Design for Simple Stresses

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Design for Simple Stresses

Design for Simple Stresses

© All Rights Reserved

- Solution to Problems on Design of Machine Elements 4th Edition- Virgil M Faires, Roy M Wingren (Problem Book)
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DESIGN PROBLEMS

1.

The link shown, made of AISI C1045 steel, as rolled, is subjected to a tensile load

of 8000 lb. Let h = 1.5b . If the load is repeated but not reversed, determine the

dimensions of the section with the design based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield

strength. (c) If this link, which is 15 in. long., must not elongate more than 0.005

in., what should be the dimensions of the cross section?

Problems 1 3.

Solution:

For AISI C1045 steel, as rolled (Table AT 7)

su = 96 ksi

s y = 59 ksi

E = 30 106 psi

F

A

where

F = 8000 lb

A = bh

but

h = 1.5b

therefore A = 1.5b 2

sd =

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)

s

F

sd = u =

N A

96,000 8000

=

6

1.5b 2

5

b = 0.577 in say in .

8

h = 1.5b =

15

in

16

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)

s

F

sd = u =

N A

59,000 8000

=

3

1.5b 2

9

in .

b = 0.521 in say

16

27

h = 1.5b =

in

32

(c) Elongation = =

FL

AE

where,

= 0.005 in

F = 8000 lb

E = 30106 psi

L = 15 in

A = 1.5b 2

then,

FL

=

AE

(8000)(15)

0.005 =

(1.5b 2 )(30 106 )

3

b = 0.730 in say in .

4

1

h = 1.5b = 1 in

8

2.

The same as 1 except that the material is malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35

018.

Solution:

For malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018(Table AT 6)

su = 55 ksi

s y = 36.5 ksi

E = 2510 6 psi

F

A

where

F = 8000 lb

A = bh

but

h = 1.5b

therefore A = 1.5b 2

sd =

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)

s

F

sd = u =

N A

55,000 8000

=

6

1.5b 2

7

b = 0.763 in say in .

8

5

h = 1.5b = 1 in

16

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)

s

F

sd = u =

N A

36,500 8000

=

3

1.5b 2

11

b = 0.622 in say

in .

16

1

h = 1.5b = 1 in

32

(c) Elongation = =

FL

AE

where,

= 0.005 in

F = 8000 lb

E = 2510 6 psi

L = 15 in

A = 1.5b 2

then,

4

FL

AE

0.005 =

(8000)(15)

(1.5b )(25 10 )

2

b = 0.8 in say

h = 1.5b = 1

3.

7

in .

8

5

in

16

The same as 1 except that the material is gray iron, ASTM 30.

Solution:

For ASTM 30 (Table AT 6)

su = 30 ksi , no s y

E = 14.5 106 psi

Note: since there is no s y for brittle materials. Solve only for (a) and (c)

F

A

where

F = 8000 lb

A = bh

but

h = 1.5b

therefore A = 1.5b 2

sd =

N = factor of safety = 7 ~ 8 say 7.5 (Table 1.1)

s

F

sd = u =

N A

30,000 8000

=

7. 5

1.5b 2

3

b = 1.1547 in say 1 in .

16

25

h = 1.5b = 1 in

32

FL

(c) Elongation = =

AE

where,

= 0.005 in

F = 8000 lb

5

L = 15 in

A = 1.5b 2

then,

FL

=

AE

0.005 =

(8000)(15)

(1.5b )(14.5 10 )

2

b = 1.050 in say 1

h = 1.5b = 1

4.

1

in .

16

19

in

32

A piston rod, made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2), is subjected to a

repeated, reversed load. The rod is for a 20-in. air compressor, where the

maximum pressure is 125 psig. Compute the diameter of the rod using a design

factor based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield strength.

Solution:

From Fig. AF 2 for AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F

su = 152.5 ksi

s y = 132.5 ksi

F = force =

4

From Table 1.1, page 20

Nu = 8

Ny = 4

N F

A= u

su

2 (8)(39.27 )

d =

4

152.5

5

d = 1.62 in say 1 in

8

(b) Based on yield strength

NyF

A=

sy

d2 =

(4)(39.27 )

132.5

1

d = 1.23 in say 1 in

4

5.

65 ksi), is to support a load of 1500 kips with a factor of safety of 8 based on the

ultimate strength. Determine the outside and inside diameters if Do = 2 Di .

Solution:

su = 65 ksi

Nu = 8

F = 1500 kips

A=

(D

4

2

o

Di2 =

(4D

4

2

i

Di2 =

3Di2

4

3Di2 N u F (8)(1500 )

A=

=

=

4

su

65

7

Di = 8.85 in say 8 in

8

3

7

Do = 2 Di = 2 8 = 17 in

4

8

6.

The material is to be 4130 steel, WQT 1100 F. Calculate the outside and inside

diameters on the basis of (a) yield strength, (b) ultimate strength.

Solution:

From Table AT 7 for 4130, WQT 1100 F

su = 127 ksi

s y = 114 ksi

From Table 1.1 page 20, for dead load

N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4

N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2

Area, A =

(D

4

2

o

Di2 =

(4D

4

2

i

Di2 =

3Di2

4

F = 25 tons = 50 kips

(a) Based on yield strength

3Di2 N y F (2 )(50)

A=

=

=

4

sy

114

5

in

8

5 1

Do = 2 Di = 2 = 1 in

4

8

(b) Based on ultimate strength

3Di2 N u F (4 )(50)

A=

=

=

4

su

127

7

Di = 0.82 in say in

8

3

7

Do = 2 Di = 2 = 1 in

4

8

Di = 0.61 in say

7.

7000 lb. (a) What should be its diameter if the total elongation is not to exceed

0.030 in? (b) Choose a steel that would be suitable on the basis of yield strength if

the load is gradually applied and repeated (not reversed).

Solution:

(a) =

FL

FL

or A =

AE

E

where,

F = 7000 lb

L = 55 in

= 0.030 in

E = 30 10 6 psi

A=

d2 =

(7000)(55)

(0.030)(30 106 )

3

in

4

(b) For gradually applied and repeated (not reversed) load

Ny = 3

d = 0.74 in say

sy =

N yF

A

(0.75)2

4

s y 48 ksi

8.

A centrifuge has a small bucket, weighing 0.332 lb. with contents, suspended on a

manganese bronze pin (B138-A, hard) at the end of a horizontal arm. If the pin

is in double shear under the action of the centrifugal force, determine the diameter

8

needed for 10,000 rpm of the arm. The center of gravity of the bucket is 12 in.

from the axis of rotation.

Solution:

From Table AT 3, for B138-A, hard

sus = 48 ksi

W

F = 2r

g

where

W = 0.332 lb

g = 32.2 fps 2

2 n 2 (10,000 )

=

=

= 1047 rad sec

60

60

r = 12 in

W

0.332

F = 2r =

(1047)2 (1) = 11,300 lb = 11.3 kips

g

32.2

From Table 1.1, page 20

N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4

N F

A= u

su

(4)(11.3)

2 d 2 =

for double shear

48

4

25

d = 0.774 in say

in

32

CHECK PROBLEMS

9.

3

in and

4

1

h = 1 in . (a) What force will cause breakage? (b) For a design factor of 4 based

2

on the ultimate strength, what is the maximum allowable load? (c) If N = 2.5

based on the yield strength, what is the allowable load?

Problem 9.

9

Solution:

For AISI C1020 annealed steel, from Table AT 7

su = 57 ksi

s y = 42 ksi

(a) F = su A

3 1

A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2

4 2

F = (57 )(1.125) = 64 kips

s A

(b) F = u

Nu

Nu = 4

3 1

A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2

4 2

(57 )(1.125) = 16 kips

F=

4

(c) F =

sy A

Ny

N y = 2. 5

3 1

A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2

4 2

(42 )(1.125) = 18.9 kips

F=

2

10.

A -in.bolt, made of cold-finished B1113, has an effective stress area of 0.334 sq.

in. and an effective grip length of 5 in. The bolt is to be loaded by tightening until

the tensile stress is 80 % of the yield strength, as determined by measuring the

total elongation. What should be the total elongation?

Solution:

sL

=

E

from Table AT 7 for cold-finished B1113

s y = 72 ksi

then, s = 0.80 s y = 0.8(72 ) = 57.6 ksi

E = 30 106 psi = 30,000 ksi

sL (57.6)(5)

=

=

= 0.0096 in

E

30,000

10

11.

A 4-lb. weight is attached by a 3/8-in. bolt to a rotating arm 14-in. from the center

of rotation. The axis of the bolts is normal to the plane in which the centrifugal

force acts and the bolt is in double shear. At what speed will the bolt shear in two

if it is made of AISI B1113, cold finish?

Solution:

From Table AT 7, sus = 62 ksi = 62,000 psi

2

1 3

A = 2 ( ) = 0.2209 in 2

4 8

W

F = 2 r = sus A

g

4

2 (14) = (62,000)(0.2209)

32.2

= 88.74 rad sec

2 n

=

= 88.74

60

n = 847 rpm

12.

How many -in. holes could be punched in one stroke in annealed steel plate of

AISI C1040, 3/16-in. thick, by a force of 60 tons?

Solution:

For AISI C1040, from Figure AF 1

su = 80 ksi

sus = 0.75su = 0.75(80) ksi = 60 ksi

3 3

A = d t = = 0.4418 in2

4 16

n = number of holes

n=

13.

F

120

=

= 5 holes

Asus (0.4415)(60 )

What is the length of a bearing for a 4-in. shaft if the load on the bearing is 6400

lb. and the allowable bearing pressure is 200 psi of the projected area?

Solution:

pDL = W

where

p = 200 psi

D = 4 in

11

W = 6400 lb

(200)(4)L = 6400

L = 8 in

BENDING STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEMS

14.

h = 3t . A 2000-lb load is gradually applied and reversed at the end as shown; the

material is AISI C1020, as rolled. Design for both ultimate and yield strengths. (a)

What should be the dimensions of a section at a = 13 in ? (b) at b = 4 in ? (c) What

should be the size where the load is applied?

Problem 14.

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled, Table AT 7

su = 65 ksi

s y = 49 ksi

Design factors for gradually applied and reversed load

Nu = 8

Ny = 4

th 3

, moment of inertial

12

but h = 3t

h4

I=

36

I=

12

s

s= u

Nu

(a) s =

Mc Fac

=

I

I

h

2

F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips

(2)(13) h

65

2

s=

=

4

8

h

36

h = 3.86 in

h 3.86

t= =

= 1.29 in

3

3

say

1

h = 4.5 in = 4 in

2

1

t = 1.5 in = 1 in

2

c=

(b) s =

Mc Fbc

=

I

I

h

2

F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips

(2)(4) h

65

2

s=

=

4

8

h

36

h = 2.61 in

h 2.61

t= =

= 0.87 in

3

3

say

h = 3 in

t = 1 in

c=

(c)

13

3 h 4. 5 3

=

4

13 4

h = 2.33 in

1 t 1.5 1

=

4

13 4

t = 0.78 in

say

5

h = 2.625 in or h = 2 in

8

15.

A simple beam 54 in. long with a load of 4 kips at the center is made of cast steel,

SAE 080. The cross section is rectangular (let h 3b ). (a) Determine the

dimensions for N = 3 based on the yield strength. (b) Compute the maximum

deflection for these dimensions. (c) What size may be used if the maximum

deflection is not to exceed 0.03 in.?

Solution:

For cast steel, SAE 080 (Table AT 6)

s y = 40 ksi

E = 30 106 psi

14

From Table AT 2

FL (4)(54 )

Max. M =

=

= 54 kips in

4

4

bh 3

I=

12

but h = 3b

h4

I=

36

(a) s =

c=

sy

Ny

Mc

I

h

2

(54) h

40

2

=

3

h4

36

h = 4.18 in

h 4.18

b= =

= 1.39 in

3

3

h 4. 5

1

1

= 1.5 in = 1 in

say h = 4 in , b = =

2

3

3

2

FL3

(b) =

=

48 EI

(c) =

(4000)(54)3

= 0.0384 in

3

6 (1.5 )(4.5 )

48(30 10 )

12

FL3

h4

48E

36

3

(

4000)(54 ) (36 )

0.03 =

h = 4.79 in

h 4.79

b= =

= 1.60 in

3

3

1

h 5.25

3

say h = 5.25 in = 5 in , b = =

= 1.75 in = 1 in

4

3

3

4

15

16.

The same as 15, except that the beam is to have a circular cross section.

Solution:

s

Mc

(a) s = y =

Ny

I

I=

d4

64

d

c=

2

d

M

32 M

2

s= 4 =

d d3

64

40 32(54 )

=

3

d3

d = 3.46 in

1

say d = 3 in

2

(b) =

I=

FL3

48 EI

d4

64

3

64 FL3

64(4000 )(54)

=

=

= 0.0594 in

48 E ( d 4 ) 48(30 106 )( )(3.5)4

(c) =

64 FL3

48 E ( d 4 )

64(4000)(54 )

0.03 =

48(30 106 )( )d 4

d = 4.15 in

1

say d = 4 in

4

3

17.

A simple beam, 48 in. long, with a static load of 6000 lb. at the center, is made of

C1020 structural steel. (a) Basing your calculations on the ultimate strength,

determine the dimensions of the rectangular cross section for h = 2b . (b)

Determine the dimensions based on yield strength. (c) Determine the dimensions

using the principle of limit design.

16

Solution:

su = 65 ksi

s y = 48 ksi

N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4

N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2

FL (6)(48)

=

= 72 in kips

4

4

Mc

s=

I

h

c=

2

bh 3

I=

12

h

but b =

2

4

h

I=

24

h

M

12M

2

s = 4 = 3

h

h

24

M=

s

12 M

s= u = 3

Nu

h

65 12(72)

=

4

h3

h = 3.76 in

17

b=

h 3.76

=

= 1.88 in

2

2

3

h 3.75

7

say h = 3.75 in = 3 in , b = =

= 1.875 in = 1 in

4

2

2

8

s y 12 M

s=

= 3

Ny

h

48 12(72 )

=

2

h3

h = 3.30 in

h 3.30

b= =

= 1.65 in

2

2

h 3. 5

1

3

say h = 3.5 in = 3 in , b = =

= 1.75 in = 1 in

2

2

2

4

bh 2

4

h 2

h

2

72 = (48)

4

h = 2.29 in

h 2.29

b= =

= 1.145 in

2

2

1

h 2. 5

1

say h = 2.5 in = 2 in , b = =

= 1.25 in = 1 in

2

2

2

4

M = sy

18.

