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Tackling the Energy Problem

in the Information Age Era


David Atienza
Embedded System Laboratory (ESL)
EPFL, Switzerland

Thematic Nano-Tera presentation: Energy


Nano-Tera Annual Meeting 2015, Bern (May 5th, 2015)
ESL/EPFL 2015

Brief History of Computing


Communication Era
Information Age
Era
1970sMainframes

1990s

2000s

Today+

PC Era

From pure computing-intensive centric to data-centric


Information Age Era: connected and ubiquitous access
ESL/EPFL 2015

Information Age Enabled by


Five Decades of Exponential Growth
Doubling the number of transistors in the same
surface every ~24 months since 1965
Intel 4004, 1971

92,000 ops/sec

Intel Xeon, 2011

96,000,000,000 ops/sec
ESL/EPFL 2015

Big Data: Data Collection and Processing


Driven by Computing Evolution

4.4ZB

2013

44ZB

2020

[source: Economist]

Data growth (by 2015) = 100x in ten years [IDC 2012]


Population growth = 10% in ten years
Monetizing data for commerce, health, science or services
Big Data is shaping society Use in whatever we do!
ESL/EPFL 2015

Data Analytics is Also Shaping


Science Evolution
Science entering 4th paradigm
Analytics using computing
systems on

Instrument data
Simulation data
Sensor data
Human data

Complements theory, empirical


science and simulation

[source: Microsoft Research]

Strategically vital to remain being an


innovation society
ESL/EPFL 2015

Data Centers are Key in the Information Age Era


to Keep Up with Data
Financial
Simulations

Gene
Sequencing

Commerce

Weather
Prediction
Life data

Data centers

Medical
Analytics

Data center consists of thousands of computing servers


Store, process, and serve user data on behalf of billions

Era of knowledge economy and Big Data in science


50% of economic value in developed countries [Economist]

New computing paradigm to transform


data into value (at minimal cost)
ESL/EPFL 2015

Performance Growth in Computing


Stopped, Power/Transistor Maintained
10,000,000
Num Transistors (in Thousands)

1,000,000
100,000

Relative Performance
Clock Speed (MHz)
Power Typ (W)
NumCores/Chip

10,000
1,000
100
10
1
0
1985

Same server size,


higher power density,
much more energy spent
1990

1995
2000
Year of Introduction

2005

Source: National Research Council (NRC) CSTB.org


ESL/EPFL 2015

2010
2015

Billion Kilowatt hour/year

Higher Demand + Lower Efficiency:


Data Center Energy Not Sustainable As Today!
280
240
200
160
120
80
40
0

Datacenter Electricity
Demands In the US

A Modern Data Center

[Energy Star]

[IDC]: Mega DCs


70% total in 2018

17x football stadium, $3 billion

2001

2005 2009 2013 2017


Change
energy increase trend, how to flatten it?

Data centers increase power demands 15-20 kW per rack, 20-25 MW DC


With a 3-year replacement policy the energy cost is as high as servers investment
Power is beginning to clearly dominate costs in data center Management

In Switzerland, 3-4% of all electricity, growing at >20%


Swiss industry is heavily based on services and requires significant IT support
ESL/EPFL 2015

Nano-Tera Energy Track: Holistic Energy


Management in Information Age Era
Energy generation, supply and storage
Energy-efficient computing and management

ESL/EPFL 2015

Nano-Tera Energy Track: Holistic Energy


Management in Information Age Era
Energy generation, supply and storage
Energy-efficient computing and management

Computing Systems:
integration and specialization

ESL/EPFL 2015

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Computing in Biological Systems:


Brains = Efficient and Approximate
1012 ops/J
1) Low energy consumption when idle,

2) Optimal power and cooling provision,


1pJ/op
3) Only as accurate as really needed

1GOPS/mW

[Courtesy: Ruch, IBM11]


ESL/EPFL 2015

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Energy- and Thermal-Aware Design of


Many-Core Heterogeneous Datacenters

Processing unit controller

Oxidant

IC Package
Power delivery Vias

Efficient chip design & energy


recovery
Built adaptive multi-core in FD-SOI
59C operation, and 6W of free power to
power-up the caches

ESL/EPFL 2015

System Software
(e.g., apps, messaging)

Server Hardware
(e.g., CPU, memory, network)

Infrastructure

Fuel

Microchannels

Software

Liquid power and cooling delivery

Technology
(e.g., FDSOI)

