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# SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

## TENSION, COMPRESSION, SHEAR

DESIGN PROBLEMS
1.

of 8000 lb. Let h = 1.5b . If the load is repeated but not reversed, determine the
dimensions of the section with the design based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield
strength. (c) If this link, which is 15 in. long., must not elongate more than 0.005
in., what should be the dimensions of the cross section?

Problems 1 3.
Solution:
For AISI C1045 steel, as rolled (Table AT 7)
su = 96 ksi
s y = 59 ksi
E = 30 106 psi
F
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2
sd =

## (a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s
F
sd = u =
N A
96,000 8000
=
6
1.5b 2
5
b = 0.577 in say in .
8

h = 1.5b =

15
in
16

## (b) Based on yield strength

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s
F
sd = u =
N A
59,000 8000
=
3
1.5b 2
9
in .
b = 0.521 in say
16
27
h = 1.5b =
in
32

(c) Elongation = =

FL
AE

where,
= 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 30106 psi
L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
FL
=
AE
(8000)(15)
0.005 =
(1.5b 2 )(30 106 )
3
b = 0.730 in say in .
4
1
h = 1.5b = 1 in
8
2.

The same as 1 except that the material is malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35
018.

Solution:
For malleable iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018(Table AT 6)
su = 55 ksi
s y = 36.5 ksi
E = 2510 6 psi

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2
sd =

## (a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 6 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s
F
sd = u =
N A
55,000 8000
=
6
1.5b 2
7
b = 0.763 in say in .
8
5
h = 1.5b = 1 in
16

## (b) Based on yield strength

N = factor of safety = 3 for repeated but not reversed load (Table 1.1)
s
F
sd = u =
N A
36,500 8000
=
3
1.5b 2
11
b = 0.622 in say
in .
16
1
h = 1.5b = 1 in
32

(c) Elongation = =

FL
AE

where,
= 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb
E = 2510 6 psi
L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
4

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

FL
AE

0.005 =

(8000)(15)

(1.5b )(25 10 )
2

b = 0.8 in say
h = 1.5b = 1

3.

7
in .
8

5
in
16

The same as 1 except that the material is gray iron, ASTM 30.

Solution:
For ASTM 30 (Table AT 6)
su = 30 ksi , no s y
E = 14.5 106 psi
Note: since there is no s y for brittle materials. Solve only for (a) and (c)
F
A
where
F = 8000 lb
A = bh
but
h = 1.5b
therefore A = 1.5b 2
sd =

## (a) Based on ultimate strength

N = factor of safety = 7 ~ 8 say 7.5 (Table 1.1)
s
F
sd = u =
N A
30,000 8000
=
7. 5
1.5b 2
3
b = 1.1547 in say 1 in .
16
25
h = 1.5b = 1 in
32
FL
(c) Elongation = =
AE
where,
= 0.005 in
F = 8000 lb

5

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

L = 15 in
A = 1.5b 2
then,
FL
=
AE
0.005 =

(8000)(15)

(1.5b )(14.5 10 )
2

b = 1.050 in say 1
h = 1.5b = 1

4.

1
in .
16

19
in
32

A piston rod, made of AISI 3140 steel, OQT 1000 F (Fig. AF 2), is subjected to a
repeated, reversed load. The rod is for a 20-in. air compressor, where the
maximum pressure is 125 psig. Compute the diameter of the rod using a design
factor based on (a) ultimate strength, (b) yield strength.

Solution:
From Fig. AF 2 for AISI 3140, OQT 1000 F
su = 152.5 ksi
s y = 132.5 ksi
F = force =

## (20)2 (125) = 39,270 lb = 39.27 kips

4
From Table 1.1, page 20
Nu = 8
Ny = 4

## (a) Based on ultimate strength

N F
A= u
su
2 (8)(39.27 )
d =
4
152.5
5
d = 1.62 in say 1 in
8
(b) Based on yield strength
NyF
A=
sy

d2 =

(4)(39.27 )
132.5

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

1
d = 1.23 in say 1 in
4

5.

## A hollow, short compression member, of normalized cast steel (ASTM A27-58,

65 ksi), is to support a load of 1500 kips with a factor of safety of 8 based on the
ultimate strength. Determine the outside and inside diameters if Do = 2 Di .

Solution:
su = 65 ksi
Nu = 8
F = 1500 kips
A=

(D
4

2
o

Di2 =

(4D
4

2
i

Di2 =

3Di2
4

3Di2 N u F (8)(1500 )
A=
=
=
4
su
65
7
Di = 8.85 in say 8 in
8
3
7
Do = 2 Di = 2 8 = 17 in
4
8
6.

## A short compression member with Do = 2 Di is to support a dead load of 25 tons.

The material is to be 4130 steel, WQT 1100 F. Calculate the outside and inside
diameters on the basis of (a) yield strength, (b) ultimate strength.

Solution:
From Table AT 7 for 4130, WQT 1100 F
su = 127 ksi
s y = 114 ksi
N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2
Area, A =

(D
4

2
o

Di2 =

(4D
4

2
i

Di2 =

3Di2
4

F = 25 tons = 50 kips
(a) Based on yield strength
3Di2 N y F (2 )(50)
A=
=
=
4
sy
114

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

5
in
8
5 1
Do = 2 Di = 2 = 1 in
4
8
(b) Based on ultimate strength
3Di2 N u F (4 )(50)
A=
=
=
4
su
127
7
Di = 0.82 in say in
8
3
7
Do = 2 Di = 2 = 1 in
4
8

Di = 0.61 in say

7.

## A round, steel tension member, 55 in. long, is subjected to a maximum load of

7000 lb. (a) What should be its diameter if the total elongation is not to exceed
0.030 in? (b) Choose a steel that would be suitable on the basis of yield strength if

Solution:
(a) =

FL
FL
or A =
AE
E

where,
F = 7000 lb
L = 55 in
= 0.030 in
E = 30 10 6 psi

A=

d2 =

(7000)(55)
(0.030)(30 106 )

3
in
4
Ny = 3

d = 0.74 in say

sy =

N yF
A

(0.75)2
4

s y 48 ksi

## say C1015 normalized condition ( s y = 48 ksi )

8.

A centrifuge has a small bucket, weighing 0.332 lb. with contents, suspended on a
manganese bronze pin (B138-A, hard) at the end of a horizontal arm. If the pin
is in double shear under the action of the centrifugal force, determine the diameter
8

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

needed for 10,000 rpm of the arm. The center of gravity of the bucket is 12 in.
from the axis of rotation.
Solution:
From Table AT 3, for B138-A, hard
sus = 48 ksi
W
F = 2r
g
where
W = 0.332 lb
g = 32.2 fps 2
2 n 2 (10,000 )
=
=
60
60
r = 12 in
W
0.332
F = 2r =
(1047)2 (1) = 11,300 lb = 11.3 kips
g
32.2
From Table 1.1, page 20
N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N F
A= u
su
(4)(11.3)
2 d 2 =
for double shear
48
4
25
d = 0.774 in say
in
32
CHECK PROBLEMS
9.

## The link shown is made of AISIC1020 annealed steel, with b =

3
in and
4

1
h = 1 in . (a) What force will cause breakage? (b) For a design factor of 4 based
2
on the ultimate strength, what is the maximum allowable load? (c) If N = 2.5
based on the yield strength, what is the allowable load?

Problem 9.
9

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
For AISI C1020 annealed steel, from Table AT 7
su = 57 ksi
s y = 42 ksi
(a) F = su A
3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
F = (57 )(1.125) = 64 kips
s A
(b) F = u
Nu
Nu = 4
3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
(57 )(1.125) = 16 kips
F=
4
(c) F =

sy A
Ny

N y = 2. 5

3 1
A = bh = 1 = 1.125 in 2
4 2
(42 )(1.125) = 18.9 kips
F=
2
10.

A -in.bolt, made of cold-finished B1113, has an effective stress area of 0.334 sq.
in. and an effective grip length of 5 in. The bolt is to be loaded by tightening until
the tensile stress is 80 % of the yield strength, as determined by measuring the
total elongation. What should be the total elongation?

Solution:
sL
=
E
from Table AT 7 for cold-finished B1113
s y = 72 ksi
then, s = 0.80 s y = 0.8(72 ) = 57.6 ksi
E = 30 106 psi = 30,000 ksi
sL (57.6)(5)
=
=
= 0.0096 in
E
30,000
10

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

11.

A 4-lb. weight is attached by a 3/8-in. bolt to a rotating arm 14-in. from the center
of rotation. The axis of the bolts is normal to the plane in which the centrifugal
force acts and the bolt is in double shear. At what speed will the bolt shear in two
if it is made of AISI B1113, cold finish?

Solution:
From Table AT 7, sus = 62 ksi = 62,000 psi
2

1 3
A = 2 ( ) = 0.2209 in 2
4 8
W
F = 2 r = sus A
g
4
2 (14) = (62,000)(0.2209)
32.2
2 n
=
= 88.74
60
n = 847 rpm

12.

How many -in. holes could be punched in one stroke in annealed steel plate of
AISI C1040, 3/16-in. thick, by a force of 60 tons?

Solution:
For AISI C1040, from Figure AF 1
su = 80 ksi
sus = 0.75su = 0.75(80) ksi = 60 ksi
3 3
A = d t = = 0.4418 in2
4 16

## F = 60 tons = 120 kips

n = number of holes
n=

13.

F
120
=
= 5 holes
Asus (0.4415)(60 )

What is the length of a bearing for a 4-in. shaft if the load on the bearing is 6400
lb. and the allowable bearing pressure is 200 psi of the projected area?

Solution:
pDL = W
where
p = 200 psi
D = 4 in
11

W = 6400 lb
(200)(4)L = 6400
L = 8 in
BENDING STRESSES
DESIGN PROBLEMS
14.

## A lever keyed to a shaft is L = 15 in long and has a rectangular cross section of

h = 3t . A 2000-lb load is gradually applied and reversed at the end as shown; the
material is AISI C1020, as rolled. Design for both ultimate and yield strengths. (a)
What should be the dimensions of a section at a = 13 in ? (b) at b = 4 in ? (c) What
should be the size where the load is applied?

Problem 14.
Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled, Table AT 7
su = 65 ksi
s y = 49 ksi
Nu = 8
Ny = 4
th 3
, moment of inertial
12
but h = 3t
h4
I=
36
I=

12

## Based on ultimate strength

s
s= u
Nu
(a) s =

Mc Fac
=
I
I

h
2
F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips
(2)(13) h
65
2
s=
=
4
8
h

36
h = 3.86 in
h 3.86
t= =
= 1.29 in
3
3
say
1
h = 4.5 in = 4 in
2
1
t = 1.5 in = 1 in
2
c=

(b) s =

Mc Fbc
=
I
I

h
2
F = 2000 lbs = 2 kips
(2)(4) h
65
2
s=
=
4
8
h

36
h = 2.61 in
h 2.61
t= =
= 0.87 in
3
3
say
h = 3 in
t = 1 in
c=

(c)

13

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3 h 4. 5 3
=
4
13 4
h = 2.33 in
1 t 1.5 1
=
4
13 4
t = 0.78 in
say
5
h = 2.625 in or h = 2 in
8

15.

A simple beam 54 in. long with a load of 4 kips at the center is made of cast steel,
SAE 080. The cross section is rectangular (let h 3b ). (a) Determine the
dimensions for N = 3 based on the yield strength. (b) Compute the maximum
deflection for these dimensions. (c) What size may be used if the maximum
deflection is not to exceed 0.03 in.?

Solution:
For cast steel, SAE 080 (Table AT 6)
s y = 40 ksi
E = 30 106 psi

14

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Table AT 2
FL (4)(54 )
Max. M =
=
= 54 kips in
4
4
bh 3
I=
12
but h = 3b
h4
I=
36
(a) s =
c=

sy
Ny

Mc
I

h
2

(54) h

40
2
=
3
h4

36
h = 4.18 in
h 4.18
b= =
= 1.39 in
3
3
h 4. 5
1
1
= 1.5 in = 1 in
say h = 4 in , b = =
2
3
3
2

FL3
(b) =
=
48 EI

(c) =

(4000)(54)3
= 0.0384 in
3

6 (1.5 )(4.5 )
48(30 10 )

12

FL3
h4
48E
36

3
(
4000)(54 ) (36 )
0.03 =

## 48(30 106 )(h 4 )

h = 4.79 in
h 4.79
b= =
= 1.60 in
3
3

1
h 5.25
3
say h = 5.25 in = 5 in , b = =
= 1.75 in = 1 in
4
3
3
4

15

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

16.

The same as 15, except that the beam is to have a circular cross section.

Solution:
s
Mc
(a) s = y =
Ny
I
I=

d4

64
d
c=
2
d
M
32 M
2
s= 4 =
d d3

64
40 32(54 )
=
3
d3
d = 3.46 in
1
say d = 3 in
2
(b) =
I=

FL3
48 EI

d4

64
3
64 FL3
64(4000 )(54)
=
=
= 0.0594 in
48 E ( d 4 ) 48(30 106 )( )(3.5)4
(c) =

64 FL3
48 E ( d 4 )

64(4000)(54 )
0.03 =
48(30 106 )( )d 4
d = 4.15 in
1
say d = 4 in
4
3

17.

A simple beam, 48 in. long, with a static load of 6000 lb. at the center, is made of
C1020 structural steel. (a) Basing your calculations on the ultimate strength,
determine the dimensions of the rectangular cross section for h = 2b . (b)
Determine the dimensions based on yield strength. (c) Determine the dimensions
using the principle of limit design.
16

Solution:

## From Table AT 7 and Table 1.1

su = 65 ksi
s y = 48 ksi
N u = 3 ~ 4 , say 4
N y = 1.5 ~ 2 , say 2
FL (6)(48)
=
= 72 in kips
4
4
Mc
s=
I
h
c=
2
bh 3
I=
12
h
but b =
2
4
h
I=
24
h
M
12M
2
s = 4 = 3
h
h
24
M=

s
12 M
s= u = 3
Nu
h
65 12(72)
=
4
h3
h = 3.76 in

17

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

b=

h 3.76
=
= 1.88 in
2
2

3
h 3.75
7
say h = 3.75 in = 3 in , b = =
= 1.875 in = 1 in
4
2
2
8

## (b) Based on yield strength

s y 12 M
s=
= 3
Ny
h
48 12(72 )
=
2
h3
h = 3.30 in
h 3.30
b= =
= 1.65 in
2
2
h 3. 5
1
3
say h = 3.5 in = 3 in , b = =
= 1.75 in = 1 in
2
2
2
4

## (c) Limit design (Eq. 1.6)

bh 2
4
h 2
h
2
72 = (48)
4
h = 2.29 in
h 2.29
b= =
= 1.145 in
2
2
1
h 2. 5
1
say h = 2.5 in = 2 in , b = =
= 1.25 in = 1 in
2
2
2
4
M = sy

18.

