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Type 2 diabetes

The management of type 2 diabetes


Issued: May 2009 last modified: December 2014
NICE clinical guideline 87
guidance.nice.org.uk/cg87

NICE has accredited the process used by the Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE to produce
guidelines. Accreditation is valid for 5 years from September 2009 and applies to guidelines produced
since April 2007 using the processes described in NICE's 'The guidelines manual' (2007, updated
2009). More information on accreditation can be viewed at www.nice.org.uk/accreditation
NICE 2009

Type 2 diabetes

NICE clinical guideline 87

Contents
Introduction .................................................................................................................................

Patient-centred care ....................................................................................................................

Key priorities for implementation .................................................................................................

1 Guidance ..................................................................................................................................

1.1 Patient education .............................................................................................................................

1.2 Lifestyle management/non-pharmacological management..............................................................

1.3 Glucose control levels ...................................................................................................................... 10


1.4 Self-monitoring of plasma glucose ................................................................................................... 12
1.5 Oral glucose control therapies (1): metformin, insulin secretagogues and acarbose ..................... 13
1.6 Oral glucose control therapies (2): other oral agents and exenatide ............................................... 15
1.7 Glucose control: insulin therapy ....................................................................................................... 19
1.8 Blood pressure therapy .................................................................................................................... 22
1.9 Cardiovascular risk estimation ......................................................................................................... 24
1.10 Management of blood lipid levels ................................................................................................... 24
1.11 Anti-thrombotic therapy .................................................................................................................. 26
1.12 Kidney damage .............................................................................................................................. 26
1.13 Eye damage ................................................................................................................................... 28
1.14 Nerve damage................................................................................................................................ 29

2 Notes on the scope of the guidance ......................................................................................... 34


3 Implementation ........................................................................................................................ 35
4 Research recommendations .................................................................................................... 36
4.1 Glucose control: oral glucose-lowering therapy ............................................................................... 36
4.2 Glucose control: oral glucose-lowering therapy ............................................................................... 36
4.3 Self-monitoring of plasma glucose ................................................................................................... 36
4.4 Blood-pressure-lowering medications .............................................................................................. 37

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4.5 Diabetic neuropathic pain management........................................................................................... 37


4.6 Effectiveness and safety of GLP-1 mimetics.................................................................................... 38
4.7 Effectiveness of DPP-4 inhibitors ..................................................................................................... 38
4.8 Adherence with different complexities of treatment regimen............................................................ 38
4.9 Health-related quality of life.............................................................................................................. 39

5 Other versions of this guideline ................................................................................................ 40


5.1 Full guidelines .................................................................................................................................. 40
5.2 Information for the public.................................................................................................................. 40

6 Related NICE guidance ........................................................................................................... 41


7 Updating the guideline.............................................................................................................. 43
Appendix A: The Guideline Development Groups....................................................................... 44
Appendix B: The Guideline Review Panel .................................................................................. 50
Appendix C: The algorithms ....................................................................................................... 51
Changes after publication............................................................................................................ 52
About this guideline ..................................................................................................................... 53

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Introduction
This guideline is a partial update of NICE clinical guideline 66.
Type 2 diabetes is commonly associated with raised blood pressure, a disturbance of blood lipid
levels and a tendency to develop thrombosis. It is notable for the increased cardiovascular risk
that it carries: coronary artery disease (leading to heart attacks, angina); peripheral artery
disease (leg claudication, gangrene); and carotid artery disease (strokes, dementia). The specific
('microvascular') complications of diabetes include eye damage (blindness), kidney damage
(sometimes requiring dialysis or transplantation) and nerve damage (resulting in amputation,
painful symptoms, erectile dysfunction, other problems). This picture of multiple vascular risk
factors and wide-ranging complications means that the management of type 2 diabetes draws on
many areas of healthcare management. As a result, diabetes care is typically complex and timeconsuming. The necessary lifestyle changes, the complexities of management and the side
effects of therapy make self-monitoring and education for people with diabetes central parts of
management.
Definition
The guideline recommendations were developed using the World Health Organization (WHO)
definition of diabetes, which requires a degree of high plasma glucose levels sufficient to put the
individual at risk of the microvascular complications of diabetes. This definition was re-confirmed
by WHO in 2006[ ] but, like earlier versions, it does not contain a specific definition for type 2
diabetes. A person is normally thought to have type 2 diabetes if he or she does not have type 1
diabetes (rapid onset, often in childhood, insulin-dependent, ketoacidosis if neglected),
monogenetic diabetes or other medical conditions or treatment suggestive of secondary
diabetes. Diagnosis is not addressed in this guideline.
1

[ 1]

International Diabetes Federation (2006) Definition and diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and
immediate hyperglycemia: report of a WHO/IDF consultation. Geneva: World Health
Organization.