Infrastructure
(e.g., cooling, power)
12
12

Efficient Data Access in Data Centers

soNUMA
fabric

Software

Coherence
domain 2

Coherence
domain 1

Server Hardware
(e.g., CPU, memory, network)

In-memory big data processing with


low-cost volume servers

Infrastructure

Direct remote access

Specialized server architectures

System Software
(e.g., messaging)

Technology
(e.g., FDSOI)

Infrastructure
Scalable analytics with bandwidth and latency
matching
(e.g., cooling, power)
fully-integrated high-premium mainframes

ESL/EPFL 2015

IcySoC: Inexact Sub- and Near-Threshold


Systems for Ultra-Low Power Devices
Software

System Software
(e.g., apps, messaging)

Infrastructure

Server Hardware
(e.g., CPU, memory, network)

Technology
(e.g., FDSOI)

Infrastructure
Sub-threshold
multi-core
Efficient chip
design with exact and inexact
(e.g., cooling, power)
hardware accelerators will be integrated in June 2015

Multiprocessor with hardware accelerators


Inexact arithmetic, graceful degradation
ESL/EPFL 2015

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14

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Holistic Cooling of Data Centers


Software

System Software
(e.g., messaging)

Infrastructure

Server Hardware
(e.g., CPU, memory, network)

Technology
(e.g., FDSOI)

Cooling power efficiency 100x better than with air cooling,


overall
data center
energy can
be reduced by 50%
Serverand rack-level
cooling
Infrastructure
(e.g., cooling, power)
modeling and control
Passive cooling pumping power not required
Better control power saving modes (80% less energy)

ESL/EPFL 2015

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Nano-Tera Energy Track: Holistic Energy


Management in Information Age Era
Energy generation, supply and storage
Energy-efficient computing and management

Energy delivery and management:


monitor energy reliably
and adapt power supply (or store)

ESL/EPFL 2015

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Smart Grid: New Technologies for Real-Time


Monitoring and Grid Management
Transmission Network

Smart Grid

Smart Grid: Real-time monitoring

Smart Sensors

Smart
Buildings

Real time power system state estimation and emulation.


ICTs dedicated layer.

Smart Buildings: Control and demand side management


Intelligent plugs (eSmart), cluster of controllable loads (power distribution).

Smart Sensors: Local power optimization (building occupancy)


Zero-power sensors network.
Intelligent "human" management of buildings.

ESL/EPFL 2015

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Smart Grid: Installed EPFL Microgrid With


Real-Time Monitoring
See: smartgrid.epfl.ch, Real time monitoring: http://smartgrid.epfl.ch:443/EPFL_SE.html

Proof of finegrained energy


monitoring of large
environments

ESL/EPFL 2015

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HeatReserves: Use Thermal Loads of Buildings


as Reserves to Integrate Renewables

uncertain
production

compensate with reserves

Use of renewable sources generate forecast errors


Threatening grid reliability

Idea: use thermal loads for additional primary services


Reduces transmission line loads, consumption peak,
Improve service market use
ESL/EPFL 2015

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HeatReserves: Use Thermal Loads of Buildings


as Reserves to Integrate Renewables
Developing demand-response schemes
Offices: heating, ventilation, air conditioning (HVAC) systems
Houses: Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs)

NEST Experimental Platform in January 2016


ESL/EPFL 2015

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Shine: Reliable and Energy-Efficient

Fuel Production

Only use sun and wter: reliable hydrogen bateries


Multiple disciplines: microelectronics, materials, fluidics, etc.
Light Concentrator
Sunlight

Solar Cell
Hydrogen Fuel
Fluidics

Water Splitting
ESL/EPFL 2015

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Shine: 1st Miniaturized Membrane-less Electrolyzer for


Sunlight

Proof-of-concept system built And on the


way to save the sun (reliably!)

O2

ESL/EPFL 2015

H2

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Conclusion
Information age is here
Computing systems everywhere
Big Data is becoming common in our society

Nano-Tera Energy Track = smart energy for the future


Energy-efficient computing and energy management
Effective energy generation, provisioning and storage

Great results already achieved by Swiss researchers


6 Nano-Tera RTD projects, and 1 strategic action working in
key aspects of complete energy ecosystem
Significant participation of industry

But lots to do: look forward to NT Annual Meeting 16!


ESL/EPFL 2015

Acknowledgements:
IcySoc, Synergy, HeatReserves, Smart Grid,
CMOSAIC and YINS
ESL/EPFL 2015

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