The bar shown is subjected to two vertical loads, F1 and F2 , of 3000 lb. each, that
are L = 10 in apart and 3 in. ( a , d ) from the ends of the bar. The design factor is 4
based on the ultimate strength; h = 3b . Determine the dimensions h and b if the
bar is made of (a) gray cast iron, SAE 111; (b) malleable cast iron, ASTM A4752, grade 35 018; (c) AISI C1040, as rolled (Fig. AF 1). Sketch the shear and
moment diagrams approximately to scale.

18

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problems18, 19.
Solution:
F1 = F2 = R1 = R2 = 3000 lb
Moment Diagram

## M = R1a = (3000)(3) = 9000 lbs in = 9 kips in

N = factor of safety = 4 based on su
bh 3
12
h
c=
2
h 3
h
h4
3

I=
=
12
36
I=

## (a) For gray cast iron, SAE 111

su = 30 ksi , Table AT 6
h
M
s
Mc
18M
2
s= u =
= 4 = 3
N
I
h
h

36
30 18(9 )
s=
= 3
4
h
h = 2.78 in
h 2.78
b= =
= 0.93 in
3
3
say h = 3.5 in , b = 1 in
(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-52, grade 35 018
19

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su = 55 ksi , Table AT 6
h
M
s
Mc
18M
2
s= u =
= 4 = 3
N
I
h
h

36
55 18(9 )
s=
= 3
4
h
h = 2.28 in
h 2.28
b= =
= 0.76 in
3
3
1
3
say h = 2 in , b = in
4
4
(c) For AISI C1040, as rolled
su = 90 ksi , Fig. AF 1
h
M
s
Mc
18M
2
s= u =
= 4 = 3
N
I
h
h

36
90 18(9 )
s=
= 3
4
h
h = 1.93 in
h 1.93
b= =
= 0.64 in
3
3
7
5
say h = 1 in , b = in
8
8
19.

## The same as 18, except that F1 acts up ( F2 acts down).

Solution:

[ M

=0

R1 = R2 = 1875 lb
20

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

## (a) For gray cast iron

su 18M
= 3
N
h
30 18(5.625)
=
4
h3
h = 2.38 in
h 2.38
b= =
= 0.79 in
3
3
1
3
say h = 2 in , b = in
4
4
(b) For malleable cast iron
s=

su 18M
= 3
N
h
55 18(5.625)
=
4
h3
h = 1.95 in
h 1.95
b= =
= 0.65 in
3
3
7
5
say h = 1 in , b = in
8
8
s=

21

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(c) For AISI C1040, as rolled
su 18M
= 3
N
h
90 18(5.625)
=
4
h3
h = 1.65 in
h 1.65
b= =
= 0.55 in
3
3
1
1
say h = 1 in , b = in
2
2
s=

20.

The bar shown, supported at A and B , is subjected to a static load F of 2500 lb.
at = 0 . Let d = 3 in , L = 10 in and h = 3b . Determine the dimensions of the
section if the bar is made of (a) gray iron, SAE 110; (b) malleable cast iron,
ASTM A47-52, grade 32 510; (c) AISI C1035 steel, as rolled. (d) For economic
reasons, the pins at A, B, and C are to be the same size. What should be their
diameter if the material is AISI C1035, as rolled, and the mounting is such that
each is in double shear? Use the basic dimensions from (c) as needed. (e) What
sectional dimensions would be used for the C1035 steel if the principle of limit
design governs in (c)?

Solution:

22

[ M
[ M

=0
=0

3RB = 13(2500 )

RB = 10,833 lb
3RA = 10(2500)
RA = 8333 lb

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

## M = (2500 )(10) = 25,000 lb in = 25 kips in

h = 3b
bh 3
I=
12
h4
I=
36
h
c=
2

h
M
Mc
18M
2
s=
= 4 = 3
I
h
h

36
(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110
su = 20 ksi , Table AT 6
N = 5 ~ 6 , say 6 for cast iron, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N
h
20 18(25)
=
6
h3
23

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

h = 5.13 in
h
b = = 1.71 in
3
1
3
say h = 5 in , b = 1 in
4
4
(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510
su = 52 ksi , s y = 34 ksi
N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4 for ductile, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N
h
52 18(25)
=
4
h3
h = 3.26 in
h
b = = 1.09 in
3
3
1
say h = 3 in , b = 1 in
4
4
(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled
su = 85 ksi , s y = 55 ksi
N = 4 , based on ultimate strength
s 18M
s= u = 3
N
h
85 18(25)
=
4
h3
h = 2.77 in
h
b = = 0.92 in
3
say h = 3 in , b = 1 in

## (d) For AISI C1035, as rolled

s su = 64 ksi
N = 4 , RB = 10.833 kips
s
R
s s = su = B
N
A

A = 2 D 2 = D 2
4
2
64 10.833
=
ss =
2
4
D
2
D = 0.657 in

24

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

11
in
16
(e) Limit Design
bh 2
M = sy
4
For AISI C1035 steel, s y = 55 ksi

say D =

b=

h
3

h 2
h
3
M = 25 = (55)
4
h = 1.76 in
h
b = = 0.59 in
3
7
5
say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in
8
8
The same as 20, except that = 30o . Pin B takes all the horizontal thrust.

21.

Solution:

FV = F cos

[ M
[ M

=0

=0

3RB = 13FV

## 3RB = 13(2500 ) cos 30

RB = 9382 lb
3RA = 10 FV
3RA = 10(2500) cos 30
RA = 7217 lb

Shear Diagram

25

Moment Diagram

## M = (2165)(10 ) = 21,650 lb in = 21.65 kips in

18M
s= 3
h
(a) For gray cast iron, SAE 110
su = 20 ksi , Table AT 6
N = 5 ~ 6 , say 6 for cast iron, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N
h
20 18(21.65)
=
6
h3
h = 4.89 in
h
b = = 1.63 in
3
1
3
say h = 5 in , b = 1 in
4
4
(b) For malleable cast iron, ASTM A47-32 grade 32510
su = 52 ksi , s y = 34 ksi
N = 3 ~ 4 , say 4 for ductile, dead load
s 18M
s= u = 3
N
h
(
52 18 21.65)
=
4
h3
h = 3.11 in
h
b = = 1.04 in
3
say h = 3 in , b = 1 in
(c) For AISI C1035, as rolled
su = 85 ksi , s y = 55 ksi
N = 4 , based on ultimate strength

26

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su 18M
= 3
N
h
85 18(21.65)
=
4
h3
h = 2.64 in
h
b = = 0.88 in
3
5
7
say h = 2 in , b = in
8
8
s=

## (d) For AISI C1035, as rolled

s su = 64 ksi
N = 4 , RBV = 9382 lb
RBH = FH = F sin = 2500 sin 30 = 1250 lb
2
2
RB2 = RBV
+ RBH
= (9382) + (1250 )
2

RB = 9465 lb
s
R
s s = su = B
N
A

A = 2 D 2 = D 2
4
2
64 9.465
ss =
=
4 D2
2
D = 0.614 in
5
say D = in
8
(e) Limit Design
bh 2
M = sy
4
For AISI C1035 steel, s y = 55 ksi
b=

h
3

h 2
h
3
M = 21.65 = (55)
4
h = 1.68 in
h
b = = 0.56 in
3
7
5
say h = 1.875 in = 1 in , b = in
8
8
27

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

22.

A cast-iron beam, ASTM 50, as shown, is 30 in. long and supports two gradually
applied, repeated loads (in phase), one of 2000 lb. at e = 10 in from the free end,
and one of 1000 lb at the free end. (a) Determine the dimensions of the cross
section if b = c 3a . (b) The same as (a) except that the top of the tee is below.

Problem 22.
Solution:
For cast iron, ASTM 50
su = 50 ksi , suc = 164 ksi
N = 7 ~ 8 , say 8
M = F1d + F2 (d + e )
where:
F1 = 2000 lb
F2 = 1000 lb
d = 30 10 = 20 in
d + e = 30 in
M = (2000 )(20 ) + (1000)(30 ) = 70,000 lb in = 70 kips in
Mc
I
Solving for I , moment of inertia
s=

2

y=

3a
2

28

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

I=

(3a )(a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) + (a )(3a )3 + (3a )(a )(a 2 ) = 17a 4
12

12

(a)

3a
2
5a
cc =
2
Based on tension
s
Mct
st = u =
N
I
(70) 3a
50
2
=
8
17a 4

2
a = 1.255 in
Based on compression
s
Mcc
sc = uc =
N
I
(70) 5a
164
2
=
8
17 a 4

2
a = 1.001 in
Therefore a = 1.255 in
1
Or say a = 1 in
4
And b = c = 3a = 3(1.25) = 3.75 in

ct =

29

3
Or b = c = 3 in
4

## (b) If the top of the tee is below

5a
2
3a
cc =
2
17a 4
I=
2
M = 70 kips in

ct =

Based on tension
s
Mct
st = u =
N
I
(70) 5a
50
2
=
8
17 a 4

2
a = 1.488 in
Based on compression
s
Mcc
sc = uc =
N
I
(70) 3a
164
2
=
8
17a 4

2
a = 0.845 in
Therefore a = 1.488 in
1
Or say a = 1 in
2
1
And b = c = 3a = 4 in
2
CHECK PROBLEMS
30

23.

## An I-beam is made of structural steel, AISI C1020, as rolled. It has a depth of 3

in. and is subjected to two loads; F1 and F2 = 2F1 ; F1 is 5 in. from one end and
F2 is 5 in. from the other ends. The beam is 25 in. long; flange width is
b = 2.509 in ; I x = 2.9 in 4 . Determine (a) the approximate values of the load to
cause elastic failure, (b) the safe loads for a factor of safety of 3 based on the yield
strength, (c) the safe load allowing for flange buckling (i1.24), (f) the maximum
deflection caused by the safe loads.

Problems 23 25.
Solution:

[ M

[ F

=0

=0

5 F1 + 20(2 F1 ) = 25RB
RB = 1.8 F1
F1 + 2 F1 = RA + RB
RA = 3F1 1.8F1 = 1.2 F1

Shear Diagram

Moment Diagram

31

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

M = 9F1 = maximum moment
For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
Mc
I
d 3
where c = = = 1.5 in
2 2
(9 F1 )(1.5)
s y = 48 =
2.9
F1 = 10.31 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 20.62 kips

(a) s y =

sy

Mc
N
I
48 (9 F1 )(1.5)
s=
=
3
2.9
F1 = 3.44 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 6.88 kips

(b) s =

(c)

L
25
=
= 9.96 < 15 (page 34)
b 2.509

## sc = 20 ksi ( page 34, i1.24)

Mc
I
(9 F1 )(1.5)
20 =
2.9
F1 = 4.30 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 8.60 kips
sc =

## (d) For maximum deflection,

by method of superposition, Table AT 2
3

y max

Fb a( L + b ) 2
=
, a > b
3EIL
3

or
3

y max

Fa b(L + a ) 2
=
, b > a
3EIL
3

32

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

y max caused by F1
3

F a b(L + a1 ) 2
y max1 = 1 1 1
, b1 > a1
3EIL
3
where E = 30,000 ksi
a1 = 5 in
b1 = 20 in
L = 25 in
I = 2.9 in 4
3

y max1

F1 (5)
20(25 + 5) 2
=
= 0.0022 F1
3(30,000 )(2.9 )(25)
3

y max caused by F2
3

F b a (L + b2 ) 2
y max 2 = 2 2 2
, a2 > b2
3EIL
3
where b2 = 5 in
a2 = 20 in
3

y max 2

2 F1 (5)
20(25 + 5) 2
=
= 0.0043F1
3(30,000 )(2.9 )(25)
3

Total deflection =
= ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.022 F1 + 0.0043F1 = 0.0065 F1
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a)
a = 0.0065(10.31) = 0.067 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)
b = 0.0065(3.44) = 0.022 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)
c = 0.0065(4.30 ) = 0.028 in
24.

The same as 23, except that the material is aluminum alloy, 2024-T4, heat treated.

Solution:
For aluminum alloy, 2024-T4, heat treated
s y = 47 ksi
(a) s y =

Mc
I

33

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

s y = 47 =

(9 F1 )(1.5)

2. 9
F1 = 10.10 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 20.20 kips

sy

Mc
N
I
47 (9 F1 )(1.5)
s=
=
3
2.9
F1 = 3.36 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 6.72 kips

(b) s =

(c)

L
25
=
= 9.96 < 15 (page 34)
b 2.509

## sc = 20 ksi ( page 34, i1.24)

Mc
I
(
9 F1 )(1.5)
20 =
2.9
F1 = 4.30 kips
F2 = 2 F1 = 8.60 kips
sc =

## (d) Total deflection =

= ymax1 + ymax 2 = 0.022 F1 + 0.0043F1 = 0.0065 F1
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (a)
a = 0.0065(10.10 ) = 0.066 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (b)
b = 0.0065(3.36) = 0.022 in
Deflection caused by the safe loads in (c)
c = 0.0065(4.30 ) = 0.028 in
25.

A light I-beam is 80 in. long, simply supported, and carries a static load at the
midpoint. The cross section has a depth of d = 4 in , a flange width of b = 2.66 in ,
and I x = 6.0 in 4 (see figure). (a) What load will the beam support if it is made of
C1020, as-rolled steel, and flange buckling (i1.24) is considered? (b) Consider the
stress owing to the weight of the beam, which is 7.7 lb/ft, and decide whether or
not the safe load should be less.

34

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
(a) For C1020, as rolled, su = 65 ksi
Consider flange buckling
L
80
=
= 30
b 2.66
L
since 15 < < 40
b
22.5
22.5
sc =
=
= 15 ksi
2
2
(
30 )
L
1 + 1800 1 +
1800
b
Mc
s=
I
d 4
c = = = 2 in
2 2

From Table AT 2
FL F (80)
M=
=
= 20 F
4
4
Mc
s = sc =
I
(
20 F )(2)
15 =
6
F = 2.25 kips , safe load
(b) Considering stress owing to the weight of the beam
wL2
(Table AT 2)
8
where w = 7.7 lb ft

35

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

wL2 7.7 (80 )
=
= 513 lb in = 0.513 kips in

8
12 8
M = 20 F + 0.513 = total moment
Mc
s = sc =
I
(20 F + 0.513)(2 )
15 =
6
F = 2.224 kips
Therefore, the safe load should be less.
2

26.

