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AP Comparative Politics and Government

nation by nation study guide


Why Compare?
A. Comparative politics- study of political systems by looking at similarities and differences of
countries, institutions, transitions, and policies
B. Comparison as a social science (use scientific method, differences between soft and hard
C. Understanding our own system better (strengths and weaknesses)
D. Understanding of a globalized world (current events)
II. Why these Countries?
A. Levels of Development
B. Levels of Democratization
C. Levels of State Power
D. Regions of the World
E. Different Government Systems
1. Parliamentary vs Presidential
2. Unitary vs Federal
III. What Will We Be Covering?
A. Introduction (0-10%)
1. Organization of political science
2. Globalization/interdependence
3. Nation/state/govt/regime
4. Legitimacy, power, and authority
5. Political and economic systems
B. Sovereignty, Authority, Power (15-25%)
1. Sovereignty w/in and w/out
2. Supranational organizations
3. Political organization
4. Legitimacy of political systems
5. Economy role in govt and political system
6. Culture and belief systems
C. Political Institutions (30-40%)
1. Formal and informal structures
2. Relationships between and roles of parts of government
3. Non-governmental institutions
4. Recruitment of elites
5. Interest groups
6. Parties and elections
D. Citizens, Society, and the State (10-20%)
1. Cleavages
2. Relationship b/w civil society and power

3. Forms of political action and citizen participation

4. Media
E. Political and Economic Change (10-20%)
1. Common trends of political and economic change
2. Relationship b/w politics and the economy in transition
3. Role of supranational organizations
4. Role of globalization
5. Cultural changes and cleavages
F. Public Policy (5-15%)
1. Influences of policy decisions
2. Scope and choice of policy
3. Implementation of policy
Comparative Method

Types of Analysis
A. Variables
1. Dependent- the variable that is trying to be explained that is influenced by other
2. Independent- the variable being examined as a possible cause of changes in the
dependent variable
3. Ex: Per capita GDP and level of democratization
B. Causality vs Correlation
1. Causality- relationship between two variables in which a change in one produces a
change in the other
2. Correlation- two variables seem connected but no evidence of one causing the other
3. Ex: No two democracies have gone to war
C. Normative vs Empirical Questions
1. Normative- value statements, subjective, describe how things ought to be (ex:
Which political system is the best?)
2. Empirical- factual statements, objective, describe how things are in fact (ex:
Which political system allows for more political participation?)
D. Quantitative, qualitative analysis
1. Quantitative analysis- large number of cases with data analyzed statistically (ex:
PPP or Gini Index)
2. Qualitative analysis- small number of cases analyzed in detail by subjective analysis
(role of oil on democratization)
II. Approaches
A. Most-Similar Approach- look at similar cases in order to limit the number of independent
1. Narrows the possible variables for a specific outcome
2. Ex: China and Soviet Union comparing economic liberalization and political
authority in the 1980s
B. Most-Different Approach- look at different cases but with a similar dependent variable


Allows control over many variables to narrow the best explanation for the dependent
2. Ex: PRI in Mexico, United in Russia one party systems; compare causes and possible
III. Theories
A. Theory validity- when looking at case studies, you have to test whether a theory can be
1. Internal validity- claims of researcher about a causal relationship are well founded
(ex: Constitution in US foundation of rule of law)
2. External validity- the causal relationship can apply to cases not examined in study
(ex: cannot be applied to UK b/c no Constitution)
B. Systems-Theory- helps explain causes and effects of policies w/in political environment
1. Environment- domestic or international which provides input to the state and is
impacted by the states outputs
2. Input- citizens and groups who support and put demands on the state
3. Decision making- process in which state makes a policy based on the input
4. Output- policy affects either the domestic or international environment (or both)
5. Feedback- public is impact by output which impacts the input they provide to the
C. Middle-Level Theory- no overarching theory to explain all- focus on individual countries,
institutions, policies, and classes of events
1. Ex: understand China in the context of history, culture; study similar processes of
transitions b/w authoritarianism and democracy
2. Most popular approach, the one we will most commonly use
Themes of Comparison

A World of States
A. Nation- people bound together by common culture, language, ethnicity, history, or religion
1. Nationalism- dedication to ones people above others
2. Supranational- international, many nations joined together for a common cause
B. State- institutions and individuals that exercise power in a territory
1. Make, implement, enforce, and adjudicate policy
2. Often the same as government in colloquialism
3. Ex: Louis XIV I am the state, the Russian statism
C. Nation-state- territory in which the state and national identity coincide
1. Developed as a concept after the post-Reformation wars in Europe- identity in people
and ruler not in pope
2. Multinational state is a state with many nationalities
D. Government- specific institutions authorized by founding documents (constitution) that has
the legitimacy to pass laws, do day-to-day administrations, etc
1. British discuss voting with the government or getting a new government,
American version is administration
E. Regime- institutions and practices that endure from government to government (often held
together by Constitution)

II. Governing the Economy

A. Political Economy- how governments affect the economy and how the economy affects the
B. Measuring the Economy
1. GDP/GNP/GNI- Gross Domestic Product, Gross National Product
2. Per capita- per person, sometimes per household
3. Real- adjusted for inflation
4. PPP- Purchasing Power Parity: adjusted for living standards
5. Gini Index/Coefficient- compares the distribution of income w/in a country
C. Level of Development-Human Development Index (longevity, knowledge, and income)
D. Types of economies
1. Capitalism- Laissez-Faire, Free Market, Adam Smith, no govt in economy
2. Socialism- emphasize public ownership to redistribute wealth
3. Command- govt controls all, plans economy, nationalizes (takes over private
companies) all major industries; communism (Stalin 5 year plans)
4. Mixed- elements of capitalism and socialism
a. Social welfare capitalism- capitalism but govt gives benefits and services
b. Protectionism- govt protects domestic industries
c. Socialist market/State capitalism- free market but govt helps promote
equality or guides industry to increase development
E. Economic Policies
1. Fiscal- concerning taxes, spending, budgets
2. Monetary- currency, interest rates, inflation
III. Democratic Idea
IV. Politics of Collective Identity
A. Collective Identity- who you are politically and on what basis you share this with other
groups of people
B. Sources of Collective Identity- ethnicity, race, gender, age, social class, locality, religion,
C. Social Cleavages- Profound social differences that have the capacity to cause conflict
1. Cross-cutting cleavages- factors of ones identity pull them in opposite directions
a. Ex: issue of gay marriage: upper class, religious, black, old, urban
2. Coinciding/reinforcing/polarizing cleavages- factors of ones identity come
together in the same direction
a. Sometimes has a dangerous reinforcing effect
b. Ex: immigration in UK: white, rural, lower class, middle aged


Political Systems
Political Spectrum
A. Early Left vs Right (adopted during the French Revolution)
1. Left: Liberals who favored civil liberties, republic, secularism
2. Right: Conservatives who favored aristocracy, royalty, tradition
B. Authority vs Liberty
1. Liberalism- free markets, personal freedoms, free elections, limited government


Neoliberalism- move away from government controlled industries toward

market control (American conservatism)
b. Libertarianism- severely restrict government involvement
2. Authoritarianism- authority is centralized in the government
a. Communism- government controls all production through a single party to
create equality
b. Fascism- govt molds society for nationalistic and militaristic goals
c. Totalitarianism- govt controls all aspect of life
C. Conservatism vs Progressivism
1. Conservatism- little restriction on the economy, maintain political and economic
conditions (tradition)
a. Reactionaries- extreme conservatism
2. Progressive- change to create a more equal society usually through socialism
II. Democracy
A. Elements of Democracy
1. Free fair elections
2. Political parties
3. Transparency and accountability of executives
4. Civil and political rights
5. Independent judiciary
B. 1st, 2nd, 3rd World Approach
1. Cold War- Free-market Democracies, Communism, Non-aligned
2. Outdated but still shapes how we look at the world
C. Overall Trends: toward democracy at least in form
D. Key aspects in defining a regime is where does authority and legitimacy come from
III. Substantive Democracy
A. Meets all five of the criteria, functions as a democracy
B. Liberal Democracy if govt has freedoms
C. Considered a Consolidated Democracy if it has matured and unlikely to change from a
1. Usually high per capita GDP
2. Have both formal rules (Constitution) and informal rules (belief in the democratic
3. Have strong civil society
a. All the organizations outside the government and commercial arenas which
provided public participation
b. Interest groups compete and influence policy
c. Political efficacy- people believe in the govt and believe that they can
influence it
D. Examples in this class: UK and Mexico
IV. Procedural democracy
A. Merely has the form of democracy (Illiberal Democracy)
B. Has elections but does not meet all five conditions

1. Elections are used to lend legitimacy to those who keep power for themselves
2. Limits civil liberties, no rule of law, independent judiciary, etc
C. Transitional (consolidating) democracy- moving from illiberal to liberal
D. Examples in this class: Russia and Nigeria
V. Non-Democracy
A. Is authoritarian, does not follow any of five conditions
B. Authority and legitimacy comes from religion, monarchy, military, or charisma of leader
C. Low social capital, citizens participate in limited ways
D. Examples: China, Iran

History of Globalization
A. Explorers and Columbian Exchange- united world through trade
B. European Empires- globalized trade through domination, competition
C. Protectionism- (mercantilism) goal is assist/protect economy through trade barriers and
subsidizing/supporting domestic industry
D. Post WWII- world divided but international competition
E. Post 1991- fall of SU led to economic liberalization- removal of trade barriers, limiting
government in economy, free trade
II. Economic Interdependence
A. Interdependence- every country relies on the others for goods, resources, and services
B. Multinational corporations- not bound to one country, temporary agreements with host
countries, help lead to growth but limited accountability
C. Economic supranational organizations:
1. IMF, World Bank- assist development in and lend to developing countries
2. World Trade Organization- regulates and promotes intl trade
3. European Union- free trade and unifying economic policy, some have common
4. NAFTA- free trade in N. America
D. Developed and developing world
1. Developing world- low per capita GDP, infrastructure, health, etc
2. Foreign Direct Investment- foreign countries and corporations do economic
projects in developing countries
3. Dependency Theory- the idea that developed countries take advantage of
developing countries for their resources to the detriment of developing countries
III. Benefits of Globalization
A. Movement of capital more profitable
B. Increase wealth for all countries
C. Cooperation and competition
D. Global division of labor
E. Access to technology and information
F. Spread of democracy and rights
G. Global awareness

IV. Costs of Globalization

A. Erosion of state sovereignty
B. Economic Vulnerability
C. Exploitation in poor countries (race to bottom)
D. Rapid industrialization/urbanization
E. Globalization of culture


What is the European Union?