The bar shown is subjected to two vertical loads, F1 and F2 , of 3000 lb. each, that

are L = 10 in apart and 3 in. ( a , d ) from the ends of the bar. The design factor is 4

based on the ultimate strength; h = 3b . Determine the dimensions h and b if the

bar is made of (a) gray cast iron, SAE 111; (b) malleable cast iron, ASTM A4752, grade 35 018; (c) AISI C1040, as rolled (Fig. AF 1). Sketch the shear and

moment diagrams approximately to scale.

18

Problems18, 19.

Solution:

F1 = F2 = R1 = R2 = 3000 lb

Moment Diagram

N = factor of safety = 4 based on su

bh 3

12

h

c=

2

h 3

h

h4

3

I=

=

12

36

I=

su = 30 ksi , Table AT 6

h

M

s

Mc

18M

2

s= u =

= 4 = 3

N

I

h

h

36

30 18(9 )

s=

= 3

4

h

h = 2.78 in

h 2.78

b= =

= 0.93 in

3

3

say h = 3.5 in , b = 1 in

(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018

19

su = 55 ksi , Table AT 6

h

M

s

Mc

18M

2

s= u =

= 4 = 3

N

I

h

h

36

55 18(9 )

s=

= 3

4

h

h = 2.28 in

h 2.28

b= =

= 0.76 in

3

3

1

3

say h = 2 in , b = in

4

4

(c) For AISI C1040, as rolled

su = 90 ksi , Fig. AF 1

h

M

s

Mc

18M

2

s= u =

= 4 = 3

N

I

h

h

36

90 18(9 )

s=

= 3

4

h

h = 1.93 in

h 1.93

b= =

= 0.64 in

3

3

7

5

say h = 1 in , b = in

8

8

19.

Solution:

[ M

=0

R1 = R2 = 1875 lb

20

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

su 18M

= 3

N

h

30 18(5.625)

=

4

h3

h = 2.38 in

h 2.38

b= =

= 0.79 in

3

3

1

3

say h = 2 in , b = in

4

4

(b) For malleable cast iron

s=

su 18M

= 3

N

h

55 18(5.625)

=

4

h3

h = 1.95 in

h 1.95

b= =

= 0.65 in

3

3

7

5

say h = 1 in , b = in

8

8

s=

21

(c) For AISI C1040, as rolled

su 18M

= 3

N

h

90 18(5.625)

=

4

h3

h = 1.65 in

h 1.65

b= =

= 0.55 in

3

3

1

1

say h = 1 in , b = in

2

2

s=

20.

The bar shown, supported at A and B , is subjected to a static load F of 2500 lb.

at = 0 . Let d = 3 in , L = 10 in and h = 3b . Determine the dimensions of the

section if the bar is made of (a) gray iron, SAE 110; (b) malleable cast iron,

ASTM A47-52, grade 32 510; (c) AISI C1035 steel, as rolled. (d) For economic

reasons, the pins at A, B, and C are to be the same size. What should be their

diameter if the material is AISI C1035, as rolled, and the mounting is such that

each is in double shear? Use the basic dimensions from (c) as needed. (e) What

sectional dimensions would be used for the C1035 steel if the principle of limit

design governs in (c)?

Solution:

22

[ M

[ M

=0

=0

3RB = 13(2500 )

RB = 10,833 lb

3RA = 10(2500)

RA = 8333 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

h = 3b

bh 3

I=

12

h4

I=

36

h

c=

2

h

M

Mc

18M

2

s=

= 4 = 3

I

h

h

36

(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110

su = 20 ksi , Table AT 6

N = 5 ~ 6 , say 6 for cast iron, dead load

s 18M

s= u = 3

N

h

20 18(25)

=

6

h3

23

h = 5.13 in

h

b = = 1.71 in

3

1

3

say h = 5 in , b = 1 in

4

4

(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510

su = 52 ksi , s y = 34 ksi

N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4 for ductile, dead load

s 18M

s= u = 3

N

h

52 18(25)

=

4

h3

h = 3.26 in

h

b = = 1.09 in

3

3

1

say h = 3 in , b = 1 in

4

4

(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled

su = 85 ksi , s y = 55 ksi

N = 4 , based on ultimate strength

s 18M

s= u = 3

N

h

85 18(25)

=

4

h3

h = 2.77 in

h

b = = 0.92 in

3

say h = 3 in , b = 1 in

s su = 64 ksi

N = 4 , RB = 10.833 kips

s

R

s s = su = B

N

A

A = 2 D 2 = D 2

4

2

64 10.833

=

ss =

2

4

D

2

D = 0.657 in

24

11

in

16

(e) Limit Design

bh 2

M = sy

4

For AISI C1035 steel, s y = 55 ksi

say D =

b=

h

3

h 2

h

3

M = 25 = (55)

4

h = 1.76 in

h

b = = 0.59 in

3

7

5

say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in

8

8

The same as 20, except that = 30o . Pin B takes all the horizontal thrust.

21.

Solution:

FV = F cos

[ M

[ M

=0

=0

3RB = 13FV

RB = 9382 lb

3RA = 10 FV

3RA = 10(2500) cos 30

RA = 7217 lb

Shear Diagram

25

Moment Diagram

18M

s= 3

h

(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110

su = 20 ksi , Table AT 6

N = 5 ~ 6 , say 6 for cast iron, dead load

s 18M

s= u = 3

N

h

20 18(21.65)

=

6

h3

h = 4.89 in

h

b = = 1.63 in

3

1

3

say h = 5 in , b = 1 in

4

4

(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510

su = 52 ksi , s y = 34 ksi

N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4 for ductile, dead load

s 18M

s= u = 3

N

h

(

52 18 21.65)

=

4

h3

h = 3.11 in

h

b = = 1.04 in

3

say h = 3 in , b = 1 in

(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled

su = 85 ksi , s y = 55 ksi

N = 4 , based on ultimate strength

26

su 18M

= 3

N

h

85 18(21.65)

=

4

h3

h = 2.64 in

h

b = = 0.88 in

3

5

7

say h = 2 in , b = in

8

8

s=

s su = 64 ksi

N = 4 , RBV = 9382 lb

RBH = FH = F sin = 2500 sin 30 = 1250 lb

2

2

RB2 = RBV

+ RBH

= (9382) + (1250 )

2

RB = 9465 lb

s

R

s s = su = B

N

A

A = 2 D 2 = D 2

4

2

64 9.465

ss =

=

4 D2

2

D = 0.614 in

5

say D = in

8

(e) Limit Design

bh 2

M = sy

4

For AISI C1035 steel, s y = 55 ksi

b=

h

3

h 2

h

3

M = 21.65 = (55)

4

h = 1.68 in

h

b = = 0.56 in

3

7

5

say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in

8

8

27

22.

A cast-iron beam, ASTM 50, as shown, is 30 in. long and supports two gradually

applied, repeated loads (in phase), one of 2000 lb. at e = 10 in from the free end,

and one of 1000 lb at the free end. (a) Determine the dimensions of the cross

section if b = c 3a . (b) The same as (a) except that the top of the tee is below.

Problem 22.

Solution:

For cast iron, ASTM 50

su = 50 ksi , suc = 164 ksi

For gradually applied, repeated load

N = 7 ~ 8 , say 8

M = F1d + F2 (d + e )

where:

F1 = 2000 lb

F2 = 1000 lb

d = 30 10 = 20 in

d + e = 30 in

M = (2000 )(20 ) + (1000)(30 ) = 70,000 lb in = 70 kips in

Mc

I

Solving for I , moment of inertia

s=

2

y=

3a

2

28

I=

(3a )(a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) + (a )(3a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) = 17a 4

12

12

(a)

3a

2

5a

cc =

2

Based on tension

s

Mct

st = u =

N

I

(70) 3a

50

2

=

8

17a 4

2

a = 1.255 in

Based on compression

s

Mcc

sc = uc =

N

I

(70) 5a

164

2

=

8

17 a 4

2

a = 1.001 in

Therefore a = 1.255 in

1

Or say a = 1 in

4

And b = c = 3a = 3(1.25) = 3.75 in

ct =

29

3

Or b = c = 3 in

4

5a

2

3a

cc =

2

17a 4

I=

2

M = 70 kips in

ct =

Based on tension

s

Mct

st = u =

N

I

(70) 5a

50

2

=

8

17 a 4

2

a = 1.488 in

Based on compression

s

Mcc

sc = uc =

N

I

(70) 3a

164

2

=

8

17a 4

2

a = 0.845 in

Therefore a = 1.488 in

1

Or say a = 1 in

2

1

And b = c = 3a = 4 in

2

CHECK PROBLEMS

30

23.

in. and is subjected to two loads; F1 and F2 = 2F1 ; F1 is 5 in. from one end and

F2 is 5 in. from the other ends. The beam is 25 in. long; flange width is

b = 2.509 in ; I x = 2.9 in 4 . Determine (a) the approximate values of the load to

cause elastic failure, (b) the safe loads for a factor of safety of 3 based on the yield

strength, (c) the safe load allowing for flange buckling (i1.24), (f) the maximum

deflection caused by the safe loads.

Problems 23 25.

Solution:

[ M

[ F

=0

=0

5 F1 + 20(2 F1 ) = 25RB

RB = 1.8 F1

F1 + 2 F1 = RA + RB

RA = 3F1 1.8F1 = 1.2 F1

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

31

M = 9F1 = maximum moment

For AISI C1020, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi

Mc

I

d 3

where c = = = 1.5 in

2 2

(9 F1 )(1.5)

s y = 48 =

2.9

F1 = 10.31 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 20.62 kips

(a) s y =

sy

Mc

N

I

48 (9 F1 )(1.5)

s=

=

3

2.9

F1 = 3.44 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 6.88 kips

(b) s =

(c)

L

25

=

= 9.96 < 15 (page 34)

b 2.509

Mc

I

(9 F1 )(1.5)

20 =

2.9

F1 = 4.30 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 8.60 kips

sc =

by method of superposition, Table AT 2

3

y max

Fb a( L + b ) 2

=

, a > b

3EIL

3

or

3

y max

Fa b(L + a ) 2

=

, b > a

3EIL

3

32

y max caused by F1

3

F a b(L + a1 ) 2

y max1 = 1 1 1

, b1 > a1

3EIL

3

where E = 30,000 ksi

a1 = 5 in

b1 = 20 in

L = 25 in

I = 2.9 in 4

3

y max1

F1 (5)

20(25 + 5) 2

=

= 0.0022 F1

3(30,000 )(2.9 )(25)

3

y max caused by F2

3

F b a (L + b2 ) 2

y max 2 = 2 2 2

, a2 > b2

3EIL

3

where b2 = 5 in

a2 = 20 in

3

y max 2

2 F1 (5)

20(25 + 5) 2

=

= 0.0043F1

3(30,000 )(2.9 )(25)

3

Total deflection =

= ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.022 F1 + 0.0043F1 = 0.0065 F1

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a)

a = 0.0065(10.31) = 0.067 in

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)

b = 0.0065(3.44) = 0.022 in

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)

c = 0.0065(4.30 ) = 0.028 in

24.

The same as 23, except that the material is aluminum alloy, 2024-T4, heat treated.

Solution:

For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4, heat treated

s y = 47 ksi

(a) s y =

Mc

I

33

s y = 47 =

(9 F1 )(1.5)

2. 9

F1 = 10.10 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 20.20 kips

sy

Mc

N

I

47 (9 F1 )(1.5)

s=

=

3

2.9

F1 = 3.36 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 6.72 kips

(b) s =

(c)

L

25

=

= 9.96 < 15 (page 34)

b 2.509

Mc

I

(

9 F1 )(1.5)

20 =

2.9

F1 = 4.30 kips

F2 = 2 F1 = 8.60 kips

sc =

= ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.022 F1 + 0.0043F1 = 0.0065 F1

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a)

a = 0.0065(10.10 ) = 0.066 in

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)

b = 0.0065(3.36) = 0.022 in

Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)

c = 0.0065(4.30 ) = 0.028 in

25.

A light I-beam is 80 in. long, simply supported, and carries a static load at the

midpoint. The cross section has a depth of d = 4 in , a flange width of b = 2.66 in ,

and I x = 6.0 in 4 (see figure). (a) What load will the beam support if it is made of

C1020, as-rolled steel, and flange buckling (i1.24) is considered? (b) Consider the

stress owing to the weight of the beam, which is 7.7 lb/ft, and decide whether or

not the safe load should be less.

34

Solution:

(a) For C1020, as rolled, su = 65 ksi

Consider flange buckling

L

80

=

= 30

b 2.66

L

since 15 < < 40

b

22.5

22.5

sc =

=

= 15 ksi

2

2

(

30 )

L

1 + 1800 1 +

1800

b

Mc

s=

I

d 4

c = = = 2 in

2 2

From Table AT 2

FL F (80)

M=

=

= 20 F

4

4

Mc

s = sc =

I

(

20 F )(2)

15 =

6

F = 2.25 kips , safe load

(b) Considering stress owing to the weight of the beam

wL2

(Table AT 2)

8

where w = 7.7 lb ft

addl M =

35

wL2 7.7 (80 )

=

= 513 lb in = 0.513 kips in

8

12 8

M = 20 F + 0.513 = total moment

Mc

s = sc =

I

(20 F + 0.513)(2 )

15 =

6

F = 2.224 kips

Therefore, the safe load should be less.

2

addl M =

26.

What is the stress in a band-saw blade due to being bent around a 13 -in. pulley?

The blade thickness is 0.0265 in. (Additional stresses arise from the initial tension

and forces of sawing.)