What is the stress in a band-saw blade due to being bent around a 13 -in. pulley?
The blade thickness is 0.0265 in. (Additional stresses arise from the initial tension
and forces of sawing.)

Solution:

t
= 0.0265 = 0.01325 in
2
r = 13.75 + 0.01325 = 13.76325 in
Using Eq. (1.4) page 11 (Text)
Ec
s=
r
where E = 30 106 psi
c=

## (30 10 )(0.01325) = 28,881 psi

s=
6

13.76325

27.

A cantilever beam of rectangular cross section is tapered so that the depth varies
uniformly from 4 in. at the fixed end to 1 in. at the free end. The width is 2 in. and
the length 30 in. What safe load, acting repeated with minor shock, may be
applied to the free end? The material is AISI C1020, as rolled.

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi (Table AT 7)
Designing based on ultimate strength,
N = 6 , for repeated, minor shock load
36

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su 65
=
= 10.8 ksi
N
6
s=

4 1 h 1
=
30
x
h = 0.10 x + 1
wh 3
I=
12
h
c=
2
M = Fx

(Fx ) h

Mc
3Fx
2 = 6 Fx = 3Fx =
=
2
2
3
I
2h
h
wh
(0.10 x + 1)2

12
Differentiating with respect to x then equate to zero to solve for x giving maximum
stress.
(0.10 x + 1)2 (1) 2( x )(0.10 x + 1)(0.10 )
ds
= 3F
=0
dx
(0.10 x + 1)4

0.10 x + 1 2(0.10 x ) = 0
x = 10 in
h = 0.10(10 ) + 1 = 2 in
s
3Fx
s= u = 2
N
h
3F (10 )
10.8 =
(2)2
F = 1.44 kips
s=

TORSIONAL STRESSES
DESIGN PROBLEMS

37

28.

## A centrifugal pump is to be driven by a 15-hp electric motor at 1750 rpm. What

should be the diameter of the pump shaft if it is made of AISI C1045 as rolled?

Solution:
For C1045 as rolled,
s y = 59 ksi
sus = 72 ksi
Designing based on ultimate strength
s
s = us , N = 6 (Table 1.1)
N
72
s=
= 12 ksi
6
33,000hp 33,000(15)
Torque, T =
=
= 45 ft lb = 540 in lb = 0.540 in kips
2 n
2 (1750)
For diameter,
16T
s=
d3
16(0.540)
12 =
d3
d = 0.612 in
5
say d = in
8
29.

A shaft in torsion only is to transmit 2500 hp at 570 rpm with medium shocks. Its
material is AISI 1137 steel, annealed. (a) What should be the diameter of a solid
shaft? (b) If the shaft is hollow, Do = 2 Di , what size is required? (c) What is the
weight per foot of length of each of these shafts? Which is the lighter? By what
percentage? (d) Which shaft is the more rigid? Compute the torsional deflection
of each for a length of 10 ft.

Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(2500 )
T=
=
= 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips
2 n
2 (570 )
For AISI 1137, annealed
s y = 50 ksi (Table AT 8)
s ys = 0.6s y = 30 ksi

## Designing based on yield strength

N = 3 for medium shock, one direction

38

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Design stress
s
30
= 10 ksi
s = ys =
N
3
(a) Let D = shaft diameter
Tc
J
D4
J=
32
D
c=
2
16T
s=
D3
16(276)
10 =
D3
D = 5.20 in
1
say D = 5 in
4
s=

(b) J =

## (Do4 Di4 ) (2 Di )4 Di4

=

32
Do 2 Di
c=
=
= Di
2
2
TDi
32T
s=
=
4
15 Di 15 Di3

32
32(276 )
10 =
15 Di3
Di = 2.66 in

32

] = 15 D

4
i

32

Do = 2 Di = 5.32 in
say
5
Di = 2 in
8
1
Do = 5 in
4
(c) Density, = 0.284 lb in 3 (Table AT 7)

39

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

For solid shaft
w = weight per foot of length

2
w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284)(5.25) = 73.8 lb ft
4

## For hollow shaft

2
2
w = 12 Do2 Di2 = 3 Do2 Di2 = 3 (0.284)(5.25) (2.625) = 55.3 lb ft
4
Therefore hollow shaft is lighter
73.8 55.3
Percentage lightness =
(100% ) = 33.5%
55.3

## (d) Torsional Deflection

TL
JG
where
L = 10 ft = 120 in

## G = 11.5 103 ksi

For solid shaft, J =

D4
32

(276)(120 )
180
o
= 2.2

4
3

(5.25) (11.5 10 )
32

## For hollow shaft, J =

(Do4 Di4 )
32

(276 )(120)
180
o
= 2.4

4
4
3

[(5.25) (2.625) ](11.5 10 )

32
Therefore, solid shaft is more rigid, 2.2o < 2.4o

30.

The same as 29, except that the material is AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F.

Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(2500 )
T=
=
= 23,036 ft lb = 276 in kips
2 n
2 (570 )
For AISI 4340, OQT 1200 F
s y = 130 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(130 ) = 78 ksi

40

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

N = 3 for mild shock

Design stress
s
78
= 26 ksi
s = ys =
N
3
(a) Let D = shaft diameter
Tc
J
D4
J=
32
D
c=
2
16T
s=
D3
16(276)
26 =
D3
D = 3.78 in
3
say D = 3 in
4
s=

(b) J =

## (Do4 Di4 ) (2 Di )4 Di4

=

32
Do 2 Di
c=
=
= Di
2
2
TDi
32T
s=
=
4
15 Di 15 Di3

32
32(276)
26 =
15 Di3
Di = 1.93 in

32

] = 15 D

4
i

32

Do = 2 Di = 3.86 in
say
Di = 2 in
Do = 4 in
(c) Density, = 0.284 lb in 3 (Table AT 7)

41

## For solid shaft

w = weight per foot of length

2
w = 12 D 2 = 3D 2 = 3 (0.284)(3.75) = 37.6 lb ft
4

## For hollow shaft

2
2
w = 12 Do2 Di2 = 3 Do2 Di2 = 3 (0.284)(4) (2) = 32.1 lb ft
4
Therefore hollow shaft is lighter
37.6 32.1
Percentage lightness =
(100% ) = 17.1%
32.1

## (d) Torsional Deflection

TL
JG
where
L = 10 ft = 120 in

## G = 11.5 103 ksi

For solid shaft, J =

D4
32

(276)(120)
180
o
=
= 8.48

4
3

(3.75) (11.5 10 )
32

## For hollow shaft, J =

(Do4 Di4 )
32

(276)(120 )
180
o
= 0.122 rad = (0.122 )
= 6.99

4
4
3

[(4) (2 ) ](11.5 10 )

32
Therefore, hollow shaft is more rigid, 6.99o < 8.48o .

31.

A steel shaft is transmitting 40 hp at 500 rpm with minor shock. (a) What should
be its diameter if the deflection is not to exceed 1o in 20 D ? (b) If deflection is
primary what kind of steel would be satisfactory?

Solution:
33,000hp 33,000(40 )
(a) T =
=
= 420 ft lb = 5.04 in kips
2 n
2 (500 )
G = 11.5 103 ksi
L = 20 D
42

= 1o =
=

180

TL
JG

(5.04)(20 D )

D4

11.5 103
32

D = 1.72 in
3
say D = 1 in
4
180

(b) s =

16T 16(5.04 )
=
= 4.8 ksi
D 3 (1.75)3

## Based on yield strength

N =3
s ys = Ns = (3)(4.8) = 14.4 ksi
s ys

14.4
= 24 ksi
0.6 0.6
Use C1117 normalized steel s y = 35 ksi
sy =

32.

A square shaft of cold-finish AISI 1118 transmits a torsional moment of 1200 inlb. For medium shock, what should be its size?

Solution:
For AISI 1118 cold-finish
s y = 75 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 45 ksi
N = 3 for medium shock
s
T
s = ys =
N Z
where, h = b
2b 2 h 2b 3
Z =
=
(Table AT 1)
9
9
T = 1200 in lb = 1.2 in kips
45 1.2(9)
s=
=
3
2b 3
b = h = 0.71 in
3
say b = h = in
4

43

CHECK PROBLEMS
33.

## A punch press is designed to exert a force sufficient to shear a 15/16-in. hole in a

-in. steel plate, AISI C1020, as rolled. This force is exerted on the shaft at a
radius of -in. (a) Compute the torsional stress in the 3.5-in. shaft (bending
neglected). (b) What will be the corresponding design factor if the shaft is made
of cold-rolled AISI 1035 steel (Table AT 10)? Considering the shock loading that
is characteristics of this machine, do you thick the design is safe enough?

Solution:
For AISI C1020, as rolled
sus = 49 ksi
F = sus ( Dt )
15
where D = in
16
1
t = in
2
15 1
F = 49( ) = 72.2 kips
16 2
T = Fr
3
where r = in
4
3
T = (72.2 ) = 54.2 in kips
4
16T
d3
where d = 3.5 in
16(54.2)
s=
= 6.44 ksi
3
(3.5)
(a) s =

## (b) For AISI 1035 steel, s us = 64 ksi

Design factor , N =
34.

sus
64
=
= 9.94 , the design is safe ( N 10 )
s 6.44

Solution:
44

d = 2.75 in
16T
d3
16(54.2 )
s=
= 13.3 ksi
3
(2.75)

(a) s =

## (b) For AISI 1035 steel, s us = 64 ksi

Design factor , N =

sus
64
=
= 4.8 , the design is not safe ( N < 10 )
s 13.3

A hollow annealed Monel propeller shaft has an external diameter of 13 in. and
an internal diameter of 6 in.; it transmits 10,000 hp at 200 rpm. (a) Compute the
torsional stress in the shaft (stress from bending and propeller thrust are not
considered). (b) Compute the factor of safety. Does it look risky?

35.

Solution:
For Monel shaft,
s us = 98 ksi (Table AT 3)
N = 3 ~ 4 , for dead load, based on ultimate strength
Tc
J
Do4 Di4 (13.5)4 (6.5)4
J=
=
= 3086 in 4
32
32
Do 13.5
c=
=
= 6.75 in
2
2
33,000hp 33,000(10,000)
T=
=
= 262,606 ft lb = 3152 in kips
2 n
2 (200)
(3152)(6.75) = 6.9 ksi
s=
3086
(b) Factor of safety,

(a) s =

N=

sus 98
=
= 14.2 , not risky
s 6. 9

45

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

STRESS ANALYSIS
DESIGN PROBLEMS
36.

A hook is attached to a plate as shown and supports a static load of 12,000 lb. The
material is to be AISI C1020, as rolled. (a) Set up strength equations for
dimensions d , D , h , and t . Assume that the bending in the plate is negligible.
(b) Determine the minimum permissible value of these dimensions. In estimating
the strength of the nut, let D1 = 1.2d . (c) Choose standard fractional dimensions
which you think would be satisfactory.

Problems 36 38.
Solution:
s = axial stress
s s = shear stress
(a)
s=

F
4F
=
2
1
d2 d
4

Equation (1) d =

4F
s

46

s=

F
1
D 2 D12
4

Equation (2) D =
ss =

4F
4F
4F
=
=
2
2
2
2
2
D D1
D 1.44d 2
D (1.2d )

] (

4F
+ 1.44d 2
s

F
F
=
D1h 1.2 dh

Equation (3) h =
ss =

F
1.2 ds s

F
Dt

Equation (4) t =

F
Dss

## (b) Designing based on ultimate strength,

Table AT 7, AISI C1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi
sus = 49 ksi
N = 3 ~ 4 say 4, design factor for static load
s
65
= 16 ksi
s= u =
N
4
s
49
s s = us =
= 12 ksi
N
4

F = 12,000 lb = 12 kips
From Equation (1)
4F
4(12 )
d=
=
= 0.98 in
s
(16 )
From Equation (2)
4F
4(12 )
2
D=
+ 1.44d 2 =
+ 1.44(0.98) = 1.53 in
s
(16)
From Equation (3)
F
12
h=
=
= 0.27 in
1.2 ds s 1.2 (0.98)(12 )
From Equation (4)
F
12
t=
=
= 0.21 in
Dss (1.53)(12 )
47

## (c) Standard fractional dimensions

d = 1 in
1
D = 1 in
2
1
h = in
4
1
t = in
4
37.

The same as 36, except that a shock load of 4000 lb. is repeatedly applied.

Solution:
(a) Same as 36.
(b) N = 10 ~ 15 for shock load, based on ultimate strength
say N = 15 , others the same.
s
65
s= u =
= 4 ksi
N 15
s
49
s s = us =
= 3 ksi
N 15
F = 4000 lb = 4 kips
From Equation (1)
4F
4(4 )
d=
=
= 1.13 in
s
(4)
From Equation (2)
4F
4(4)
2
D=
+ 1.44d 2 =
+ 1.44(1.13) = 1.76 in
s
(4 )
From Equation (3)
F
4
h=
=
= 0.31 in
1.2 ds s 1.2 (1.13)(3)
From Equation (4)
F
4
t=
=
= 0.24 in
Dss (1.76)(3)

48

## (c) Standard fractional dimensions

1
d = 1 in
8
3
D = 1 in
4
3
h = in
8
1
t = in
4

38.

The connection between the plate and hook, as shown, is to support a load F .
Determine the value of dimensions D , h , and t in terms of d if the connection
is to be as strong as the rod of diameter d . Assume that D1 = 1.2d , sus = 0.75su ,
and that bending in the plate is negligible.

Solution:

s=

1
d2
4
1
F = d 2s
4
1
s
(1) F = d 2 u
4
N

49

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

s=

1
1
D 2 D12
D 2 1.44d 2
4
4
1
F = (D 2 1.44d 2 )s
4
1
s
(2) F = D 2 1.44d 2 u
4
N
F
F
ss =
=
D1h 1.2 dh
F = 1.2 dhss

s
0.75su
F = 1.2 dh us = 1.2 dh

N
N
5s
(3) F = 0.9 dh u
N
F
ss =
Dt
F = Dtss
s
0.75su
F = Dt us = Dt

N
N
s
(4) F = 0.75 Dt u
N
Equate (2) and (1)
1
s 1
s
F = D 2 1.44d 2 u = d 2 u
4
N 4
N
D 2 = 2.44d 2
D = 1.562d
Equate (3) and (1)
s 1
s
F = 0.9 dh u = d 2 u
N 4
N
d
h=
= 0.278d
4(0.9)
Equate (4) and (1)
s 1
s
F = 0.75 Dt u = d 2 u
N 4
N
s 1
s
F = 0.75 (1.562d )(t ) u = d 2 u
N 4
N
d
t=
= 0.214d
4(0.75)(1.562 )

50

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

39.

