thousand
times be the brother of the hunted than those who persecute.

In:

New

York Times,

November 14,

70

1938,

page 23.

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Suggested Program Ideas

for Schools

71

and Community Observances

Suggested Program

Ideas for Schools and Community Observances

A. Introduction
The following section is designed to suggest several ways
in which the event of "Kristallnacht " can be commemorated in the

All the materials which


community and learned in the schools.
appear in this booklet - the historical overview, documentary
evidence, eyewitness accounts, responses, photograph, map,
bibliography and filmography - provide invaluable sources of
information for the preparation of programs and lesson plans .

Recognizing the different needs of program organizers and


teachers, we have divided this section into two parts,
suggesting different activities for each. Our suggestions should
only be taken as a starting point in formulating activities.
We
responded to the needs of educators and program organizers in
this way because the available resources vary locally, as do the
circumstances which allow for students and audiences to learn
about the event.
We

hope that you


you develop

materials

will

share your experiences

with us.

Please contact:

and the

Isaiah Kuperstein
Director of Education

Mr.

U.S. Holocaust Memorial Council


2000

Suite

L Street, N.W.
588

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Washington,

Tel:

B.

(202)

D.C. 20036

653-9220

For Schools

Teachers may be able to integrate a lesson or unit on


"Kristallnacht" within a variety of subject matter - American
History, World Cultures, World History, Social Studies, English
Literature, Sociology, Political Science and, of course, the
Although the material is easily suited for junior and
Holocaust.

high school students,


adapt

it

for

elementary school teachers may be able to


younger students as well.

When integrating the material found in this packet into a


curriculum, we assume that the lesson plan or unit will properly
include the component of objectives, activities, and evaluation.
Teachers may want to copy any portion of this packet for
distribution in the class to emphasize a point. The maps,

photographs, and documentary evidence is especially recommended


for that purpose.
We urge teachers
to use the bibliography
provided in the packet to gain a deeper understanding of the

Holocaust

72

We would like to help teachers organize their material by


presenting two important elements in the formulation of any
lesson plan or unit:

(1)
(2)

Concepts on "Kristallnacht

cognitive

which may be turned into

"

effective objectives;

and

and,

may be turned into


the classroom or be assigned as research

Discussion questions which

activities for
projects .

Concepts
event

The
1.

2.

3.

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following concepts are

based on the

history of the

"Kristallnacht" was the first physical attack against


the Jews outside the borders of Germany; it included
The event
Austria and the occupied Sudetenland.
followed a five-year period of Nazi government
legislation which progressively diminished the
political, economic, and social position of Jews.
"Kristallnacht" occurred in

"Kristallnacht"

7 .

for

more than a thousand years

was

by "neighbors"

watched

the world.

well organized event which was


and widely reported in the media

"Kristallnacht" created a new sense of hopelessness in


the minds of Third Reich Jews, as thousands of them
tried to flee from their homelands in unprecedented

numbers
6.

in

was an officially sanctioned act of


violence by the Nazi government of Germany to
eliminate a minority of people who had been citizens
of the state and whose history in the country had

throughout

5.

western society which was


from

"Kristallnacht"

been recorded

4.

esteemed for its culture and which was transformed


a democracy to a dictatorship when the Nazi party
power legally took over the reigns of government.

"Kristallnacht" catapulted the issue of a growing


international refugee problem in the 1930 's as world
leaders tried, but failed, to arrive at a solution.
Though American public opinion was strongly roused and
voiced in reaction to the event of "Kristallnacht", the
American government did not prevent the Nazis from
carrying out their plans to eliminate the Jewish

people.

73

Discussion Questions
Consider the following issues or questions for discussion
research.
1.

2 .

or

do you suppose, did the Nazi government enact the


violence against the Jews following the assassination
of Vom Rath? What could it gain from it? Why did it
initiate it at this time?

Why,

Imagine the burning of a synagogue or church in your


How would you feel?
How would you respond
to the people who belong to the church? What would you
or could you do to help those people afterward?
community.

3.

Given the political and economic circumstances of the


time what options could the Jews in the Third Reich take
following the event of Kristallnacht? List each option
and

it

with historical information.

4.

contrast the U.S. response to the Jewish


refugee problem of the 1930 's with current refugee
In one column list
problems in South America or Asia.
the responses of the American government in the 1930 's
and in the other column list the responses of today.

5.

After reading the eyewitness accounts in the booklet


describe the feelings and reactions of the Jews who
were victimized.

6 .

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support

7 .

8.

Compare and

the telegraph order of Heydrich and pick out


the key phrases and words which enacted the violence.
Note the careful use of words by Heydrich.
Examine

Review the responses of Americans to the event and list


Note the words
the types of reactions which emerged.
used by Americans to express their feelings .

did the majority of German people


not respond vigorously against the violence after it
occurred? For each reason be prepared to support it

Why, do you suppose,

with historical information.