Solution:

t

= 0.0265 = 0.01325 in

2

r = 13.75 + 0.01325 = 13.76325 in

Using Eq. (1.4) page 11 (Text)

Ec

s=

r

where E = 30 106 psi

c=

s=

6

13.76325

27.

A cantilever beam of rectangular cross section is tapered so that the depth varies

uniformly from 4 in. at the fixed end to 1 in. at the free end. The width is 2 in. and

the length 30 in. What safe load, acting repeated with minor shock, may be

applied to the free end? The material is AISI C1020, as rolled.

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

su = 65 ksi (Table AT 7)

Designing based on ultimate strength,

N = 6 , for repeated, minor shock load

36

su 65

=

= 10.8 ksi

N

6

Loading Diagram

s=

4 1 h 1

=

30

x

h = 0.10 x + 1

wh 3

I=

12

h

c=

2

M = Fx

(Fx ) h

Mc

3Fx

2 = 6 Fx = 3Fx =

=

2

2

3

I

2h

h

wh

(0.10 x + 1)2

12

Differentiating with respect to x then equate to zero to solve for x giving maximum

stress.

(0.10 x + 1)2 (1) 2( x )(0.10 x + 1)(0.10 )

ds

= 3F

=0

dx

(0.10 x + 1)4

0.10 x + 1 2(0.10 x ) = 0

x = 10 in

h = 0.10(10 ) + 1 = 2 in

s

3Fx

s= u = 2

N

h

3F (10 )

10.8 =

(2)2

F = 1.44 kips

s=

TORSIONAL STRESSES

DESIGN PROBLEMS

37

28.

should be the diameter of the pump shaft if it is made of AISI C1045 as rolled?

Consider the load as gradually repeated.

Solution:

For C1045 as rolled,

s y = 59 ksi

sus = 72 ksi

Designing based on ultimate strength

s

s = us , N = 6 (Table 1.1)

N

72

s=

= 12 ksi

6

33,000hp 33,000(15)

Torque, T =

=

= 45 ft lb = 540 in lb = 0.540 in kips

2 n

2 (1750)

For diameter,

16T

s=

d3

16(0.540)

12 =

d3

d = 0.612 in

5

say d = in

8

29.

A shaft in torsion only is to transmit 2500 hp at 570 rpm with medium shocks. Its

material is AISI 1137 steel, annealed. (a) What should be the diameter of a solid

shaft? (b) If the shaft is hollow, Do = 2 Di , what size is required? (c) What is the

weight per foot of length of each of these shafts? Which is the lighter? By what

percentage? (d) Which shaft is the more rigid? Compute the torsional deflection

of each for a length of 10 ft.

Solution:

33,000hp 33,000(2500 )

T=

=

= 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips

2 n

2 (570 )

For AISI 1137, annealed

s y = 50 ksi (Table AT 8)

s ys = 0.6s y = 30 ksi

N = 3 for medium shock, one direction

38

Design stress

s

30

= 10 ksi

s = ys =

N

3

(a) Let D = shaft diameter

Tc

J

D4

J=

32

D

c=

2

16T

s=

D3

16(276)

10 =

D3

D = 5.20 in

1

say D = 5 in

4

s=

(b) J =

=

32

Do 2 Di

c=

=

= Di

2

2

TDi

32T

s=

=

4

15 Di 15 Di3

32

32(276 )

10 =

15 Di3

Di = 2.66 in

32

] = 15 D

4

i

32

Do = 2 Di = 5.32 in

say

5

Di = 2 in

8

1

Do = 5 in

4

(c) Density, = 0.284 lb in 3 (Table AT 7)

39

For solid shaft

w = weight per foot of length

2

w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284)(5.25) = 73.8 lb ft

4

2

2

w = 12 Do2 Di2 = 3 Do2 Di2 = 3 (0.284)(5.25) (2.625) = 55.3 lb ft

4

Therefore hollow shaft is lighter

73.8 55.3

Percentage lightness =

(100% ) = 33.5%

55.3

TL

JG

where

L = 10 ft = 120 in

For solid shaft, J =

D4

32

(276)(120 )

180

o

= 0.039 rad = (0.039)

= 2.2

4

3

(5.25) (11.5 10 )

32

(Do4 Di4 )

32

(276 )(120)

180

o

= 0.041 rad = (0.041)

= 2.4

4

4

3

[(5.25) (2.625) ](11.5 10 )

32

Therefore, solid shaft is more rigid, 2.2o < 2.4o

30.

The same as 29, except that the material is AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F.

Solution:

33,000hp 33,000(2500 )

T=

=

= 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips

2 n

2 (570 )

For AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F

s y = 130 ksi

s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(130 ) = 78 ksi

40

N = 3 for mild shock

Design stress

s

78

= 26 ksi

s = ys =

N

3

(a) Let D = shaft diameter

Tc

J

D4

J=

32

D

c=

2

16T

s=

D3

16(276)

26 =

D3

D = 3.78 in

3

say D = 3 in

4

s=

(b) J =

=

32

Do 2 Di

c=

=

= Di

2

2

TDi

32T

s=

=

4

15 Di 15 Di3

32

32(276)

26 =

15 Di3

Di = 1.93 in

32

] = 15 D

4

i

32

Do = 2 Di = 3.86 in

say

Di = 2 in

Do = 4 in

(c) Density, = 0.284 lb in 3 (Table AT 7)

41

w = weight per foot of length

2

w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284)(3.75) = 37.6 lb ft

4

2

2

w = 12 Do2 Di2 = 3 Do2 Di2 = 3 (0.284)(4) (2) = 32.1 lb ft

4

Therefore hollow shaft is lighter

37.6 32.1

Percentage lightness =

(100% ) = 17.1%

32.1

TL

JG

where

L = 10 ft = 120 in

For solid shaft, J =

D4

32

(276)(120)

180

o

=

= 0.148 rad = (0.148)

= 8.48

4

3

(3.75) (11.5 10 )

32

(Do4 Di4 )

32

(276)(120 )

180

o

= 0.122 rad = (0.122 )

= 6.99

4

4

3

[(4) (2 ) ](11.5 10 )

32

Therefore, hollow shaft is more rigid, 6.99o < 8.48o .

31.

A steel shaft is transmitting 40 hp at 500 rpm with minor shock. (a) What should

be its diameter if the deflection is not to exceed 1o in 20 D ? (b) If deflection is

primary what kind of steel would be satisfactory?

Solution:

33,000hp 33,000(40 )

(a) T =

=

= 420 ft lb = 5.04 in kips

2 n

2 (500 )

G = 11.5 103 ksi

L = 20 D

42

= 1o =

=

180

TL

JG

rad

(5.04)(20 D )

D4

11.5 103

32

D = 1.72 in

3

say D = 1 in

4

180

(b) s =

16T 16(5.04 )

=

= 4.8 ksi

D 3 (1.75)3

N =3

s ys = Ns = (3)(4.8) = 14.4 ksi

s ys

14.4

= 24 ksi

0.6 0.6

Use C1117 normalized steel s y = 35 ksi

sy =

32.

A square shaft of cold-finish AISI 1118 transmits a torsional moment of 1200 inlb. For medium shock, what should be its size?

Solution:

For AISI 1118 cold-finish

s y = 75 ksi

s ys = 0.6s y = 45 ksi

N = 3 for medium shock

s

T

s = ys =

N Z

where, h = b

2b 2 h 2b 3

Z =

=

(Table AT 1)

9

9

T = 1200 in lb = 1.2 in kips

45 1.2(9)

s=

=

3

2b 3

b = h = 0.71 in

3

say b = h = in

4

43

CHECK PROBLEMS

33.

-in. steel plate, AISI C1020, as rolled. This force is exerted on the shaft at a

radius of -in. (a) Compute the torsional stress in the 3.5-in. shaft (bending

neglected). (b) What will be the corresponding design factor if the shaft is made

of cold-rolled AISI 1035 steel (Table AT 10)? Considering the shock loading that

is characteristics of this machine, do you thick the design is safe enough?

Solution:

For AISI C1020, as rolled

sus = 49 ksi

F = sus ( Dt )

15

where D = in

16

1

t = in

2

15 1

F = 49( ) = 72.2 kips

16 2

T = Fr

3

where r = in

4

3

T = (72.2 ) = 54.2 in kips

4

16T

d3

where d = 3.5 in

16(54.2)

s=

= 6.44 ksi

3

(3.5)

(a) s =

for shock loading, traditional factor of safety, N = 10 ~ 15

Design factor , N =

34.

sus

64

=

= 9.94 , the design is safe ( N 10 )

s 6.44

Solution:

44

d = 2.75 in

16T

d3

16(54.2 )

s=

= 13.3 ksi

3

(2.75)

(a) s =

for shock loading, traditional factor of safety, N = 10 ~ 15

Design factor , N =

sus

64

=

= 4.8 , the design is not safe ( N < 10 )

s 13.3

A hollow annealed Monel propeller shaft has an external diameter of 13 in. and

an internal diameter of 6 in.; it transmits 10,000 hp at 200 rpm. (a) Compute the

torsional stress in the shaft (stress from bending and propeller thrust are not

considered). (b) Compute the factor of safety. Does it look risky?

35.

Solution:

For Monel shaft,

s us = 98 ksi (Table AT 3)

N = 3 ~ 4 , for dead load, based on ultimate strength

Tc

J

Do4 Di4 (13.5)4 (6.5)4

J=

=

= 3086 in 4

32

32

Do 13.5

c=

=

= 6.75 in

2

2

33,000hp 33,000(10,000)

T=

=

= 262,606 ft lb = 3152 in kips

2 n

2 (200)

(3152)(6.75) = 6.9 ksi

s=

3086

(b) Factor of safety,

(a) s =

N=

sus 98

=

= 14.2 , not risky

s 6. 9

45

STRESS ANALYSIS

DESIGN PROBLEMS

36.

A hook is attached to a plate as shown and supports a static load of 12,000 lb. The

material is to be AISI C1020, as rolled. (a) Set up strength equations for

dimensions d , D , h , and t . Assume that the bending in the plate is negligible.

(b) Determine the minimum permissible value of these dimensions. In estimating

the strength of the nut, let D1 = 1.2d . (c) Choose standard fractional dimensions

which you think would be satisfactory.

Problems 36 38.

Solution:

s = axial stress

s s = shear stress

(a)

s=

F

4F

=

2

1

d2 d

4

Equation (1) d =

4F

s

46

s=

F

1

D 2 D12

4

Equation (2) D =

ss =

4F

4F

4F

=

=

2

2

2

2

2

D D1

D 1.44d 2

D (1.2d )

] (

4F

+ 1.44d 2

s

F

F

=

D1h 1.2 dh

Equation (3) h =

ss =

F

1.2 ds s

F

Dt

Equation (4) t =

F

Dss

Table AT 7, AISI C1020, as rolled

su = 65 ksi

sus = 49 ksi

N = 3 ~ 4 say 4, design factor for static load

s

65

= 16 ksi

s= u =

N

4

s

49

s s = us =

= 12 ksi

N

4

F = 12,000 lb = 12 kips

From Equation (1)

4F

4(12 )

d=

=

= 0.98 in

s

(16 )

From Equation (2)

4F

4(12 )

2

D=

+ 1.44d 2 =

+ 1.44(0.98) = 1.53 in

s

(16)

From Equation (3)

F

12

h=

=

= 0.27 in

1.2 ds s 1.2 (0.98)(12 )

From Equation (4)

F

12

t=

=

= 0.21 in

Dss (1.53)(12 )

47

d = 1 in

1

D = 1 in

2

1

h = in

4

1

t = in

4

37.

The same as 36, except that a shock load of 4000 lb. is repeatedly applied.

Solution:

(a) Same as 36.

(b) N = 10 ~ 15 for shock load, based on ultimate strength

say N = 15 , others the same.

s

65

s= u =

= 4 ksi

N 15

s

49

s s = us =

= 3 ksi

N 15

F = 4000 lb = 4 kips

From Equation (1)

4F

4(4 )

d=

=

= 1.13 in

s

(4)

From Equation (2)

4F

4(4)

2

D=

+ 1.44d 2 =

+ 1.44(1.13) = 1.76 in

s

(4 )

From Equation (3)

F

4

h=

=

= 0.31 in

1.2 ds s 1.2 (1.13)(3)

From Equation (4)

F

4

t=

=

= 0.24 in

Dss (1.76)(3)

48

1

d = 1 in

8

3

D = 1 in

4

3

h = in

8

1

t = in

4

38.

The connection between the plate and hook, as shown, is to support a load F .

Determine the value of dimensions D , h , and t in terms of d if the connection

is to be as strong as the rod of diameter d . Assume that D1 = 1.2d , sus = 0.75su ,

and that bending in the plate is negligible.

Solution:

s=

1

d2

4

1

F = d 2s

4

1

s

(1) F = d 2 u

4

N

49

s=

1

1

D 2 D12

D 2 1.44d 2

4

4

1

F = (D 2 1.44d 2 )s

4

1

s

(2) F = D 2 1.44d 2 u

4

N

F

F

ss =

=

D1h 1.2 dh

F = 1.2 dhss

s

0.75su

F = 1.2 dh us = 1.2 dh

N

N

5s

(3) F = 0.9 dh u

N

F

ss =

Dt

F = Dtss

s

0.75su

F = Dt us = Dt

N

N

s

(4) F = 0.75 Dt u

N

Equate (2) and (1)

1

s 1

s

F = D 2 1.44d 2 u = d 2 u

4

N 4

N

D 2 = 2.44d 2

D = 1.562d

Equate (3) and (1)

s 1

s

F = 0.9 dh u = d 2 u

N 4

N

d

h=

= 0.278d

4(0.9)

Equate (4) and (1)

s 1

s

F = 0.75 Dt u = d 2 u

N 4

N

s 1

s

F = 0.75 (1.562d )(t ) u = d 2 u

N 4

N

d

t=

= 0.214d

4(0.75)(1.562 )

50

39.