(a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various
methods by which it might fail. Neglect bending effects. (b) Design this
connection for a load of 2500 lb. Both plates and rivets are of AISI C1020, as
rolled. The load is repeated and reversed with mild shock. Make the connection
equally strong on the basis of yield strengths in tension, shear, and compression.

Problems 39, 40
Solution:
(a) s s =

F
1

5 D 2
4

4F
5 s s

Equation (1) D =
s=

F
t (b 2 D )

Equation (2) b =
s=

F
+ 2D
ts

F
5 Dt

Equation (3) t =

F
5Ds

## (b) For AISI C1020, as rolled

s y = 48 ksi (Table AT 7)
s ys = 0.6s y = 28 ksi
N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength
48
s=
= 12 ksi
4
28
ss =
= 7 ksi
4
From Equation (1)

51

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

D=

4F
5 s s

where
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
D=

4F
4(2.5)
5
in
=
= 0.30 in say
5 s s
5 (7 )
16

## From Equation (3)

F
2.5
5
t=
=
= 0.13 in say
in
5Ds
32
5
5 (12 )
16
From Equation (2)
F
2. 5
5
b = + 2D =
+ 2 = 1.96 in say 2 in
ts
5
16
(12)
32
40.

The same as 39, except that the material is 2024-T4, aluminum alloy.

Solution:
(a) Same as 39.
(b) ) For 2024-T4, aluminum alloy
s y = 47 ksi (Table AT 3)
s ys = 0.55s y = 25 ksi
N = 4 for repeated and reversed load (mild shock) based on yield strength
47
= 12 ksi
s=
4
25
ss =
= 6 ksi
4
From Equation (1)
4F
D=
5 s s
where
F = 2500 lb = 2.5 kips
D=

4F
4(2.5)
3
=
= 0.33 in say in
5 s s
5 (6)
8

52

t=

F
2.5
1
=
= 0.11 in say in
8
5Ds
3
5 (12)
8

## From Equation (2)

F
2. 5
1
3
b = + 2D =
+ 2 = 2.42 in say 2 in
ts
2
1
8
(12)
8
41.

(a) For the connection shown, set up strength equations representing the various
methods by which it might fail. (b) Design this connection for a load of 8000 lb.
Use AISI C1015, as rolled, for the rivets, and AISI C1020, as rolled, for the
plates. Let the load be repeatedly applied with minor shock in one direction and
make the connection equally strong on the basis of ultimate strengths in tension,
shear, and compression.

Problem 41.
Solution:
(a)

F
sP =
t (b D )

3
F
sP = 4
t (b 2 D )

or

s sR =

F
1

4 D 2 (2 )
4

53

Equation (1)

Equation (2)

sR =

F
4 Dt

Equation (3)

## (b) For AISI C1015, as rolled

suR = 61 ksi , susR = 0.75suR = 45 ksi
For AISI C1020, as rolled
suP = 65 ksi
N = 6 , based on ultimate strength
s
65
s P = uP =
= 10.8 ksi
N
6
s
61
s R = uR =
= 10.1 ksi
N
6
s
45
= 7.5 ksi
s sR = usR =
N
6
F = 8000 lb = 8 kips
Solving for D
F
s sR =
2 D 2
7
F
8
in
=
= 0.412 in say
16
2 s sR
2 (7.5)
Solving for t
F
sR =
4 Dt
F
8
1
t=
=
= 0.453 in say in
4 Ds R
2
7
4 (10.1)
16
Solving for b
F
Using s P =
t (b D )
F
8
7
b=
+D=
+ = 1.92 in say 2 in
ts P
16
1
(10.8)
2
3
F
4
Using s P =
t (b 2 D )
D=

54

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

3F
3(8)
7
+ 2D =
+ 2 = 1.99 in say 2 in
4ts P
16
1
4 (10.8)
2
Therefore
b = 2 in
7
D = in
16
1
t = in
2
b=

42.

Give the strength equations for the connection shown, including that for the shear
of the plate by the cotter.

Problems 42 44.
Solution:
Axial Stresses

s=

F
1
D12
4

s=

55

4F
D12

F
(L D2 )e

Equation (1)

Equation (2)

s=

s=

s=

F
D2 e

Equation (3)

F
1
a 2 D22
4

F
1
D22 D2e
4

4F
Equation (4)
a 2 D22

4F
Equation (5)
D 4 D2e
2
2

Shear Stresses

ss =

F
2eb

ss =

F
2(L D2 + e )t

56

Equation (6)

Equation (7)

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

43.

ss =

F
at

Equation (8)

ss =

F
D1m

Equation (9)

ss =

F
2 D2 h

Equation (10)

A steel rod, as-rolled AISI C1035, is fastened to a 7/8-in., as-rolled C1020 plate
by means of a cotter that is made of as-rolled C1020, in the manner shown. (a)
Determine all dimensions of this joint if it is to withstand a reversed shock load
F = 10 kips , basing the design on yield strengths. (b) If all fits are free-running
fits, decide upon tolerances and allowances.

## Solution: (See figure of Prob. 42)

7
t = in = 0.875 in , s sy = 0.6s y
8
For steel rod, AISI C1035, as rolled
s y1 = 55 ksi
s sy1 = 33 ksi

## For plate and cotter, AISI C1020, as rolled

s y2 = 48 ksi
s sy2 = 28 ksi
N = 5 ~ 7 based on yield strength
say N = 7

sy
4F
s= 1 =
N D12
55 4(10)
=
7 D12
D1 = 1.27 in
1
say D1 = 1 in
4
57

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Equation (9)
ssy
F
ss = 1 =
N D1m
33
10
=
7
1
1 m
4
m = 0.54 in
9
say m = in
16
From Equation (3)
sy
F
s= 1 =
N D2e
55 10
s=
=
7 D2e
D2 e = 1.273
From Equation (5)
sy
4F
s= 1 =
2
N D2 4 D2e
55
4(10 )
=
2
7 D2 4(1.273)
D2 = 1.80 in
3
say D2 = 1 in
4
and D2 e = 1.273
3
1 e = 1.273
4
e = 0.73 in
3
say e = in
4
5
Say D2 = 2 in , e = in
8
From Equation (8)
s sy
F
ss = 2 =
N at
28
10
=
7 a (0.875)
a = 0.91 in
say a = 1 in
58

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Equation (4)
sy
4F
s= 2 =
N a 2 D22
48
4(10 )
=
7 a 2 22
a = 2.42 in
1
say a = 2 in
2
1
use a = 2 in
2
From Equation (7)
ssy
F
ss = 2 =
N
2( L D2 + e )t
28
10
=
5
7

2 L 2 + (0.875)
8

L = 2.80 in
say L = 3 in
From Equation (6)
s sy
F
ss = 2 =
N
2eb
28
10
=
7
5
2 b
8
b = 2 in
From Equation (10)
s sy
F
ss = 2 =
N
2 D2 h
28
10
=
7 2(2 )h
5
h = 0.625 in = in
8
Summary of Dimensions
L = 3 in
5
h = in
8
b = 2 in
7
t = in
8

59

9
in
16
1
a = 2 in
2
1
D1 = 1 in
4
D2 = 2 in
5
e = in
8
m=

## (b) Tolerances and allowances, No fit, tolerance = 0.010 in

L = 3 0.010 in
h = 0.625 0.010 in
t = 0.875 0.010 in
m = 0.5625 0.010 in
a = 2.500 0.010 in
D1 = 1.25 0.010 in
Female
Male
+ 0.0030
0.0040
b = 2.0
in
b = 2.0
in
0.0000
0.0058
allowance = 0.0040 in
+ 0.0030
0.0040
D2 = 2.0
in
D2 = 2.0
in
0.0000
0.0058
allowance = 0.0040 in
+ 0.0016
0.0020
e = 0.625
in
e = 0.625
in
0.0000
0.0030
allowance = 0.0020 in
44.

## A 1-in. ( D1 ) steel rod (as-rolled AISI C1035) is to be anchored to a 1-in. steel

plate (as-rolled C1020) by means of a cotter (as rolled C1035) as shown. (a)
Determine all the dimensions for this connection so that all parts have the same
ultimate strength as the rod. The load F reverses direction. (b) Decide upon
tolerances and allowances for loose-running fits.

## Solution: (Refer to Prob. 42)

(a) For AISI C1035, as rolled
su1 = 85 ksi
sus1 = 64 ksi
For AISI C1020, as rolled

60

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

su2 = 65 ksi
sus2 = 48 ksi

Ultimate strength
Use Equation (1)
1

1 2
Fu = su1 D12 = (85) (1) = 66.8 kips
4

4
Equation (9)
Fu = sus1 D1m
66.8 = (64 )( )(1)m
m = 0.33 in
3
say m = in
8
From Equation (3)
Fu = su1 D2e
66.8 = (85)D2e
D2 e = 0.7859
From Equation (5)
1

4

## 66.8 = (85) D22 0.7859

4

D2 = 1.42 in
3
say D2 = 1 in
8
3

D2 e = 1 e = 0.7859
8
e = 0.57 in
9
say e = in
16
From Equation (4)
1

Fu = su2 a 2 D22
4

2
1
3
66.8 = (65) a 2 1
4
8
a = 1.79 in
3
say a = 1 in
4
From Equation (8)

61

Fu = sus2 at

## 66.8 = (48)( )(a )(1)

a = 0.44 in
1
say a = in
2
3
use a = 1 in
4
From Equation (2)
Fu = su2 ( L D2 )e
3 9

66.8 = (65) L 1
8 16

L = 3.20 in
1
say L = 3 in
4
From Equation (7)
Fu = 2 sus2 (L D2 e )t
3 9

## 66.8 = 2(48) L 1 (1)

8 16

L = 1.51 in
1
say L = 1 in
2
1
use L = 3 in
4
From Equation (6)
Fu = 2 sus1 eb

9
66.8 = 2(64 ) b
16
b = 0.93 in
say b = 1 in
From Equation (10)
Fu = 2 sus1 D2 h
3
66.8 = 2(64 ) 1 h
8
h = 0.38 in
3
say h = in
8
Dimensions
1
L = 3 in
4
62

3
in
8
b = 1 in
t = 1 in
3
m = in
8
3
a = 1 in
4
D1 = 1 in
3
D2 = 1 in
8
9
e = in
16
h=

## (b) Tolerances and allowances, No fit, tolerance = 0.010 in

L = 3.25 0.010 in
h = 0.375 0.010 in
t = 1.000 0.010 in
m = 0.375 0.010 in
a = 1.75 0.010 in
D1 = 1.000 0.010 in
For Loose Running Fits (RC 8) Table 3.1
Female
Male
+ 0.0035
0.0045
b = 1.0
in
b = 1.0
in
0.0000
0.0065
allowance = 0.0045 in
+ 0.0040
0.0050
D2 = 1.375
in
D2 = 1.375
in
0.0000
0.0075
allowance = 0.0050 in
+ 0.0028
0.0035
e = 0.5625
in
e = 0.5625
in
0.0000
0.0051
allowance = 0.0035 in
45.

Give all the simple strength equations for the connection shown. (b) Determine
the ratio of the dimensions a , b , c , d , m , and n to the dimension D so that the
connection will be equally strong in tension, shear, and compression. Base the
calculations on ultimate strengths and assume sus = 0.75su .

63

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problems 45 47.
Solution:
(a) Neglecting bending

Equation (1): F = s D 2
4

Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2

4
Equation (3): F = s (2bc )
Equation (4): F = s (ac )
Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]
Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )
Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )
Equation (8): F = s (d c )a
su
s
and s s = us
N
N
Therefore
s s = 0.75s
Equate (2) and (1)
1
1

F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2
4

(b) s =

1 1
0.75s c 2 = s D 2
2 4
c = 0.8165 D
Equate (3) and (1)
1

F = s (2bc ) = s D 2
4

1
2b(0.8165D ) = D 2
4
b = 0.4810 D
64

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Equate (4) and (1)
1

F = sac = s D 2
4

1
a(0.8165 D ) = D 2
4
a = 0.9619 D
Equate (5) and (1)
1

F = s[2(d c )b] = s D 2
4

1
2(d 0.8165 D )(0.4810 ) = D 2
4
d = 1.6329 D
Equate (6) and (1)
1

F = s s (4mb ) = s D 2
4

1
0.75(4m )(0.4810 D ) = D 2
4
m = 0.5443D
Equate (7) and (1)
1

F = ss (2nb ) = s D 2
4

1
0.75(2n )(0.4810 D ) = D 2
4
n = 1.0886 D
Equate (8) and (1)
1

F = s (d c )a = s D 2
4

(1.6329 D 0.8165D )a = 1 D 2
4
a = 0.9620 D
Summary
a = 0.9620 D
b = 0.4810 D
c = 0.8165 D
d = 1.6329 D
m = 0.5443D
n = 1.0886 D

65

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

46.

The same as 45, except that the calculations are to be based on yield strengths. Let
s sy = 0.6s y .

## Solution: (Refer to Prob. 45)

(a) Neglecting bending

Equation (1): F = s D 2
4

Equation (2): F = ss 2 c 2

4
Equation (3): F = s (2bc )
Equation (4): F = s (ac )
Equation (5): F = s[2(d c )b]
Equation (6): F = ss (4mb )
Equation (7): F = ss (2nb )
Equation (8): F = s (d c )a
(b) s =

sy

and s s =

s sy

N
N
Therefore
s s = 0.6 s
Equate (2) and (1)
1
1

F = ss 2 c 2 = s D 2
4

4
1 1
0.6 s c 2 = s D 2
2 4
c = 0.9129 D
Equate (3) and (1)
1

F = s (2bc ) = s D 2
4

1
2b(0.9129 D ) = D 2
4
b = 0.4302 D
Equate (4) and (1)
1

F = sac = s D 2
4

1
a(0.9129 D ) = D 2
4
a = 0.8603D
66

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Equate (5) and (1)

F = s[2(d c )b] = s D 2
4

1
2(d 0.9129 D )(0.4302) = D 2
4
d = 1.8257 D
Equate (6) and (1)
1

F = s s (4mb ) = s D 2
4

1
0.6(4m )(0.4302 D ) = D 2
4
m = 0.7607 D
Equate (7) and (1)
1

F = ss (2nb ) = s D 2
4

1
0.6(2n )(0.4302 D ) = D 2
4
n = 1.5214 D
Equate (8) and (1)
1

F = s (d c )a = s D 2
4

(1.8257 D 0.9129 D )a = 1 D 2
4
a = 0.8604 D
Summary
a = 0.8604 D
b = 0.4302 D
c = 0.9129 D
d = 1.8257 D
m = 0.7607 D
n = 1.5214 D

47.