9.

Who were

some

speak out?

10.

of the Germans who denounced the violence


What did they say and why did they

of Kristallnacht?

some of the Americans who denounced the


What did they say and
violence of Kristallnacht?
did they speak out?

Who were

74

why

C. For the Community

Organizers of community events and programs are encouraged


to coordinate any one or a number of events the week of
November 6-13, 1988, to commemorate and educate
interdenominational and interfaith audiences about the history
The U.S. Holocaust Memorial
and lessons of Kristallnacht .
Council has invited the participation of the governor of each
state and territory and the mayors of cities throughout the
United States to issue commemoration proclamations and to
encourage community -wide observances.
The

following types of

programs

may be

organized:

Lecture or Lecture series;


Film series;
Commemoration

ceremony

in

church or synagogue;

Display or exhibit of Holocaust books, photographs,


and/or artifacts;

documents

Oral history project recording the stories of


eyewitnesses to the event.
organization within the community may embark upon a program.
In doing so, you may want to consider the following questions:

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Any

To
Example:
goals of the program?
provide awareness, sensitize, document.

1.

What are the

2.

What type

educate,

of audience do we wish to attract? Example:


Students, interfaith groups, a particular part of the

community.
3.

Which

organizations

implementing,
Church,
Example:

office.
4 .

5 .

would join us in formulating,


and funding the program?
synagogue, interfaith council, mayor's

publicizing,

What are the

anticipated costs of the program

are the funds going to come from?


speakers, space rental, publicity,

and where

costs of

film rental.

Where should the program be held to gain maximum


Example:
Community
exposure and educational value?

center, cultural hall, sanctuary of


synagogue

6 .

Example:

What

church or

printed resources and materials are needed for


Information sheets,

Example:
distribution?
bibliographies , programs

75

What are the one, two, or three issues to be addressed


in the program? See the Concepts in the section above

7.

for

some

guidance.

What are the human


Speakers,
Example:

8 .

projectionists

To

resources needed to lead the program?


discussion leaders, film

help organizers further,

we

suggest that such local

libraries, synagogues, community centers, Jewish


Federations, interfaith councils, bureaus of education, teacher
institutions

as

resource centers

If

a
recommend

be

contacted.

Holocaust center or organization is located nearby, we


that contact be made with that institution for advice

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and help in implementing a program.


Most likely, the local
Holocaust center has already initiated a program to observe
"Kristallnacht . " For reference, we are listing the names of
such centers geographically (see Resources in this booklet).

76

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Study Aids

77

Highlights of Events,
1938:

March

13,

1938

March

13

Incorporation

April

22

Decree

June

July

26

14

through January 30,1939

of Austria (Anschluss)

against "Camouflage of Jewish

Industries

"

Decree on the Reporting of Jewish


Assets: preparation for exclusion of
Jewish presence in the German economy.
Decree

mandating the registration

Jewish enterprises.
Evian Conference:

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September

October

November

about immigration

fleeing Nazi

Germany.

23

Introduction of identity cards for Jews


effective January 1, 1939.

25

Licenses of Jewish doctors to expire on


September

August

international

diplomatic conference
quotas for refugees

of

30,

1938.

17

Jewish middle names of "Sara" and


"Israel" required to be entered on all
personal documents, prescribed by law to
become effective January 1, 1939.

27

Removal Jewish lawyers from the bar;


prohibited from appearing in German law
courts .

29

Munich Agreement - England and France


agree to the annexation of the
Sudetenland by Nazi Germany.
Troops
begin to occupy territory.

Passports of Jews are marked

28

Expulsion of 17,000 Polish Jewish


residents of Germany into Poland, where
they were held in camps and towns just
across Polish border.

Grynszpan, whose parents had


been expelled from Germany back to Poland
on October 28, shot Ernst vom Rath, Third
Secretary at the German Embassy in Paris .
Herschel

78

"J."

Sporadic

7-8

November

pogroms

in Kurhessen.

Vandalizing and looting of synagogues


shops in Kassel.

9-10

12

Vom

Rath died

and

of his wounds at 4:00 p.m.

Organized pogroms throughout

Germany,

Austria and the occupied Sudetenland


continuing through the 10th.

Goering declares indemnity payment by


Jews of $400 million for damages; the
elimination of Jews from economic life

from all cultural establishments.


30,000 Jews have been arrested and
sent to concentration camps.

and

Some

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1939:

15

Jewish children no longer allowed to


attend German schools.

28

Introduction of residential restrictions


for Jews by annulling their tenants'
r ights .

December

Decree of Compulsory Transfer of Jewish


Businesses known as Aryanization .

January

30

Hitler

addresses Reichstag and predicts


the extermination of the Jewish race in
Europe in case of war.