A. More than a supranational organization, less than a federal state (28 member countries)
B. Free trade, economic policy, law, some common currency
C. Goal to eventually create a common foreign and defense policy
II. Milestones in History
A. European Coal and Steel Community (1951): Create single market, no tariffs or barriers
(France, W Germany, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, Luxemburg)
B. Treaty of Rome (1957): Created the European Economic Community to eliminate all tariffs
and barriers, developed early version of four instructions
C. Widening- 73- Denmark, UK, Ireland; 81- Greece; 86 Spain, Portugal, increased from 12 to
28 members, want to incorporate countries from other side of Iron Curtain
D. Deepening- EU more integrated with more power: Maastricht Treaty (1991)- officially EU,
new authority and power, commitment to single currency and central bank (Euro adopted
E. Treaty of Lisbon (2007)- After failed attempt to pass Constitution through referendums,
elements of Constitution adopted, strengthened role of EU Parliament
III. EU Government Institutions
A. European Council- meetings every 6 months of executives of countries, chaired by full-time
President of the EU, sets policy agenda
B. European Commission (European Institution)- Initiates and implements public policy
1. Works roughly like a cabinet, oversees directorate and civil servants (bureaucracy)
2. nominated from home countries on a rotating basis
C. Council of Ministers (Supranational Institution)- Expert approval of legislation
1. Represent state governments by meeting of cabinet ministers (ex: all Agricultural or
Transportation ministers meet)
2. Serves somewhat like a upper-house legislative body- has to approve legislation to
become law
3. Uses qualified majority voting-- countries assigned a certain amount of votes based on
their population (kinda like the Electoral College) but most decisions are made by
consensus behind closed doors
D. European Parliament (Representative Institution)
1. Directly elected (since 1979) by the people in member states (751 members)


Weakest of the four institutions of the EU (stronger under the Lisbon treaty)
Powers: Debate and vote on legislation proposed by the Commission, Power over EU budget,
approves Commissioner nominees and can remove entire commission
E. European Court of Justice (Judicial Institution)
1. Supreme Court of the EU (One judge per state, most often meet in smaller chambers, No
votes or dissenting opinions published)
2. Authority: issues within EU government, EU regulations and laws, suits against EU, states
against each other, companies
3. Has established judicial review on EU matters- practices constitutional law
4. Has overruled all EU institutions and member states
Public Policy

Common Market Issues

A. Freedom of goods, services, and capital
1. Controls on imports and exports: EU sets rates (expensive outside the bubble)
2. Regulates within (Mad Cow, environment)
3. Mutual Recognition (Cassis de Dijon liqueur)
4. Common Agricultural Policy: subsidies to farmers (about 1/3 of the EU budget)
B. Freedom of people (immigration, football player)
II. Transparency Issues
A. Only the Parliament elected, cannot introduce laws, little power
B. Commission, Council of Ministers, and Court of Justice make decisions behind closed doors
III. Monetary Issues
A. Benefits of Euro: attach to stronger countries, ease between borders, cheap internal exports
B. Disadvantages: Weak paired with the strong, one central bank making decisions
C. Criteria to join Eurozone- Inflation under 1.5%, deficit under 3% of GDP, govt debt no
more than 60% of GDP, stable exchange and interest rates
D. Euro Crisis
1. Causes: Sovereign debt crisis, Banks, Unemployment
2. Steps Taken: Bailouts in Greece, Italy, Spain, Austerity- cutting deficits by
decreasing spending, especially in public services
3. Possible solutions: Kick out the weak countries, Create EU bonds with more
integration, fiscal union, Dissolve the Euro
IV. Euroscepticism and the Future of the EU
A. Euroscepticism- criticism of European integration, see EU as weakening the nation-state,
undemocratic, and inefficient
B. Slow erosion of sovereignty
C. An ever closer union?
D. Widening?


Early History (1215-1750): Go quickly through this

A. Magna Carta- limits on kings power and basic rights, roots of Parliament
B. Henry VIII- started Anglican church, monarch still head (no sep of church and state)
C. Glorious Revolution- a generation after English Civil war, transition to a constitutional
monarchy, English Bill of rights, beginning of parliamentary sovereignty
D. Gradualism- the idea that UK has made a slow but steady regime change from a monarchy
to a substantive parliamentary democracy, yet throughout the process maintained high level
of legitimacy
II. Politics of Empire and Industrial Revolution (1750-1914)
A. Capitalism- guiding principle of the economy, free trade with other countries (25% of all
ships British)
B. Legacies of Empire: Economic use of colonies- import raw materials, market for man. goods,
roots of Commonwealth (meet about trade, development, and cricket), multiculturalism
C. Gradual Liberalism
1. Reform Act 1832- reformed and regulated electoral system, extended franchise to
smaller land owners
2. Voting Acts 1867-1885- extended suffrage to most men
3. Early political parties
a. Conservative- represented the upper class
b. Liberal- for free trade, democratization
c. Labour- represented the working class
4. Decline in power of House of Lords
III. World Wars and the Birth of Collective Consensus (1914-1979)
A. Impact of WWI- universal male suffrage, females over 30 (full female in 1928), Disruption
of social framework- loss of a generation, optimism
B. Interwar Depression- increase of poverty but also a beginning of a recognition as a social
C. Impact of WWII- Decolonization, Wartime Socialism, Call for social services
D. Postwar Consensus
1. Labours Government (1945-1951)
a. Keynesianism- deficit spending to spur growth during a crisis
b. Welfare state- socialist programs (Beveridge Report 1942) Education, social
security, unemployment insurance, National Health Service
c. Nationalization- govt took over key industries
d. Corporatism- a few interest groups (unions, nationalized industries) would
work with the government to propose legislation
2. Conservative Government (1951-64)
a. Collectivist Consensus- relative agreement between the two major parties
on the formation of a social democracy
b. Goal was for government to be more technocratic- non-partisan, experts
making decision-making

IV. Thatcher Revolution (1979-1997)

A. Stagflation crisis- stagnant growth, high inflation
B. Monetarism- emphasize the role of the money supply through a central bank to tackle
C. Economic Liberalization
1. Privatized nationalized industries
2. Rolled back the welfare state
3. Overall not a huge decrease in spending but less regulation
D. Pluralism- when a variety of interest groups vie for influence (Thatcher dismantled the
Labour Unions influence)
E. Success?
F. Euroskepticism- renewed nationalism in a time of increasing EU, Thatcher called it
G. Majors Premiership- continued but toned down Thatcherism
V. Blairs New Labour (1997-2010)
A. Blairs Third Way- continued neoliberalism but with a greater emphasis on regulation and
B. Special Relationship- language and cultural connection b/w UK and US that creates a close
C. Good Friday Agreement- peace in Northern Ireland
Conflict over religion (Protestant vs Catholic) and independence (Nationalist vs
Agreement to end conflict by having both groups in a N. Irish Assembly
D. Devolution- give a degree of autonomy to nations of UK, local government (examples of
Londons mayor, Scottish Parliament)
E. Constitutional Reform Movement- attempt to make UK more democratic, especially Lords
Reform, more independent judiciary
F. War in Iraq- UK very close partner to US, extremely damaging to Blair
VI. Camerons Coalition- had to create coalition with Liberal Democrats in order to form a


Prime Minister
A. Head of
1. PM is considered the head of government- in charge of government operations,
2. But not officially head of state- highest position, represents the state internationally
3. The MP officially represents the Crown in Her Majestys Government
B. Selection Process- Party will elect their leader, becomes PM if party wins the house of
C. Powers

1. Appointments- members of cabinet, senior ministers, 25% of party in power get

positions, even bishops in the Church of England
2. Commander-in-chief of armed forces
3. Leader of house of commons- shapes policy and acts
4. Chief executive of bureaucracy
D. Question Time- Once a week, get to question PM and cabinet
E. Removal Process
1. Party loses power
2. Party chooses a new leader
3. Vote of no confidence- if PM loses a vote of an important legislation or specifically
called for, PM and government resign and a general election is called
4. Could lose his own seat (does not happen)