Design a connection similar to the one shown for a gradually applied and reversed
load of 12 kips. Base design stresses on yield strengths and let the material be
AISI C1040 steel, annealed. Examine the computed dimensions for proportion,
making changes that you deem advisable.

67

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

N = 4 based on yield strength for gradually applied and reversed load.
For AISI C1040, annealed
s y = 47 ksi (Fig. AF 7)
s sy = 0.6s y = 28 ksi

sy

47
= 11.75 ksi
N
4
1

F = s D 2
4

12 = 11.75 D 2
4

D = 1.14 in
1
say D = 1 in
8
1
a = 0.8604 D = 0.86041 = 0.97 in
8
but a > D
1
say a = 1 in
4
1
b = 0.43021 = 0.48 in
8
1
say b = in
2
1
c = 0.91291 = 1.030 in
8
say c = 1 in
1
d = 1.82571 = 2.05 in
8
say d = 2 in
1
m = 0.76071 = 0.86 in
8
7
say m = in
8
1
n = 1.52141 = 1.71 in
8
3
say n = 1 in
4
s=

Dimension:
1
a = 1 in
4
68

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

1
in
2
c = 1 in
d = 2 in
7
m = in
8
3
n = 1 in
4
1
D = 1 in
8

b=

48.

Give all the strength equations for the union of rods shown.

Problems 48 68.
Solution:

F = s d 2
4

Equation (1)

F = s s ( ad )

Equation (2)

F = ss (2tc )

Equation (3)
69

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F = ss [2(D e )b]

Equation (4)

Equation (5)

F = set

F = s (D e )t

Equation (6)

F = s k 2 e2
4

Equation (7)

F = s m 2 e 2 (m e )t
4

F = s s (2ef )

Equation (9)

70

Equation (8)

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F = s e 2 et
4

Equation (10)

49-68. Design a union-of-rods joint similar to that shown for a reversing load and
material given in the accompanying table. The taper of cotter is to be in. in 12
in. (see 172). (a) Using design stresses based on yield strengths determine all
dimensions to satisfy the necessary strength equations. (b) Modify dimensions as
necessary for good proportions, being careful not to weaken the joint. (c) Decide
upon tolerances and allowances for loose fits. (d) Sketch to scale each part of the
joint showing all dimensions needed for manufacture, with tolerances and
allowances.

Prob. No.

49
50
51
52

3000
3500
4000
4500

1020
1030
1117
1020

52
54
55
56

5000
5500
6000
6500

1015
1035
1040
1020

57
58
59
60

7000
7500
8000
8500

1015
1118
1022
1035

61
62
63
64

9000
9500
10,000
10,500

1040
1117
1035
1022

65
66
67
68

11,000
11,500
12,000
12,500

1137
1035
1045
1030

71

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution: (For Prob. 49 only)
(a) For AISI 1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 0.6(48) = 28.8 ksi

## For reversing load, N = 4 based on yield strength

s
48
= 12 ksi
s= y =
N
4
s
28.8
= 7.2 ksi
s s = ys =
N
4
F = 3000 lb = 3 kips
Equation (1)
1

F = s d 2
4

3 = 12 d 2
4

d = 0.5642 in
9
say d = in
16
Equation (2)
F = s s ( ad )

9
3 = 7.2( a )
16
a = 0.236 in
1
say a = in
4
Equation (5)
F = set
3 = 12et
et = 0.25
Equation (10)
1

F = s e 2 et
4

3 = 12 e 2 0.25
4

e = 0.798 in
13
say e = in
16
et = 0.25
72

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

13
t = 0.25
16
t = 0..308 in
5
say t = in
16
Equation (6)
F = s (D e )t
13 5

3 = 12 D
16 16

D = 1.6125 in
5
say D = 1 in
8
Equation (4)
F = ss [2(D e )b]
5 13
3 = 7.2 21 b
8 16
b = 0.256 in
1
say b = in
4
Equation (7)
1

F = s k 2 e2
4

2
1
13
3 = 12 k 2
4
16
k = 0.989 in
say k = 1 in
Equation (9)
F = s s (2ef )

13
3 = 7.2(2) f
16
f = 0.256 in
1
say f = in
4
Equation (8)
1

F = s m 2 e 2 (m e )t
4

2
1
13 5
13
3 = 12 m 2 m
16 16
16
4

73

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

0.25 = 0.7854m 2 0.5185 0.3125m + 0.2539
0.7854m 2 0.3125m 0.5146 = 0
m 2 0.3979m 0.6552 = 0
m = 1.032 in
say m = 1 in
Equation (3)
F = ss (2tc )

5
3 = 7.2(2) c
16
c = 0.667 in
11
say c = in
16
DIMENSIONS:
9
d = in
16
1
a = in
4
1
b = in
4
11
c = in
16
1
f = in
4
13
e = in
16
5
t = in
16
k = 1 in
5
D = 1 in
8
m = 1 in
(b)

Modified dimensions

9
in
16
1
a = in
4
3
b = in
4
11
c = in
16
d=

74

1
in
2
13
e = in
16
5
t = in
16
k = 1 in
5
D = 1 in
8
1
m = 1 in
4
f =

## (c) Tolerances and allowances

No fit, 0.010 in
d = 0.5625 0.010 in
a = 0.250 0.010 in
f = 0.500 0.010 in
D = 1.625 0.010 in
k = 1.000 0.010 in
m = 1.250 0.010 in
Fits, Table 3.1, loose-running fits, say RC 8
Female
+ 0.0035
in
0.0000
allowance = 0.0045 in
+ 0.0028
c = 0.6875
in
0.0000
allowance = 0.0035 in
+ 0.0035
e = 0.8125
in
0.0000
allowance = 0.0045
+ 0.0022
t = 0.3125
in
0.0000
allowance = 0.0030 in

b = 0.750

Male
b = 0.750

0.0045
in
0.0065

c = 0.6875

0.0035
in
0.0051

e = 0.8125

0.0045
in
0.0065

t = 0.3125

75

0.0030
in
0.0040

(d)
ROD

COTTER

76

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

SOCKET

CHECK PROBLEMS
69.

1
1
The connection shown has the following dimensions: d = 1 in , D = 2 in ,
4
2
1
5
1
D1 = 1 in , h = in , t = in ; it supports a load of 15 kips. Compute the tensile,
2
8
2
compressive, and shear stresses induced in the connection. What is the
corresponding design factor based on the yield strength if the rod and nut are
made of AISI C1045, as rolled, and the plate is structural steel (1020)?

77

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problem 69.
Solution:
Tensile Stresses
F
15
=
= 12.22 ksi
(1) s1 =
2
1
2
1
1

d
1
4
4 4
F
15
(2) s 2 =
=
= 8.4 ksi
2
1
2
1
1

D1
1
4
4 2
Compressive Stress
F
15
(3) s3 =
=
= 4.78 ksi
2
2
1
2
2

1
1
1

(D D1 )
2 1
4
4 2 2
Shear Stresses
F
15
(4) s s4 =
=
= 3.82 ksi
Dt
1 1
2
2 2
F
15
(5) s s5 =
=
= 5.09 ksi
D1h
1 5
1
2 8
For AISI C1045, as rolled (rod and nut)
s y1 = 59 ksi
s ys1 = 0.6 s y = 0.6(59 ) = 35.4 ksi
For structural steel plate (1020)
s y2 = 48 ksi
s ys1 = 0.6 s y = 0.6(48) = 28.8 ksi
Solving for design factor

78

(1) N1 =
(2) N 2 =
(3) N 3 =
(4) N 4 =
(5) N 5 =

s y1
s1
s y1
s2
s y2
s3
s ys2
s s4
s ys1
s s5

59
= 4.83
12.22

59
= 6.95
8.49

48
= 10.04
4.78

28.8
= 7.54
3.82

35.4
= 6.96
5.09

## The corresponding design factor is N = 4.83

70.

3
7
3
in , t = in , b = 3 in , and let the load, which is applied
4
16
4
centrally so that it tends to pull the plates apart, be 15 kips. (a) Compute the
stresses in the various parts of the connection. (b) If the material is AISI C1020,
as rolled, what is the design factor of the connection based on yield strengths?

## In the figure, let D =

Problem 70.
Solution:
(a) Tensile stresses
F
15
s1 =
=
= 11.43 ksi
t (b D ) 7 3 3
3
16 4 4
3
3
(15)
F
4
4
s2 =
=
= 11.43 ksi
t (b 2 D ) 7 3 3
3 2
16 4 4
Compressive bearing stress
F
15
s3 =
=
= 11.43 ksi
4 Dt
3 7
4
4 16
79

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Shearing stress
F
15
ss 4 =
=
= 4.24 ksi
2
1
2
3

4 D (2) (2 )
4

4
(b) For AISI C1020, as rolled
s y = 48 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 28.8 ksi

N=

sy
s

or N =

Using N =

s ys
ss

sy

s
s
48
= 4.2
N= y =
s 11.43
s
Using N = ys
ss
s ys 28.8
N=
=
= 6.8
s s 4.24
Therefore the design factor is N = 4.2
71.

## For the connection shown, let a =

15
9
3
1
in , b = in , c = in , d = 1 in ,
16
16
4
2

3
15
in , m = n = in . The material is AISI C1040, annealed (see Fig. AF 1).
4
16
(a) For a load of 7500 lb., compute the various tensile, compressive, and shear
stresses. Determine the factor of safety based on (b) ultimate strength, (c) yield
strengths.
D=

Problem 71.
Solution:
(a) Tensile stresses

80

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

s1 =

F
1
D2
4

7.5
1 3

4 4

= 16.98 ksi

F
7. 5
=
= 8.89 ksi
2b(d c )
9 1 3
2 1
16 2 4
F
7. 5
s3 =
=
= 10.67 ksi
a(d c ) 15 1 3
1
16 2 4
Compressive Stresses (Bearing)
F
7.5
s4 =
=
= 8.89 ksi
2bc
9 3
2
16 4
F
7. 5
s5 =
=
= 10.67 ksi
ac 15 3

16 4
Shearing Stresses
F
7.5
s s6 =
=
= 3.56 ksi
4mb
15 9
4
16 16
F
7.5
s s7 =
=
= 7.11 ksi
2nb
15 9
2
16 16
For AISI C1040, annealed,Fig. AF 1
s y = 47 ksi
s2 =

su = 79 ksi
s ys = 0.6s y = 28 ksi
sus = 0.6su = 47.4 ksi

## (b) Based on ultimate strength

s
79
N= u =
= 4.65
s1 16.98
(c) Based on yield strength
sy
47
N= =
= 2.77
s1 16.98

72.

## The upper head of a 60,000-lb. tensile-testing machine is supported by two steel

rods, one of which A is shown. These rods A are attached to the head B by split
rings C. The test specimen is attached to the upper head B so that the tensile force
81

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

in the specimen pulls down on the head and exerts a compressive force on the
rods A. When the machine is exerting the full load, compute (a) the compressive
stress in the rods, (b) the bearing stress between the rods and the rings, (c) the
shearing stress in the rings,

Problem 72.
Solution:
F = 60,000 lbs
(a) sc =

(b) sb =

(c) sc =

(60,000 2)
2

1 1
3 (3)2
4 2

(60,000 2 )
2
1 2 1
(4) 3
4
2

## (60,000 2) = 3,183 psi = 3.18 ksi

(3)(1)

DEFORMATIONS
73.

A load of 22,000 lb. is gradually applied to a 2-in. round rod, 10 ft. long. The total
elongation is observed to be 0.03 in. If the stretching is entirely elastic, (a) what is
the modulus of elasticity, and (b) what material would you judge it to be, wrought
iron or stainless steel (from information available in the tables)? (c) How much
energy is absorbed by the rod? (d) Suppose that the material is aluminum alloy
3003-H14; compute its elongation for the same load. Is this within elastic action?

Solution:
F = 22,000 lbs
D = 2 in
L = 10 ft = 120 in
= 0.03 in
82

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(a) =
E=

FL
EA

FL
4 FL
4(22,000 )(120)
=
=
= 28 10 6 psi
2
2
A D
(0.03)( )(2)

(b) Use both stainless steel, Table AT 4, E = 28 10 6 psi and wrought iron , Table AT 7,
E = 28 10 6 psi .
1
1
(c) Energy absorbed = F = (22,000 )(0.03) = 330 lb in
2
2
(d) For Aluminum alloy, 3003-H14
E = 10 106 psi
s y = 21 ksi
FL
4 FL
4(22,000 )(120)
=
=
= 0.084 in
2
2
EA E D
10 10 6 ( )(2 )
4F
4(22,000 )
s=
=
= 7003 psi = 7.0 ksi < s y , within the elastic limit.
2
D
( )(2)2

74.

The same as 73, except that F = 88 kips and total = 0.112 in . Is the
computation for part (d) valid? Explain.

Solution:
(a) F = 88 kips
= 0.112 in
FL
4 FL
4(88,000 )(120)
E=
=
=
= 30 10 6 psi
2
2
A D
(0.112)( )(2)
(b) Use wrought steel, Table AT 4, E = 30 106 psi
1
1
(c) Energy absorbed = F = (88,000 )(0.112) = 4928 lb in
2
2
(d) For Aluminum alloy, 3003-H14
E = 10 106 psi
s y = 21 ksi

FL
4 FL
4(88,000)(120 )
=
=
= 0.336 in
2
2
EA E D
10 10 6 ( )(2 )

83

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

4F
4(88,000 )
=
= 28,011 psi = 28.0 ksi > s y , not within the elastic limit, therefore
2
D
( )(2)2
not valid.
s=

75.