79

Photograph
NAME

Wiesbaden

Streets

ARCHITECT:

Philipp
DEDICATED:

STRUCTURE

DESIGN:

and Schulberg

1869

The style was unusual for the cityscape of


Wiesbaden.
In principle, the building was
designed with a central structure, over a
square layout, topped with a high central
cupola; on each of the four corners were
eight-cornered towers with onion cupolas. All
the cupolas contained stars.
The decorations
of the building were based on oriental
designs, but included rosettes in the western
window and Gothic-type designs in the tracery.

slightly rising terrain, the property required


extensive substructures which were designed to form
terraced areas around the building.
From a
distance, it appeared that the synagogue was sitting
on a pedestal .

With

Hammer-Schenk,
Hans
Hamburg:

Photograph

- corner of Michelsberg

Hoffman

SYNAGOGUE

LANDSCAPE:

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Synagogue

Harold.

"Wiesbaden."

Christian Verlag,

1981,

Synagogues in Deutschland.
pages 307-308.

courtesy of the Leo Baeck Institute,

80

New

York.

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Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

SH(] .)fl?U fMOU AO

BuxiiSTxqrid
'AuEdmop

AU.l SHfl!)()!)VNAS

^JQA

Z8

-Z86I

<i

HMHWUAON si:i.I

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LZ
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Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

83

HOLOCAUST

RESOURCE

CENTERS

AND ORGANIZATIONS

STATE/ CITY/ ZIP

INSTITUTION

TELEPHONE

AZ Tucson
85711

Tucson Holocaust Commission


635 North Craycroft

(602)

327-7957

CA Los
90048

Angeles

American Congress of Jews

(213)

938-7881

CA Los
90046

Angeles

Inc.

(213)

650-1774

Museum

(213)

852-1234

(213)

553-9036

(415)

751-6040

(415)

723-1754

(303)

758-0954

(303)

871-3022

(203)

432-1879

(202)

523-3340

Moore

6534

Drive

Friends of Le Chambon,
Suite 784
Sunset Boulevard

8033

Martyrs Memorial and

CA Los
90048

Angeles

CA Los
90035

Angeles

Simon Wiesenthal Center


9760 West Pico Boulevard

CA San
94118

Francisco

Holocaust

Calif

601
CA Stanford
94305
CO

Wilshire Boulevard

6505

Denver

80237

Center of Northern

14th Avenue

Hoover

Institution

Stanford University

Alternatives in Religious
Education
S. Oneida

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3945
CO

Denver

Holocaust

Awareness

Institute

80208

University of Denver
Center for Judaic Studies

CT New Haven
06520

Fortunoff Video Archive for


Hoi. Test.
Room 331C

Sterling Memorial Library

Yale University
DC

Washington

20408

DC

Washington

20036

National Archives and Records


Adm.

8th

U.S.

&

Suite
2000

Pennsylvania

Holocaust
717

L Street,

84

Avenue,

NW

Memorial Council
N.W.

(202)

822-6464

HOLOCAUST

STATE/ CITY/ ZIP

FL

Fort

33901

FL

Myers

Maitland

32751

FL

North Miami

33181

RESOURCE

INSTITUTION

33181

GA

Atlanta

30322

Atlanta
GA
30309

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IL

Skokie

(813)

275-3554

(407)

628-0555

Holocaust Documentation
(305)
Education Center
N.E. 151st Sts . & Biscayne Blvd.

940-5690

3628

Evans Avenue

Holocaust Memorial Resource


& Education
851 North Maitland Avenue

Intl

Brookline

Newton

02159

MA

Peabody

01960

MA

Waltham

02154

of Children Jewish

Fred Roberts Crawford

(404)

727-7545

Zachor Holocaust Center


1753 Peachtree Road, N.E.

(404)

873-1661

(312)

677-4680

(617)

232-1595

University

Emory

c/o Atlanta Jewish Federation


Holocaust

of

Memorial Foundation

Illinois

Main Street

Facing History & Ourselves


Nat ' 1 Foundation
25

MA

Network

940-5690

4255

02146

Univ. - N. Miami

Int'l

Holocaust Survivors
(305)
N.E. 151st & Biscayne, Trade Ctr.
Fla Int'l Univ. - N. Miami Campus

60076

MA

TELEPHONE

Jewish Federation of Lee County

Florida

FL North Miami

AND ORGANIZATIONS

CENTERS

Kennard

Road

of Jewish Education-Boston

Bureau

4th Floor

(617)

965-7350

Center-North Shore
Street, Room 108
(617)

535-0003

333 Nahanton

Street

Holocaust
76

Lake

McCarthy School

American Jewish

Society

Thornton Road

85

Historical

(617) 891-8110

HOLOCAUST

STATE/ CITY/ ZIP

MA

Worcester

College of the Holy Cross


Department of History

(617)

793- 2465

Baltimore

Baltimore Jewish Council

(301)

752- 2630

(301)