II. Cabinet
A. Role and Powers
1. PM is first-among-equals- the cabinet makes decisions by consensus
2. Leaders are in charge of their respective departments
3. Members can be reshuffled between departments or fired
4. Called Secretary of State for ___
B. Collective Responsibility- idea that the cabinet can disagree in private but in public they
support the governments policies
C. Chancellor of the Exchequer- finance minister, top cabinet position (besides deputy PM)
D. Loyal Opposition- the members of the opposing party
1. Role: Question government, vote against things they disagree with
2. Shadow Cabinet- the leader of the opposing party chooses ministers who will head
cabinet departments when they eventually form a government
E. Hung Parliament no party wins a majority of seats so cannot form a government, rare
occurrence, only two party parliamentary model
F. Coalition- parties ally together to form government, include leadership from and need
approval of coalition parties
A. Civil Service- members of the bureaucracy that serve the government
1. Work for the crown not parliament- non-political and not loyal to the government in
2. Have to take a test to enter, stay from govt to govt
3. Goal to be technocratic in nature
B. Major Departments- Treasury, Foreign Office, Home Office, Ministry of Defense
C. Political Recruitment- usually done through major universities but also business elites
D. Quangos- (Quasi-autonomous non-governmental organization)
1. Publically funded independent boards who have devolved authority
2. include public, affected industries, civil service
3. criticized for being independent, wasteful

IV. House of Commons

A. Role- makes laws, center of public debate, government ministers come from this
B. Law Making Process
1. Government department comes up with a policy idea, consults other departments,
interest groups, etc
2. Queens Speech- objectives of government for the year
3. White paper- Bill proposal submitted to Parliament
4. Introduced in either house, read twice then submitted to committee
5. Committee reports, third reading, then submitted to other house
6. Other house must approve, can amend bill
C. Whips
1. Party enforces strict discipline
2. backbenchers (MPs w/o government appointments) are given government positions
on votes
3. Instructions to votes are given underlines based on the severity of the votes
4. One line is give non-binding instructions, two lines is attend and vote
5. Three-line whip- strict instructions to vote, failure of a three-line whip is seen as a
vote of no confidence
D. Constitutionalism- parliamentary sovereignty
V. House of Lords
A. Role
1. Can start bills, amend, or stop bills
2. Members can be govt ministers
3. Judicial role- used to have Law Lords for highest appellate court
B. Change over time
1. hereditary peers- inherited positions, most of history
2. most peers now are appointed with a few hereditary and Lords Spiritual (bishops
and archbishops), life appointment
3. used to reject bills, now can only delay
4. Used to be highest court
C. Proposed Changes
1. Goal is to make mostly elected but exact details are not worked out
2. Likely will reduce the number from 750 to 450
3. Change life term to 15 years nonrenewable
4. 80% elected, the rest appointed by PM
VI. Monarchy
A. Officially has all power, everything done in monarchs name
B. Delivers Queens Speech (written by government)
C. Makes appointments (w/consultation PM)
D. Meets with PM once a week
VII. Courts
A. Newly created Supreme Court as the final court of appeal
1. Mostly created at the behest of EU
2. 12 Justices, Appointed by independent board

B. Judicial Review
1. Does not have because of parliamentary sovereignty
2. But can overturn secondary legislation if conflicts with primary legislation
3. But can overturn either primary or secondary if law conflicts with European
Convention on Human Rights


UK Parliamentary vs US Presidential System

A. Executive
1. Prime Minister- chosen by party in power in parliament, non-fixed term, first among
2. President
B. Cabinet and Civil Service
1. Cabinet members of Parliament- chosen by PM, head departments until shuffled out
2. Cabinet appointed by Pres approved by Congress
C. Legislature
1. Most important work is in House of Commons
2. Important work in both, Senate more important
D. Upper House
1. House of Lords is unelected
2. Senate reflects Federalism
E. Judicial
1. Recently created Supreme Court, does not have judicial review, connected to House
of Lords
2. Very strong and independent, appointed by Prez, confirmed by Senate
F. Separation of Powers
1. Fusion of executive and legislative
2. Checks and Balances
G. Unitary vs Federal
1. Unitary system but has voluntarily devolved powers
2. Federal system with strong independent states
H. Constitution
1. parliamentary sovereignty- parliament has supreme authority all laws are by
definition constitutional, unwritten formally but some laws have more
constitutional power
2. written, slow change over time
I. Parties
1. More important, plays larger role in Parliament, shuffles candidates, more parties but
2. Strictly two-party system but more focus on individuals
II. Political Parties
A. Two Party or Multiparty?

1. Neither of the two have got a majority since 1935

2. Two parties dominated until 1974
3. In 2010, Lib Dems got only 6% less than Labour
4. BUT Lib Dems only go 58 of 650 seats
5. Three major parties try to be catch-all parties- try to appeal to all voters
B. Political socialization- process in which people develop political beliefs, attitudes, and
1. usually through family but also class, region, etc
2. not major divisions based on race, religion, or language
C. Conservative
1. Collective Identity: upper-class but now has more cross-cutting appeal; businessfriendly; traditionalists; south
2. Major Positions: center-right, pro-business, fiscal austerity, Euroskepticism, military
D. Labour
1. Collective Identity: urban; unionized working-class; lower class
2. Major Positions: left, emphasis on social services, multiculturalism
E. Liberal Democrats
1. Collective Identity: more middle class; cross-cutting appeal
2. Major Positions: center-left, liberalism, fiscal responsibility, pro-European
F. Other
1. Scottish Nationalist- independence party
2. Welsh Plaid Cymru- welsh nationalist
3. Northern Irish (three different parties)- some for unification, some for devolved
4. Green- environmental
5. UK Independence Party- euroskeptic party
A. Called by PM at least every 5 years
B. Limited media: ban on political advertisements
C. Referendums: called by PM, most have been about local devolution, national have been
Alternate Vote and EU
D. Voting systems
1. Single-member districts
a. First-past-the-post/plurality voting- the party that wins the most votes wins
the seat
b. Reduces power of third parties
c. Representatives do not have to live in district, party can choose to put people
in safe districts
2. Proportional Representation
a. People vote for a party, not an individual
b. Parties get a certain number of seats based on their portion of the popular
c. Lends itself to more multiparty system, more variety of members of


d. Often a minimum threshold so very minor parties will not get seats
Other ideas
a. Mixed of single member districts and PR
b. Alternate Vote: Instant run-off- rank candidates and if first vote is does not
win plurality, vote goes to second place


A. Multi-nationalism- England, Wales, Scotland, N. Ireland
1. Devolution vs Federalism
a. UK is Unitary but chooses to give more power to other bodies, theoretically, it
could take them back
b. Federal systems are built from the states up and can reject the power of central
2. Direction of Devolution
a. Process started under Blair, continued under Cameron
b. Problem of no fixed end point
c. Ex: Scotland has vote on independence 2014
3. Devolved powers
a. National legislatures in N. Ireland, Scotland, Wales: power to make laws, deal
with local issues
b. Policing powers in N. Ireland- important based on history of British military
c. City councils, mayors- increasing power of laws, budgets, policy
B. Multiculturalism- different people groups
1. Immigrant groups: major India, Pakistan, Bangladesh
2. New groups as a result of EU policies: esp. E Europe
3. Immigration and intergration is a top public policy concern
C. Religion- very secular society but religion is still officially Anglican
D. Social Cleavages
1. Class- still #1 cleavage
2. Ethnicity
3. North-South- wealthier south, working class north
4. Nation
E. Supranational Organizations
1. Insularity- resistance to integration with EU
a. European Convention on Human Rights- affirmed by UK in 1998, has to
follow EUs rights
b. Justice system- aligning criminal code, Supreme court
c. Euroskeptics support a referendum on EU involvement
2. Other Organizaitons
a. UN- on the security council
b. IMF/World Bank- helps coordinate bailouts, economic policy

c. WTO- free trade regulation

d. NATO- military alliance
e. Commonwealth- organization of UK and former colonies, cricket and loose trade
II. Linkage Institutions
A. Def: a structure within society that links people to central government/authority
B. Parties
C. Media
1. BBC- semi-autonomous tv and radio, paid through annual fees
2. News Corporation- Sky, Rupert Murdoch
3. Newspapers- serious and tabloids
D. Interest groups
1. Used to be corporatist
2. Now is pluralist
3. Neo-corporatism- role of quangos
III.Major Public Policy Areas
A. Political Culture
1. Highly developed with high political efficacy
2. Post-materialism- voters have needs taken care of, vote based on good of
country/world, right not just personal needs
B. Environmental
C. Budget and Austerity
D. Role of Welfare State
E. Immigration Policy
F. Gay Rights


Pre-Soviet Era
A. Poverty- serfdom did not end until 1861
B. Westernization- historical tension, Peter the Great
C. Patrimonial State- state owns the land, dominates the economy, little bourgeoisie class
D. Russian Revolution
1. Inspired by Karl Marx- proletariat rise up against the bourgeoisie in a violent
revolution to create equality
2. Bolsheviks led by Lenin took advantage of chaos of WWI and Feb Revolution to
take over in a coup
3. Led to a long Civil War- tension with West, famine, death
II. Major Soviet Leaders
A. Lenin (1917-1924)- Bolshevik revolution, civil war
B. Stalin (1929-1953)- purges, 5 Year plans, industrialization, won WWII, tried to establish
Soviet hegemony in East Europe