(a) A square bar of SAE 1020, as rolled, is to carry a tensile load of 40 kips. The
bar is to be 4 ft. long. A design factor of 5 based on the ultimate stress is desired.
Moreover, the total deformation should not exceed 0.024 in. What should be the
dimensions of the section? (b) Using SAE 1045, as rolled, but with the other data
the same, find the dimensions. (c) Using SAE 4640, OQT 1000 F, but with other
data the same as in (a), find the dimensions. Is there a change in dimensions as
compared with part (b)? Explain the difference or the lack of difference in the

Solution:
L = 4 ft = 48 in
(a) For SAE 1020, as rolled
su = 65 ksi , E = 30,000 ksi
s
F
s= u =
N A
65 40
=
5 x2
x = 1.754 in
FL
=
EA
(40)(48)
0.024 =
(30,000)x 2
x = 1.633 in
3
Therefore say x = 1 in
4
(b) For SAE 1045, as rolled
su = 96 ksi , E = 30,000 ksi
s
F
s= u =
N A
96 40
=
5 x2
x = 1.443 in
FL
=
EA
(40)(48)
0.024 =
(30,000)x 2
x = 1.633 in

84

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

5
Therefore say x = 1 in
8
(c) For SAE 4640, as rolled
su = 152 ksi , E = 30,000 ksi
s
F
s= u =
N A
152 40
= 2
5
x
x = 1.15 in
FL
=
EA
(40)(48)
0.024 =
(30,000)x 2
x = 1.633 in
5
Therefore say x = 1 in
8

There is lack of difference in the answers due to same dimensions required to satisfy the
required elongation.
76.

The steel rails on a railroad track are laid when the temperature is 40 F. The rails
are welded together and held in place by the ties so that no expansion is possible
due to temperature changes. What will be the stress in the rails when heated by
the sun to 120 F (i1.29)?

Solution:
s Lt
= =
E L
L
For steel = 0.000007 in in F

E = 30 106 psi
s = tE = (0.000007 )(120 40 ) 30 10 6
s = 16,800 psi

77.

Two steel rivets are inserted in a riveted connection. One rivet connects plates that
have a total thickness of 2 in., while the other connects plates with a total
thickness of 3 in. If it is assumed that, after heading, the rivets cool from 600 F
and that the coefficient of expansion as given in the Text applies, compute the
stresses in each rivet after it has cooled to a temperature of 70 F, (no external
load). See i1.29. Also assume that the plates are not deformed under load. Is such
a stress likely? Why is the actual stress smaller?

85

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
s = tE
For steel = 0.000007 in in F
E = 30 106 psi
s = (0.000007 )( 600 70 )(30,000 ) = 111.30 ksi
The stress is unlikely because it is near the ultimate strength of steel.
Actual stress must be smaller to allow for safety.
78.

Three flat plates are assembled as shown; the center one B of chromium steel,
AISI 5140 OQT 1000 F, and the outer two A and C of aluminum alloy 3003-H14,
are fastened together so that they will stretch equal amounts. The steel plate is 2 x
in., the aluminum plates are each 2 x 1/8 in., L = 30 in ., and the load is 24,000
lb. Determine (a) the stress in each plate, (b) the total elongation, (c) the energy
absorbed by the steel plate if the load is gradually applied, (d) the energy
absorbed by the aluminum plate. (e) What will be the stress in each plate if in
addition to the load of 24,000 lb. the temperature of the assembly is increased by
100 F?

## Problem 78, 79.

Solution:
For chromium steel, AISI 5140 OQT 1000F (Table AT 7)
1 = 0.000007 in in F
E1 = 30 10 6 psi = 30,000 ksi
For aluminum alloy, 3003-H14 (Table AT 3)
2 = 0.0000129 in in F
E2 = 10 106 psi = 10,000 ksi
(a) PA = PC
PA + PB + PC = F
(1) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips
1
A2 = (2) = 0.25 in 2
8
1
A1 = (2 ) = 1 in 2
2
86

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

A = B
PA L
PL
= B
A2 E2 A1 E1
PA
PB
=
(0.25)(10,000) (1)(30,000)
(2) PB = 12 PA
(1) 2 PA + 12 PA = 24 kips
PA = 1.714 kips
PB = 12(1.714) = 20.568 kips
Stresses:
Aluminum plate
P 1.714
s A = sC = A =
= 6.856 ksi
A2 0.25
Chromium steel plate
P
20.568
sB = B =
= 20.568 ksi
A1
1

(1.714)(30) = 0.021 in
PA L
=
A2 E2 (0.25)(10,000 )
1
1
(c) Energy absorbed by steel plate = PB = (20.568)(0.021) = 0.216 kips in
2
2
1
1
(d) Energy absorbed by aluminum plate = PA = (1.714 )(0.021) = 0.018 kips in
2
2
(e) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips
TA + A = TB + B
(b) =

T
T
T
T

= 2 L t

= 1 Lt

## = (0.000007 )(30)(100 ) = 0.021 in

PA L
PA (30)
=
= 0.012 PA
A2 E2 (0.25)(10,000)
PL
PB (30)
B = B =
= 0.001PB
A1E1 (1)(30,000 )
Then
0.0387 + 0.012 PA = 0.021 + 0.001PB
0.0177 + 0.012 PA = 0.001(24 2 PA )
0.0177 + 0.012 PA = 0.024 0.002 PA

A =

87

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

PA = 0.45 kips
PB = 24 2(0.45) = 23.1 kips
Stresses:
Aluminum plate
P
0.45
sA = A =
= 1.8 ksi
A2 0.25
Chromium steel plate
P
23.1
sB = B =
= 23.1 ksi
A1
1
79.

The same as 78, except that the outer plates are aluminum bronze, B150-1,
annealed.

Solution:
For aluminum bronze, B150-1, annealed (Table AT 3)
E2 = 15,000 ksi
2 = 0.0000092 in in F
(a)
(1) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips
A = B
PA L
PL
= B
A2 E2 A1 E1
PA
PB
=
(0.25)(15,000) (1)(30,000)
(2) PB = 8 PA
2 PA + 8PA = 24 kips
PA = 2.4 kips
PB = 8(2.4) = 19.2 kips
Stresses:
Aluminum plate
P
2.4
s A = sC = A =
= 9.6 ksi
A2 0.25
Chromium steel plate
P 19.2
sB = B =
= 19.2 ksi
A1
1

88

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

PA L
(2.4)(30) = 0.019 in
=
A2 E2 (0.25)(15,000 )
1
1
(c) Energy absorbed by steel plate = PB = (19.2 )(0.019 ) = 0.182 kips in
2
2
1
1
(d) Energy absorbed by aluminum plate = PA = (2.4)(0.019 ) = 0.023 kips in
2
2
(e) 2 PA + PB = F = 24 kips
TA + A = TB + B
(b) =

T = 2 L t
T = 1 Lt
T = (0.0000092 )(30)(100 ) = 0.0276 in
A

## T = (0.000007 )(30)(100 ) = 0.021 in

B

PA L
PA (30 )
=
= 0.008 PA
A2 E2 (0.25)(15,000)
PL
PB (30)
B = B =
= 0.001PB
A1E1 (1)(30,000 )
Then
0.0276 + 0.008PA = 0.021 + 0.001PB
0.0066 + 0.008PA = 0.001(24 2 PA )
0.0066 + 0.008PA = 0.024 0.002 PA
PA = 1.74 kips
PB = 24 2(1.74 ) = 20.52 kips
Stresses:
Aluminum plate
P 1.74
sA = A =
= 6.96 ksi
A2 0.25
Chromium steel plate
P
20.52
sB = B =
= 20.52 ksi
A1
1

A =

80.

## A machine part shown is made of AISI C1040, annealed steel; L1 = 15 in .,

3
1
L2 = 6 in ., D1 = in ., and D2 = in . Determine (a) the elongation due to a force
4
2
F = 6000 lb ., (b) the energy absorbed by each section of the part if the load is

89

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problems 80, 81
Solution:
For AISI C1040, annealed steel
E = 30 106 psi
(a) = 1 + 2
FL
(6000)(15) = 0.0068 in
1 = 1 =
A1 E 3 2
6
30 10
4 4
FL
(6000)(6)
= 0.0061 in
2 = 2 =
A2 E 1 2
6
30 10
4 2
= 1 + 2 = 0.0068 + 0.0061 = 0.0129 in

## (b) Energy absorbed

1
1
U1 = F1 = (6000 )(0.0068) = 20.4 lb = in
2
2
1
1
U 2 = F 2 = (6000 )(0.0061) = 18.3 lb = in
2
2
81.

A rod as shown is made of AISI 2340 steel, OQT 1000 F, and has the following
7
3
dimensions: L1 = 20 in ., L2 = 12 in ., D1 = in ., and D2 = in . The unit strain at
8
4
point A is measured with a strain gage and found to be 0.0025 in./in. Determine
(a) the total elongation, and (b) the force on the rod.

Solution:

F
(a) 2 = =
L2
A2 E
90

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

F = A2 E
2

A
D
1 =
= 2 L1 = 2 L1
A1E
A1
D1
D 2

3
T = 1 + 2 = 2 L1 + L2 = 0.0025
D1

A2 EL1

4
(20) + 12 = 0.067 in
8

3
(b) F = A2 E = 0.0025 (30,000) = 33.13 kips
4 4

82.

## A rigid bar H is supported as shown in a horizontal position by the two rods

(aluminum 2024 T4, and steel AISI 1045, as rolled), whose ends were both in
contact with H before loading was applied. The ground and block B are also to be
considered rigid. What must be the cross-sectional area of the steel rod if, for the
assembly, N = 2 based on the yield strengths?

Problem 82.
Solution:
For aluminum 2024-T4 (Table AT 3)
s y1 = 47 ksi , E1 = 10,600 ksi
For steel AISI 1045, as rolled (Table AT 7)
s y2 = 59 ksi , E2 = 30,000 ksi

[ M

=0

## R1 (24 ) + R2 (12) = 24(20 )

2 R1 + R2 = 40 Equation (1)

91

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

24 12
1 = 2 2
RL
1 = 1 1
E1 A1
RL
2 = 2 2
E2 A2
L1 = 8 ft = 96 in
L2 = 12 ft = 144 in

A1 = 0.5 in 2
1 = 2 2
R1 L1 2 R2 L2
=
E1 A1 E2 A2
R1 (96)
2R2 (144)
=
(10,600)(0.5) (30,000)A2
0.53R2
R1 =
A2

But s 2 =

R2 s y2
=
A2 N

R2 59
=
= 29.5
A2
2
R1 = 0.53(29.5) = 15.64 kips

R1 s y1
=
A1 N
R1 47
=
0. 5 2
R1 = 11.75 kips
use R1 = 11.75 kips
R2 = 40 2(11.75) = 16.5 kips
R
16.5
A2 = 2 =
= 0.56 in 2
29.5 29.5
s1 =

92

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

The bar shown supports a static load F = 2.5 kips with = 0 ; d = 3 in .,
3
L = 10 in ., h = 2 in . b = 1 in . It is made of AISI 1035, as rolled. (a) How far
4
does point C move upon gradual application of the load if the movement of A and
B is negligible? (b) How much energy is absorbed?

83.

Problem 83.
Solution:

[ M
[ M

=0

=0

dRB = (d + L )F

3RB = (3 + 10 )(2.5)
RB = 10.83 kips
dRA = LF
3RA = 10(2.5)
RA = 8.33 kips

93

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

M = RA x RB x 3

d2y
M = EI 2 = 8.33 x 10.83 x 3
dy
dy
2
EI
= 4.165 x 2 5.415 x 3 + C1
dy
3

## EIy = 1.388 x 3 1.805 x 3 + C1 x + C2

When x = 0 , y = 0
3

EI (0 ) = 1.388(0) 1.805 0 + C1 (0 ) + C2
3

C2 = 0
When x = 3 , y = 0
3

3

C1 = 12.492
3

## EIy = 1.388 x 3 1.805 x 3 12.492 x

When x = d + L = 13 in
3

## EIy = 1.388(13) 1.805 10 12.492(13) = 1082

For AISI 1035, as rolled , E = 30,000 ksi
3

bh 3 (1)(2.75)
=
= 1.7331 in 4
12
12
EIy = 1082
(30,000)(1.7331)y = 1082
y = 0.021 in , upward.
3

I=

94

PRESSURE VESSELS
84.

## A storage tank for air, 36 in. in diameter, is to withstand an internal pressure of

200 psi with a design factor of 4 based on su . The steel has the strength
equivalent of C1020 annealed and the welded joints should have a relative
strength (efficiency) of 90 %. Determine a suitable plate thickness. Compute the
stress on a diametral section and compare it with the longitudinal stress.

Solution:
For C1020 annealed
su = 57 ksi
su 57
=
= 14.25 ksi
N
4
Solving for plate thickness
pD
s=
2 t
p = 200 psi = 0.2 ksi
D = 36 in
(5.2)(36)
s = 14.25 =
2 t (0.9)
t = 0.281 in
5
say t = in
16
Stress on diametral section
(0.2 )(36) = 6.40 ksi
pD
s=
=
4 t
5
4 (0.9)
16
Stress on longitudinal section
(0.2 )(36) = 12.80 ksi
pD
s=
=
2 t
5
2 (0.9)
16
Stress on diametral section < stress on longitudinal section
s=

85.

A spherical air tank stores air at 3000 psig. The tank is to have an inside diameter
of 7 in. (a) What should be the wall thickness and weight of the tank if it is made
of 301, -hard, stainless steel, with a design factor of 1.5 based on the yield
strength and a joint efficiency of 90 %. (b) Compute the wall thickness and
weight if annealed titanium (B265, gr. 5) is used? (c) What is the additional
saving in weight if the titanium is hardened? Can you think of circumstances for
which the higher cost of titanium would be justified?

95

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
(a) For 301, hard, stainless steel
s y = 75 ksi (Table AT 4)
sy

75
= 50 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 t
(3)(7)
50 =
4t (0.90)
t = 0.117 in
s=

= 0.286 lb in 3
2
W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.117 )(0.286 ) = 5.2 lb
(b) For annealed titanium B265, gr. 5
s y = 130 ksi (Table AT 3)
sy

130
= 86.67 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 t
(3)(7)
86.67 =
4t (0.90)
t = 0.061 in
s=

= 0.160 lb in 3
2
W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.061)(0.160) = 1.5 lb
(c) For hardened titanium
s y = 158 ksi (Table AT 3)
sy

158
= 105 ksi
N 1.5
p = 3000 psi = 3 ksi
pD
s=
4 t
(3)(7 )
105 =
4t (0.90 )
s=

96

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

t = 0.056 in

= 0.160 lb in 3
2
W = 4 r 2t = D 2t = (7 ) (0.056)(0.160 ) = 1.38 lb
1.50 1.38
(100%) = 8%
1.50
Circumstances: less in weight and small thickness.

Savings in weight =

86.

Decide upon a material and estimate a safe wall thickness of a cylindrical vessel
to contain helium at 300 F and 2750 psi. The welded joint should have a relative
strength 87 %, and the initial computations are to be for a 12-in.-diameter, 30ft.-long tank. (Note: Mechanical properties of metals at this low temperature are
not available in the Text. Refer to INCO Nickel Topics, vol. 16, no. 7, 1963, or
elsewhere.)