984- 1611

Rockville

20852
ME

101 West Mount

Board
11710

Newcastle

04553

Holocaust

Royal Avenue

of Jewish Education
Hunter's Lane

Maine

Human

Rights Center

Box 422B

Rural Route
Bloomfield

(313)

661- 0840

Holocaust Resource Center


8200 West 33rd Street

(612)

935- 0316

St. Louis

St. Louis Center for Holocaust


Studies
(314)
12 Millstone Campus Drive

432- 0020

Raleigh

North Carolina Council on


Holocaust
2230 Lash Avenue

(919)

787- 9232

Holocaust Resource Center


Fiske Annex
Keene State College

(603)

357- 0796

NJ Fairfield

Jewish Education Assoc.


of Metrowest
39 Plymouth Street

(201)

575- 6050

NJ Lawrenceville

Holocaust
Center

(609)

896- 5345

(201)

842- 1709

MN

Minneapolis

55426
MO

63146

NC

27606

NH

Keene

03431

07006

08648

NJ

Lincroft

07738

Holocaust

(207) 586- 5225

Memorial Center

MI West
48322

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AND ORGANIZATIONS

TELEPHONE

21201
MD

CENTERS

INSTITUTION

01610
MD

RESOURCE

6602

West Maple

Road

Genocide Resource

2083 Lawrenceville Road


Rider College

Center for Holocaust

Studies

Brookdale

Community

College

HOLOCAUST

RESOURCE

AND

ORGANIZATIONS

STATE/ CITY / ZIP

INSTITUTION

NJ

Center for Holocaust


Study

&

Interfaith

Memorial

Mahwah
07430

NJ

Randolph

07869

NJ

Somerville

08876

NJ

Union

07083
NV

Las Vegas

89109

Albany
NY
12230

TELEPHONE

Genocide

505 Ramapo Valley Road


Ramapo College of New Jersey

Holocaust

Council

Route

375

10

Box 3300

527-3049

Gertrude Sperling Holocaust


(702)
Resource Center
1030 East Twain Avenue
Jewish Federation of Las Vegas

732-0556

Resource Center

College of

New

Jersey

York State Holocaust

New

Center
(518)

474-5801

(718)

631-6291

(212)

295-0200

(718)

338-6766

Holocaust Study Center of Jewish


Experience
(718)

449-0803

Room 9B52

York State Cultural Educ


Center

Holocaust Studies Center


Bronx High School of Science

Archives

Resource Center

Queensborough

75

Brooklyn

366-3113

(201)

Holocaust

Kean

NY
Bronx
10468

11224

(201)

526-1200

Holocaust

NY

489-2463

(201)

Raritan Valley Community


College

NY
Bayside
11364

Brooklyn
NY
11230

(201)

Raritan Valley Community College

P.O.

New
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CENTERS

West 205th

Community

2881

West 12th

87

&

College

Street

Center for Holocaust


Doc. & Res.
1610 Avenue

Street

Studies

HOLOCAUST

STATE/ CITY/ ZIP

INSTITUTION

Brooklyn
NY
11235

Masada

NY
Getzville
14068

Holocaust

The Holocaust

NY
Mineola
11501

Long

Suite

Survivors

400

&

Friends

Road

746-3211

(212)

797-9000

American Gathering of Jewish


Holocaust Survivors
(212)

239-4230

Avenue

Israel of America
William Street

Agudath
84

Suite

201

Street

30th

York

American Jewish Committee


165 East 56th Street

New
NY
10017

York

American Jewish

Distribution
10th Floor

711

York

Yad Vashem,

York

37th

Inc.

(212)

687-6200

(212)

564-1865

(212)

529-9532

Street

Ann Frank Center

4th Floor
106

NY
New
10019

751-4000

American Society for


9th Floor

York

Joint
Comm.

(212)

Third Avenue

48 West
New
NY
10003

(518) 785-0035

(516)

Willis

New
NY
10022

NY
New
10018

743-7598

(716) 688-7020

Island Center for Holocaust

Study

122 West

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Resource Center of

800 New Loudon

261

York

(718)

North Forest Road

Holocaust

New
NY
10001

Survivors

Buffalo, Inc.

NY
Latham
12110

York

TELEPHONE

Organization
2615 Brown Street

2640

New
NY
10038

AND ORGANIZATIONS

CENTERS

RESOURCE

E.

19th

Street

Pedagogic Resource Center


426 West 58th Street

88

BJE
(212)

245-8200

HOLOCAUST

STATE/ CITY/ ZIP

New
NY
10010

York

RESOURCE

INSTITUTION

Labor

3rd

York

TELEPHONE

Archives of the Jewish

Bund

25

NY
New
11377

AND ORGANIZATIONS

CENTERS

Comm.

