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# Finite Element Method

Chapter 8
Development of the Linear-Strain
Triangle Equations

## Step 2: Select Displacement Functions

{d } u1 v1 u2

v2 u3 v3 u4

v4 u5 v5 u6

v6

u ( x , y ) a1 a 2 x a 3 y a 4 x 2 a 5 x y a 6 y 2
v ( x , y ) a 7 a 8 x a 9 y a10 x a11 x y a12 y
2

u
{ }
v

x2

xy

y2

x2

xy

{ } [ M * ] {a}

y 2

a1

a 2

a12

In Matrix Form
u1 1 x1

u 6 1 x6

v1 0 0

v6 0 0

y1

x12

x1 y1

y12

y6
0

x62
0

x6 y 6
0

y62
0

0 0
1 x1

1 x6

0
y1

y6

0
x12

x62

0
x1 y1

x6 y 6

y1

x12

x1 y1

y12

y6

x62

x6 y 6

y 62

x1

y1

x12

x1 y1

x6

y6

x62

x6 y 6

a1

0 a6

y12 a7

2
y6 a12
0

## Solving for the as

a1 1 x1

a6 1 x6

a 7 0 0

a12 0 0

y12

2
y 6

u1

u 6

v1

v6

{a} [ X ] 1 {d }

{ } [M * ][X ] 1{d }
[N ]{d }
u (x , y ) N 1
{ }

v (x , y ) 0

N2

N3

N4

N5

N6

N1

N2

N3

N4

N5

N
u
i i

{ } i 61

N v
i
i

i 1

u1
v
1
0
0
N6
u 6

v 6

## Step 3: Define the Strain/Displacement and Stress/Strain Relationships

u

x x

v
{ } y

x
y

u v
y x

Since
u
{ }
v

x2

xy

y2

x2

xy

y 2

Then

0
{ } 0
0

1
0
0

0
0
1

2x
0
0

y
0
x

0
0
2y

0
0
0

0
0
1

0
1
0

0
0
2x

0
x
y

0
2y
0

a1

a 2

a12

a1
a
2

a12

{ } M 'a
1

{a} [X ] {d }

[ B ]{d }
'

B M X
1
1
[ B]
0

2A
1

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
5

0
6
6

where the bs and s are now functions of x and y as well as of the nodal coordinates
The B matrix is illustrated for a specific linear-strain triangle in the next example

## Stress Strain Relationship

x
x

[
D
]

y
y

xy
xy

{ } [ D] [ B ]{d }

[D]

E
1

1
0

1
2

E

[D]
(1 ) (1 2 )
0

1
0

1 2
2
0

## Step 4 :Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

p p (ui , vi , u j , v j , um , vm )
Total potential energy is defined as the sum of the internal
strain energy U and the potential energy of the external
forces , that is:

p U
U b s p
For linear-elastic material, the internal strain energy is given by
U 12 { }T { } dV
V

U 12 { }T [ D ]{ } dV
V

## Step 4 :Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

The potential energy of the body forces:
b { }T { X} dV
V

s { }T {T} dS
S

p {d}T {P}

## Step 4 :Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

[k ] [ B] [ D] [ B] dV
T

## Step 4 :Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

The last three terms in equation represent the total load system or the
energy equivalent nodal forces on an element;

{ f } [ N ]T { X } dV [ N ]T {T } dS { P }
V

Body
forces

1 {d }T
2

Surface
Tractions

T
[ B] [ D] [ B] dV {d } {d }T { f }

Concentrated
nodal forces

## Step 4 :Derive the Element Stiffness Matrix and Equations

[k ] [ B]T [ D] [ B] dV
V
For an element with constant thickness t

[k ] t

[ B]

[ D] [ B] dx dy

## Step 5: Assemble the Element Equations to Obtain the Global

Equations and Introduce Boundary Conditions
N

[ K ] [k ( e) ]
e 1

{F } [ K ] {d }
N

[ F ] [ f (e) ]
e 1

## Step 6: Solve for the Nodal Displacements

Step 7: Solve for the Element Stresses

## Example: LST Stiffness Determination

Consider the following example.. The triangle is of base dimension b and
height h, with midside nodes.