(a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various

methods by which it might fail. Neglect bending effects. (b) Design this

connection for a load of 2500 lb. Both plates and rivets are of AISI C1020, as

rolled. The load is repeated and reversed with mild shock. Make the connection

equally strong on the basis of yield strengths in tension, shear, and compression.

Problems 39, 40

Solution:

(a) s s =

F

1

5 D 2

4

4F

5 s s

Equation (1) D =

s=

F

t (b 2 D )

Equation (2) b =

s=

F

+ 2D

ts

F

5 Dt

Equation (3) t =

F

5Ds

s y = 48 ksi (Table AT 7)

s ys = 0.6s y = 28 ksi

N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength

48

s=

= 12 ksi

4

28

ss =

= 7 ksi

4

From Equation (1)

51

D=

4F

5 s s

where

F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips

D=

4F

4(2.5)

5

in

=

= 0.30 in say

5 s s

5 (7 )

16

F

2.5

5

t=

=

= 0.13 in say

in

5Ds

32

5

5 (12 )

16

From Equation (2)

F

2. 5

5

b = + 2D =

+ 2 = 1.96 in say 2 in

ts

5

16

(12)

32

40.

The same as 39, except that the material is 2024-T4, aluminum alloy.

Solution:

(a) Same as 39.

(b) ) For 2024-T4, aluminum alloy

s y = 47 ksi (Table AT 3)

s ys = 0.55s y = 25 ksi

N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength

47

= 12 ksi

s=

4

25

ss =

= 6 ksi

4

From Equation (1)

4F

D=

5 s s

where

F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips

D=

4F

4(2.5)

3

=

= 0.33 in say in

5 s s

5 (6)

8

52

t=

F

2.5

1

=

= 0.11 in say in

8

5Ds

3

5 (12)

8

F

2. 5

1

3

b = + 2D =

+ 2 = 2.42 in say 2 in

ts

2

1

8

(12)

8

41.

(a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various

methods by which it might fail. (b) Design this connection for a load of 8000 lb.

Use AISI C1015, as rolled, for the rivets, and AISI C1020, as rolled, for the

plates. Let the load be repeatedly applied with minor shock in one direction and

make the connection equally strong on the basis of ultimate strengths in tension,

shear, and compression.

Problem 41.

Solution:

(a)

F

sP =

t (b D )

3

F

sP = 4

t (b 2 D )

or

s sR =

F

1

4 D 2 (2 )

4

53

Equation (1)

Equation (2)

sR =

F

4 Dt

Equation (3)

suR = 61 ksi , susR = 0.75suR = 45 ksi

For AISI C1020, as rolled

suP = 65 ksi

N = 6 , based on ultimate strength

s

65

s P = uP =

= 10.8 ksi

N

6

s

61

s R = uR =

= 10.1 ksi

N

6

s

45

= 7.5 ksi

s sR = usR =

N

6

F = 8000 lb = 8 kips

Solving for D

F

s sR =

2 D 2

7

F

8

in

=

= 0.412 in say

16

2 s sR

2 (7.5)

Solving for t

F

sR =

4 Dt

F

8

1

t=

=

= 0.453 in say in

4 Ds R

2

7

4 (10.1)

16

Solving for b

F

Using s P =

t (b D )

F

8

7

b=

+D=

+ = 1.92 in say 2 in

ts P

16

1

(10.8)

2

3

F

4

Using s P =

t (b 2 D )

D=

54

3F

3(8)

7

+ 2D =

+ 2 = 1.99 in say 2 in

4ts P

16

1

4 (10.8)

2

Therefore

b = 2 in

7

D = in

16

1

t = in

2

b=

42.

Give the strength equations for the connection shown, including that for the shear

of the plate by the cotter.

Problems 42 44.

Solution:

Axial Stresses

s=

F

1

D12

4

s=

55

4F

D12

F

(L D2 )e

Equation (1)

Equation (2)

s=

s=

s=

F

D2 e

Equation (3)

F

1

a 2 D22

4

F

1

D22 D2e

4

4F

Equation (4)

a 2 D22

4F

Equation (5)

D 4 D2e

2

2

Shear Stresses

ss =

F

2eb

ss =

F

2(L D2 + e )t

56

Equation (6)

Equation (7)

43.

ss =

F

at

Equation (8)

ss =

F

D1m

Equation (9)

ss =

F

2 D2 h

Equation (10)

A steel rod, as-rolled AISI C1035, is fastened to a 7/8-in., as-rolled C1020 plate

by means of a cotter that is made of as-rolled C1020, in the manner shown. (a)

Determine all dimensions of this joint if it is to withstand a reversed shock load

F = 10 kips , basing the design on yield strengths. (b) If all fits are free-running

fits, decide upon tolerances and allowances.

7

t = in = 0.875 in , s sy = 0.6s y

8

For steel rod, AISI C1035, as rolled

s y1 = 55 ksi

s sy1 = 33 ksi

s y2 = 48 ksi

s sy2 = 28 ksi

N = 5 ~ 7 based on yield strength

say N = 7

sy

4F

s= 1 =

N D12

55 4(10)

=

7 D12

D1 = 1.27 in

1

say D1 = 1 in

4

57

From Equation (9)

ssy

F

ss = 1 =

N D1m

33

10

=

7

1

1 m

4

m = 0.54 in

9

say m = in

16

From Equation (3)

sy

F

s= 1 =

N D2e

55 10

s=

=

7 D2e

D2 e = 1.273

From Equation (5)

sy

4F

s= 1 =

2

N D2 4 D2e

55

4(10 )

=

2

7 D2 4(1.273)

D2 = 1.80 in

3

say D2 = 1 in

4

and D2 e = 1.273

3

1 e = 1.273

4

e = 0.73 in

3

say e = in

4

By further adjustment

5

Say D2 = 2 in , e = in

8

From Equation (8)

s sy

F

ss = 2 =

N at

28

10

=

7 a (0.875)

a = 0.91 in

say a = 1 in

58

From Equation (4)

sy

4F

s= 2 =

N a 2 D22

48

4(10 )

=

7 a 2 22

a = 2.42 in

1

say a = 2 in

2

1

use a = 2 in

2

From Equation (7)

ssy

F

ss = 2 =

N

2( L D2 + e )t

28

10

=

5

7

2 L 2 + (0.875)

8

L = 2.80 in

say L = 3 in

From Equation (6)

s sy

F

ss = 2 =

N

2eb

28

10

=

7

5

2 b

8

b = 2 in

From Equation (10)

s sy

F

ss = 2 =

N

2 D2 h

28

10

=

7 2(2 )h

5

h = 0.625 in = in

8

Summary of Dimensions

L = 3 in

5

h = in

8

b = 2 in

7

t = in

8

59

9

in

16

1

a = 2 in

2

1

D1 = 1 in

4

D2 = 2 in

5

e = in

8

m=

L = 3 0.010 in

h = 0.625 0.010 in

t = 0.875 0.010 in

m = 0.5625 0.010 in

a = 2.500 0.010 in

D1 = 1.25 0.010 in

For Free Running Fits (RC 7) Table 3.1

Female

Male

+ 0.0030

0.0040

b = 2.0

in

b = 2.0

in

0.0000

0.0058

allowance = 0.0040 in

+ 0.0030

0.0040

D2 = 2.0

in

D2 = 2.0

in

0.0000

0.0058

allowance = 0.0040 in

+ 0.0016

0.0020

e = 0.625

in

e = 0.625

in

0.0000

0.0030

allowance = 0.0020 in

44.

plate (as-rolled C1020) by means of a cotter (as rolled C1035) as shown. (a)

Determine all the dimensions for this connection so that all parts have the same

ultimate strength as the rod. The load F reverses direction. (b) Decide upon

tolerances and allowances for loose-running fits.

(a) For AISI C1035, as rolled

su1 = 85 ksi

sus1 = 64 ksi

For AISI C1020, as rolled

60

su2 = 65 ksi

sus2 = 48 ksi

Ultimate strength

Use Equation (1)

1

1 2

Fu = su1 D12 = (85) (1) = 66.8 kips

4

4

Equation (9)

Fu = sus1 D1m

66.8 = (64 )( )(1)m

m = 0.33 in

3

say m = in

8

From Equation (3)

Fu = su1 D2e

66.8 = (85)D2e

D2 e = 0.7859

From Equation (5)

1

4

4

D2 = 1.42 in

3

say D2 = 1 in

8

3

D2 e = 1 e = 0.7859

8

e = 0.57 in

9

say e = in

16

From Equation (4)

1

Fu = su2 a 2 D22

4

2

1

3

66.8 = (65) a 2 1

4

8

a = 1.79 in

3

say a = 1 in

4

From Equation (8)

61

Fu = sus2 at

a = 0.44 in

1

say a = in

2

3

use a = 1 in

4

From Equation (2)

Fu = su2 ( L D2 )e

3 9

66.8 = (65) L 1

8 16

L = 3.20 in

1

say L = 3 in

4

From Equation (7)

Fu = 2 sus2 (L D2 e )t

3 9

8 16

L = 1.51 in

1

say L = 1 in

2

1

use L = 3 in

4

From Equation (6)

Fu = 2 sus1 eb

9

66.8 = 2(64 ) b

16

b = 0.93 in

say b = 1 in

From Equation (10)

Fu = 2 sus1 D2 h

3

66.8 = 2(64 ) 1 h

8

h = 0.38 in

3

say h = in

8

Dimensions

1

L = 3 in

4

62

3

in

8

b = 1 in

t = 1 in

3

m = in

8

3

a = 1 in

4

D1 = 1 in

3

D2 = 1 in

8

9

e = in

16

h=

L = 3.25 0.010 in

h = 0.375 0.010 in

t = 1.000 0.010 in

m = 0.375 0.010 in

a = 1.75 0.010 in

D1 = 1.000 0.010 in

For Loose Running Fits (RC 8) Table 3.1

Female

Male

+ 0.0035

0.0045

b = 1.0

in

b = 1.0

in

0.0000

0.0065

allowance = 0.0045 in

+ 0.0040

0.0050

D2 = 1.375

in

D2 = 1.375

in

0.0000

0.0075

allowance = 0.0050 in

+ 0.0028

0.0035

e = 0.5625

in

e = 0.5625

in

0.0000

0.0051

allowance = 0.0035 in

45.

Give all the simple strength equations for the connection shown. (b) Determine

the ratio of the dimensions a , b , c , d , m , and n to the dimension D so that the

connection will be equally strong in tension, shear, and compression. Base the

calculations on ultimate strengths and assume sus = 0.75su .

63

Problems 45 47.

Solution:

(a) Neglecting bending

Equation (1): F = s D 2

4

Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2

4

Equation (3): F = s (2bc )

Equation (4): F = s (ac )

Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]

Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )

Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )

Equation (8): F = s (d c )a

su

s

and s s = us

N

N

Therefore

s s = 0.75s

Equate (2) and (1)

1

1

F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2

4

(b) s =

1 1

0.75s c 2 = s D 2

2 4

c = 0.8165 D

Equate (3) and (1)

1

F = s (2bc ) = s D 2

4

1

2b(0.8165D ) = D 2

4

b = 0.4810 D

64

Equate (4) and (1)

1

F = sac = s D 2

4

1

a(0.8165 D ) = D 2

4

a = 0.9619 D

Equate (5) and (1)

1

F = s[2(d c )b] = s D 2

4

1

2(d 0.8165 D )(0.4810 ) = D 2

4

d = 1.6329 D

Equate (6) and (1)

1

F = s s (4mb ) = s D 2

4

1

0.75(4m )(0.4810 D ) = D 2

4

m = 0.5443D

Equate (7) and (1)

1

F = ss (2nb ) = s D 2

4

1

0.75(2n )(0.4810 D ) = D 2

4

n = 1.0886 D

Equate (8) and (1)

1

F = s (d c )a = s D 2

4

(1.6329 D 0.8165D )a = 1 D 2

4

a = 0.9620 D

Summary

a = 0.9620 D

b = 0.4810 D

c = 0.8165 D

d = 1.6329 D

m = 0.5443D

n = 1.0886 D

65

46.

The same as 45, except that the calculations are to be based on yield strengths. Let

s sy = 0.6s y .

(a) Neglecting bending

Equation (1): F = s D 2

4

Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2

4

Equation (3): F = s (2bc )

Equation (4): F = s (ac )

Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]

Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )

Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )

Equation (8): F = s (d c )a

(b) s =

sy

and s s =

s sy

N

N

Therefore

s s = 0.6 s

Equate (2) and (1)

1

1

F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2

4

4

1 1

0.6 s c 2 = s D 2

2 4

c = 0.9129 D

Equate (3) and (1)

1

F = s (2bc ) = s D 2

4

1

2b(0.9129 D ) = D 2

4

b = 0.4302 D

Equate (4) and (1)

1

F = sac = s D 2

4

1

a(0.9129 D ) = D 2

4

a = 0.8603D

66

Equate (5) and (1)

F = s[2(d c )b] = s D 2

4

1

2(d 0.9129 D )(0.4302) = D 2

4

d = 1.8257 D

Equate (6) and (1)

1

F = s s (4mb ) = s D 2

4

1

0.6(4m )(0.4302 D ) = D 2

4

m = 0.7607 D

Equate (7) and (1)

1

F = ss (2nb ) = s D 2

4

1

0.6(2n )(0.4302 D ) = D 2

4

n = 1.5214 D

Equate (8) and (1)

1

F = s (d c )a = s D 2

4

(1.8257 D 0.9129 D )a = 1 D 2

4

a = 0.8604 D

Summary

a = 0.8604 D

b = 0.4302 D

c = 0.9129 D

d = 1.8257 D

m = 0.7607 D

n = 1.5214 D

47.

Design a connection similar to the one shown for a gradually applied and reversed

load of 12 kips. Base design stresses on yield strengths and let the material be

AISI C1040 steel, annealed. Examine the computed dimensions for proportion,

making changes that you deem advisable.

67

N = 4 based on yield strength for gradually applied and reversed load.