(212)

Floor

473-5101

East 21st Street

Conference on Jewish Material


Claims
(212) 696-4944

Room 1355

East 26th Street

15

New
NY
10036

York

Csengeri

Studies

Institute for

(212)

642-2183

(212)

684-7480

(212)

674-7200

(212)

463-7988

(212)

594-8765

(212)

691-7316

(212)

490-2525

National Educational Resource


Center- JESNA
(212)

529-2000

Graduate Center

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Room 1450
33 West 42nd
New
NY
10016

York

New
NY
10003

York

NY
New
10011

York

New
NY
10118

York

E.

216 West

3508

Street

Avenue

Institute for
History

Suite

Research in

923

Broadway

Center for Holocaust

823

York

Publications

18th

Fifth

10th
NY
New
10003

Emanu-El

Street

Holocaust Survivors Memorial


Foundation

Suite

York

14th

Holocaust

1133
New
NY
10017

Project -

Holocaust
344

York

Street

Federation of Former Jewish


Underground Fighters
12 East 31st Street

350
NY
New
10010

Holocaust

ADL

Floor

United Nations

730 Broadway

89

Studies

Plaza

HOLOCAUST

STATE/ CITY/ ZIP

INSTITUTION

TELEPHONE

New
NY
10010

York

Jewish Labor Committee


25 East 21st Street

NY
New
10016

York

Jewish Nazi Victims of America

New
NY
10027

York

NY
New
10021

York

NY
New
10018

York

(212) 362-5262

Jewish Theological Seminary -

Library

Broadway

East

129

York

Institute

Leo Baeck

73

9th Floor

37th

Resistance

&

Suite

Street

Jews Inc

(212) 206-0006

1100

Fifth

Avenue

NY
New
10001

York

Zachor Division of CLAL


4th Floor
421 Seventh Avenue

New
NY
10016

York

National Jewish Community


Relations
44 3

York

New

Park Avenue South

York Holocaust

Suite
York

York

(212)

684-6950

717

(212)

687-5020

(212)

930-0603

Madison Avenue

York Public Library


(Jewish Div . )
Central Research Library
New

Fifth

NY
New
10018

(212) 714-9500

Memorial

Comm.

342
NY
New
10018

(212) 564-1865

Nat'l Conference of Christians


71

New
NY
10173

(212) 678-8982
(212) 744-6400

Street

and

Martyrdom
48 West

NY
New
10003

(212) 477-0707

Room 704
373 Fifth Avenue

3080

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AND ORGANIZATIONS

CENTERS

RESOURCE

Avenue and 42nd

Research Foundation
Immig.
16th Floor

570

Seventh Avenue

90

Street

for Jewish

(212) 921-3871

HOLOCAUST

STATE/ CITY/ ZIP

RESOURCE

AND ORGANIZATIONS

CENTERS

INSTITUTION

TELEPHONE

to Scandinavia

New
NY
10151

York

NY
New
10001

York

Warsaw Ghetto
122 West 30th

NY
New
10021

York

World Federation of Bergen


Belsen Associations

Thanks

Fifth

745

Lenox

Avenue

Hill

Resistance
Street

(212)

486- 8600

(212)

564- 1065

(212)

752- 3387

(212)

752- 0600

(212)

535- 6700

(212)

960- 5265

(716)

461- 0290

(516)

883- 3850

(914)

356- 2711

Station

P.O. Box 232

NY
New
10022

York

World Zionist Organization


515 Park Avenue

NY
New
10028

York

YIVO

Institute for Jewish

1048

Fifth

NY
New
10033

York

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Point

Studies

Valley

Soundview

Rockland Center for Holocaust

Studies

South Madison Avenue

American Jewish Archives

(513)

221- 1875

Kent

Kent State University

(216)

672- 2389

44242
OH

Sylvania

43560

3101

314

Portland

97201

Clifton

Avenue

Satterfield Hall

Holocaust Resource Center-Toledo


P.O. Box 587
(419) 885- 2685
6505

OR

Lane

Cincinnati

45215
OH

Street

Jerome Riker International


Study

17
OH

185th

Holocaust Resource Center


441 East Avenue

30

NY Spring
10977

Avenue

Yeshiva University: Holocaust


500 West

NY
Rochester
14067
NY
Sands
11050

Research

Sylvania Avenue

Oregon Holocaust
2900

SW

Resource Center

Peaceful Lane

91

(503)

246- 8831

HOLOCAUST

RESOURCE

STATE/ CITY/ ZIP

INSTITUTION

TELEPHONE

PA
Allentown
18104

Allentown Jewish Archives


7 02
N. 22nd Streeet

(215) 821-9690

PA Philadelphia
19106

Anne Frank

PA

Philadelphia

19141

PA

Philadelphia

19141

Institute of

Philadelphia

Lafayette Building
Suite 608
5th & Chestnut Street
Gratz College
10th & Tabor Road
Holocaust Awareness
Gratz College
Room 217