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Patient-centred care
This guideline offers best practice advice on the care of people with type 2 diabetes. It does not
address care in or before pregnancy, or care by specialist services for specific advanced organ
damage (cardiac, renal, eye, vascular, stroke and other services).
Management of diabetes typically involves a considerable element of self-care, and advice
should, therefore, be aligned with the perceived needs and preferences of people with diabetes,
and carers. People with type 2 diabetes should have the opportunity to make informed decisions
about their care and treatment, in partnership with their healthcare professionals. If patients do
not have the capacity to make decisions, healthcare professionals should follow the Department
of Health's advice on consent and the code of practice that accompanies the Mental Capacity
Act. In Wales, healthcare professionals should follow advice on consent from the Welsh
Government.
Good communication between healthcare professionals and patients is essential. It should be
supported by evidence-based written information tailored to the patient's needs. Treatment and
care, and the information patients are given about it, should be culturally appropriate. It should
also be accessible to people with additional needs such as physical, sensory or learning
disabilities, and to people who do not speak or read English.
If the patient agrees, families and carers should have the opportunity to be involved in decisions
about treatment and care.
Families and carers should also be given the information and support they need.

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Key priorities for implementation


Offer structured education to every person and/or their carer at and around the time of
diagnosis, with annual reinforcement and review. Inform people and their carers that
structured education is an integral part of diabetes care.
Provide individualised and ongoing nutritional advice from a healthcare professional with
specific expertise and competencies in nutrition.
When setting a target glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c):
involve the person in decisions about their individual HbA1c target level, which may be
above that of 6.5% set for people with type 2 diabetes in general
encourage the person to maintain their individual target unless the resulting side
effects (including hypoglycaemia) or their efforts to achieve this impair their quality of
life
offer therapy (lifestyle and medication) to help achieve and maintain the HbA1c target
level
inform a person with a higher HbA1c that any reduction in HbA1c towards the agreed
target is advantageous to future health
avoid pursuing highly intensive management to levels of less than 6.5%.
Offer self-monitoring of plasma glucose to a person newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes
only as an integral part of his or her self-management education. Discuss its purpose and
agree how it should be interpreted and acted upon.
When starting insulin therapy, use a structured programme employing active insulin dose
titration that encompasses:
structured education
continuing telephone support
frequent self-monitoring
dose titration to target

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dietary understanding
management of hypoglycaemia
management of acute changes in plasma glucose control
support from an appropriately trained and experienced healthcare professional.

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1 Guidance
Units for reporting HbA1c have changed from % to mmol/mol since this guideline was
published. The NICE Pathway on diabetes has been changed to reflect this. The guideline is
being updated and the new version (to be published in 2015) will use mmol/mol.
The following guidance is based on the best available evidence. The full guideline give details of
the methods and the evidence used to develop the guidance.

1.1 Patient education


The recommendations in this section replace 'Guidance on the use of patient-education models
for diabetes' (NICE technology appraisal guidance 60).
1.1.1

Offer structured education to every person and/or their carer at and around the
time of diagnosis, with annual reinforcement and review. Inform people and
their carers that structured education is an integral part of diabetes care.

1.1.2

Select a patient-education programme that meets the criteria laid down by the
Department of Health and Diabetes UK Patient Education Working Group[ ].
2

Any programme should be evidence-based and suit the needs of the individual. The
programme should have specific aims and learning objectives, and should support
development of self-management attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills for the
learner, their family and carers.
The programme should have a structured curriculum that is theory driven and
evidence-based, resource-effective, has supporting materials, and is written down.
The programme should be delivered by trained educators who have an
understanding of education theory appropriate to the age and needs of the
programme learners, and are trained and competent in delivery of the principles and
content of the programme they are offering.
The programme itself should be quality assured, and be reviewed by trained,
competent, independent assessors who assess it against key criteria to ensure
sustained consistency.

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The outcomes from the programme should be regularly audited.


1.1.3

Ensure the patient-education programme provides the necessary resources to


support the educators, and that educators are properly trained and given time
to develop and maintain their skills.