C. Khrushchev (1956-1964)- Destalinization, limited liberalization

D. Brezhnev (1965-1982)- Bureaucratic stability, conservatism, tacit social contract, detente
E. Gorbachev (1985-1991)- glastnost, perestroika, collapse
III.Soviet Government
A. Centralized one-party rule
B. Politburo- ruling elite group of people who choose a general-secretary to rule
C. Supreme Soviet- party legislature that would affirm the decisions of the politburo
D. Role of Military and KGB- not just arm of the state but also played a role in the governing of
the state
E. Nomenklatura- category of approved administrators in the Soviet bureaucracy, would rise
with help of a patron
F. Civil society- limited to the family and the state (through the party)
IV. Soviet Economy
A. Centrally Planned Economy
B. Collectivization- forced central control (industrialization but lots of famine and deaths)
C. Fell behind Western world
V. Soviet Foreign Policy
A. Goal to spread communism
B. Isolationism (Socialism in one Country)
C. Soviet Republics (only 51% of SU was Russian)
D. Satellite countries and Warsaw Pact
E. Military emphasis and arms race
VI. Gorbachev Era (1985-1991)
A. Perestroika- restructuring
1. Decentralization and more marketization
2. Republics sought political and economic autonomy
B. Glasnost- openness
1. Relaxation of censorship
2. More open defiance of central government
C. Demokratizatsiia- democratization
1. Responsiveness within and without party
2. Elected leaders of republics
D. Negotiated an end to Cold War
E. Freed Eastern Europe from Soviet control
F. Collapse of SU (1991)
1. Yeltsin elected president
2. Failed coup detat by Soviet hardliners
3. Russia and other republics become independent
VII. Yeltsin Era (1991-1999)
A. Wanted Western democracy and market economy
B. Shock Therapy- radical transition to market economy
1. Lifted price controls, encouraged small business, privatization of state enterprises,
foreign investment
2. Citizens given shares of state enterprises

3. Oligarchs- Favored businessmen gained large control

4. Rapid inflation and falling productivity
5. Corruption and rise of mafia
C. Russian Constitution (1993)
1. Parliament was obstructive so disbanded, new election
2. Constitution based on French, dual executive, strong president and weak parliament
3. Approved in a referendum barely (not seen as very legitimate)
D. Free press, political opposition (mostly from Communist party)
E. 1999- Putin chosen as PM, Yeltsin resigned


Russian Constitution
A. Origins: French but with stronger executive
B. Mixed Presidential Parliamentary
C. Federal System
D. Protects individual rights
E. Legitimacy: at first little but growing
II. Executive Branch
A. Dual Executive
B. President (located at the Kremlin)
1. How elected: Popularly Elected every four six years, max two consecutive terms
2. Role: Head of state: represents Russia (internationally)
3. Powers
a. Appointments: PM, Administration, judges, State Council (governors of
b. Foreign Policy: intl figure for Russia
c. Make decrees: decisions with the power of law
d. Legislative: Can submit laws and veto
e. Guidelines for domestic policy
Other: call a state of emergency, pardons, referenda, commander-in-chief
4. Impeachment: possible but with Duma, FC, SC, and CC
C. Prime Minister
1. How elected: appointed by President, approved by Duma
2. Role
a. Head of government: runs day-to-day operations
b. Becomes president until elections if president dies or resigns
3. Powers
a. Submits appointments to president
b. Submits proposals to president
c. Runs government agencies, esp Domestic Policy
D. Bureaucracy and Civil Service
1. Most of cabinet is under


Poorly trained, lack of professionalism- corruption

Patron-client system- career ties between individuals as they rise in bureaucratic or
political structures
III.Legislative Branch: Federal Assembly (located at White House)
A. Federal Council (upper house)
1. Represents the federal subjects (2 from each)- used to also include governors
2. Senators elected by regional legislatures for varying terms
3. Approves decrees and judicial nominees from President
4. Works with Duma with law-making
B. Duma (lower house)
1. Deputies are elected through proportional representative every four years (year
before presidential)
2. PM: Consents appointment and can vote no confidence
3. Primary lawmaking
4. Much more political than FC
IV. Judiciary
A. Constitutional Court- has judicial review, protects human rights, disputes in government
B. Supreme Court- highest court of appeals for criminal and civil
C. Limited use of juries or adversarial system
D. Independent? In reality, no. Very dependent on executive
V. Regional Government
A. Asymmetric Federalism- various sub national divisions with different privileges and rights
(republics, krais, okrugs, oblast, and two cities)
B. Layers of districts (8, central government administration) and federal subjects (83 total)
C. Each federal subject has elected legislature and governor
D. Regional Governors- appointed by president (and can be removed) and approved by local
legislature, part of State Council


Regional Conflict
A. Chechnya
1. Sought independence
2. Putin fought brutal war against separatists
3. Granted referendum but failed (use of media, fraud)
B. Beslan School Massacre- 2005 Chechnyan rebels took over a school, Putin sent in troops,
334 died (186 children)
C. Direct Election of Governors
D. Changes to Duma Elections
1. Elimination of districts (used to be districts, PR): Proportional representation
2. Increase minimum threshold from 5 to 7 percent, national parties only
3. Goal is to eliminate regional opposition to rule
II. Economy
A. Per capita GDP $17000 (developing), doubled since 2000

B. Oligarchs- control major industries (after loans-for-shares)

C. Heavy Emphasis on Natural resources
1. Petro politics- use of oil and natural gas in politics
2. #1 Exporter of Gas and Oil, also major coal, minerals
3. Gazprom- gas company mostly owned by govt
4. major source of govt revenue
D. Centralization- govt holds or guides major industries
E. Socialism- major programs to help the poor
F. Lack of entrepreneurship- individualism not encouraged
G. Corruption- bribes up to 20% of Russias GDP
H. Wants to join WTO- world trade organization
1. Works to promote international trade, break down trade barriers
2. Countries must reach criteria, obey rules to join
III.Foreign Policy
A. Former Soviet Republics: want to maintain sphere of influence
1. Georgia: invaded to protect a region
2. Ukraine: has interfered to get a more friendly govt
3. Use of gas pipelines to influence regional countries
B. Former Satellite Countries: block western influence
1. Kosovo- block independence b/c foreign intervention
2. Poland- threatened by missile defense system
C. Major Foreign Policy: sovereignty
1. UN Security Council- Uses seat on to veto most interventions
2. Iran- blocked many sanctions
3. Syria- is blocking military intervention
IV. Politics
A. Parties: main cleavages are economic and nationalistic
1. United Russia- party created by Putin
a. Nationalistic, law-and-order, centrist economically: catch-all party
b. Has dominated the presidency since 2000, controlled Duma since 2003
2. Communists
a. Main opposition party, very big in 90s (won plurality in Duma 1995, close in
b. Halved in popularity since Putin
3. Liberal Democrats: nationalist, led by Zhirinovsky (racist), not liberal at all
4. A Just Russia: socialist and nationalist, has been loyal
5. Liberal: minor parties have made little progress
B. Elections
1. Presidential
a. Two-ballot system: if no one wins a majority in the first round, there is a
second round with two candidates (done in 1995 but not since)
b. 2000-2008: Putin won with strong majorities (53, 71)
c. 2008-2012: Medvedev became President, Putin PM




2012- : Constitution changed for 6 year terms, Putin re-elected with United
Russia keeping plurality

a. Elections every 4 years (4 months before prez)
b. Proportional Representation nationwide with in a minimum threshold of 7
c. Parties release lists of candidates, have to have representatives from across
the country
d. parties must be national (created thresholds of 50,000 members, 45 district
offices but recently lowered)
a. Regional governors are loyal to the Kremlin
b. Local and regional elections are irregular

A. Ethnic Groups
1. Just over 50% ethnically Russian in USSR, now 80%
2. Other groups include Tatars, Muslim groups in Caucuses
3. Mix from republics: Ethnic groups from Soviet republics, 25 million Russians in
Soviet republics
B. Religious Groups
1. Orthodox: 41%, traditional religion in Russia, encouraged due to nationalism but less
than 10% attend church
2. Muslim: 7% mostly non-Russian ethnic groups
3. Nonreligious: 38% of population (roots in Soviet era)
C. Civil Society
1. Limited Civil Society- limited experience
2. Opposition Groups
a. Divided: main leaders are oil billionaire, Chess champion, and a blogger
b. Since the rigging of 2011 election, massive anti-Putin protests but no major
opposition parties
3. Nationalism
a. Nashi- youth movement, pro-Putin
b. Insecure, intl events stir up people
4. Media
a. 2/3 National TV stations are owned by the govt, govt also owns many
b. Independent press has money difficulties, many have been directly targeted
by the Kremlin
c. Internet: selective censorship
5. State corporatism- major industries are guided by the government and in turn
influence the govt (oligarchs)
D. Declining population