For AISI C1040, annealed

s y = 47 ksi (Fig. AF 7)

s sy = 0.6s y = 28 ksi

sy

47

= 11.75 ksi

N

4

1

F = s D 2

4

12 = 11.75 D 2

4

D = 1.14 in

1

say D = 1 in

8

1

a = 0.8604 D = 0.86041 = 0.97 in

8

but a > D

1

say a = 1 in

4

1

b = 0.43021 = 0.48 in

8

1

say b = in

2

1

c = 0.91291 = 1.030 in

8

say c = 1 in

1

d = 1.82571 = 2.05 in

8

say d = 2 in

1

m = 0.76071 = 0.86 in

8

7

say m = in

8

1

n = 1.52141 = 1.71 in

8

3

say n = 1 in

4

s=

Dimension:

1

a = 1 in

4

68

1

in

2

c = 1 in

d = 2 in

7

m = in

8

3

n = 1 in

4

1

D = 1 in

8

b=

48.

Give all the strength equations for the union of rods shown.

Problems 48 68.

Solution:

F = s d 2

4

Equation (1)

F = s s ( ad )

Equation (2)

F = ss (2tc )

Equation (3)

69

F = ss [2(D e )b]

Equation (4)

Equation (5)

F = set

F = s (D e )t

Equation (6)

F = s k 2 e2

4

Equation (7)

F = s m 2 e 2 (m e )t

4

F = s s (2ef )

Equation (9)

70

Equation (8)

F = s e 2 et

4

Equation (10)

49-68. Design a union-of-rods joint similar to that shown for a reversing load and

material given in the accompanying table. The taper of cotter is to be in. in 12

in. (see 172). (a) Using design stresses based on yield strengths determine all

dimensions to satisfy the necessary strength equations. (b) Modify dimensions as

necessary for good proportions, being careful not to weaken the joint. (c) Decide

upon tolerances and allowances for loose fits. (d) Sketch to scale each part of the

joint showing all dimensions needed for manufacture, with tolerances and

allowances.

Prob. No.

Load, lb.

49

50

51

52

3000

3500

4000

4500

1020

1030

1117

1020

52

54

55

56

5000

5500

6000

6500

1015

1035

1040

1020

57

58

59

60

7000

7500

8000

8500

1015

1118

1022

1035

61

62

63

64

9000

9500

10,000

10,500

1040

1117

1035

1022

65

66

67

68

11,000

11,500

12,000

12,500

1137

1035

1045

1030

71

Solution: (For Prob. 49 only)

(a) For AISI 1020, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi

s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(48) = 28.8 ksi

s

48

= 12 ksi

s= y =

N

4

s

28.8

= 7.2 ksi

s s = ys =

N

4

F = 3000 lb = 3 kips

Equation (1)

1

F = s d 2

4

3 = 12 d 2

4

d = 0.5642 in

9

say d = in

16

Equation (2)

F = s s ( ad )

9

3 = 7.2( a )

16

a = 0.236 in

1

say a = in

4

Equation (5)

F = set

3 = 12et

et = 0.25

Equation (10)

1

F = s e 2 et

4

3 = 12 e 2 0.25

4

e = 0.798 in

13

say e = in

16

et = 0.25

72

13

t = 0.25

16

t = 0..308 in

5

say t = in

16

Equation (6)

F = s (D e )t

13 5

3 = 12 D

16 16

D = 1.6125 in

5

say D = 1 in

8

Equation (4)

F = ss [2(D e )b]

5 13

3 = 7.2 21 b

8 16

b = 0.256 in

1

say b = in

4

Equation (7)

1

F = s k 2 e2

4

2

1

13

3 = 12 k 2

4

16

k = 0.989 in

say k = 1 in

Equation (9)

F = s s (2ef )

13

3 = 7.2(2) f

16

f = 0.256 in

1

say f = in

4

Equation (8)

1

F = s m 2 e 2 (m e )t

4

2

1

13 5

13

3 = 12 m 2 m

16 16

16

4

73

0.25 = 0.7854m 2 0.5185 0.3125m + 0.2539

0.7854m 2 0.3125m 0.5146 = 0

m 2 0.3979m 0.6552 = 0

m = 1.032 in

say m = 1 in

Equation (3)

F = ss (2tc )

5

3 = 7.2(2) c

16

c = 0.667 in

11

say c = in

16

DIMENSIONS:

9

d = in

16

1

a = in

4

1

b = in

4

11

c = in

16

1

f = in

4

13

e = in

16

5

t = in

16

k = 1 in

5

D = 1 in

8

m = 1 in

(b)

Modified dimensions

9

in

16

1

a = in

4

3

b = in

4

11

c = in

16

d=

74

1

in

2

13

e = in

16

5

t = in

16

k = 1 in

5

D = 1 in

8

1

m = 1 in

4

f =

No fit, 0.010 in

d = 0.5625 0.010 in

a = 0.250 0.010 in

f = 0.500 0.010 in

D = 1.625 0.010 in

k = 1.000 0.010 in

m = 1.250 0.010 in

Fits, Table 3.1, loose-running fits, say RC 8

Female

+ 0.0035

in

0.0000

allowance = 0.0045 in

+ 0.0028

c = 0.6875

in

0.0000

allowance = 0.0035 in

+ 0.0035

e = 0.8125

in

0.0000

allowance = 0.0045

+ 0.0022

t = 0.3125

in

0.0000

allowance = 0.0030 in

b = 0.750

Male

b = 0.750

0.0045

in

0.0065

c = 0.6875

0.0035

in

0.0051

e = 0.8125

0.0045

in

0.0065

t = 0.3125

75

0.0030

in

0.0040

(d)

ROD

COTTER

76

SOCKET

CHECK PROBLEMS

69.

1

1

The connection shown has the following dimensions: d = 1 in , D = 2 in ,

4

2

1

5

1

D1 = 1 in , h = in , t = in ; it supports a load of 15 kips. Compute the tensile,

2

8

2

compressive, and shear stresses induced in the connection. What is the

corresponding design factor based on the yield strength if the rod and nut are

made of AISI C1045, as rolled, and the plate is structural steel (1020)?

77

Problem 69.

Solution:

Tensile Stresses

F

15

=

= 12.22 ksi

(1) s1 =

2

1

2

1

1

d

1

4

4 4

F

15

(2) s 2 =

=

= 8.4 ksi

2

1

2

1

1

D1

1

4

4 2

Compressive Stress

F

15

(3) s3 =

=

= 4.78 ksi

2

2

1

2

2

1

1

1

(D D1 )

2 1

4

4 2 2

Shear Stresses

F

15

(4) s s4 =

=

= 3.82 ksi

Dt

1 1

2

2 2

F

15

(5) s s5 =

=

= 5.09 ksi

D1h

1 5

1

2 8

For AISI C1045, as rolled (rod and nut)

s y1 = 59 ksi

s ys1 = 0.6 s y = 0.6(59 ) = 35.4 ksi

For structural steel plate (1020)

s y2 = 48 ksi

s ys1 = 0.6 s y = 0.6(48) = 28.8 ksi

Solving for design factor

78

(1) N1 =

(2) N 2 =

(3) N 3 =

(4) N 4 =

(5) N 5 =

s y1

s1

s y1

s2

s y2

s3

s ys2

s s4

s ys1

s s5

59

= 4.83

12.22

59

= 6.95

8.49

48

= 10.04

4.78

28.8

= 7.54

3.82

35.4

= 6.96

5.09

70.

3

7

3

in , t = in , b = 3 in , and let the load, which is applied

4

16

4

centrally so that it tends to pull the plates apart, be 15 kips. (a) Compute the

stresses in the various parts of the connection. (b) If the material is AISI C1020,

as rolled, what is the design factor of the connection based on yield strengths?

Problem 70.

Solution:

(a) Tensile stresses

F

15

s1 =

=

= 11.43 ksi

t (b D ) 7 3 3

3

16 4 4

3

3

(15)

F

4

4

s2 =

=

= 11.43 ksi

t (b 2 D ) 7 3 3

3 2

16 4 4

Compressive bearing stress

F

15

s3 =

=

= 11.43 ksi

4 Dt

3 7

4

4 16

79

Shearing stress

F

15

ss 4 =

=

= 4.24 ksi

2

1

2

3

4 D (2) (2 )

4

4

(b) For AISI C1020, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi

s ys = 0.6s y = 28.8 ksi

N=

sy

s

or N =

Using N =

s ys

ss

sy

s

s

48

= 4.2

N= y =

s 11.43

s

Using N = ys

ss

s ys 28.8

N=

=

= 6.8

s s 4.24

Therefore the design factor is N = 4.2

71.

15

9

3

1

in , b = in , c = in , d = 1 in ,

16

16

4

2

3

15

in , m = n = in . The material is AISI C1040, annealed (see Fig. AF 1).

4

16

(a) For a load of 7500 lb., compute the various tensile, compressive, and shear

stresses. Determine the factor of safety based on (b) ultimate strength, (c) yield

strengths.

D=

Problem 71.

Solution:

(a) Tensile stresses

80

s1 =

F

1

D2

4

7.5

1 3

4 4

= 16.98 ksi

F

7. 5

=

= 8.89 ksi

2b(d c )

9 1 3

2 1

16 2 4

F

7. 5

s3 =

=

= 10.67 ksi

a(d c ) 15 1 3

1

16 2 4

Compressive Stresses (Bearing)

F

7.5

s4 =

=

= 8.89 ksi

2bc

9 3

2

16 4

F

7. 5

s5 =

=

= 10.67 ksi

ac 15 3

16 4

Shearing Stresses

F

7.5

s s6 =

=

= 3.56 ksi

4mb

15 9

4

16 16

F

7.5

s s7 =

=

= 7.11 ksi

2nb

15 9

2

16 16

For AISI C1040, annealed,Fig. AF 1

s y = 47 ksi

s2 =

su = 79 ksi

s ys = 0.6s y = 28 ksi

sus = 0.6su = 47.4 ksi

s

79

N= u =

= 4.65

s1 16.98

(c) Based on yield strength

sy

47

N= =

= 2.77

s1 16.98

72.

rods, one of which A is shown. These rods A are attached to the head B by split

rings C. The test specimen is attached to the upper head B so that the tensile force

81

in the specimen pulls down on the head and exerts a compressive force on the

rods A. When the machine is exerting the full load, compute (a) the compressive

stress in the rods, (b) the bearing stress between the rods and the rings, (c) the

shearing stress in the rings,

Problem 72.

Solution:

F = 60,000 lbs

(a) sc =

(b) sb =

(c) sc =

(60,000 2)

2

1 1

3 (3)2

4 2

(60,000 2 )

2

1 2 1

(4) 3

4

2

(3)(1)

DEFORMATIONS

73.

A load of 22,000 lb. is gradually applied to a 2-in. round rod, 10 ft. long. The total

elongation is observed to be 0.03 in. If the stretching is entirely elastic, (a) what is

the modulus of elasticity, and (b) what material would you judge it to be, wrought

iron or stainless steel (from information available in the tables)? (c) How much

energy is absorbed by the rod? (d) Suppose that the material is aluminum alloy

3003-H14; compute its elongation for the same load. Is this within elastic action?

Solution:

F = 22,000 lbs

D = 2 in

L = 10 ft = 120 in

= 0.03 in

82

(a) =

E=

FL

EA

FL

4 FL

4(22,000 )(120)

=

=

= 28 10 6 psi

2

2

A D

(0.03)( )(2)

(b) Use both stainless steel, Table AT 4, E = 28 10 6 psi and wrought iron , Table AT 7,

E = 28 10 6 psi .

1

1

(c) Energy absorbed = F = (22,000 )(0.03) = 330 lb in

2

2

(d) For Aluminum alloy, 3003-H14

E = 10 106 psi

s y = 21 ksi

FL

4 FL

4(22,000 )(120)

=

=

= 0.084 in

2

2

EA E D

10 10 6 ( )(2 )

4F

4(22,000 )

s=

=

= 7003 psi = 7.0 ksi < s y , within the elastic limit.

2

D

( )(2)2

74.

The same as 73, except that F = 88 kips and total = 0.112 in . Is the

computation for part (d) valid? Explain.

Solution:

(a) F = 88 kips

= 0.112 in

FL

4 FL

4(88,000 )(120)

E=

=

=

= 30 10 6 psi

2

2

A D

(0.112)( )(2)

(b) Use wrought steel, Table AT 4, E = 30 106 psi

1

1

(c) Energy absorbed = F = (88,000 )(0.112) = 4928 lb in

2

2

(d) For Aluminum alloy, 3003-H14

E = 10 106 psi

s y = 21 ksi

FL

4 FL

4(88,000)(120 )

=

=

= 0.336 in

2

2

EA E D

10 10 6 ( )(2 )

83

4F

4(88,000 )

=

= 28,011 psi = 28.0 ksi > s y , not within the elastic limit, therefore

2

D

( )(2)2

not valid.

s=

75.

(a) A square bar of SAE 1020, as rolled, is to carry a tensile load of 40 kips. The

bar is to be 4 ft. long. A design factor of 5 based on the ultimate stress is desired.

Moreover, the total deformation should not exceed 0.024 in. What should be the

dimensions of the section? (b) Using SAE 1045, as rolled, but with the other data

the same, find the dimensions. (c) Using SAE 4640, OQT 1000 F, but with other

data the same as in (a), find the dimensions. Is there a change in dimensions as

compared with part (b)? Explain the difference or the lack of difference in the

answers.

Solution:

L = 4 ft = 48 in

(a) For SAE 1020, as rolled

su = 65 ksi , E = 30,000 ksi

s

F

s= u =

N A

65 40

=

5 x2

x = 1.754 in

FL

=

EA

(40)(48)

0.024 =

(30,000)x 2

x = 1.633 in

3

Therefore say x = 1 in

4

(b) For SAE 1045, as rolled

su = 96 ksi , E = 30,000 ksi

s

F

s= u =

N A

96 40

=

5 x2

x = 1.443 in

FL

=

EA

(40)(48)

0.024 =

(30,000)x 2

x = 1.633 in

84

5

Therefore say x = 1 in

8

(c) For SAE 4640, as rolled

su = 152 ksi , E = 30,000 ksi

s

F

s= u =

N A

152 40

= 2

5

x

x = 1.15 in

FL

=

EA

(40)(48)

0.024 =

(30,000)x 2

x = 1.633 in

5

Therefore say x = 1 in

8

There is lack of difference in the answers due to same dimensions required to satisfy the

required elongation.