1.1.4

Offer group education programmes as the preferred option. Provide an


alternative of equal standard for a person unable or unwilling to participate in
group education.

1.1.5

Ensure the patient-education programmes available meet the cultural,


linguistic, cognitive and literacy needs in the locality.

1.1.6

Ensure all members of the diabetes healthcare team are familiar with the
programmes of patient education available locally, that these programmes are
integrated with the rest of the care pathway, and that people with diabetes and
their carers have the opportunity to contribute to the design and provision of
local programmes.

1.2 Lifestyle management/non-pharmacological


management
Neither the management of obesity nor smoking cessation is specifically addressed in this
guideline. Follow other NICE guidance in these areas (see section 6 for further details).

1.2.1 Dietary advice


1.2.1.1 Provide individualised and ongoing nutritional advice from a healthcare
professional with specific expertise and competencies in nutrition.
1.2.1.2 Provide dietary advice in a form sensitive to the individual's needs, culture and
beliefs, being sensitive to their willingness to change and the effects on their
quality of life.
1.2.1.3 Emphasise advice on healthy balanced eating that is applicable to the general
population when providing advice to people with type 2 diabetes. Encourage

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high-fibre, low-glycaemic-index sources of carbohydrate in the diet, such as


fruit, vegetables, wholegrains and pulses; include low-fat dairy products and
oily fish; and control the intake of foods containing saturated and trans fatty
acids.
1.2.1.4 Integrate dietary advice with a personalised diabetes management plan,
including other aspects of lifestyle modification, such as increasing physical
activity and losing weight.
1.2.1.5 Target, for people who are overweight, an initial body weight loss of 510%,
while remembering that lesser degrees of weight loss may still be of benefit
and that larger degrees of weight loss in the longer term will have
advantageous metabolic impact.
1.2.1.6 Individualise recommendations for carbohydrate and alcohol intake, and meal
patterns. Reducing the risk of hypoglycaemia should be a particular aim for a
person using insulin or an insulin secretagogue.
1.2.1.7 Advise individuals that limited substitution of sucrose-containing foods for other
carbohydrate in the meal plan is allowable, but that care should be taken to
avoid excess energy intake.
1.2.1.8 Discourage the use of foods marketed specifically for people with diabetes.
1.2.1.9 When patients are admitted to hospital as inpatients or to any other institutions,
implement a meal-planning system that provides consistency in the
carbohydrate content of meals and snacks.

1.2.2 Management of depression


1.2.2.1 Follow the recommendations in Depression: management of depression in
primary and secondary care clinical guideline (NICE clinical guideline 23).

1.3 Glucose control levels


1.3.1

When setting a target glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c):

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involve the person in decisions about their individual HbA1c target level, which may
be above that of 6.5% set for people with type 2 diabetes in general
encourage the person to maintain their individual target unless the resulting side
effects (including hypoglycaemia) or their efforts to achieve this impair their quality
of life
offer therapy (lifestyle and medication) to help achieve and maintain the HbA1c
target level
inform a person with a higher HbA1c that any reduction in HbA1c towards the agreed
target is advantageous to future health
avoid pursuing highly intensive management to levels of less than 6.5%.
1.3.2

Measure the individual's HbA1c levels at:


26-monthly intervals (tailored to individual needs) until the blood glucose level is
stable on unchanging therapy; use a measurement made at an interval of less than
3 months as a indicator of direction of change, rather than as a new steady state
6-monthly intervals once the blood glucose level and blood glucose-lowering
therapy are stable.

1.3.3

If HbA1c levels remain above target levels, but pre-meal self-monitoring levels
remain well controlled (< 7.0 mmol/litre), consider self-monitoring to detect
postprandial hyperglycaemia (> 8.5 mmol/litre) and manage to below this level
if detected (see sections 1.51.7).

1.3.4

Measure HbA1c using high-precision methods and report results in units


aligned with those used in the DCCT trial[ ] (or as recommended by national
agreement after publication of this guideline).
3

1.3.5

When HbA1c monitoring is invalid (because of disturbed erythrocyte turnover or


abnormal haemoglobin type), estimate trends in blood glucose control using
one of the following:
fructosamine estimation

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quality-controlled plasma glucose profiles


total glycated haemoglobin estimation (if abnormal haemoglobins).
1.3.6

Investigate unexplained discrepancies between HbA1c and other glucose


measurements. Seek advice from a team with specialist expertise in diabetes
or clinical biochemistry.