A. Geography- isolated, fertile land
B. Dynastic Cycle- change in dynasties as one becomes corrupted and the Mandate of Heaven is
given to another
C. Confucianism- emphasizes honor, respect, tradition, and family; submission to rule of
D. Authoritarianism- strong central leadership backed by a well trained bureaucracy for most of
their history
E. Western influence- mostly isolationist until the Opium War in 1846 when China was opened
into spheres of influence
F. Revolution of 1911- nationalists led by Sun Yat-sun established a republic, period of internal
II. Chinese Civil War
A. Chiang Kai-shek became leader of the Nationalists, solidified power, and attacked the
B. The Long March- communists lead by Mao Zedong took the 6000 mile journey to the
remote parts of China
C. Peasant support formed the base of Communist support
D. Japanese invasion (1937-1945)- Brutal occupation of China, Mao used as opportunity to
rebuild strength
E. Mao wins Civil War- proclaimed China communist in 1949, Chiang Kai-shek retreated to
III.Rule of Mao (1949-1976)
A. Established command economy
1. Complete nationalization with industrialization and collectivization
2. Iron rice bowl- socialism in which people are state-dependant from cradle-to-grave
B. Hundred Flowers Movement- a period of openness to participate in public policy
1. Great criticism of government
2. Mao responded by attacking rightist enemies of the revolution
C. Great Leap Forward1. goal to increase growth through rapid communism
2. collectivization of agriculture was a huge failure: 30 million died of starvation
D. Cultural Revolution- to maintain political control, Mao launched a political purge of
enemies of revolution
1. Mass line- use of propaganda and mobilization to instill ideological beliefs in the
2. Caused great chaos, many deaths
3. Lin Biau and the Gang of Four (led by Maos wife) took power
E. Arrest of Gang of Four- Moderates led eventually by Deng Xioping took power
IV. Rule of Deng Xiaoping (1977-1997)
A. Socialist-market economy- Economic liberalization while maintaining government direction
and socialist policies
B. Privatization of some major industries: SOE from 80 to 17% of economy but many firms
have partial public ownership


Encouragement of free enterprise:

1. Household responsibility system- households leased land and the profits were left
to them
2. village and town enterprises- market enterprises that were publically owned by
local government
D. Created special economic zones in areas like Shanghai in order to encourage domestic trade
E. Open door policy- open to foreign trade
F. High economic growth, increase in standard of living
G. Freer expression but not democracy
H. Tiananmen Square Massacre
I. Deng slowly retired but maintained strong influence
V. Rule of Technocrats (1992- present)
A. Deng set in motion the foreseeable future of the Chinese government and economy
B. Successors were chosen by their technical skill, not ideology
C. 1997- Hong Kong returned to China: one China, two systems: allowed more freedom than
the rest of China
D. Rule of Jiang Zemin- background as an engineer
E. Rule of Hu Jintao- smooth transition, Scientific Development
F. Rule of Xi Jinping- continuation of technocratic rule, party divided between Hu and Jiang


Chinese Constitution (passed 1982)

A. Official Ideology
Leninism-Marxism, socialism, Maoism
Changes have been made to include Deng Xiaoping
Each new leader contributes his own addition to
ideology including Jiangs Three Represents or Hus Harmonious Society
B. Centralized Party Authority
One party system that dominates all aspects of
Parallel hierarchies- both party and government
C. Democracy- gives legitimacy to by involvement of masses, voting of legislative bodies,
voting in highest levels (CCP is the organ of democracy)
II. Chinese Communist Party
A. Party Membership
80 million members
path to political advancement, make connections
Now, capitalists can be members
B. Local Peoples Congress- vast leveled network of party organizations at the workplaces,
armies, villages, cities, provinces, etc
C. National Party Congress- over 2000 members, meet every 5 years, rubber stamp decisions
and leaders
D. Central Committee- 200-300 members, elected by NPC to direct when NPC is not in
session, mostly a meeting for party elites
E. Politburo-


Top leadership and decision-making in party (24+1

Democratic centralism- freedom of debate and then
majority vote but then all members uphold decisions
F. Politburo Standing Committee- the most important policy making policy in China
7 members (used to be 9)
General Secretary- first among equals, also head of the
Politburo and Secretariat (as well as president and head of military), two five-year
G. Secretariat- does day-to-day operations of the Politburo and coordinates party organization
H. Unofficial leadership
Elder statesman (retired leaders) still keep considerable
influence (examples of Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintau)
Guanxi- networks of relationships and connections
Patron-client system guides promotion
III. Government of the Peoples Republic of China
A. Executive
President- head of state, mostly a ceremonial position in
meeting foreign dignitaries but same person as General Secretary
Prime Minister- (premier) head of government, runs
bureaucracy, also member of the standing committee
State Council- along with vice premiers, serves like a
cabinet to lead government departments BUT do not have authority in policy making
(see politburo)
Massive hierarchy of ministries, commissions, small groups, etc.
b. Cadres- people in authority who are paid by the government (40 million),
chosen by civil service exams, highly competitive
Nomenklatura system for the party to promote approved people in the
cadre-list to higher levels
B. Legislative
National Peoples Congress
Unicameral body elected to 5 year terms (nearly 3000 deputies), about
are party members
b. Elected through a tier system of local and regional assembly system who
represent their regions
Though has great power to make policy, choose premier, etc, it is a rubberstamp institution
Local and Regional Legislatures- make decisions based
on the governor, party, and national institutions
C. Judicial
1. Four tiers of courts (nationwide, provincial, city,
county/town level)
2. Does not have judicial review
3. No adversarial system
4. Rule by law not rule of law- 99% conviction
rate, controlled by the party
5. Harsh punishments- long prison sentences and
lots of death penalty
D. Military

Peoples Liberation Army- has a role in decisionmaking, seats in NPC, as well as in the Central Committee and Politburo
Central Military Commission- both a party and
government institution that controls military
Chairman traditionally same person as General Secretary
of the party
IV. Regional and Local Government
A. Unitary State- Beijing tightly controls governments of the provinces
B. Governors are appointed over the provinces, levels of party and government leadership in
provinces, cities, countries, villages
C. Decentralization- process since the 90s as the PRC moves away from central planning
D. Village Elections- direct election of leaders of self-governing villages (but still guidance of
party and higher levels of leadership)


Societal Cleavages
A. Ethnic
1. Han- Most prominent people group (90% of population), concentrated on east coast
2. Tibet
a. History of autonomy until annexed by PRC
b. Dalai Lama runs an government in exile while Tibet is an autonomous
c. Party keeps tight control with threats of protest
3. Uighurs- Muslim Turkish group in Xinjiang that are known for rebellion
4. Taiwana. status is province in rebellion with hopes of reconciliation
b. trade with mainland, keep connections
5. Other groups: Mongolian, Manchu, etc
6. Languages- Mandarin is the primary language but with many dialects, Cantonese,
each minority group has own language
B. Religious
1. Atheism- the most prominent and the official belief of the CCP
2. Taoism and folk religions- hard to measure but second largest
3. Buddhisma. About 20% esp in Tibet
b. Fulan Gong- meditation organization that was suppressed by the CCP in
4. Islam- Prominent among minorities like Uighurs or Hui, 1-2%
5. Christianity- there are some official and regulated churches but also a large and
growing house church movement (40-80m)
C. Gender
1. Role of women under Mao- more prominent, helped create relative equality


Current role of women- new laws and efforts to prevent gender discrimination but do
not have full equality in society
D. Urban-Rural
1. Urban- growing very rapidly (recent surpassed rural), growing income gap compared
to rural areas
2. Rural
a. During Maos collectivization, rural life was highly regimented
b. Danwei- work units, supervised jobs, travel, marriage, and having children
(implemented one-child only)- system has been slowly dismantled
c. Hokou system- household registration system (marriage, family, location)
prevented easy migration
d. Reforms have been made (especially with joining the WTO) have freed
migration to urban and industrial centers but without the benefits of official
II. Public Policy
A. One-Child Policy
1. History- implemented by Deng as a way to alleviate poverty
2. Implementation- reinforced by danwei, fee if multiple children, forced abortions if
pregnancy discovered
3. Exemptions- those who pay fees, apply for exemptions, minorities or special regions,
sometimes first child disabled, farmers
4. Consequences- reduced birthrate, male-dominance, aging population, human right
violations (sterilizations)
B. Media
1. State owned- almost all and the others are heavily regulated but have become more
competitive and investigative
2. Transparency- government and party are carefully covered but little analysis of
differences, inner-workings, or mistakes
3. Internet (now 400 million users)
a. One of the most regulated and censored in the world (example of searches of
Wen Jibao, Tiananmen, Jade)
b. Weibo- Chinese version of twitter, regulated/utilized by government, mild
criticism, connection to corruption
C. Interest groups and Civil Society
1. NGOs- non-governmental organizations (national and international), work with
govt to work on improving China, regulated by govt, limited civil society
2. State Owned Enterprises- large businesses owned by the govt, still have major role
in the economy, shapes the direction of the economy, very inefficient compared to
private companies
3. State corporatism- close relationship b/w major industries and govt in making
economic policy
4. Protest- increasingly used to get voice heard (lack of efficacy)
5. Mass Line- Governments solution to mobilize and engage the citizenry
D. Environmental


Problems: air and water pollution, urban sprawl, lack of regulations, huge growth
(automobiles), rapid industrialization
2. Policies: shutting down/moving factories, better regulations, reduced vehicles, green
E. Corruption
1. Role of guanxi- close personal connections more important than other loyalties
2. Examples- Local officials, state industries, privileges, bureaucrats
3. Elites getting wealthy through personal and family connections to major industries
4. Countermeasures- harsh punishment, use of media to expose, new government
F. Judicial
1. Causes of Judicial Reform: codified law with liberalization, international trade
norms, internal pressure
2. Changes: Creating new courts, hiring new lawyers, more qualifications for judges,
more independence (from corruption not party)
3. Punishment: can hold up to three years without trial, death penalty for several crimes,
reeducation labor camps (but changing)
G. Foreign Policy
1. Relationship with neighbors- aggressive with protecting/controlling territory
2. WTO- membership in 2002, has adjusted to intl norms
3. FDI- encourage it and use to expand influence in Central Asia and Africa
4. Leadership- member of security council but protects sovereignty, not interested in
hegemony (peaceful rise)


