Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 5

Atomic and Nuclear Physics

1. `The Atom and Nuclear Structure

Describe the model + evidence


Limitations of simple model
Evidence of energy levels (spectra)

Define nuclides, isotopes, nucleon number A, proton number


Z, neutron number N

Interactions (strong force, weak force and Coulomb force)

Geiger-Marsden (Rutherford) : alpha particles fired at gold foil


Result:
occasionally alpha particles detected at large
scattering angles (bounce back) because of coulomb force of
repulsion. Evidence for a positive atomic charge of 10-15 m in
diameter.

Rutherford model:

Problem:

Accelerating charges radiate energy. Electrons should


therefore lose energy and spiral into nucleus.

Niels Bohr: Electrons have discrete energy levels. They can only
gain/lose energy by transitioning.
Emission Spectra:

the set of wavelengths emitted by the


excited atoms of an element.
Absorption Spectra: the set of wavelengths absorbed by the
atoms of an element. The same as of the
emission spectra.
E=hf=hc/
Nuclear Structure
Interactions in nucleus

2. Radioactive Decay
Radioactivity
Describe radioactive decay

particles, properties, ionizing properties


nucleus stability
Half-lives

Radioactivity:
Unstable nuclei spontaneously emit a
particle, decay and become different nuclei.
:

4
2

He

0
1

Characteristic

alpha

nature
Penetrating Power
Ions per mm of air for 2 MeV
particles

helium nucleus
few cm of air

Energy

discrete values

beta
fast electron +
antineutrino
few mm of metal

10 000

212
84

decay:

Po
234
90Th

decay:

238
92

decay:

U*

photon

gamma
photon
many cm of lead
100

continuous values

1
=hc/ (nuclear
energy levels)

208
82

Pb + 24
0
+ 1 e
0
1 e
238
0
92 U + 0

Stablity
More protons electrostatic replusion grows BUT strong force
has a small range SO we add neutrons because
they provide strong force but no electromagnetic
force.
HOWEVER if we have too many neutrons than decay is more
likely to happen.
So need more neutrons than protons but nuclides can only reach
a certain
size.
Half-Life

Radiactive decay:
Half-Life:

is random and spontaneous. And the rate of


decay (activity, A; units: Bq) decreases
exponentially wit time.
after each half-life the number of undecayed
nuclei is halved.

3 Nuclear Reactions, Fissions and Fusion


Nuclear Reactions
unified atom mass unit
E=mc2
Mass defect/ binding energy/ binding energy per nucleon
Graph of binding energy per nucleon against nucleon number
A
Fission and Fusion
Describe process (plant/stars)
Solve problems

Unified atom mass unit:u, 1/12 mass of a Carbon-12


atom=931.5MeV
Mass defect:
= total mass of nucleons mass of
nucleus
Eg. C-12.
=(6*mp + 6*mn) (12u-6*me)
Binding energy:
nucleons.

Eb= c2 = energy required to completely separate

Binding energy per nucleon:

Eb/A
. energy required to
remove one nucleon. 8 MeV

For decay to take place, the mass of the decaying nucleus must be
greater than
the combined masses of the products.

TWO types of nuclear activity: Decay and nuclear reactions


212

208

84 Po
82 Pb + 2
DECAY:
Less mass on right hand side which means the products have kinetic
energy.
4

MV(Pb)=mv(alpha).
NUCLEAR REACTION:
artificial/induced transmutation:
If a nucleus cannot decay by
itself, it can still do so if energy is
supplied to it.
14
7

17
N + 24 8 O + 11 p

Less mass on the left hand side which means the reactants have
kinetic energy.
NOTE: the kinetic energy of the alpha particle would have to more
than make up

for the mass deficit because the products would have kinetic
energy too.
ENERGY PRODUCING nuclear reactions (i.e. fission and fusion)
Nuclear fission:
Nuclear fusion:

the process by which a heavy nucleus splits into


lighter nuclei.
the joining of two light nuclei into a heavier one.
2
1

p387

H 12 H 23 He 01n