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Experiment No: 1

Title: Case study on Data Centers Elements

Objective: To study the core elements of data centers
A data center is a facility used to house computer systems and associated components, such as
telecommunications and storage systems. It generally includes redundant or backup power supplies,
redundant data communications connections, environmental controls (e.g., air conditioning, fire
suppression) and various security devices. Large data centers are industrial scale operations using as much
electricity as a small town.

Tier Level


Single non-redundant distribution path serving the IT equipment

Non-redundant capacity components

Basic site infrastructure with expected availability of 99.671%

Meets or exceeds all Tier 1 requirements

Redundant site infrastructure capacity components with expected

availability of 99.741%

Meets or exceeds all Tier 2 requirements

Multiple independent distribution paths serving the IT equipment

All IT equipment must be dual-powered and fully compatible with

the topology of a site's architecture

Concurrently maintainable site infrastructure with expected

availability of 99.982%

Meets or exceeds all Tier 3 requirements

All cooling equipment is independently dual-powered, including

chillers and heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC)

Fault-tolerant site infrastructure with electrical power storage and

distribution facilities with expected availability of 99.995%

Core Elements:

Databases Database Management System (DBMS) and the physical and logical storage
of data
Servers/Operating systems
Networks (LAN and SAN)
Storage array


Internal DAS

RAID Array

Multi Protocol


Redundant Array of Independent Disks (RAID): This technology was developed to address
the performance and availability requirements of data. It continues to evolve today and is used in
all storage architectures such as DAS, SAN, and so on.
Direct-attached storage (DAS): This type of storage connects directly to a server (host) or a
group of servers in a cluster. Storage can be either internal or external to the server. External DAS
alleviated the challenges of limited internal storage capacity.
Storage area network (SAN): This is a dedicated, high-performance Fibre Channel (FC)
network to facilitate block-level communication between servers and storage. Storage is
partitioned and assigned to a server for accessing its data. SAN offers scalability, availability,
performance, and cost benefits compared to DAS.
Network-attached storage (NAS): This is dedicated storage for file serving applications.
Unlike a SAN, it connects to an existing communication network (LAN) and provides file access
to heterogeneous clients. Because it is purposely built for providing storage to file server
applications, it offers higher scalability, availability, performance, and cost benefits compared to
general purpose file servers.
Internet Protocol SAN (IP-SAN): One of the latest evolutions in storage architecture, IP-SAN
is a convergence of technologies used in SAN and NAS. IP-SAN provides block-level
communication across a local or wide area network (LAN or WAN), resulting in greater
consolidation and availability of data.

Key Requirements for Data Center Elements:

Data Integrity


Consider an order processing system consisting of:

Application for order entry.

Database Management System (DBMS) to store customer and product information.

Server/Operating System on which the Application and Database programs are run.

Networks that provide

Connectivity between Clients and the Application/Database Server

Connectivity between the Server and the Storage system.

Storage Array.

A storage array receives the read/write commands and data from the server and
performs the necessary operations to store the data on the physical disks.

Problem Definition:
A hospital uses an application that stores patient x-ray data in the form of large binary objects in
an oracle database. The application is hosted on a UNIX server and the hospital staffs accesses the
x-ray records through a gigabit Ethernet backbone. Storage array provides storage to UNIX server,
which has 6 terabyte of usable capacity.

1.Explain the core elements of data centre.
2.What are the typical challenges the storage management team may face in meeting service level
demands of the hospital staff.
3.Describe how the value of this patient data might change over time.

Ans1: The core elements of the data center are
A-Application-Here the hospital uses an application that stores patient x-ray data in the form of
large binary objects in an oracle database
B-Database-Oracle database is used here. An Oracle database is a collection of data
treated as a unit.

C- Servers/Operating systems-UNIX server- Unix (all-caps UNIX for the trademark) is a family
of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix,
developed in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and

D-Networks (LAN and SAN)-Ethernet Network- Ethernet is the most widely-installed

local area network ( LAN) technology. Specified in a standard, IEEE 802.3, Ethernet
was originally developed by Xerox from an earlier specification called Alohanet (for
the Palo Alto Research Center Aloha network) and then developed further by Xerox,
DEC, and Intel.

E-Storage array-it has a 6 terrabyte of storage capacity

Ans2: The typical challenges faced by the storage management team are
1. Information about patient x-ray data is important for patients recovery so managing such
information is necessary.
2. Updation of new technology in the present application.
3. Strategic use of x-ray data and providing the correct output.
4. Management of Data Security is major issue.
5. Capacity of handling more data is major challenge.
6. Integrity of data should be maintainted.
Ans3:The patient data changes over time in a following mannersA. Suppose a doctor takes an xray of a patient then after the treatment of that patient that xray
is useless for the doctor because it is not necessary that everytime the patient will be
diagnosed for the same location.
B. Suppose the patient is diagnosed with malaria in the month of january and after treatment
he is perfectly okay then again he is diagnosed with the same disease in the 6th month of
the yearr so the medicines the doctor prescribbed to him wont be the same both the time he
was diagnosed with malaria.
Conclusion-Here we studied the 5 core elements of the data structure infrastructure