1.4 Self-monitoring of plasma glucose


1.4.1

Offer self-monitoring of plasma glucose to a person newly diagnosed with type


2 diabetes only as an integral part of his or her self-management education.
Discuss its purpose and agree how it should be interpreted and acted upon.

1.4.2

Self-monitoring of plasma glucose should be available:


to those on insulin treatment
to those on oral glucose-lowering medications to provide information on
hypoglycaemia
to assess changes in glucose control resulting from medications and lifestyle
changes
to monitor changes during intercurrent illness
to ensure safety during activities, including driving.

1.4.3

Assess at least annually and in a structured way:


self-monitoring skills
the quality and appropriate frequency of testing
the use made of the results obtained
the impact on quality of life
the continued benefit

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the equipment used.


1.4.4

If self-monitoring is appropriate but blood glucose monitoring is unacceptable


to the individual, discuss the use of urine glucose monitoring.

1.5 Oral glucose control therapies (1): metformin, insulin


secretagogues and acarbose
1.5.1 Metformin
1.5.1.1 Start metformin treatment in a person who is overweight or obese (tailoring the
assessment of body-weight-associated risk according to ethnic group[ ]) and
whose blood glucose is inadequately controlled (see 1.3.1) by lifestyle
interventions (nutrition and exercise) alone.
4

1.5.1.2 Consider metformin as an option for first-line glucose-lowering therapy for a


person who is not overweight.
1.5.1.3 Continue with metformin if blood glucose control remains or becomes
inadequate (see 1.3.1) and another oral glucose-lowering medication (usually
a sulfonylurea) is added.
1.5.1.4 Step up metformin therapy gradually over weeks to minimise risk of gastrointestinal (GI) side effects. Consider a trial of extended-absorption metformin
tablets where GI tolerability prevents continuation of metformin therapy.
1.5.1.5 Review the dose of metformin if the serum creatinine exceeds 130 micromol/
litre or the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) is below 45 ml/minute/
1.73-m2.
Stop the metformin if the serum creatinine exceeds 150 micromol/litre or the eGFR
is below 30 ml/minute/1.73-m2.
Prescribe metformin with caution for those at risk of a sudden deterioration in kidney
function and those at risk of eGFR falling below 45 ml/minute/1.73-m2.

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1.5.1.6 The benefits of metformin therapy should be discussed with a person with mild
to moderate liver dysfunction or cardiac impairment so that:
due consideration can be given to the cardiovascular-protective effects of the drug
an informed decision can be made on whether to continue or stop the metformin.

1.5.2 Insulin secretagogues


1.5.2.1 Consider a sulfonylurea as an option for first-line glucose-lowering therapy if:
the person is not overweight
the person does not tolerate metformin (or it is contraindicated)
or
a rapid response to therapy is required because of hyperglycaemic symptoms.
1.5.2.2 Add a sulfonylurea as second-line therapy when blood glucose control remains
or becomes inadequate (see 1.3.1) with metformin.
1.5.2.3 Continue with a sulfonylurea if blood glucose control remains or becomes
inadequate (see 1.3.1) and another oral glucose-lowering medication is added.
1.5.2.4 Prescribe a sulfonylurea with a low acquisition cost (but not glibenclamide)
when an insulin secretagogue is indicated (see 1.5.2.1 and 1.5.2.2).
1.5.2.5 When drug concordance is a problem, offer a once-daily, long-acting
sulfonylurea.
1.5.2.6 Educate a person being treated with an insulin secretagogue, particularly if
renally impaired, about the risk of hypoglycaemia.

1.5.3 Rapid-acting insulin secretagogues


1.5.3.1 Consider offering a rapid-acting insulin secretagogue to a person with an
erratic lifestyle.

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1.5.4 Acarbose
1.5.4.1 Consider acarbose for a person unable to use other oral glucose-lowering
medications.

1.6 Oral glucose control therapies (2): other oral agents and
exenatide
The recommendations in this section were updated by the short clinical guideline Type 2
diabetes: newer agents for blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes. The guideline gives details
of the methods and the evidence used to develop the recommendations.