76.

The steel rails on a railroad track are laid when the temperature is 40 F. The rails

are welded together and held in place by the ties so that no expansion is possible

due to temperature changes. What will be the stress in the rails when heated by

the sun to 120 F (i1.29)?

Solution:

s Lt

= =

E L

L

For steel = 0.000007 in in F

E = 30 106 psi

s = tE = (0.000007 )(120 40 ) 30 10 6

s = 16,800 psi

77.

Two steel rivets are inserted in a riveted connection. One rivet connects plates that

have a total thickness of 2 in., while the other connects plates with a total

thickness of 3 in. If it is assumed that, after heading, the rivets cool from 600 F

and that the coefficient of expansion as given in the Text applies, compute the

stresses in each rivet after it has cooled to a temperature of 70 F, (no external

load). See i1.29. Also assume that the plates are not deformed under load. Is such

a stress likely? Why is the actual stress smaller?

85

Solution:

s = tE

For steel = 0.000007 in in F

E = 30 106 psi

s = (0.000007 )( 600 70 )(30,000 ) = 111.30 ksi

The stress is unlikely because it is near the ultimate strength of steel.

Actual stress must be smaller to allow for safety.

78.

Three flat plates are assembled as shown; the center one B of chromium steel,

AISI 5140 OQT 1000 F, and the outer two A and C of aluminum alloy 3003-H14,

are fastened together so that they will stretch equal amounts. The steel plate is 2 x

in., the aluminum plates are each 2 x 1/8 in., L = 30 in ., and the load is 24,000

lb. Determine (a) the stress in each plate, (b) the total elongation, (c) the energy

absorbed by the steel plate if the load is gradually applied, (d) the energy

absorbed by the aluminum plate. (e) What will be the stress in each plate if in

addition to the load of 24,000 lb. the temperature of the assembly is increased by

100 F?

Solution:

For chromium steel, AISI 5140 OQT 1000F (Table AT 7)

1 = 0.000007 in in F

E1 = 30 10 6 psi = 30,000 ksi

For aluminum alloy, 3003-H14 (Table AT 3)

2 = 0.0000129 in in F

E2 = 10 106 psi = 10,000 ksi

(a) PA = PC

PA + PB + PC = F

(1) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips

1

A2 = (2) = 0.25 in 2

8

1

A1 = (2 ) = 1 in 2

2

86

A = B

PA L

PL

= B

A2 E2 A1 E1

PA

PB

=

(0.25)(10,000) (1)(30,000)

(2) PB = 12 PA

(1) 2 PA + 12 PA = 24 kips

PA = 1.714 kips

PB = 12(1.714) = 20.568 kips

Stresses:

Aluminum plate

P 1.714

s A = sC = A =

= 6.856 ksi

A2 0.25

Chromium steel plate

P

20.568

sB = B =

= 20.568 ksi

A1

1

(1.714)(30) = 0.021 in

PA L

=

A2 E2 (0.25)(10,000 )

1

1

(c) Energy absorbed by steel plate = PB = (20.568)(0.021) = 0.216 kips in

2

2

1

1

(d) Energy absorbed by aluminum plate = PA = (1.714 )(0.021) = 0.018 kips in

2

2

(e) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips

TA + A = TB + B

(b) =

T

T

T

T

= 2 L t

= 1 Lt

PA L

PA (30)

=

= 0.012 PA

A2 E2 (0.25)(10,000)

PL

PB (30)

B = B =

= 0.001PB

A1E1 (1)(30,000 )

Then

0.0387 + 0.012 PA = 0.021 + 0.001PB

0.0177 + 0.012 PA = 0.001(24 2 PA )

0.0177 + 0.012 PA = 0.024 0.002 PA

A =

87

PA = 0.45 kips

PB = 24 2(0.45) = 23.1 kips

Stresses:

Aluminum plate

P

0.45

sA = A =

= 1.8 ksi

A2 0.25

Chromium steel plate

P

23.1

sB = B =

= 23.1 ksi

A1

1

79.

The same as 78, except that the outer plates are aluminum bronze, B150-1,

annealed.

Solution:

For aluminum bronze, B150-1, annealed (Table AT 3)

E2 = 15,000 ksi

2 = 0.0000092 in in F

(a)

(1) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips

A = B

PA L

PL

= B

A2 E2 A1 E1

PA

PB

=

(0.25)(15,000) (1)(30,000)

(2) PB = 8 PA

2 PA + 8PA = 24 kips

PA = 2.4 kips

PB = 8(2.4) = 19.2 kips

Stresses:

Aluminum plate

P

2.4

s A = sC = A =

= 9.6 ksi

A2 0.25

Chromium steel plate

P 19.2

sB = B =

= 19.2 ksi

A1

1

88

PA L

(2.4)(30) = 0.019 in

=

A2 E2 (0.25)(15,000 )

1

1

(c) Energy absorbed by steel plate = PB = (19.2 )(0.019 ) = 0.182 kips in

2

2

1

1

(d) Energy absorbed by aluminum plate = PA = (2.4)(0.019 ) = 0.023 kips in

2

2

(e) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips

TA + A = TB + B

(b) =

T = 2 L t

T = 1 Lt

T = (0.0000092 )(30)(100 ) = 0.0276 in

A

B

PA L

PA (30 )

=

= 0.008 PA

A2 E2 (0.25)(15,000)

PL

PB (30)

B = B =

= 0.001PB

A1E1 (1)(30,000 )

Then

0.0276 + 0.008PA = 0.021 + 0.001PB

0.0066 + 0.008PA = 0.001(24 2 PA )

0.0066 + 0.008PA = 0.024 0.002 PA

PA = 1.74 kips

PB = 24 2(1.74 ) = 20.52 kips

Stresses:

Aluminum plate

P 1.74

sA = A =

= 6.96 ksi

A2 0.25

Chromium steel plate

P

20.52

sB = B =

= 20.52 ksi

A1

1

A =

80.

3

1

L2 = 6 in ., D1 = in ., and D2 = in . Determine (a) the elongation due to a force

4

2

F = 6000 lb ., (b) the energy absorbed by each section of the part if the load is

gradually applied.

89

Problems 80, 81

Solution:

For AISI C1040, annealed steel

E = 30 106 psi

(a) = 1 + 2

FL

(6000)(15) = 0.0068 in

1 = 1 =

A1 E 3 2

6

30 10

4 4

FL

(6000)(6)

= 0.0061 in

2 = 2 =

A2 E 1 2

6

30 10

4 2

= 1 + 2 = 0.0068 + 0.0061 = 0.0129 in

1

1

U1 = F1 = (6000 )(0.0068) = 20.4 lb = in

2

2

1

1

U 2 = F 2 = (6000 )(0.0061) = 18.3 lb = in

2

2

81.

A rod as shown is made of AISI 2340 steel, OQT 1000 F, and has the following

7

3

dimensions: L1 = 20 in ., L2 = 12 in ., D1 = in ., and D2 = in . The unit strain at

8

4

point A is measured with a strain gage and found to be 0.0025 in./in. Determine

(a) the total elongation, and (b) the force on the rod.

Solution:

F

(a) 2 = =

L2

A2 E

90

F = A2 E

2

A

D

1 =

= 2 L1 = 2 L1

A1E

A1

D1

D 2

3

T = 1 + 2 = 2 L1 + L2 = 0.0025

D1

A2 EL1

4

(20) + 12 = 0.067 in

8

3

(b) F = A2 E = 0.0025 (30,000) = 33.13 kips

4 4

82.

(aluminum 2024 T4, and steel AISI 1045, as rolled), whose ends were both in

contact with H before loading was applied. The ground and block B are also to be

considered rigid. What must be the cross-sectional area of the steel rod if, for the

assembly, N = 2 based on the yield strengths?

Problem 82.

Solution:

For aluminum 2024-T4 (Table AT 3)

s y1 = 47 ksi , E1 = 10,600 ksi

For steel AISI 1045, as rolled (Table AT 7)

s y2 = 59 ksi , E2 = 30,000 ksi

[ M

=0

2 R1 + R2 = 40 Equation (1)

91

24 12

1 = 2 2

RL

1 = 1 1

E1 A1

RL

2 = 2 2

E2 A2

L1 = 8 ft = 96 in

L2 = 12 ft = 144 in

A1 = 0.5 in 2

1 = 2 2

R1 L1 2 R2 L2

=

E1 A1 E2 A2

R1 (96)

2R2 (144)

=

(10,600)(0.5) (30,000)A2

0.53R2

R1 =

A2

But s 2 =

R2 s y2

=

A2 N

R2 59

=

= 29.5

A2

2

R1 = 0.53(29.5) = 15.64 kips

R1 s y1

=

A1 N

R1 47

=

0. 5 2

R1 = 11.75 kips

use R1 = 11.75 kips

R2 = 40 2(11.75) = 16.5 kips

R

16.5

A2 = 2 =

= 0.56 in 2

29.5 29.5

s1 =

92

The bar shown supports a static load F = 2.5 kips with = 0 ; d = 3 in .,

3

L = 10 in ., h = 2 in . b = 1 in . It is made of AISI 1035, as rolled. (a) How far

4

does point C move upon gradual application of the load if the movement of A and

B is negligible? (b) How much energy is absorbed?

83.

Problem 83.

Solution:

[ M

[ M

=0

=0

dRB = (d + L )F

3RB = (3 + 10 )(2.5)

RB = 10.83 kips

dRA = LF

3RA = 10(2.5)

RA = 8.33 kips

93

M = RA x RB x 3

d2y

M = EI 2 = 8.33 x 10.83 x 3

dy

dy

2

EI

= 4.165 x 2 5.415 x 3 + C1

dy

3

When x = 0 , y = 0

3

EI (0 ) = 1.388(0) 1.805 0 + C1 (0 ) + C2

3

C2 = 0

When x = 3 , y = 0

3

3

C1 = 12.492

3

When x = d + L = 13 in

3

For AISI 1035, as rolled , E = 30,000 ksi

3

bh 3 (1)(2.75)

=

= 1.7331 in 4

12

12

EIy = 1082

(30,000)(1.7331)y = 1082

y = 0.021 in , upward.

3

I=

94

PRESSURE VESSELS

84.

200 psi with a design factor of 4 based on su . The steel has the strength

equivalent of C1020 annealed and the welded joints should have a relative

strength (efficiency) of 90 %. Determine a suitable plate thickness. Compute the

stress on a diametral section and compare it with the longitudinal stress.

Solution:

For C1020 annealed

su = 57 ksi

su 57

=

= 14.25 ksi

N

4

Solving for plate thickness

pD

s=

2 t

p = 200 psi = 0.2 ksi

D = 36 in

(5.2)(36)

s = 14.25 =

2 t (0.9)

t = 0.281 in

5

say t = in

16

Stress on diametral section

(0.2 )(36) = 6.40 ksi

pD

s=

=

4 t

5

4 (0.9)

16

Stress on longitudinal section

(0.2 )(36) = 12.80 ksi

pD

s=

=

2 t

5

2 (0.9)

16

Stress on diametral section < stress on longitudinal section

s=

85.

A spherical air tank stores air at 3000 psig. The tank is to have an inside diameter

of 7 in. (a) What should be the wall thickness and weight of the tank if it is made

of 301, -hard, stainless steel, with a design factor of 1.5 based on the yield

strength and a joint efficiency of 90 %. (b) Compute the wall thickness and

weight if annealed titanium (B265, gr. 5) is used? (c) What is the additional

saving in weight if the titanium is hardened? Can you think of circumstances for

which the higher cost of titanium would be justified?

95

Solution:

(a) For 301, hard, stainless steel

s y = 75 ksi (Table AT 4)

sy

75

= 50 ksi

N 1.5

p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi

pD

s=

4 t

(3)(7)

50 =

4t (0.90)

t = 0.117 in

s=

= 0.286 lb in 3

2

W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.117 )(0.286 ) = 5.2 lb

(b) For annealed titanium B265, gr. 5

s y = 130 ksi (Table AT 3)

sy

130

= 86.67 ksi

N 1.5

p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi

pD

s=

4 t

(3)(7)

86.67 =

4t (0.90)

t = 0.061 in

s=

= 0.160 lb in 3

2

W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.061)(0.160) = 1.5 lb

(c) For hardened titanium

s y = 158 ksi (Table AT 3)

sy

158

= 105 ksi

N 1.5

p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi

pD

s=

4 t

(3)(7 )

105 =

4t (0.90 )

s=

96

t = 0.056 in

= 0.160 lb in 3

2

W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.056)(0.160 ) = 1.38 lb

1.50 1.38

(100%) = 8%

1.50

Circumstances: less in weight and small thickness.

Savings in weight =

86.

Decide upon a material and estimate a safe wall thickness of a cylindrical vessel

to contain helium at 300 F and 2750 psi. The welded joint should have a relative

strength 87 %, and the initial computations are to be for a 12-in.-diameter, 30ft.-long tank. (Note: Mechanical properties of metals at this low temperature are

not available in the Text. Refer to INCO Nickel Topics, vol. 16, no. 7, 1963, or

elsewhere.)

Solution:

From Kents Handbook, Table 8

Material Hot Rolled Nickel

At 300 F, su = 100 ksi , N = 4 (Table 1.1)

s 100

s= u =

= 25 ksi

N

4

pD

s=

2 t

p = 2750 psi = 2.75 ksi

D = 12 in

= 87%

(2.75)(12)

s = 25 =

2 t (0.87 )

t = 0.759 in

3

say t = in

4

CONTACT STRESSES

87.