Conquest and colonies

A. Aztecs and Cortez- conquered easily because of disease
B. Colonial System- ruled by Spanish, used for raw materials and plantations, top down
C. Class system based on race: whites, mestizos (60%), Amerindian (30%),
II. Challenges of Independence
A. War of Independence (1810-1821): Father Hidalgo, Napoleon, mixed factions
B. Uneasy Republic- conflict between liberals and conservatives: type and role of govt, role of
church, economy, 36 presidents in 22 years
C. Texas Independence (1835-36) and Mexican-American War (1846-1848)- America gets half
D. Mexico continued struggles b/w liberals and conservatives
III. Porfiriato
A. Porfirio Diaz- retired general who ruled from 1876 to 1911
B. Centralized political power and ended chaos: dictatorship but elected 7 times
C. Began industrialization through free trade and foreign investment
D. Small elite who enriched themselves: income inequality increased dramatically
IV. Mexican Revolution (1910-1924)


Madero, an elite, ran on the campaign of no reelection

Diaz retired, central power collapsed, Madero was elected then assassinated two years later
Chaos at the top encouraged peasants to revolt- joined local leaders to take down
landowners: chaos resulted in a million deaths
D. Warlords like Zapata and Pancho Villa even took on the Mexican and American armies
E. Mexican Constitution of 1917- liberal constitution, still used, created federal state, gave
rights to poor, limited church
F. Effects: Elites and church limited, nationalism against foreign investors, new strong central
govt (Dependency Theory)
V. Rise of the PRI
A. Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI) was formed in 1929 among competing elites
B. Sexenio- president limited to one 6 year term to prevent dictatorship, most early presidents
were generals (Caudillos) who would then pick their successors (patron-clientalism)
C. Perfect Dictatorship- Authoritarian but didnt infringe greatly on peoples rights, had clear
line of succession, gave great economic growth
D. Cardenas (1934-1940)
1. Redistributed land in the form of ejidos- collective farms that would be leased to
2. Nationalized industry, esp. oil industry
3. Built a corporatist system based on the military, peasants, workers, and middle
VI. Mexican Miracle (1940-1970)
A. Stability and government policy was able to achieve high growth and low inflation for three
B. PRI kept a firm grip on society through its system of clientalism and promising economic
C. Import substitution industrialization- develop national industry through protectionism
(high tariffs to block foreign goods), state guidance, subsidies, and public investment
D. Rapid urbanization and industrialism
VII. Economic Changes
A. Economic Crisis
1. Growth slowed down and the government became reliant on oil revenues to keep
up spending
2. Oil prices crashed in late 1970s (at the time, 75% of Mexicos exports)
3. Government responded by nationalizing banks
4. Peso was devalued several times
B. Economic Liberalization
1. Presidents Madrid and Salinas began to open up the economy
a. Decreased barriers, opened more free trade
b. Decreased govt role in the economy (privatization, ending subsidies) and
the power of unions
2. NAFTA- beginning of free trade w/US and Canada, different from a supranational
organization, helped growth but unequal and more foreign influence
3. Economic collapse in 1994 and US bailout

VIII. Political Changes

A. Political Crisis
1. Challenges to PRI rule in 1968 Olympic Massacre (400 protesters killed) and 1985
Earthquake (tens of thousands killed with a poor PRI response)
2. Public outcry over leftists that were disappeared
3. In 1988, Calderas of the PRD almost won the election (fraud)
4. Fraud in 1994 election, assassination of PRI candidate
5. Zapatista Uprising- 1994, day NAFTA went into affect, leftist rebel indigenous
group rose up in Chiapas, got more rights for Amerindians but showed divisions in
B. Political Liberalization
1. Changes in election laws helped create opposition parties, free state and local
elections (more non-PRI governors, Mexico City elections)
2. Federal Electoral Institute (IFE)- independent NGO regulates elections,
decreased fraud and corruption, public funding of elections
3. PRI lost majority of legislature in 1997, Zedillo did not pick a successor, 2000 was
an open election
4. Vicente Fox (PAN) was the first non-PRI to win in 71 years


Mexican Constitution (1917)

A. Clearly defines rights
B. Federal structure, checks and balances
C. Longer and more clearly defined (Napoleonic legal system)
D. Easier Amendment process
II. Executive Branch
A. President
1. How elected: Popularly elected for a sexenio- six year term (no two ballot system)
2. Role: Head of government and state:
3. Powers: initiate legislation, international, run government, appointments
4. Informal power- through party can dominate other branches and states
5. Impeachment: same as US
B. Cabinet- Appointed by president, heads of departments (most important is the Interior- law
and order)
C. Bureaucracy
1. Large- 5% of population (local, state, federal, and parastatal)
2. Moderate salary (good path to middle class but also can be bribed)
3. Patron-client system to get good jobs
III.Legislative Branch: Congress of the Union
A. Senate (upper house)
1. Represents the 31 states and 1 Federal District (Mexico City)


Each state elects 3 senators: two (together in a party) through FPTP plurality and one
for the first minority
3. 32 senators are elected through proportional representation (128 total)
4. Six year term, no reelection
B. Chamber of Deputies (lower house)
1. 300 Majority Deputies are elected through single-member districts
2. 200 Party Deputies: are elected through PR
3. 3 year terms, no reelection
C. Policy Making
1. Constitutional lawmaking is similar to the US: both houses of Congress with
signature or veto by president
2. President and bureaucracy have played the central role because of the power PRI and
3. Becoming more pluralist (used to be very corporatist)
4. Congress used to be rubber-stamp but now is a check on power (especially with three
competition parties)
IV. Judiciary
A. Supreme Court
1. 11 Justices (rotating 4 year president), serve a 15 year term
2. Given strong constitutional power like judicial review (given 1994) but only recently
started exercising them
B. Court system is developing but suffers from corruption, limited experience with civil rights,
and crime
V. State and Local Government
A. Governors: elected to 6 year terms by their states
B. Local legislatures: direct elections
C. Power to create laws, enforcement for their state as long as it complies with federal law
D. Though Federal structure, Mexico was very centralized until the decline in the power of the
PRI (still controls majority of states)
VI. Other Institutions
A. Military
1. Had strong policy making power under early caudillos
2. Is clearly underneath the civilian government (no coups)
3. Has been used within the country to combat unrest (drug and uprisings like
B. Parastatals- autonomous (or semi) government owned industries
1. Until 1980, major part of the economy (over a thousand: investment, electricity, farm
subsidies, etc)
2. Pemex- national oil company
3. Most have been privatized (less than 200)
4. Debate about whether to make them more competitive, independent, or allow FDI



Political Parties
A. PRI (Institutional Revolutionary Party)
1. Ideology: traditionally party of power, now centrist
2. Economic Views: neoliberal
3. Makeup:
a. Politicos (politicians), Technicos (technocrats) disagree about economic
b. camarillas (patron-client relationships)
c. poor, less educated, Losing support from unions
4. Region: Rural, west
B. PAN (National Action Party)
1. Ideology: right center
2. Economic Views: neoliberal, privatization
3. Makeup: Catholics, business, middle class
4. Region: northern, eastern, urban
5. Major Policies: anticorruption, democratization, war against drug cartels
C. PRD- (Democratic Revolutionary Party)
1. Ideology: leftist
2. Economic Views: social programs for poor, nationalization, anti free trade
3. Makeup: young
4. Region: Mexico City, central, south
II. Elections
A. Publically funded
B. Voting is mandated (but not enforced)
C. Election law requires 40% of candidates be women
III.Recent Political History
A. 2000- Fox PAN victory
B. 2006- Calderon (PAN) with Obrador (PRD) contesting the results, drug war full swing
C. 2009- shift toward PRI
D. 2012- PRI victory: uncertain multiparty rule


A. Ethnic: Amerindian (poverty, discrimination) vs Mestizo, given more autonomy through
B. Gender: Birth rates lowered, more women working, increasing role in government (more than
1/3), but still challenges like domestic violence
C. North South: North more industrialized, south more poor, migration patterns to the North as
part of NAFTA and liberalization
D. Urban Rural: Mexico City 25% of population vs rural farmers, many still in ejidos
E. Rich Poor: large gap (gini around 0.5), business vs socialism
F. Religion:
1. Over 80% Catholic, growing is Pentecostal Christian

2. Anticlerical- backlash against the role of the Catholic church in government

II. Civil Society
A. Media:
1. Only two television companies (Televisa- old links to PRI, and TV Azteca), duopoly
blocks competition, Carlos Slim is trying to add a third station
2. Variety of newspapers and active internet
3. Threats from corrupt officials and drug cartels
B. Interest Groups: transition from corporatism to pluralism
C. NGOs: help build civil society, democratization and work to help with Mexicos problems
(ex: doctors w/o borders, transparency international, justice initiative, various watchdogs etc)