Street

10th

PA

Philadelphia

19107

PA

Pittsburgh

15213

PA West

Chester

Museum

Floor, Suite

on the

300

Memorial Committee

Holocaust

Center of Greater

Pittsburgh
242 McKee Place

National Association

(215)

722-7242

(215) 922-7222

11713

Jollyville

Road

World Romani Union


Post Office Box 856

(412) 682-7124

for

Jewish Community Council of


Austin

Dallas

329-3363

for the

TX
Austin
78759

75230

(215)

Six Million
(215) 922-7222
Jewish Community Relations Council
125 S. Ninth Street, #300

19383

TX

625-0412

South 9th Street

Holocaust
West Chester University

TX
Buda
78610

(215)

Tabor Road

Holocaust

3rd

PA Philadelphia
19107

&

Interfaith Council
125

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AND ORGANIZATIONS

CENTERS

(215)

696-3609

(512)

472-6248

(512)

926-5201

Association of Holocaust
Organizations
(214) 750-4654
c/o Dallas Memorial Center for
Holocaust Studies
7

900

Northaven Road

92

HOLOCAUST

7900 Northaven Road


RESOURCE CENTERS AND ORGANIZATIONS

STATE/ CITY/ ZIP

INSTITUTION

TELEPHONE

TX
Dallas
75230

Dallas Memorial Center


for Holocaust Studies

(214)

750-4654

TX
El
79912

El Paso Holocaust Memorial


(915)

584-4437

Paso

Center

Sierra Valle

6123
TX San
78216

Antonio

Jewish Federation of San Antonio

(512)

341-8234

(206)

543-1879

(608)

262-0629

Montreal Holocaust Memorial


Centre
(514)
5151 Cote St. Catherine Road

735-2386

CRC

Ahem

8434
WA

Seattle

98195

Lane

University of Washington
Libraries
FM-25

WI
Madison
53706

Jewish Archives
State Street

Wisconsin
816

CANADA

Montreal, Quebec
H3W

1M6

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Toronto, Ontario

M2R 3V2

Canadian Foundation

Culture
4600 Bathurst Street

93

for Jewish
(416)

635-2883

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Allen, William Sheridan.

Seizure of Power: The


1922-1945. New York: Franklin

The Nazi

Experience of a Single German


Watts, 1965, 1984.

Town

Gutman, Yisrael; Margaliot, Abraham, editors.


on the Holocaust:
Selected Sources on the Destruction
of the Jews of Germany and Austria, Poland, and the Soviet Union.
Jerusalem: Yad Vashem in cooperation with the Anti-Defamation
League and Ktav Publishing House, 1981.

Arad,

Yitzhak;

Documents

Bauer,
Watts,

Yehuda.
1982.

Dawidowicz,
New

York:

Diamond,

History of the Holocaust.

Lucy S.

Bantam,

Sander A.

New York:
Science, Vol. XIV,

America.

Eisenberg, Azriel.
Press, 1981.

The War
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New

Franklin

York:

Against the Jews, 1933-1945.

"Kristallnacht " and the Reaction in


Y.I.V.O. Annual of Jewish Social

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to the Holocaust.

New

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Pilgrim

Feingold, Henry. The Politics of Rescue: The Roosevelt


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Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

Foreign Relations

Volume

Africa.

II:

of the United States:

British

Commonwealth,
Washington D.C.:
Government
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Atlas of the Holocaust.

Gilbert, Martin.

The

Company,

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Meier,

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Kochan, Lionel.
Deutsch, 1957.

Levin, Nora.
1933-1945

Pogrom,

10

York:

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History of the Jews of Europe


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Jews

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New

York:

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Holocaust: The Destruction of European Jewry,


York: Thomas Y. Crowe 11 Company, 1968.

The
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The Holocaust and Its


Chalm.
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Yisrael and Schatzker,


Significance . Jerusalem: The
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Holmes

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Winston, 1986.

Hilberg, Raul.

Near

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Gilbert, Martin.
Publishing

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Lewy, Guenther.
Book Company, 1964.
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Belief

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Lookstein, Haskel . Were We Our Brother's Keepers.


The Public
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Vintage Books, 1985.
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Marrus, Michael R.
"The Strange Story of Herschel
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The Swastika Outside Germany.
Kent State University Press, 1977.
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Grynszpan."
Kent,

Ohio:

Both Sides of the Wall:


Memoirs from the
York: Holocaust Library, 1979.

On

New

Meltzer, Milton.
New York: Harper

Never
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Row,

to Forget:

The Jews

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of the Holocaust.

Mendelsohn, John, editor.


The Holocaust:
Selected Documents in
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Garland Publishing, Inc., 1982.
New

Generated on 2015-05-09 19:54 GMT / http://hdl.handle.net/2027/mdp.39015022195989


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18,

York Times,
21

and 22,

issues of November 8, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17,

1938.

Rosenman, Samuel I. (compiler).