1.6.1 DPP-4 inhibitors (sitagliptin, vildagliptin)


1.6.1.1 Consider adding a DPP-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin, vildagliptin) instead of a
sulfonylurea as second-line therapy to first-line metformin when control of
blood glucose remains or becomes inadequate (HbA1c 6.5%, or other higher
level agreed with the individual) if:
the person is at significant risk of hypoglycaemia or its consequences (for example,
older people and people in certain jobs [for example, those working at heights or
with heavy machinery] or people in certain social circumstances [for example, those
living alone]), or
the person does not tolerate a sulfonylurea or a sulfonylurea is contraindicated.
[new 2009]
1.6.1.2 Consider adding a DPP-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin, vildagliptin) as second-line
therapy to first-line sulfonylurea monotherapy when control of blood glucose
remains or becomes inadequate (HbA1c 6.5%, or other higher level agreed
with the individual) if:
the person does not tolerate metformin, or metformin is contraindicated. [new 2009]
1.6.1.3 Consider adding sitagliptin[ ] as third-line therapy to first-line metformin and a
second-line sulfonylurea when control of blood glucose remains or becomes
5

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inadequate (HbA1c 7.5% or other higher level agreed with the individual) and
insulin is unacceptable or inappropriate[ ]. [new 2009]
6

1.6.1.4 Only continue DPP-4 inhibitor therapy (sitagliptin, vildagliptin) if the person has
had a beneficial metabolic response (a reduction of at least 0.5 percentage
points in HbA1c in 6 months). [new 2009]
1.6.1.5 Discuss the potential benefits and risks of treatment with a DPP-4 inhibitor
(sitagliptin, vildagliptin) with the person to enable them to make an informed
decision.
A DPP-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin, vildagliptin) may be preferable to a thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone)
if:
further weight gain would cause or exacerbate significant problems associated with a high
body weight, or
a thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) is contraindicated, or
the person has previously had a poor response to, or did not tolerate, a thiazolidinedione
(pioglitazone).
There may be some people for whom either a DPP-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin, vildagliptin) or a
thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) may be suitable and, in this case, the choice of treatment
should be based on patient preference. [new 2009]

1.6.2 Thiazolidinediones (pioglitazone)[ ]


7

1.6.2.1 Consider adding a thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) instead of a sulfonylurea as


second-line therapy to first-line metformin when control of blood glucose
remains or becomes inadequate (HbA1c 6.5%, or other higher level agreed
with the individual) if:
the person is at significant risk of hypoglycaemia or its consequences (for example,
older people and people in certain jobs [for example, those working at heights or
with heavy machinery] or people in certain social circumstances [for example, those
living alone]), or

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a person does not tolerate a sulfonylurea or a sulfonylurea is contraindicated. [new


2009]
1.6.2.2 Consider adding a thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) as second-line therapy to
first-line sulfonylurea monotherapy when control of blood glucose remains or
becomes inadequate (HbA1c 6.5%, or other higher level agreed with the
individual) if:
the person does not tolerate metformin or metformin is contraindicated. [new 2009]
1.6.2.3 Consider adding a thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) as third-line therapy to firstline metformin and a second-line sulfonylurea when control of blood glucose
remains or becomes inadequate (HbA1c 7.5%, or other higher level agreed
with the individual) and insulin is unacceptable or inappropriate[ ]. [new 2009]
7

1.6.2.4 Do not commence or continue a thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) in people who


have heart failure, or who are at higher risk of fracture. [new 2009]
1.6.2.5 When selecting a thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone), take into account up-to-date
advice from the relevant regulatory bodies (the European Medicines Agency
and the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency), cost, safety
and prescribing issues (see 1.6.2.8). [new 2009]
1.6.2.6 Only continue thiazolidinedione therapy (pioglitazone) if the person has had a
beneficial metabolic response (a reduction of at least 0.5 percentage points in
HbA1c in 6 months). [new 2009]
1.6.2.7 Consider combining pioglitazone with insulin therapy[ ] for a person:
6

who has previously had a marked glucose-lowering response to thiazolidinedione


therapy (pioglitazone), or
who is on high-dose insulin therapy and whose blood glucose is inadequately
controlled. [new 2009]
1.6.2.8 Discuss the potential benefits and risks of treatment with a thiazolidinedione
(pioglitazone) with the person to enable them to make an informed decision.