Pre-Colonial History
A. Africa Geography
1. Sahara, Sahel, Savanna, Rainforests
2. Poor land for farming for most of history
B. Impact on African Development: development of pastoralist clans, diverse cultures, few
lasting kingdoms
C. Rise of Islam in North Africa: Kingdoms of Mali, Songhai (Mansa Musa) and the TransSaharan slave trade
D. Beginning of slavery: Portuguese in West Africa, slave ports, trade guns and rum for
Africans to enslave others
E. Kingdoms: Unified Muslim kingdoms in North, smaller less unified kingdoms in South
II. Ethnic Cleavages
A. Hausa-Fulani
1. Muslim dominated in the north
2. Mix of two groups about 100 years ago
B. Yoruba
1. Mix of Muslim and Christian in the south west
2. Location of Lagos, the old capitol and largest metropolis
C. Igbo
1. Predominantly Christian evangelical in the southeast
2. Meritocracy and adoption of Western religion made them somewhat favored in
British colonial rule
D. Others: Make up about a 1/3 of all Nigerians
1. Middle band: mix of ethnic groups, new capitol location
2. North east: Muslim Kanuri (center of current violence)
3. South: minority rich region between Yoruba and Igbo concentrated areas
E. Before colonialism these groups were not in any way grouped together or even had strong
identities as a unified ethnic group
Colonial History (1860-1960)
A. Ended slave trade (1807) so started to import materials from Nigeria






Niger Delta Company- expanded rule along river, divided into North and South
Indirect Rule- strategy of rule for the north, south had more direct rule
Official Colonization- gradual process made official in 1914
Colonial Government
1. Parliamentary System- two houses, upper representing the states
2. Federal system- three states (dominated by the three ethnicities)
3. Civil Service- given British education, dominated by Igbo
F. Transition to Independence after World War Two
First Republic and Biafran War (1960-1970)
A. Independence Challenges: divisions based on ethnicity
B. Weak Parliament: ethnic groups worked for their benefit and could not effectively form a
C. Discovery of Oil- conflict especially because located in Igbo region
D. 1966 Coup- Igbo general wanted to clean up corruption
E. 1966 Counter coup- backlash against Igbo across Nigeria
F. Biafran War
1.Igbo-dominated region declares independence
2.Blockade kills over 3 million people
Military Rule and the Second Republic (1970-1983)
A. Gowon stays in power until 1975
B. After a few coups, Gen. Obasanjo takes power
1. Creates American style presidential system
2. Increases number of states to 19 to ease ethnic tension
3. Oversees free presidential elections in 1979
C. Shagari takes power: Boom in oil wealth, continues ethnic tension and corruption, reelection
marred by fraud
Military Rule and the Third Republic (1983-1998)
A. Coup after reelection, then eventually Babangida takes power
B. Aborted Third Republic: Babangida eventually allowed elections then annulled the results
C. Abacha took over in a coup and ruled with an iron grip
1. Promised elections but never delivered
2. Economic achievements: growth, reduced debt, reduced inflation
3. Tried and executed many including environmental activist Ken Saro-Wiwa
(sparked intl outcry)
4. Died of a heart attack 1998
D. Transition back to democracy
The Fourth Republic (1999-present)
A. Obasanjo elected president (Head of Transparency Intl in between)
1. Yoruba Christian, led the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP)
2. Cleaned out previous military leaders, tried to reduce corruption
3. Truth and reconciliation courts to investigate human rights violations in past regimes
4. Raised minimum wage, distributed oil wealth
5. Checks on power: in 2002 an attempt to impeach him and denial of an amendment
to get a 3rd term



Yaradua elected president (background chemistry teacher NOT general)

1. First example of a civilian change in government
2. Muslim from the North: principle of alternating ethnic/religious leaders
3. Died in office, VP Goodluck Jonathan (Christian from South) took power
Goodluck Jonathan won election in 2011 and is the current president


Executive Branch
A. Early: PM under Parliamentary System
B. Executive under military rule: different under different regimes
C. President: role still being shaped
1. Obasanjo, Yar-adua, Goodluck Jonathan (principle of rotating ethnicities)
2. How elected:
a. Must win a plurality in direct nationwide elections (must win at least 25% in
2/3 of the states)
b. If not, two ballot run-off election
c. Max of 2 four year terms
3. Role: Head of government and state
4. Powers: administration, international, appointments, commander-in-chief (modeled
after US), calling referendums
5. Impeachment: became an issue in 2002
D. Bureaucracy
1. Cabinet
2. Federal Character- ethnic quotas for government jobs
3. Prebendalism- officeholders use their positions to help (through corruption and
patron-clientalism) their ethnic group
4. Very large: takes a huge part of the budget
II. Legislative Branch: National Assembly
A. Senate (upper house): Represents the 36 states, Each state elects 3 senators (each with a
district) for four year terms
B. House of Representatives (lower house): 360 members elected in single member districts for
four year terms
C. Policy Making
1. History of top down directives
2. Official: President and National Assembly work together
3. Reality: dominated by networks of big men who create pyramids of loyalty
through $ and positions
4. Military no longer plays an active role in policy making
A. Supreme Court
1. Appointed by president, affirmed by Senate
2. Independence attacked by military rule but increasing under democratic rule
3. Has Judicial Review and has used it since 1999

B. Court system has been plagued by corruption and nepotism

C. Northern states have been allowed to create sharia law- Islamic law but only applies to
IV. State and Local Government
A. National Question- how to govern with great diversity?
1. Nigerians overwhelmingly want to stay unified
2. Answer is through federalism, federal character appointments, and prebendalism
B. Governors: elected to two 4 year terms by their states
C. Local legislatures: Power to create laws, enforcement for their state as long as it complies
with federal law
D. Though Federal structure, states are weak
1. History of top down military rule
2. States dependent on federal govt for funds
V. Other Institutions
A. Military1. currently not major political influence
2. diverse and subject to patron client networks
3. involved in fighting internally (Boko Haram and MEND) as well internationally
B. Parastatals- autonomous (or semi) government owned industries
1. Organized under a system of state corporatism
2. Control many industries like minerals, energy, communication, and many sectors of
the economy
3. Big source of employment and corruption
4. Privatizing due to structural adjustment programs
C. Oil Industry
1. Accounts for 40% of GDP, 95% of exports, and 80% of government revenue
2. Rentier State- country that is reliant on a national resource so does not develop
domestic industry
3. Oil is extracted through joint cooperation of nationalized corporation and foreign
multinationals (Shell, etc)
4. Mostly located in the Niger River delta and offshore


Political Parties
A. In the second Republic, political parties were mostly ethnically based
B. Now, In order to be an official party recognized by INEC, parties must be national: have at
least 5% in 2/3 of states
C. Reality is that parties are loosely ethnically based, rarely focus on political ideologies, used
to combine interests
D. PDP (Peoples Democratic Party)- party of power, originally had much of its base influence
in the North (now south), claims to be for a market economy, socially conservative
E. All Progressive Congress- an alliance parties to challenge the PDP, ideology is socialist

II. Civil Society

A. Interest groups
1. Overall corporatist due to role of parastatals and patron-client networks but emerging
2. Unions- long influence but diminished under dictators
3. Business, professional, women, youth groups
B. Protests- Permitted way to influence govt: ex: fuel subsidies and electricity, why do they
C. NGOs- push for civil society and other issues like environment
III.Nigerian Society
A. Cleavages: region, religion, ethnicity (Coinciding not Cross cutting)
B. Role of Women- more traditional roles (esp. in North), few women politicians, slowly
growing role
C. Media- free and independent in the 4th Republic with newspapers, radio, television, and
growing internet


History of the Oil Industry

A. Boom in 1970s
1. Nationalization of industry
2. Joined OPEC (Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries), oil prices boomed
3. Rent Seeking behavior- using influence to access existing wealth (corruption,
lobbying, or access)
4. Import Substitution: failure because did not develop domestic industry
B. Drop in 1980s
1. Oil prices declined and left with crushing debt and corruption
2. IMF and structural adjustment- Babingida negotiated for debt relief in exchange
for liberalizing market, reducing deficit, privatization, deregulation
C. 90s to Present
1. Rule of Abacha and execution of Ken Saro-Wiwa focused international pressure (ex:
suspended from the Commonwealth)
2. Attempt to create a minimum oil budget, emergency save the rest
3. Fuel subsidies reduced to decrease fiscal burden, protests slowed efforts
II. Impact of Oil Industry
A. Corruption
B. Role of Foreign MultinationalsC. Dependency theory- Developing countries remain poor because their resources and labors
enrich developed countries
D. Environmental damage- extensive in the Niger Delta and offshore oil spills
E. Violence


Minority groups rebel against multinationals, other groups, government

MEND- seeks to get oil revenue for poor, reality guerilla rebel group, wants regional
and economic autonomy
3. Boko Haram- extremist Islamic group, attacks schools, wants regional Islamic rule

III.Public Policy
A. Helping the Poor
1. World Bank- goal to reduce poverty through capital loans and aid projects, IMF
focuses on whole economies and overall structural adjustment programs
2. Microcredit- mini loans to families and small businesses
3. Land reform- redistribution of land
B. Public Health
1. HIV/AIDs- big concern for all of sub-Saharan Africa
2. Child and maternal health
C. Reducing Tensions b/w ethnic groups
D. Regional Issues
1. Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS)- free trade and
monetary supranational organization, goal is economic, security, community
2. Islamic extremism- problem in the region