(a) A 0.75-in. diameter roller is in contact with a plate-cam surface whose width is

0.5-in. The maximum load is 2.5 kips where the radius of curvature of the cam

surface is 3.333 in. Compute the Hertz compressive stress. (b) The same as (a)

except that the follower has a plane flat face. (c) The same as (a) except that the

roller runs in a grooved face and contacts the concave surface. (d) What is the

maximum shear stress for part (a) and how far below the surface does it exist?

Solution:

97

(a) 2r1 = 0.75 in , r1 = 0.375 in

r2 = 3.333 in

F = 2.5 kips

b = 0.5 in

1

1 1 2

+

0

.

35

F

r1 r2

sc max =

1

1

b +

E1 E2

E = 30,000 ksi

1

sc max

1 2

1

+

0.35(2.5)

0.375 3.333

=

= 279 ksi

0.5

30,000

(b) sc max

1 2

1

(

)

0

.

35

2

.

5

+

3

.

333

3

.

333

= 126 ksi

=

0.5

30,000

(c) sc max

1 2

1

(

)

0

.

35

2

.

5

0.375 3.333

=

= 249 ksi

0.5

30,000

s s max = 0.3sc max = 0.3(279 ) = 84 ksi

Location:

1

1

2

4 sc max 1 2 + 4(279 ) 1 0.32

E1 E2

30,000

w=

=

= 0.023 in

1

1 1

1

+

+

0.375 3.333

r1 r2

88.

Two 20o involute teeth are in contact along a line where the radii of curvature

of the profiles are respectively 1.03 and 3.42 in. The face width of the gears is 3

in. If the maximum permissible contact stress for carburized teeth is 200 ksi, what

normal load may these teeth support?

98

Solution:

r1 = 1.03 in

r2 = 3.42 in

b = 3 in

sc max = 200 ksi

1

1 1 2

+

0

.

35

F

r1 r2

sc max =

1

1

b +

E1 E2

E = 30,000 ksi

1

1 2

1

+

0.35 F

1.03 3.42

sc max = 200 =

30,000

F = 18 kips

TOLERANCES AND ALLOWANCES

89.

The pin for a yoke connection has a diameter of D of in., a total length of 2

in., with a head that is 1 in. in diameter and 3/8 in. thick. The tolerance on D

(both pin and hole) is 0.003 in., with an allowance of 0.001 in., basic-hole system.

Sketch the pin showing all dimensions with appropriate tolerances.

Solution:

D = 0.75 in

For pin

+ 0.000

D = 0.749

in

0.003

For hole

+ 0.003

D = 0.750

in

0.000

Sketch

99

90.

A shaft with a nominal diameter of 8 in. is to fit in a hole. Specify the allowance,

tolerances, and the limit diameters of the shaft and hole on a sketch for: (a) a close

sliding fit, (b) a precision-running fit, (c) medium-running fit, (d) a loose-running

fit.

Solution: D = 8 in

(a) For close-sliding fit, RC 1

Hole, in

+0.0008

-0.0000

Shaft, in

- 0.0006

-0.0012

Allowance = 0.0006 in

With tolerances,

+ 0.0008

Hole D = 8.0000

in

0.0000

+ 0.0000

Shaft D = 7.9994

in

0.0006

Limit dimension,

Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0008 in

Shaft D = 7.9994 to 7.9988 in

Sketch

100

Hole, in

Shaft, in

+0.0012

-0.0020

-0.0000

-0.0032

Allowance = 0.0020 in

With tolerances,

+ 0.0012

Hole D = 8.0000

in

0.0000

+ 0.0000

Shaft D = 7.9980

in

0.0012

Limit dimension,

Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0012 in

Shaft D = 7.9980 to 7.9968 in

Sketch

Hole, in

+0.0018

-0.0000

Shaft, in

-0.0040

-0.0058

Allowance = 0.0040 in

With tolerances,

+ 0.0018

Hole D = 8.0000

in

0.0000

+ 0.0000

Shaft D = 7.9960

in

0.0018

Limit dimension,

Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0018 in

Shaft D = 7.9960 to 7.9942 in

Sketch

101

Hole, in

+0.0070

-0.0000

Shaft, in

-0.0100

-0.0145

Allowance = 0.010 in

With tolerances,

+ 0.0070

Hole D = 8.0000

in

0.0000

+ 0.0000

Shaft D = 7.9900

in

0.0045

Limit dimension,

Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0070 in

Shaft D = 7.9900 to 7.9855 in

Sketch

91.

Solution:

D = 4 in

(a) For close-sliding fit, RC 1

102

Hole, in

+0.0006

-0.0000

Shaft, in

-0.0005

-0.0009

Allowance = 0.0005 in

With tolerances,

+ 0.0006

Hole D = 4.0000

in

0.0000

+ 0.0000

Shaft D = 3.9995

in

0.0004

Limit dimension,

Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0006 in

Shaft D = 3.9995 to 3.9991 in

Sketch

Hole, in

Shaft, in

+0.0009

-0.0014

-0.0000

-0.0023

Allowance = 0.0014 in

With tolerances,

+ 0.0009

Hole D = 4.0000

in

0.0000

+ 0.0000

Shaft D = 3.9986

in

0.0009

Limit dimension,

Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0009 in

Shaft D = 3.9986 to 3.9977 in

Sketch

103

Hole, in

+0.0022

-0.0000

Shaft, in

-0.0030

-0.0052

Allowance = 0.0030 in

With tolerances,

+ 0.0022

Hole D = 4.0000

in

0.0000

+ 0.0000

Shaft D = 3.9970

in

0.0022

Limit dimension,

Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0022 in

Shaft D = 3.9970 to 7.9948 in

Sketch

Hole, in

+0.0090

-0.0000

Shaft, in

-0.0100

-0.0150

Allowance = 0.0100 in

104

With tolerances,

+ 0.0090

in

0.0000

+ 0.0000

Shaft D = 3.9900

in

0.0050

Limit dimension,

Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0090 in

Shaft D = 3.9900 to 3.9850 in

Sketch

Hole D = 4.0000

92.

A cast-iron gear is to be shrunk onto a 3-in, steel shaft. (a) Determine the

tolerance and the maximum, minimum, and average interferences of metal for

class FN 1 fit. (b) Sketch and dimension the shaft and hole with proper tolerances.

(c) Compute the stresses by the method given in the Text (i3.8) for the maximum

and minimum interferences of metal.

Solution: D = 3 in

(a) For class FN 1 fit, Table 3.2

Tolerances

Hole, in

Shaft, in

+0.0007

+0.0019

-0.0000

+0.0014

Max. interference = 0.0019 in

Min. interference = 0.0014 0.0007 = 0.0007 in

Ave. interference = 0.5(0.0019 + 0.0007) = 0.0013 in

(b)

105

Ei

D

E = 23,000 ksi

(23,000 )(0.0019 ) = 14.6 ksi

s=

3

s=

s=

93.

3

The same as 92, except that the gear hub is C1035 steel and class of fit is FN 3.

Solution: D = 3 in

(a) For class FN 3fit, Table 3.2

Tolerances

Hole, in

Shaft, in

+0.0012

+0.0037

-0.0000

+0.0030

Max. interference = 0.0037 in

Min. interference = 0.0030 0.0012 = 0.0018 in

Ave. interference = 0.5(0.0037 + 0.0018) = 0.0028 in

(b)

106

(c)

Ei

D

(

30,000)(0.0037 )

s=

= 37 ksi

3

s=

s=

94.

(30,000)(0.0018) = 18 ksi

3

For a No. 7 ball bearing, the New Departure Handbook states that the maximum

bore should be 1.3780 in. and the minimum, 1.3775 in.; for average conditions,

the shaft should have a maximum diameter of 1.3784 in. and a minimum of

1.3779 in. (a) Determine the corresponding tolerances and allowances. (b) What

class of fit is this? (c) New Departure states: . . . bearing bores are held

uniformly close, . . . averaging within 1.3778 in. to 1.3776 in. What will be the

maximum and minimum interference of metal with these diameters (if maximum

and minimum sizes are deliberately chosen for assembly)?

Solution:

(a) Tolerances:

For No. 7 ball bearing

Bore, 1.3780 1.3775 in = 0.0005 in

+ 0.0005

Therefore, D = 1.3775

in

0.0000

107

Shaft, 1.3784 1.3775 = 0.0009 in

1.3779 1.3775 = 0.0004 in

+ 0.0000

D = 1.37845

in

0.0005

Tolerances

Hole, in

+0.0005

-0.0000

Shaft, in

+0.0009

+0.0004

(b) Since allowance is < 0.

It is a force and shrink fil class.

(c)

1.3778 1.3775 = 0.0003 in

1.3776 1.3775 = 0.0001 in

New tolerances

Hole, in

+0.0005

-0.0000

Shaft, in

+0.0003

+0.0001

Minimum interference = 0.0000 in (since 0.0001 0.0005 = - 0.0004 < 0)

95.

For a roller bearing having a bore of 65 mm. an SKF catalog states that the largest

diameter should be 2.5591 in. and the smallest, 2.5585 in. If this bearing is to be

used in a gear transmission, it is recommended for the shaft (where the bearing

fits) to have a maximum diameter of 2.5600 in. and a minimum of 2.5595 in. (a)

Determine the tolerances and allowances (or interferences of metal) for this

installation. (b) What class of fit would this be?

Solution:

(a) 65 mm = 2.5591 in

2.5591 2.5585 = 0.0006 in

2.5600 2.5585 = 0.0015 in

2.5595 2.5585 = 0.0010 in

108

Tolerances

Hole, in

+0.0006

-0.0000

Shaft, in

+0.0015

+0.0010

Minimum interference = 0.0010 0.0006 = 0.0004 in

(b) Class of fit, Force and shrink fit

TOLERANCES, STATISTICAL CONSIDERATION

96.

(a) A machine tool is capable if machining parts so that the standard deviation of

one critical dimension is 0.0006 in. What minimum tolerance may be specified for

this dimension if it is expected that practically all of the production be acceptable?

Assume that it is possible to center the process. (b) The same as (a), except that

it has been decided to tolerate approximately 4.56 % scrap.

Solution:

(a)

T = NS = 6 = 6(0.0006 ) = 0.0036 in

(b)

A=

0.0456

= 0.0228 in

2

109

From Table 3.3

z

= 2. 0

z = 2

T = 2 z = 4

T = 4(0.0006 ) = 0.0024 in

97.

A pin and the hole into which it fits have a nominal diameter of 1 in. The pin

tolerance has been set to 0.002 in., the bore tolerance at 0.003 in., and the

allowance at 0.001 in., basic hole system. The parts are to be a natural spread of

0.0015 in. for the pin and 0.002 in. for the hole. Assuming that the processes are

centered, determine the expected minimum clearance and the maximum

clearance. What is the most frequent clearance?

Solution:

NS

0.0015

1 ( pin ) = 1 =

= 0.00025 in

6

6

NS

0.0020

2 (hole ) = 2 =

= 0.00033 in

6

6

D2 = 12 + 22 = (0.00025)2 + (0.00033)2

D = 0.00041 in

Natural Spread of Difference = 6 D = 6(0.00041) = 0.00246 in

110

Expected maximum clearance = 0.00473 in

Most frequent clearance = 0.0035 in

98.

A rod and the hole into which it fits has a nominal diameter of 2 in. The

tolerances are 0.003 in. for both rod and hole, and the allowance as 0..001 in.,

basic hole system. The natural spread of the process of manufacturing the hole is

0.002 in., and for the rod, 0.0015 in. What are the probable maximum and

minimum clearances, provided that the tolerances are met, but assuming that the

processes might simultaneously operate at their extreme permissible position?

Solution:

NS1 0.0015

=

= 0.00025 in

6

6

NS

0.0020

2 ( pin ) = 2 =

= 0.00033 in

6

6

D2 = 12 + 22 = (0.00025)2 + (0.00033)2

D = 0.00041 in

1 (rod ) =

111

NS = 6 D = 6(0.00041) = 0.00246 in

2.0020 1.99675 = 0.00525 in

Probable minimum clearance = 0.00402 in

99.

It is desired that the clearance in a 4-in. bearing neither exceed 0.004 in. nor be

less than 0.002 in. Assume that the natural spread of the processes by which the

journal and the bearing surfaces are finished is the same. (a) What should be the

natural spread of these processes? (b) Assuming this natural spread to be equal to

the tolerance, determine the corresponding allowance. (c) If the foregoing

conditions are not practical decide upon practical tolerances and allowances for

the computed natural spread.

Solution:

(a) NS = 6 D

NS 0.002

D =

=

= 0.00033 in

6

6

(b) D = 2

0.00033

= D =

= 0.000233 in

2

2

112

NS = 6 = 6(0.000233) = 0.0014 in

Tolerance = 0.0014 in

(c) From Fig. 3.4, T > NS

Tolerance = T = 1.3NS = 1.3(0.0014 ) = 0.0018 in

Allowance = 0.003 0.0018 = 0.0012 in

100.

A 4-in, journal-bearing assembly is made for class RC 6 fit. Assume that the

natural spread of the manufacturing process will be about 75 % of the tolerance.

Compute the probable maximum and minimum clearances (which occur when the

processes are not centered) and compare with the allowance. Make a sketch of the

journal and hole properly dimensioned.

113

Solution:

From Table RC 6, D = 4 in

Hole

Shaft

+0.0022

-0.0030

-0.0000

-0.0052

or

+ 0.0022

in

0.0000

+ 0.0000

D (shaft ) = 3.997

in

0.0022

D(hole ) = 4.000

NS = 6

0.00165

=

= 0.00028 in

6

D = 2 = 2 (0.00028) = 0.0004 in

NS D = 6 D = 6(0.0004 ) = 0.0024 in

114

Maximum clearance = 0.00912 in

Minimum clearance = 0.00336 in

Sketch

101.

Solution:

From Table RC 3, Table 3.1, D = 4 in

Hole

Shaft

+0.0009

-0.0014

-0.0000

-0.0023

or

+ 0.0009

in

0.0000

+ 0.0000

D (shaft ) = 3.9986

in

0.0009

D(hole ) = 4.000

115

NS = 6

0.000675

=

= 0.0001125 in

6

D = 2 = 2 (0.0001125) = 0.00016 in

NS D = 6 D = 6(0.00016 ) = 0.00096 in

Minimum clearance = 0.002555 in

Sketch

102.

approximately 0.003 in. and 0.007 in. The natural spread of the processes of

finishing the journal and bearing are expected to be virtually the same ( 1 = 2 ).