Solution:
From Kents Handbook, Table 8
Material Hot Rolled Nickel
At 300 F, su = 100 ksi , N = 4 (Table 1.1)
s 100
s= u =
= 25 ksi
N
4
pD
s=
2 t
p = 2750 psi = 2.75 ksi
D = 12 in
= 87%
(2.75)(12)
s = 25 =
2 t (0.87 )
t = 0.759 in
3
say t = in
4
CONTACT STRESSES
87.

(a) A 0.75-in. diameter roller is in contact with a plate-cam surface whose width is
0.5-in. The maximum load is 2.5 kips where the radius of curvature of the cam
surface is 3.333 in. Compute the Hertz compressive stress. (b) The same as (a)
except that the follower has a plane flat face. (c) The same as (a) except that the
roller runs in a grooved face and contacts the concave surface. (d) What is the
maximum shear stress for part (a) and how far below the surface does it exist?

Solution:

97

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(a) 2r1 = 0.75 in , r1 = 0.375 in
r2 = 3.333 in
F = 2.5 kips
b = 0.5 in
1

1 1 2
+
0
.
35
F

r1 r2
sc max =
1
1
b +
E1 E2
E = 30,000 ksi
1

sc max

1 2
1
+

0.35(2.5)
0.375 3.333

=
= 279 ksi

0.5

30,000

(b) sc max

1 2
1
(
)
0
.
35
2
.
5
+

3
.
333
3
.
333

= 126 ksi
=

0.5

30,000

(c) sc max

1 2
1
(
)
0
.
35
2
.
5

0.375 3.333

=
= 249 ksi

0.5

30,000

## (d) Maximum shear stress

s s max = 0.3sc max = 0.3(279 ) = 84 ksi
Location:
1
1
2
4 sc max 1 2 + 4(279 ) 1 0.32

E1 E2
30,000

w=
=
= 0.023 in
1
1 1
1
+
+

0.375 3.333
r1 r2

88.

Two 20o involute teeth are in contact along a line where the radii of curvature
of the profiles are respectively 1.03 and 3.42 in. The face width of the gears is 3
in. If the maximum permissible contact stress for carburized teeth is 200 ksi, what
normal load may these teeth support?

98

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
r1 = 1.03 in
r2 = 3.42 in
b = 3 in
sc max = 200 ksi
1

1 1 2
+
0
.
35
F

r1 r2
sc max =
1
1
b +
E1 E2
E = 30,000 ksi
1

1 2
1
+

0.35 F
1.03 3.42
sc max = 200 =

30,000

F = 18 kips
TOLERANCES AND ALLOWANCES
89.

The pin for a yoke connection has a diameter of D of in., a total length of 2
in., with a head that is 1 in. in diameter and 3/8 in. thick. The tolerance on D
(both pin and hole) is 0.003 in., with an allowance of 0.001 in., basic-hole system.
Sketch the pin showing all dimensions with appropriate tolerances.

Solution:
D = 0.75 in
For pin
+ 0.000
D = 0.749
in
0.003
For hole
+ 0.003
D = 0.750
in
0.000
Sketch

99

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

90.

A shaft with a nominal diameter of 8 in. is to fit in a hole. Specify the allowance,
tolerances, and the limit diameters of the shaft and hole on a sketch for: (a) a close
sliding fit, (b) a precision-running fit, (c) medium-running fit, (d) a loose-running
fit.

Solution: D = 8 in
(a) For close-sliding fit, RC 1
Hole, in
+0.0008
-0.0000

Shaft, in
- 0.0006
-0.0012

Allowance = 0.0006 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0008
Hole D = 8.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9994
in
0.0006
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0008 in
Shaft D = 7.9994 to 7.9988 in
Sketch

100

## (b) For a precision-running fit, RC 3

Hole, in
Shaft, in
+0.0012
-0.0020
-0.0000
-0.0032
Allowance = 0.0020 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0012
Hole D = 8.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9980
in
0.0012
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0012 in
Shaft D = 7.9980 to 7.9968 in
Sketch

## (c) For medium-running fit, RC5, RC 6. Say RC 5

Hole, in
+0.0018
-0.0000

Shaft, in
-0.0040
-0.0058

Allowance = 0.0040 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0018
Hole D = 8.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9960
in
0.0018
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0018 in
Shaft D = 7.9960 to 7.9942 in
Sketch

101

## (d) For loose-running fit, RC 8, RC 9. Say RC 8

Hole, in
+0.0070
-0.0000

Shaft, in
-0.0100
-0.0145

Allowance = 0.010 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0070
Hole D = 8.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 7.9900
in
0.0045
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 8.0000 to 8.0070 in
Shaft D = 7.9900 to 7.9855 in
Sketch

91.

## The same as 90, except that the nominal diameter is 4 in.

Solution:
D = 4 in
(a) For close-sliding fit, RC 1
102

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Hole, in
+0.0006
-0.0000

Shaft, in
-0.0005
-0.0009

Allowance = 0.0005 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0006
Hole D = 4.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9995
in
0.0004
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0006 in
Shaft D = 3.9995 to 3.9991 in
Sketch

## (b) For a precision-running fit, RC 3

Hole, in
Shaft, in
+0.0009
-0.0014
-0.0000
-0.0023
Allowance = 0.0014 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0009
Hole D = 4.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9986
in
0.0009
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0009 in
Shaft D = 3.9986 to 3.9977 in
Sketch

103

## (c) For medium-running fit, RC5, RC 6. Say RC 6

Hole, in
+0.0022
-0.0000

Shaft, in
-0.0030
-0.0052

Allowance = 0.0030 in
With tolerances,
+ 0.0022
Hole D = 4.0000
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9970
in
0.0022
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0022 in
Shaft D = 3.9970 to 7.9948 in
Sketch

## (d) For loose-running fit, RC 8, RC 9. Say RC 9

Hole, in
+0.0090
-0.0000

Shaft, in
-0.0100
-0.0150

Allowance = 0.0100 in
104

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

With tolerances,
+ 0.0090
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
Shaft D = 3.9900
in
0.0050
Limit dimension,
Hole D = 4.0000 to 4.0090 in
Shaft D = 3.9900 to 3.9850 in
Sketch
Hole D = 4.0000

92.

A cast-iron gear is to be shrunk onto a 3-in, steel shaft. (a) Determine the
tolerance and the maximum, minimum, and average interferences of metal for
class FN 1 fit. (b) Sketch and dimension the shaft and hole with proper tolerances.
(c) Compute the stresses by the method given in the Text (i3.8) for the maximum
and minimum interferences of metal.

Solution: D = 3 in
(a) For class FN 1 fit, Table 3.2
Tolerances
Hole, in
Shaft, in
+0.0007
+0.0019
-0.0000
+0.0014
Max. interference = 0.0019 in
Min. interference = 0.0014 0.0007 = 0.0007 in
Ave. interference = 0.5(0.0019 + 0.0007) = 0.0013 in
(b)

105

## (c) For maximum interference

Ei
D
E = 23,000 ksi
(23,000 )(0.0019 ) = 14.6 ksi
s=
3
s=

s=

93.

## (23,000 )(0.0007 ) = 5.4 ksi

3

The same as 92, except that the gear hub is C1035 steel and class of fit is FN 3.

Solution: D = 3 in
(a) For class FN 3fit, Table 3.2
Tolerances
Hole, in
Shaft, in
+0.0012
+0.0037
-0.0000
+0.0030
Max. interference = 0.0037 in
Min. interference = 0.0030 0.0012 = 0.0018 in
Ave. interference = 0.5(0.0037 + 0.0018) = 0.0028 in
(b)

106

(c)

Ei
D
(
30,000)(0.0037 )
s=
= 37 ksi
3
s=

## For minimum interference

s=

94.

(30,000)(0.0018) = 18 ksi
3

For a No. 7 ball bearing, the New Departure Handbook states that the maximum
bore should be 1.3780 in. and the minimum, 1.3775 in.; for average conditions,
the shaft should have a maximum diameter of 1.3784 in. and a minimum of
1.3779 in. (a) Determine the corresponding tolerances and allowances. (b) What
class of fit is this? (c) New Departure states: . . . bearing bores are held
uniformly close, . . . averaging within 1.3778 in. to 1.3776 in. What will be the
maximum and minimum interference of metal with these diameters (if maximum
and minimum sizes are deliberately chosen for assembly)?

Solution:
(a) Tolerances:
For No. 7 ball bearing
Bore, 1.3780 1.3775 in = 0.0005 in
+ 0.0005
Therefore, D = 1.3775
in
0.0000
107

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Shaft, 1.3784 1.3775 = 0.0009 in
1.3779 1.3775 = 0.0004 in
+ 0.0000
D = 1.37845
in
0.0005
Tolerances
Hole, in
+0.0005
-0.0000

Shaft, in
+0.0009
+0.0004

## Allowance = 0 0.0009 in = - 0.0009 in

(b) Since allowance is < 0.
It is a force and shrink fil class.
(c)
1.3778 1.3775 = 0.0003 in
1.3776 1.3775 = 0.0001 in
New tolerances
Hole, in
+0.0005
-0.0000

Shaft, in
+0.0003
+0.0001

## Maximum interference = 0.0003 in

Minimum interference = 0.0000 in (since 0.0001 0.0005 = - 0.0004 < 0)
95.

For a roller bearing having a bore of 65 mm. an SKF catalog states that the largest
diameter should be 2.5591 in. and the smallest, 2.5585 in. If this bearing is to be
used in a gear transmission, it is recommended for the shaft (where the bearing
fits) to have a maximum diameter of 2.5600 in. and a minimum of 2.5595 in. (a)
Determine the tolerances and allowances (or interferences of metal) for this
installation. (b) What class of fit would this be?

Solution:
(a) 65 mm = 2.5591 in
2.5591 2.5585 = 0.0006 in
2.5600 2.5585 = 0.0015 in
2.5595 2.5585 = 0.0010 in

108

Tolerances
Hole, in
+0.0006
-0.0000

Shaft, in
+0.0015
+0.0010

## Maximum interference = 0.0015 in

Minimum interference = 0.0010 0.0006 = 0.0004 in
(b) Class of fit, Force and shrink fit
TOLERANCES, STATISTICAL CONSIDERATION
96.

(a) A machine tool is capable if machining parts so that the standard deviation of
one critical dimension is 0.0006 in. What minimum tolerance may be specified for
this dimension if it is expected that practically all of the production be acceptable?
Assume that it is possible to center the process. (b) The same as (a), except that
it has been decided to tolerate approximately 4.56 % scrap.

Solution:
(a)

T = NS = 6 = 6(0.0006 ) = 0.0036 in
(b)

A=

0.0456
= 0.0228 in
2

109

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

From Table 3.3
z
= 2. 0

z = 2
T = 2 z = 4
T = 4(0.0006 ) = 0.0024 in

97.

A pin and the hole into which it fits have a nominal diameter of 1 in. The pin
tolerance has been set to 0.002 in., the bore tolerance at 0.003 in., and the
allowance at 0.001 in., basic hole system. The parts are to be a natural spread of
0.0015 in. for the pin and 0.002 in. for the hole. Assuming that the processes are
centered, determine the expected minimum clearance and the maximum
clearance. What is the most frequent clearance?

Solution:

## 1.5015 1.4980 = 0.0035 in

NS
0.0015
1 ( pin ) = 1 =
= 0.00025 in
6
6
NS
0.0020
2 (hole ) = 2 =
= 0.00033 in
6
6
D2 = 12 + 22 = (0.00025)2 + (0.00033)2
D = 0.00041 in
Natural Spread of Difference = 6 D = 6(0.00041) = 0.00246 in

110

## Expected minimum clearance = 0.00227 in

Expected maximum clearance = 0.00473 in
Most frequent clearance = 0.0035 in
98.

A rod and the hole into which it fits has a nominal diameter of 2 in. The
tolerances are 0.003 in. for both rod and hole, and the allowance as 0..001 in.,
basic hole system. The natural spread of the process of manufacturing the hole is
0.002 in., and for the rod, 0.0015 in. What are the probable maximum and
minimum clearances, provided that the tolerances are met, but assuming that the
processes might simultaneously operate at their extreme permissible position?

Solution:

NS1 0.0015
=
= 0.00025 in
6
6
NS
0.0020
2 ( pin ) = 2 =
= 0.00033 in
6
6
D2 = 12 + 22 = (0.00025)2 + (0.00033)2
D = 0.00041 in

1 (rod ) =

111

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

NS = 6 D = 6(0.00041) = 0.00246 in
2.0020 1.99675 = 0.00525 in

## Probable maximum clearance = 0.00648 in

Probable minimum clearance = 0.00402 in
99.

It is desired that the clearance in a 4-in. bearing neither exceed 0.004 in. nor be
less than 0.002 in. Assume that the natural spread of the processes by which the
journal and the bearing surfaces are finished is the same. (a) What should be the
natural spread of these processes? (b) Assuming this natural spread to be equal to
the tolerance, determine the corresponding allowance. (c) If the foregoing
conditions are not practical decide upon practical tolerances and allowances for

Solution:

(a) NS = 6 D
NS 0.002
D =
=
= 0.00033 in
6
6
(b) D = 2

0.00033
= D =
= 0.000233 in
2
2
112

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

NS = 6 = 6(0.000233) = 0.0014 in
Tolerance = 0.0014 in

## Corresponing allowance = 0.0016 in

(c) From Fig. 3.4, T > NS
Tolerance = T = 1.3NS = 1.3(0.0014 ) = 0.0018 in
Allowance = 0.003 0.0018 = 0.0012 in

100.

A 4-in, journal-bearing assembly is made for class RC 6 fit. Assume that the
natural spread of the manufacturing process will be about 75 % of the tolerance.
Compute the probable maximum and minimum clearances (which occur when the
processes are not centered) and compare with the allowance. Make a sketch of the
journal and hole properly dimensioned.

113

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Solution:
From Table RC 6, D = 4 in
Hole
Shaft
+0.0022
-0.0030
-0.0000
-0.0052
or
+ 0.0022
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
D (shaft ) = 3.997
in
0.0022
D(hole ) = 4.000

NS = 6
0.00165
=
= 0.00028 in
6
D = 2 = 2 (0.00028) = 0.0004 in
NS D = 6 D = 6(0.0004 ) = 0.0024 in

114

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Maximum clearance = 0.00912 in
Minimum clearance = 0.00336 in

Sketch

101.