The Public Papers and Addresses
of Franklin Delano Roosevelt with a Special Introduction and
Explanatory Notes by President Roosevelt. 1938 Volume:
The
Continuing Struggle for Liberalism.
"The Five Hundredth Press
Conference (Excerpts), November 15, 1938." New York: MacMillian
Company,

1941.

Ross, Robert

So

W.

It

Was

True:

Protestant Press
Minneapolis: University of

The American

Persecution of the Jews


Minnesota Press, 1980.
and the Nazi

Schoenberner , Gerhard.
The Yellow Star:
The Persecution of the
Jews in Europe, 1933-1945.
New York: Bantam, 1973.

Rita

Thalmann,
New

Crystal Night.
and Feinermann, Emmanuel.
1974;
Holocaust Library,
McCann & Geoghegan,

York: Coward,

1980.

Wyman,

Paper Walls:
America and the Refugee
New York: Pantheon Books, 1985.

David.

1938-1941

95

Crisis,

Selected List of Films on the Holocaust


(The distributor is indicated after film
see key for distributors following this

title

list.)

by

abbreviations;

Ambulance (HEF)
9 minutes/B&W
16MM

is

This

trigger film that gives perceptive viewers

microcosm of the Holocaust.


Courage to Care,

The

minutes/color
Video; 16MM
30

in

(ADL)

for

an Academy Award by the Motion Picture


Sciences as the Best Documentary Short this is a film about the few but significant individuals who
knowingly risked their lives during the Holocaust to aid

Nominated

Jews

1986

of Arts

Academy

and

David (DAV)
125 minutes;
German

35MM

family experiences Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken


its after effects which completely transforms their

Glass, and

lives .

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Genocide
52

(AOL)

minutes/color

16MM

A documentary film produced by Thames Television as part of


"The World at War" series.
tells the inhuman story of
Hitler's "Final Solution" set within a historic frame.

It

Holocaust, The (AJS)


28 minutes/color
16MM

overview, produced by Yad Vashem, using Nazi film


stills, which places the events of the Holocaust
in historical perspective.

Documentary
footage and

I Never Saw Another


30 minutes/B&W

Butterfly

(EL)

16MM

For twenty years Any a, one of the 200 children who survived
the Terezin concentration camp returns to Terezin and relives
those years.
Includes poetry and drawings of children at the
camp gathered in the book I Never Saw Another Butterfly.
96

Our Time in the Garden


15 minutes/B&W

(NCJ)

16MM

is the true story of a young Jewish woman growing


Berlin at the time of Hitler's rise to power.
This

Riga: A Tale of
20 minutes/color

Ghettos

Two

up

in

(HMM)

Video

film is about life and death in the ghettos of Riga,


Latvia. It is an artistic re-creation of the past, comprised
of survivor testimony, archival photographs and portraits.

The

Eli

Wallach narrates the film and Helen Hayes gives voice to


the testimony of the survivors.

Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, The (ADL)


Video; 16MM
A

Four-Part Film Series on Nazi Germany

Part I
Rise of Hitler
minutes/B&W

28

film chronicles how Adolf Hitler and his political


cohorts in the Nazi party manipulated events during their
country's crises to achieve power.

The

Part

II

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Nazi Germany:
28

minutes/B&W

Years of Triumph

Germany between

Part

1933

III

Goetterdaemmerung
28 minutes/B&W

In the four years

and 1939.

Collapse of the Third Reich


between

1941

and 1945.

Part IV

Nuremberg Trial
31 minutes/B&W

The indictment of twenty- four Nazi leaders in Nuremberg,


Germany, in October 1945, opened an unprecedented chapter

international law.

97

in

Thunder in Munich (PP)


28 minutes/B&W
16MM

true story of Rupert. Meier, a German Jesuit, who returned


I a combat hero and who defies the Nazis.

The

from World War

To Bear Witness

minutes/color
Video; 16MM
40

(PF)

film is a powerful documentary about the liberation of


the Nazi concentration camps by the Allied Armies in 1945.
Among the well-known people who speak in the film are
President Ronald Reagan, former President Jimmy Carter, and
Elie Wiesel.
The

Trial at

Nuremberg

23 minutes/B&W

Video;

CBS

is

(HRW)

16MM

News

Documentary

the record of the

Warsaw Ghetto:
19 minutes/B&W

narrated by Walter Cronkite.


This film
trial, a factual presentation.

Holocaust

and

Resistance

JLC )

Filmstrip

for the Warsaw Ghetto underground


movement and member of the Z . O . B . , describes Warsaw before the
German occupation and during the Nazi regime, Jewish cultural
resistance, and preparations for the armed Warsaw Ghetting

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Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

Vladka Meed, a courier

Uprising.

Witness

Video;
A

to the Holocaust (CG)

16MM

series of seven short films based

different topics of the Holocaust.

on

survivor testimony

on

Rise of the Nazis


20

minutes/B&W

how a violent, extra-legal group of


outsiders and fringe elements rose to power in a democracy,
and established political and economic institutions of
legitimized terror and mass murder.