## Example: LST Stiffness Determination

Using the first six equations we calculate the coefficients a1 through a6 by
evaluating the displacement u at each of the six known coordinates of each node
as follows:

u ( x , y ) a1 a 2 x a3 y a 4 x 2 a5 x y a6 y

## Example: LST Stiffness Determination

Solving the previous equations simultaneously for the ai , we obtain

## Substituting into the following equation

u ( x , y ) a1 a 2 x a3 y a 4 x 2 a5 x y a6 y

## Example: LST Stiffness Determination

Similarly, solving for a7 through a12 bye valuating the displacement v at
each of the six nodes, we obtain

functions as:

## where the shape functions are obtained by collecting coefficients that

multiply each ui term in previous equation.
For instance, collecting all terms that multiply by u1, we obtain N1.

## Example: LST Stiffness Determination

These shape functions are then given by:

## Example: LST Stiffness Determination

Since:

{ } y

xy u v
y x

N
u
i i
u i 1
{ } 6

v N v
i
i

i 1

[ B ]{d }

1
1
[ B]
0

2A
1

1
1

2
2

3
3

4
4

5
5

0
6
6

Example1

1 as an Ex am ple
3x 3 y 2 x 2 4 x y 2 y 2

2
2
N 1 1
b
h
b
bh
h
N 1
4 hx
3 4x 4 y
1 2 A
bh 2
4y
3h
bh
b
x
b b
Performing the differentiations indicated on u and v, we obtain

1 3h

4 hx
4y
b

2 h

3 0

4 4y

5 4 y

6 4h

1 3b 4 x
3 b

4by
h

4by
h

5 4b 4 x

2 0
1 4x

8by
h

6 4 x

4 hx
b
8 hx
4y
b

## Example: LST Stiffness Determination

These s and s are specific to the element in this example,

1
1u 1 2u 2 3u 3 4u 4 5u 5 6u 6
2A
1
y
1v 1 2v 2 3v 3 4v 4 5v 5 6v 6
2A
1
xy
1u 1 1v 1 6u 6 6v 6
2A

[k ] t

[ B]T [ D] [ B] dx dy

A
using calculus to set up the appropriate integration. The explicit expression for
the 12 x 12 stiffness matrix, being extremely cumbersome to obtain, is not given
here.
We can use numerical Integration to evaluate this integration as in Chapter 10

Comparison of Elements
For a given number of nodes, a better representation of true stress and
displacement is Generally obtained using the LST element than is obtained
with the same number of nodes using a much finer subdivision into simple
CST elements.

For example, using one LST yields better results than using four CST
elements with the same number of nodes and hence the same number of
degrees of freedom

Comparison of Elements
Consider the cantilever beam subjected to a parabolic load.

## E=30x106 psi and =0.25

Comparison of Elements

Comparison of Elements

Comparison of Elements

Comparison of Elements
In conclusion,
The LST model might be preferred over the CST model for plane
stress applications when relatively small numbers of nodes are
used.
However, the use of triangular elements of higher order, such as the
LST, is not visibly advantageous when large numbers of nodes
are used, particularly when the cost of formation of the element
stiffnesses, equation bandwidth, and overall complexities involved
in the computer modeling are considered.

## Summary of equations using LST elements:

1) For each element, we find

{ f } [ k ] {d }
1a) Element stiffness matrix:

[k ] t

[ B]T [ D] [ B] dx dy

## 1 b) Element nodal force vector

{ f } [ N ]T { X } dV [ N ]T {T } dS { P }
V

2) Assemble
N

[ K ] [k

(e)

e 1

[ F ] [ f (e) ]
e 1

## 3) Solve for global nodal displacements

{F } [ K ] {d }
4) Find element strains and stresses

{ } [ B ] {d }

{ } [ D][ B]{d }

HW:
8.3, 8.4 and 8.5