## The same as 100, except that class RC 3 fit is used.

Solution:
From Table RC 3, Table 3.1, D = 4 in
Hole
Shaft
+0.0009
-0.0014
-0.0000
-0.0023
or
+ 0.0009
in
0.0000
+ 0.0000
D (shaft ) = 3.9986
in
0.0009
D(hole ) = 4.000

115

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

NS = 6
0.000675
=
= 0.0001125 in
6
D = 2 = 2 (0.0001125) = 0.00016 in
NS D = 6 D = 6(0.00016 ) = 0.00096 in

## Maximum clearance = 0.001595 in

Minimum clearance = 0.002555 in
Sketch

102.

## It is desired that the running clearance for a 3-in. bearing be between

approximately 0.003 in. and 0.007 in. The natural spread of the processes of
finishing the journal and bearing are expected to be virtually the same ( 1 = 2 ).
Decide upon a suitable tolerance and allowance with a sketch properly
dimensioned (to a ten thousandth). (Suggestion: compute first a theoretical natural
spread for bearing and journal from the given spread of the clearances. Let the
tolerances be approximately equal to this computed NS, and assume that
manufacturing processes are available that produce an actual NS of about 70 % of
this computed NS.) Check for processes being off center but within 3 limits
so that virtually no scrap is manufactured.

Solution:
116

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

D = 0.00067 in
12 + 22 = D2
2
2 12 = (0.00067 )
2 = 0.00047 in
NS = 0.70 NS1
NS = 0.70(6)(0.00047 ) = 0.00197 in
T = NS1 = (6)(0.00047 ) = 0.00282 in

117

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

For processes off-center

## running clearance = 0.00215 in to 0.00615 in

since allowance = 0.00218 in 0.00215 in, it is checked.

103.

If the tolerances shown are maintained during manufacture, say with the processes
centered, what would be the approximate overall tolerances and limit dimensions?

118

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Problem 103.
Solution:
T1 = 4.004 4.000 = 0.004 in
T2 = 5.008 5.000 = 0.008 in
T3 = 6.707 6.700 = 0.007 in
T 2 = T12 + T22 + T32 = (0.004) + (0.008) + (0.007 )
T = 0.0114 in
2

Limit dimensions
4.000 to 4.0114 in
5.000 to 5.0114 in
6.700 to 6.7114 in
104.

If a cylindrical part needs to have the following tolerances, what process would
you recommend for finishing the surface in each instance? (a) 0.05 in., (b) 0.01
in., (c) 0.005 in., (d) 0.001 in., (e) 0.0001 in., (f) 0.00005 in.?

Solution:
Use fi. 3.9, page 95., Text.
(a) 0.05 in
Surface finishes = 500 or greater
Processes:
1. Flame cutting-machine
2. Rough turning
3. Contour sawing
4. Rough grinding
5. Shaping and planning
6. Drilling
7. Milling high speed steel
8. Boring
(b) 0.01 in
Surface finishes = 63 to 250
119

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

Processes:
1. Contour sawing
2. Rough grinding
3. Shaping and planning
4. Drilling
5. Milling high speed steel
6. Finish turning
7. Broaching
8. Boring
9. Reaming
10. Commercial grinding
11. Barrel finishing
(c) 0.005 in
Surface finishes = 32 to 125
Processes:
1. Shaping and planning
2. Drilling
3. Milling high speed steel
4. Finish turning
5. Broaching
6. Boring
7. Reaming
8. Commercial grinding
9. Milling carbides
10. Gear shaping
11. Barrel finishing
12. Honing
(d) 0.001 in
Surface finishes = 8 to 32
Processes:
1. Finish turning
2. Broaching
3. Boring
4. Reaming
5. Commercial griniding
6. Milling carbides
7. Gear shaping
8. Barrel finishing
9. Roller burnishing
10. Diamond turning
120

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

11. Diamond and precision boring
12. Precision finish grinding
13. Honing
14. Production lapping
15. Superfinishing
(e) 0.0001 in
Surface finishes = 1 to 8 in, rms
Processes:
1. Barrel finishing
2. Roller burnishing
3. Diamond turning
4. Diamong and precision boring
5. Precision finish grinding
6. Honing
7. Production lapping
8. Superfinishing
(f) 0.00005 in
Surface finishes = 0 to 2 in.
Processes:
1. Honing
2. Production lapping
3. Superfinishing
105.

If it cost \$100 to finish a certain surface to 500 microinches rms, what would be
the approximate cost to finish it to the following roughness: (a) 125, (b) 32, (c) 8,
(d) 2 in. rms?

Solution:
From Fig. 3.9
Relative cost of 500 in rms = 1.75
(a) Relative cost of 125 in rms = 3
3
Cost = \$100
= \$171
1.75

121

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

(b) Relative cost of 32 in rms = 5
5
Cost = \$100
= \$286
1.75
(c) Relative cost of 8 in rms = 7.75
7.75
Cost = \$100
= \$443
1.75
(d) Relative cost of 2 in rms = 11.5
11.5
Cost = \$100
= \$657
1.75
DATA LACKING DESIGNERS DECISIONS*
*
Properties of rolled structural sections are found in various handbooks.
106-125. Design a bell crank, similar to the one shown, to carry a mild shock load. The
mechanical advantage ( L1 L2 = F2 F1 ), the force F1 , the length L1 , and the
material are given in the accompanying table. (a) Make all significant dimensions,
including tolerances and allowances. One approach could be to compute
dimensions of the yoke connections first; t should be a little less than a . An
assumption for the shaft may be that, on occasion, the torque for F1 is transmitted
through the shaft (ignoring bending for local convenience). (b) Check all
dimensions for good proportion; modify as desirable. (c) Sketch to scale each
part, showing all dimensions with tolerances necessary to manufacture.
Prob. No.

L1

Rolled

106
107
108
109

700
650
600
550

12
14
15
18

C1020
C1020
C1022
C1035

1.5
2
2.5
3

110
111
112
113

500
800
750
750

20
12
14
14

C1040
C1020
C1020
C1020

4
1.5
2
2.5

114
115
116
117

650
600
900
850

18
20
12
14

C1035
C1040
C1020
C1020

3
4
1.5
2

122

118
119
120
121

800
750
700
1000

15
18
20
12

C1022
C1035
C1040
C1020

2.5
3
4
1.5

122
123
124
125

950
900
850
800

14
15
18
20

C1020
C1022
C1035
C1040

2
2.5
3
4

## Problems 106 to 125.

Solution:
F1 = 700 lb = 0.7 kip
L1 = 12 in
MA = 1.5
For AISI C1020 as rolled (Table AT 7)
su = 65 ksi
sus = 49 ksi
Designing based on ultimate strength
N = 6 (Table 1.1) mild shock, one direction
su 65
=
= 10 ksi
N
6
s
49
s s = us =
= 8 ksi
N
6
s=

123

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

ss =

F1

2 d12
4

0.7
8=
1
d12
2
d1 = 0.24 in
1
say d1 = in
4

F1
1
d12
2

F1
a1d1
0. 7
10 =
1
a1
4
a1 = 0.28 in
5
say a1 = in
16
since t1 < a1
1
say t1 = in
4
F1
s=
D1t1
0. 7
10 =
1
D1
4
D1 = 0.28 in
5
say D1 = in
16
Consider yoke connection B.
L1
= 1.5
L2
12
L2 =
= 8 in
1.5
F2
= 1.5
F1
F2 = 1.5(0.7 ) = 1.05 kip
F2
F2
ss =
=
1
1

d 22
2 d 22
2
4

s=

124

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

1.05
1
d 22
2
d 2 = 0.29 in
5
say d 2 = in
16
8=

F2
a2 d 2
1.05
10 =
5
a2
16
a2 = 0.34 in
3
say a2 = in
8
since t 2 < a2
5
say t 2 = in
16
F1
s=
D1t1
1.05
10 =
5
D2
16
D2 = 0.34 in
3
say D2 = in
8
For shaft diameter
Assume torque, T1 = F1L1 = (0.70 )(12) = 8.4 in kips
16T1
ss =
d s3
16(8.4)
8=
d s3
3
d s = 1.75 in = 1 in
4
Tolerances and allowances, consider RC 4 (Table 3.1)
Hole
Shaft
+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
d1 = 0.2500
in
d1 = 0.2495
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
s=

125

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
in
d 2 = 0.3120
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
+ 0.0010
+ 0.0000
d s = 1.7490
in
d s = 1.7500
in
0.0010
0.0000
allowance = 0.0010 in

d 2 = 0.3125

Female
Male
+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
a1 = 0.3125
in
a1 = 0.3120
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
+ 0.0006
+ 0.0000
a2 = 0.3750
in
a2 = 0.3745
in
0.0000
0.0006
allowance = 0.0005 in
(b) For good proporion use the following dimension
D1 = D2 = 1 in
3
d1 = d 2 = in
4
3
t1 = t 2 = in
4
a1 = a2 = 1 in
d s = 2 in
Tolerances and allowances, consider RC 4 (Table 3.1)
Hole
Shaft
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
d1 = 0.7500
in
d1 = 0.7492
in
0.0000
0.0008
allowance = 0.0008 in
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
d 2 = 0.7500
in
d 2 = 0.7492
in
0.0000
0.0008
allowance = 0.0008 in
+ 0.0012
+ 0.0000
d s = 2.0000
in
d s = 1.9988
in
0.0000
0.0012
allowance = 0.0012 in
Female
Male
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
a1 = 1.0000
in
a1 = 0.9992
in
0.0008
0.0000
allowance = 0.0008 in
+ 0.0008
+ 0.0000
a2 = 1.0000
in
a2 = 0.9992
in
0.0000
0.0008
126

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

allowance = 0.0008 in
(c) Sketch

126.

## A simple beam 12 ft. long is to support a concentrated load of 10 kips at the

midpoint with a design factor of at least 2.5 based on yield strength. (a) What is
the size and weight of the lightest steel (C1020, as rolled) I-beam that can be
used? (b) Compute its maximum deflection. (c) What size beam should be used if
the deflection is not to exceed in.?

Solution:

N = 2. 5

s y = 48 ksi

s=

Mc s y
=
I
N

127

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

48
= 19 ksi
2.5
FL (10 )(144)
M=
=
= 360 lb in
4
4
M
s=
Z
Z = section modulus
M 360
Z=
=
= 18.95 in 3
s
19
From Table B-3, Strength of Material by F. Singer, 2nd Edition
Select 10I35 Section Index
Unsupported length = 12 ft
Weight per foot = 35 lb
Section Modulus = Z = 29.2 in 3
s=

## I = 145.8 in 4 , moment of inertia

Size (Depth) = 10.0 in
Weight of beam = (35)(12) = 420 lb
FL3
48 EI
E = 30,000 ksi

(b) =

## (10 )(144 )3 = 0.142 in

48(30,000 )(145.8)

FL3
48 EI
(10)(144 )3
0.25 =
48(30,000)I
I = 82.9 in 4
From Table B-3, Strength of Material by F. Singer, 2nd Edition
Select 10I35 Section Index
Unsupported length = 12 ft
Weight per foot = 35 lb
I = 145.8 in 4 , moment of inertia
Size (Depth) = 10.0 in

(c) =

127.

A 10-in., 35-lb. I-beam is used as a simple beam, supported on 18-ft. centers, and
carrying a total uniformly distributed load of 6000 lb. Determine the maximum
stress and the maximum deflection.

Solution:
128

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

6000 + 630
= 30.7 lb in
(18)(12)
Table B.3, From Strength of Materials, F.L. Singer, 2nd Edition
For 10-in., 35-lb. I-beam
I = 145.8 in 4
Z = 29.2 in 3
w=

M max
Z
2
wL2 (30.7 )(216 )
M max =
=
= 179,042 lb in = 179 kips in
8
8
179
s max =
= 6.13 ksi
29.2
5FL3
max =
384 EI
E = 30,000 ksi
F = wL = (30.7 )(216) = 6631 lbs = 6.631 kips
s max =

5(6.631)(216 )
= 0.20 in
384(30,000)(145.8)
3

max =
128.

Solution:

## wL2 (30.7 )(216)

=
= 716,170 lb in = 716.17 kips in
8
2
M
716.17
= max =
= 24.53 ksi
Z
29.2
2

M max =
s max

129

w=

6000 + 630
= 30.7 lb in
(18)(12)

## (30.7 )(216) = 1.91 in

wL4
=
8EI 8(30,000 )(145.8)
4

max =
129.

Two equal angles, placed back to back as shown, act as a simple beam and are to
support a load of F = 2,000 lb .; L = 40 in .; a = 15 in . What size angles should
be used if the maximum stress is not to exceed 20 ksi? The stress due to the
weight of the angles is negligible.

## Problems 129, 130.

Solution:
Table AT 2
M
s=
Z
Fab
M=
L
a = 15 in
L = 40 in
b = L a = 40 15 = 25 in
(2 )(15)(25) = 18.75 kips in
M=
40
M 18.75
Z=
=
= 0.9375 in 3
s
20
1
For each angles, Z = (0.9375) = 0.46875 in 3
2
From Strength of Materials, F.L. Singer, 2nd Edition
Table B-5
Say size 3 x 3, thickness = in
I
Z = = 0.58 in3
c
130.

## The same as 129, except that a rolled T-section is to be used.

Solution:
From Table AT 1, No. 6

130

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

aH 2 + bt 2
2(aH + bt )
c2 = H c1
c1 =

Bt 3
ah 3
+ (Bt )d 2 +
+ (ah )e 2
12
12
say a = t
h=B
B = 4t
H = h+t = B+t
b = Ba
2
t (B + t ) + (B t )t 2
c1 =
2[t (B + t ) + (B t )t ]
Ix =

t (B + t ) + (B t )t 2 t (5t ) + (3t )t 2
=
= 1.75t
2(2 Bt )
4 4t 2
c2 = H c1
H = B + t = 5t
c2 = 5t 1.75t = 3.25t
2

c1 =

Ix =

( )

Bt 3
ah 3
+ (Bt )d 2 +
+ (ah )e 2
12
12

d = c1

t
= 1.75t 0.5t = 1.25t
2

a=t
h = B = 4t
h
e = c2 = 3.25t 0.5(4t ) = 1.25t
2
(4t )t 3 + (4t )t (1.25t )2 + t (4t )3 + t (4t )(1.25t )2 = 18.17t 4
Ix =
12
12
Mc2
s=
I
M = 18.75 kips in
131

## SECTION 1 DESIGN FOR SIMPLE STRESSES

s = 20 =

(18.75)(3.25t )
18.17t 4

t = 0.55 in
9
say t = in
16
1
9
B = 4t = 4 = 2 in
4
16
1 9
H = B + t = 2 + = 2.8125 in
4 16
say H = 3 in

1
9
Size: 2 3
T section
4
16
- end -

132