Decide upon a suitable tolerance and allowance with a sketch properly

dimensioned (to a ten thousandth). (Suggestion: compute first a theoretical natural

spread for bearing and journal from the given spread of the clearances. Let the

tolerances be approximately equal to this computed NS, and assume that

manufacturing processes are available that produce an actual NS of about 70 % of

this computed NS.) Check for processes being off center but within 3 limits

so that virtually no scrap is manufactured.

Solution:

116

D = 0.00067 in

12 + 22 = D2

2

2 12 = (0.00067 )

2 = 0.00047 in

NS = 0.70 NS1

NS = 0.70(6)(0.00047 ) = 0.00197 in

T = NS1 = (6)(0.00047 ) = 0.00282 in

117

For processes off-center

since allowance = 0.00218 in 0.00215 in, it is checked.

103.

If the tolerances shown are maintained during manufacture, say with the processes

centered, what would be the approximate overall tolerances and limit dimensions?

118

Problem 103.

Solution:

T1 = 4.004 4.000 = 0.004 in

T2 = 5.008 5.000 = 0.008 in

T3 = 6.707 6.700 = 0.007 in

T 2 = T12 + T22 + T32 = (0.004) + (0.008) + (0.007 )

T = 0.0114 in

2

Limit dimensions

4.000 to 4.0114 in

5.000 to 5.0114 in

6.700 to 6.7114 in

104.

If a cylindrical part needs to have the following tolerances, what process would

you recommend for finishing the surface in each instance? (a) 0.05 in., (b) 0.01

in., (c) 0.005 in., (d) 0.001 in., (e) 0.0001 in., (f) 0.00005 in.?

Solution:

Use fi. 3.9, page 95., Text.

(a) 0.05 in

Surface finishes = 500 or greater

Processes:

1. Flame cutting-machine

2. Rough turning

3. Contour sawing

4. Rough grinding

5. Shaping and planning

6. Drilling

7. Milling high speed steel

8. Boring

(b) 0.01 in

Surface finishes = 63 to 250

119

Processes:

1. Contour sawing

2. Rough grinding

3. Shaping and planning

4. Drilling

5. Milling high speed steel

6. Finish turning

7. Broaching

8. Boring

9. Reaming

10. Commercial grinding

11. Barrel finishing

(c) 0.005 in

Surface finishes = 32 to 125

Processes:

1. Shaping and planning

2. Drilling

3. Milling high speed steel

4. Finish turning

5. Broaching

6. Boring

7. Reaming

8. Commercial grinding

9. Milling carbides

10. Gear shaping

11. Barrel finishing

12. Honing

(d) 0.001 in

Surface finishes = 8 to 32

Processes:

1. Finish turning

2. Broaching

3. Boring

4. Reaming

5. Commercial griniding

6. Milling carbides

7. Gear shaping

8. Barrel finishing

9. Roller burnishing

10. Diamond turning

120

11. Diamond and precision boring

12. Precision finish grinding

13. Honing

14. Production lapping

15. Superfinishing

(e) 0.0001 in

Surface finishes = 1 to 8 in, rms

Processes:

1. Barrel finishing

2. Roller burnishing

3. Diamond turning

4. Diamong and precision boring

5. Precision finish grinding

6. Honing

7. Production lapping

8. Superfinishing

(f) 0.00005 in

Surface finishes = 0 to 2 in.

Processes:

1. Honing

2. Production lapping

3. Superfinishing

105.

If it cost $100 to finish a certain surface to 500 microinches rms, what would be

the approximate cost to finish it to the following roughness: (a) 125, (b) 32, (c) 8,

(d) 2 in. rms?

Solution:

From Fig. 3.9

Relative cost of 500 in rms = 1.75

(a) Relative cost of 125 in rms = 3

3

Cost = $100

= $171

1.75

121

(b) Relative cost of 32 in rms = 5

5

Cost = $100

= $286

1.75

(c) Relative cost of 8 in rms = 7.75

7.75

Cost = $100

= $443

1.75

(d) Relative cost of 2 in rms = 11.5

11.5

Cost = $100

= $657

1.75

DATA LACKING DESIGNERS DECISIONS*

*

Properties of rolled structural sections are found in various handbooks.

106-125. Design a bell crank, similar to the one shown, to carry a mild shock load. The

mechanical advantage ( L1 L2 = F2 F1 ), the force F1 , the length L1 , and the

material are given in the accompanying table. (a) Make all significant dimensions,

including tolerances and allowances. One approach could be to compute

dimensions of the yoke connections first; t should be a little less than a . An

assumption for the shaft may be that, on occasion, the torque for F1 is transmitted

through the shaft (ignoring bending for local convenience). (b) Check all

dimensions for good proportion; modify as desirable. (c) Sketch to scale each

part, showing all dimensions with tolerances necessary to manufacture.

Prob. No.

Load F1

L1

Rolled

Advantage

106

107

108

109

700

650

600

550

12

14

15

18

C1020

C1020

C1022

C1035

1.5

2

2.5

3

110

111

112

113

500

800

750

750

20

12

14

14

C1040

C1020

C1020

C1020

4

1.5

2

2.5

114

115

116

117

650

600

900

850

18

20

12

14

C1035

C1040

C1020

C1020

3

4

1.5

2

122

118

119

120

121

800

750

700

1000

15

18

20

12

C1022

C1035

C1040

C1020

2.5

3

4

1.5

122

123

124

125

950

900

850

800

14

15

18

20

C1020

C1022

C1035

C1040

2

2.5

3

4

Solution:

F1 = 700 lb = 0.7 kip

L1 = 12 in

MA = 1.5

For AISI C1020 as rolled (Table AT 7)

su = 65 ksi

sus = 49 ksi

Designing based on ultimate strength

N = 6 (Table 1.1) mild shock, one direction

su 65

=

= 10 ksi

N

6

s

49

s s = us =

= 8 ksi

N

6

s=

123

ss =

F1

2 d12

4

0.7

8=

1

d12

2

d1 = 0.24 in

1

say d1 = in

4

F1

1

d12

2

F1

a1d1

0. 7

10 =

1

a1

4

a1 = 0.28 in

5

say a1 = in

16

since t1 < a1

1

say t1 = in

4

F1

s=

D1t1

0. 7

10 =

1

D1

4

D1 = 0.28 in

5

say D1 = in

16

Consider yoke connection B.

L1

= 1.5

L2

12

L2 =

= 8 in

1.5

F2

= 1.5

F1

F2 = 1.5(0.7 ) = 1.05 kip

F2

F2

ss =

=

1

1

d 22

2 d 22

2

4

s=

124

1.05

1

d 22

2

d 2 = 0.29 in

5

say d 2 = in

16

8=

F2

a2 d 2

1.05

10 =

5

a2

16

a2 = 0.34 in

3

say a2 = in

8

since t 2 < a2

5

say t 2 = in

16

F1

s=

D1t1

1.05

10 =

5

D2

16

D2 = 0.34 in

3

say D2 = in

8

For shaft diameter

Assume torque, T1 = F1L1 = (0.70 )(12) = 8.4 in kips

16T1

ss =

d s3

16(8.4)

8=

d s3

3

d s = 1.75 in = 1 in

4

Tolerances and allowances, consider RC 4 (Table 3.1)

Hole

Shaft

+ 0.0006

+ 0.0000

d1 = 0.2500

in

d1 = 0.2495

in

0.0000

0.0006

allowance = 0.0005 in

s=

125

+ 0.0006

+ 0.0000

in

d 2 = 0.3120

in

0.0000

0.0006

allowance = 0.0005 in

+ 0.0010

+ 0.0000

d s = 1.7490

in

d s = 1.7500

in

0.0010

0.0000

allowance = 0.0010 in

d 2 = 0.3125

Female

Male

+ 0.0006

+ 0.0000

a1 = 0.3125

in

a1 = 0.3120

in

0.0000

0.0006

allowance = 0.0005 in

+ 0.0006

+ 0.0000

a2 = 0.3750

in

a2 = 0.3745

in

0.0000

0.0006

allowance = 0.0005 in

(b) For good proporion use the following dimension

D1 = D2 = 1 in

3

d1 = d 2 = in

4

3

t1 = t 2 = in

4

a1 = a2 = 1 in

d s = 2 in

Tolerances and allowances, consider RC 4 (Table 3.1)

Hole

Shaft

+ 0.0008

+ 0.0000

d1 = 0.7500

in

d1 = 0.7492

in

0.0000

0.0008

allowance = 0.0008 in

+ 0.0008

+ 0.0000

d 2 = 0.7500

in

d 2 = 0.7492

in

0.0000

0.0008

allowance = 0.0008 in

+ 0.0012

+ 0.0000

d s = 2.0000

in

d s = 1.9988

in

0.0000

0.0012

allowance = 0.0012 in

Female

Male

+ 0.0008

+ 0.0000

a1 = 1.0000

in

a1 = 0.9992

in

0.0008

0.0000

allowance = 0.0008 in

+ 0.0008

+ 0.0000

a2 = 1.0000

in

a2 = 0.9992

in

0.0000

0.0008

126

allowance = 0.0008 in

(c) Sketch

126.

midpoint with a design factor of at least 2.5 based on yield strength. (a) What is

the size and weight of the lightest steel (C1020, as rolled) I-beam that can be

used? (b) Compute its maximum deflection. (c) What size beam should be used if

the deflection is not to exceed in.?

Solution:

N = 2. 5

s y = 48 ksi

s=

Mc s y

=

I

N

127

48

= 19 ksi

2.5

FL (10 )(144)

M=

=

= 360 lb in

4

4

M

s=

Z

Z = section modulus

M 360

Z=

=

= 18.95 in 3

s

19

From Table B-3, Strength of Material by F. Singer, 2nd Edition

Select 10I35 Section Index

Unsupported length = 12 ft

Weight per foot = 35 lb

Section Modulus = Z = 29.2 in 3

s=

Size (Depth) = 10.0 in

Weight of beam = (35)(12) = 420 lb

FL3

48 EI

E = 30,000 ksi

(b) =

48(30,000 )(145.8)

FL3

48 EI

(10)(144 )3

0.25 =

48(30,000)I

I = 82.9 in 4

From Table B-3, Strength of Material by F. Singer, 2nd Edition

Select 10I35 Section Index

Unsupported length = 12 ft

Weight per foot = 35 lb

I = 145.8 in 4 , moment of inertia

Size (Depth) = 10.0 in

(c) =

127.

A 10-in., 35-lb. I-beam is used as a simple beam, supported on 18-ft. centers, and

carrying a total uniformly distributed load of 6000 lb. Determine the maximum

stress and the maximum deflection.

Solution:

128

6000 + 630

= 30.7 lb in

(18)(12)

Table B.3, From Strength of Materials, F.L. Singer, 2nd Edition

For 10-in., 35-lb. I-beam

I = 145.8 in 4

Z = 29.2 in 3

w=

M max

Z

2

wL2 (30.7 )(216 )

M max =

=

= 179,042 lb in = 179 kips in

8

8

179

s max =

= 6.13 ksi

29.2

5FL3

max =

384 EI

E = 30,000 ksi

F = wL = (30.7 )(216) = 6631 lbs = 6.631 kips

s max =

5(6.631)(216 )

= 0.20 in

384(30,000)(145.8)

3

max =

128.

Solution:

=

= 716,170 lb in = 716.17 kips in

8

2

M

716.17

= max =

= 24.53 ksi

Z

29.2

2

M max =

s max

129

w=

6000 + 630

= 30.7 lb in

(18)(12)

wL4

=

8EI 8(30,000 )(145.8)

4

max =

129.

Two equal angles, placed back to back as shown, act as a simple beam and are to

support a load of F = 2,000 lb .; L = 40 in .; a = 15 in . What size angles should

be used if the maximum stress is not to exceed 20 ksi? The stress due to the

weight of the angles is negligible.

Solution:

Table AT 2

M

s=

Z

Fab

M=

L

a = 15 in

L = 40 in

b = L a = 40 15 = 25 in

(2 )(15)(25) = 18.75 kips in

M=

40

M 18.75

Z=

=

= 0.9375 in 3

s

20

1

For each angles, Z = (0.9375) = 0.46875 in 3

2

From Strength of Materials, F.L. Singer, 2nd Edition

Table B-5

Say size 3 x 3, thickness = in

I

Z = = 0.58 in3

c

130.

Solution:

From Table AT 1, No. 6

130

aH 2 + bt 2

2(aH + bt )

c2 = H c1

c1 =

Bt 3

ah 3

+ (Bt )d 2 +

+ (ah )e 2

12

12

say a = t

h=B

B = 4t

H = h+t = B+t

b = Ba

2

t (B + t ) + (B t )t 2

c1 =

2[t (B + t ) + (B t )t ]

Ix =

t (B + t ) + (B t )t 2 t (5t ) + (3t )t 2

=

= 1.75t

2(2 Bt )

4 4t 2

c2 = H c1

H = B + t = 5t

c2 = 5t 1.75t = 3.25t

2

c1 =

Ix =

( )

Bt 3

ah 3

+ (Bt )d 2 +

+ (ah )e 2

12

12

d = c1

t

= 1.75t 0.5t = 1.25t

2

a=t

h = B = 4t

h

e = c2 = 3.25t 0.5(4t ) = 1.25t

2

(4t )t 3 + (4t )t (1.25t )2 + t (4t )3 + t (4t )(1.25t )2 = 18.17t 4

Ix =

12

12

Mc2

s=

I

M = 18.75 kips in

131

s = 20 =

(18.75)(3.25t )

18.17t 4

t = 0.55 in

9

say t = in

16

1

9

B = 4t = 4 = 2 in

4

16

1 9

H = B + t = 2 + = 2.8125 in

4 16

say H = 3 in

1

9

Size: 2 3

T section

4

16

- end -

132

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