This episode shows

98

Ghetto

Life

20 minutes/B&W

This episode describes ghetto conditions, Jewish efforts to


continue living, and the role of the Judenrat, the Jewish
Council .
Deportations

20 minutes/B&W

collection and deportation of people from the ghettos and


countryside to the concentration camps, and the attitude to
bystanders are presented in this episode.

The

Resistance

20 minutes/B&W

This episode
Resistance against the Nazis took many forms.
explores both spiritual resistance, as well as armed

resistance.

The
20

Final Solution

minutes/B&W

This episode avoids pure atrocity footage, yet deals with


selection and death, as well as daily life, in the
'
concentration camps.

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Public Domain, Google-digitized / http://www.hathitrust.org/access_use#pd-google

Freedom
20 minutes/B&W

This film explores the liberation, the movement of survivors


back to their homes in Europe, and their subsequent efforts
to begin new lives in Israel and America.

Reflections
20

minutes/B&W

In this important afterword to the series, survivors

reflect

on such questions as how the scope of Nazi atrocities grew


beyond 'the Jewish question' to include non-Jews, and what
universal lessons can be learned from the Holocaust.

For purchase or rental information please refer to the codes and


corresponding distributors on next page:
Please note that many
are available on film or video depending on whether it is rented
or purchased.
Please contact distributor for specifics.

99

Key
ADL

for Distributors

Anti-Defamation League

of B'nai B'rith

823
New

United Nations Plaza


York, New York 10017

(212) 490-2525

AJS

Alden-JSC
Box 449

Clarksburg,

Jersey

New

(201) 462-3522

CG

Cinema Guild
1697 Broadway,
New

York,

New

(212) 246-5522

DAV

Filmverlag der Autoren


Tengstrasse 37, 8000

Fifth

York,

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New

York

10010

Holocaust Educational Films


1610

Avenue

Brooklyn,

"J"

New

338-8494

(718)

York

11230

U.S. Holocaust Memorial


2000

Suite

Street,

N.W.

Museum

717

Washington, D.C.
(202) 822-6464
HRW

Fed. Rep.

Avenue

533-7800

(212)

HMM

Ger.

Eternal Light Film Library


United Synagogue of America
155
New

HEF

802
10019

David

Munchen 40,
EL

Suite

York

08510

20036

Holt, Rinehart

and Winston
Woodland Avenue
Austin, Texas 78741
Debbrah Willkox
ATTN:
440-5774
(512)
1627

JLC

Jewish Labor Committee


25 East 21st Street
New York, New York
10010
(212) 477-0707

100

NCJ

National Center for Jewish Film


Brandeis

Lown

University

Building

102

Walthem, Massachusetts
(617) 899-7044

PP

Paulist Productions
17575 Pacific Coast

02254

Highway

Post Office Box 1057


Pacific Palisades, California
(213) 454-0688

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PF

Phoenix Films
468 Park Avenue, South
New York, New York
10016
(212) 684-5910

101

90272

UNITED STATES HOLOCAUST

COUNCIL MEMBERS

MEMORIAL

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Harvey

Meyerhoff

M.

Vice Chairaan

J.

William

Lowenberg

Member 8
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102

Jack Abramoff

Philip

Abrams

Albert Abramson

Matthew Brown
David T. Chase
George Deukmejian

Barbaralee

Bill

Diamonstein-

Duna

Dalck Feith

Abraham H. Foxman
Erna I. Gans

Alfred Gottschalk
Sylvia Hassenfeld
Milton Himmelfarb

J.

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Horn
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Marvin G. "Jerry" Kelfer
Bobbie Greene Kilberg
Julian E. Kulas
Ronald S. Lauder

Miles Lerman

Theodore Lerner
Harry H. Levitch

Franklin

Littell

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Ruth

Miller

Set Momjian

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Neuman

Murray Pantirer
John T. Pawlikowski
Bernard S. Raskas
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Rosenfeld

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Department
Ms.

Rosensaft
L. Sachar
Julius Schatz
Richard Schifter
Hadassah

Abram

Sigmund Strochlitz
Kalman Sultanik

Arnold Thaler
Laurence A. Tisch
Glenn Watts
Sheila Rabb Weidenfeld
Elie Wiesel (Founding Chairman)

Siggi B. Wilzig

Eli

Zborowski

Members

Robert Garcia
S.

William Green

Kasten
Frank R. Lautenberg

Bob

William

Lehman

Frank H. Murkowski

Claiborne Pell
Stephen P. Solarz
Lowell P. Weicker
Sidney R. Yates

Members

of Education:

Shannon Sorzano

Department

of Interior;

Mr. William Penn Mott,


Department

Morris

I.

Jr.

of State;
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COUNClL

Washington, D.C. 20036