Foundation of Iranian State

A. Persian Empire- long and proud history stretching 3000 years
B. Rise of Islam
1. Spread from Arabia to Persia by late 600s
2. Split b/w Sunnis and Shias: succession of caliph
3. 12th Imam disappeared: wait for the hidden Imam
C. Safavid Dynasty (1501-1722)
1. Established Shia rule, fought with other Sunni Empires
2. Established Iranian nation-state
D. Qajar Dynasy (1794-1921)
1. Weak state, buffeted by European imperial powers
2. Oil discovered by British
3. Middle class demonstrations in a Revolution of 1905-1909 transitioned to an secular
constitutional monarchy
4. Constitution of 1906 reformed govt with a Majles (parliament) and Guardian
Council (could veto)
II. Pahlavi Dynasty (1925-1979)
A. Reza Khan, military officer, overthrew the Qajar dynasty and named himself Shah
1. Bureaucratic secular authoritarian state, focused on modernization
2. Secular state- angered orthodox Shia clerics
3. Pro-Western, aligned with Germany in WWII, forced to abdicate 1941
B. Muhammad Reza Shah made Shah, continued modernization Pro-Western policies


Oil run by BP (the Anglo-Persian Oil Company)

Abadan Crisis (1951-1953)
1. Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq tried to nationalize the oil industry
2. Popular uprising forced Shah into exile
3. CIA and MI6 engineered a coup to bring him back to power
E. White Revolution
1. After coup, Shah ruled with absolute authority: suppressed rights, secular, increased
2. Further became a rentier state using oil for modernization
3. Rural reforms caused major urbanization
III. Iranian Revolution
A. Causes
1. Calls for more open civil society
2. Middle class discontent, some democratic and even Marxists call for regime change
3. Drop in oil with rise in consumer prices (revolution of rising expectations)
4. Religious repression
a. Pahlavi Dynasty was anti-Islam, lower classes very religious
b. Ayatollah Khomeini exiled but smuggled in sermons against the regime
B. Events
1. Peaceful uprising, violent crackdown early 1979
2. Shah forced into exile in February
3. Religious clerics led by returned Khomeini took over
C. Constitution of 1979- Created an Islamic Republic
1. Democratic institutions like majles and political parties
2. Divinely guided clerics supervising the system and enforcing Sharia law
IV. Khomeni Rule
A. Anti-Americanism- Embassy hostage crisis of 1979-1981
B. Repression- Revolutionary Guards created, opponents jailed and executed
C. Cultural Revolution- reformed education and society to reflect Islamic values and
Revolutionary ideology, attacked Westernism/middle class culture
D. Iran-Iraq War (1980-1988)- terrible war, solidified Islamic rule, anger toward America for
supporting Iraq
E. Economy- war, decline in FDI, drop in oil prices hurt economy; erratic economic policy and
nationalized industries
V. Khamenei Rule
A. Ayatolla Khamenei became supreme leader at Khomenis death but power shifted to new
president Rafsanjani
B. 1989 Constitutional Changes- eliminated the position of PM, made minor changes away
from rule of clerics
C. President Khatami (1997-2005)
1. Moderate- supported encouraging open civil society through political groups/parties,
decreased censorship, protests
2. Encouraged more rights for women and minorities
3. Improved relationship with US


4. Very popular: won 2/3 then of vote, reformers won 189 of 290 seats of the Majles
Conservative resurgence
1. Khamanei and the clerics barred 2500 moderate and reformist candidates from
running, Reformers lost 150 seats in the 2004 Majles
2. President Ahmadinejad (2005-2013)- conservative but not a cleric, charismatic,
strongly anti-American
3. Green Revolution- fraudulent 2009 election, mass protests and crackdown
4. Uncertain future- Rouhani is a cleric insider but also somewhat of a moderate


Elected Institutions
A. President
1. Election
a. Qualifications: Iranian nationality, religious criteria
b. Direct popular election, two consecutive four year terms
2. Powers
a. Head of government- in charge of cabinet and bureaucracy
b. Present legislation, create budget, meet foreign leaders, but power is limited
by Supreme Leader
3. Council of Ministers (10 VPs and 21 ministers)- appointed by President confirmed
by Majles
B. Parliament (Majles)
1. Powers
a. Remove Cabinet members and impeach president, confirms 6 of 12 Guardian
b. Enacting laws, approve treaties, approve budget
c. Not a rubberstamp institution but limited power
2. Unicameral system (no Senate- unitary system)
3. Elections
a. Single-member districts, four year terms, run-off elections
b. List of candidates approved by Guardian Council
c. Religious minorities get seats: Armenians, Assyrian Catholics, Jews, and
C. Regional and Local Government
1. Broken into provinces but unitary system
2. Local councils (started 1999) make local decisions, elect local leaders
D. Assembly of Experts
1. 86 directly elected (but must pass an exam on religious knowledge and be approved
by Guardian Council)
2. Appoint, supervise, and remove Supreme leader

II. Appointed Positions

A. Supreme Leader
1. Jurist Guardianship- clergy has political power over the Shia community
2. Role is to supervise politics, protect Islamic rule, and essentially is head of state
3. Powers
a. Head of military, appoints security leaders and councils of foreign affairs
b. Religion and culture: tv and radio and prayer leaders
c. Religious foundations (Bonyads) -huge resources and employ hundreds of
thousands of people, control parts of the economy (20%)
d. Appoints top legal positions including chief judge, 6 of the 12 Guardian
Council (other 6 indirectly)
B. Military
1. In addition to Army, Revolutionary Guard- military to protect the Islamic
Revolution, has come to play a huge role in the politics and economy of Iran
2. Basij- militia group, used to put down protesters
C. Guardian Council
1. Oversee all three branches, ensure that laws (power to veto) and governance comply
with Sharia law
2. 12 members: six appointed by Supreme Leader, six appointed by Supreme Court
approved by Maljis
3. Candidates must apply with the GC, are vetted for religious/ideological criteria
4. Can remove the president with the Supreme Court
D. Expediency Council- appointed by Supreme Leader (leaders of the branches and top clerics)
to resolve conflicts b/w Guardian Council and Majlis
E. Judiciary
1. Sharia Law- Islamic law that applies to family, economic, and criminal issues
2. Qanun Law- statutory law produced by the Majles
3. Chief Justice appoints 6 of the 12 Guardian Council, confirmed by Majles


A. Political Parties
1. Background
a. History of one-party system: Rastakhiz Party under Shah, Islamic
Republican Party under Khomeini, no parties from 1987 to 1997
b. Political Parties now must support the Islamic Revolution, professional
groups that are part of the Conservative or Reformist coalition
2. Conservative Alliance
a. Alliance of Builders of Islamic Iran, Combatant Clergy Association, etc


Advocate preserving role of clergy, support of Revolutionary Guard,

somewhat divided on economic policy
3. Reformist Coalition- Mix of parties (many banned since 2009) that advocate
democracy, free expression, liberalism
4. Banned Opposition: secular, leftist, ethnic
B. Political Movements
1. Reform Movement (1997-2005)- led by Khatami, huge voter turnout due to women
and youth, power was limited by Guardian Councils vetos
2. Conservative Movement (2005-present)- led by Ahmadinejad, supported by religious
3. Green Movement (2009-present)- in response to the fraudulent election, thousands
of protesters, crackdown and major leaders imprisoned
4. Future- Ahmadinejad has oppressed the Green Movement repressed, a more
moderate Rouhani has taken power

II. Society
A. Religion
1. 90% Shia Muslims, 9% Sunni and Sufi
2. Minority religious like Christianity, Zoroastrianism, Jews, have been oppressed
(though get some seats) and Bahai (seen as heretical)
3. Tension is b/w secular middle class and clergy
B. Ethnicity- 61% Persians, 16% Azeri, 10% Kurds (repression in the past, little tension now)
C. Role of Women
1. Politics- can vote but few government positions (9 women in parliament, first cabinet
2. Education- over half of all university students
3. Workplace- only about 1/3 of women in the workplace
4. Limited Rights- dress requirements, legal rights
5. Marriage and Divorce- temporary marriage, limited ways to get a divorce
D. Demographics
1. After Iran-Iraq war, families were encouraged to have big families: population boom
2. Reversed to restrict population growth: family planning policies, sex ed, women
E. Media
1. Mix of private and public and private
2. Though there is censorship of criticisms of Islam and regime, press can report on
govt failures and pursue intellectual study
3. Internet censored, but many can use for mobilizations
III.Public Policy
A. Policy Process- Official: transparent through the Majles and president, but really in the
behind scenes with clerics/elected (corporatist)
B. Political Economy



Govt Economic Policy- has always been erratic, though publics important issue,
little govt focus, but very closed off from foreign investment
2. State owned enterprises- official public enterprises, revolutionary guard and bonyad
semiprivate enterprises make 80% of total GDP (highest of our countries)
3. Role of natural resources- top oil and natural gas, up to 50% of govt revenue, but
cannot solve poverty or high unemployment: has been used to give subsidies for the
poor to buy votes/support
4. Patron-clientalism- through bonyads, clerical circles, revolutionary guards
5. Current struggle: Inflation from sanctions, must make big cuts due to inability to
export oil
Public Health- improving but challenges including population bulge, drug addiction (highest
opium addiction at 3%)
Environment- air pollution (biggest concern due to old vehicles with oil subsidies),
deforestation, and water contamination
Human Rights- no independent judiciary, use death penalty, harsh punishment, attacks on
journalists and opposition
Foreign Policy
1. Reactionary: due to history, wars, Shiism, dreams of spreading theocracy
2. Nuclear program: civilian or weaponized purpose
3. Sanctions: leading to devastating inflation