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A thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) may be preferable to a DPP-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin, vildagliptin)


if:
the person has marked insulin insensitivity, or
a DPP-4 inhibitor (sitagliptin, vildagliptin) is contraindicated, or
the person has previously had a poor response to, or did not tolerate, a DPP-4 inhibitor
(sitagliptin, vildagliptin).
There may be some people for whom either a thiazolidinedione (pioglitazone) or a DPP-4
inhibitor (sitagliptin, vildagliptin) may be suitable and, in this case, the choice of treatment
should be based on patient preference. [new 2009]

1.6.3 GLP-1 mimetic (exenatide)


1.6.3.1 Consider adding a GLP-1 mimetic (exenatide) as third-line therapy to first-line
metformin and a second-line sulfonylurea when control of blood glucose
remains or becomes inadequate (HbA1c 7.5%, or other higher level agreed
with the individual), and the person has:
a body mass index (BMI) 35.0 kg/m2 in those of European descent (with
appropriate adjustment for other ethnic groups) and specific psychological or
medical problems associated with high body weight, or
a BMI < 35.0 kg/m2, and therapy with insulin would have significant occupational
implications or weight loss would benefit other significant obesity-related
comorbidities. [new 2009]
1.6.3.2 Only continue GLP-1 mimetic (exenatide) therapy if the person has had a
beneficial metabolic response (a reduction of at least 1.0 percentage point in
HbA1c and a weight loss of at least 3% of initial body weight at 6 months). [new
2009]
1.6.3.3 Discuss the potential benefits and risks of treatment with a GLP-1 mimetic
(exenatide) with the person to enable them to make an informed decision.
[new 2009]

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1.7 Glucose control: insulin therapy


1.7.1 Oral agent combination therapy with insulin
1.7.1.1 When starting basal insulin therapy:
continue with metformin and the sulfonylurea (and acarbose, if used)
review the use of the sulfonylurea if hypoglycaemia occurs.
1.7.1.2 When starting pre-mixed insulin therapy (or mealtime plus basal insulin
regimens):
continue with metformin
continue the sulfonylurea initially, but review and discontinue if hypoglycaemia
occurs.

1.7.2 Insulin therapy


The recommendations in this section were updated by the short clinical guideline Type 2
diabetes newer agents for blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes. The guideline gives details of
the methods and the evidence used to develop the recommendations.
1.7.2.1 Discuss the benefits and risks of insulin therapy when control of blood glucose
remains or becomes inadequate (HbA1c 7.5% or other higher level agreed
with the individual) with other measures. Start insulin therapy if the person
agrees. [new 2009]
1.7.2.2 For a person on dual therapy who is markedly hyperglycaemic, consider
starting insulin therapy in preference to adding other drugs to control blood
glucose unless there is strong justification[ ] not to. [new 2009]
7

1.7.2.3 When starting insulin therapy, use a structured programme employing active
insulin dose titration that encompasses:
structured education

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continuing telephone support


frequent self-monitoring
dose titration to target
dietary understanding
management of hypoglycaemia
management of acute changes in plasma glucose control
support from an appropriately trained and experienced healthcare professional.
1.7.2.4 Initiate insulin therapy from a choice of a number of insulin types and
regimens.
Begin with human NPH insulin injected at bed-time or twice daily according to need.
Consider, as an alternative, using a long-acting insulin analogue (insulin detemir,
insulin glargine) if:
the person needs assistance from a carer or healthcare professional to inject
insulin, and use of a long-acting insulin analogue (insulin detemir, insulin
glargine) would reduce the frequency of injections from twice to once daily, or
the person's lifestyle is restricted by recurrent symptomatic hypoglycaemic
episodes, or
the person would otherwise need twice-daily NPH insulin injections in
combination with oral glucose-lowering drugs, or
the person cannot use the device to inject NPH insulin.
Consider twice-daily pre-mixed (biphasic) human insulin (particularly if HbA1c
9.0%). A once-daily regimen may be an option.
Consider pre-mixed preparations that include short-acting insulin analogues, rather
than pre-mixed preparations that include short-acting human insulin preparations, if:
a person prefers injecting insulin immediately before a meal, or

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hypoglycaemia is a problem, or
blood glucose levels rise markedly after meals. [new 2009]
1.7.2.5 Consider switching to a long-acting insulin analogue (insulin detemir, insulin
glargine) from NPH insulin in people:
who do not reach their target HbA1c because of significant hypoglycaemia, or
who experience significant hypoglycaemia on NPH insulin irrespective of the level of
HbA1c reached, or
who cannot use the device needed to inject NPH insulin but who could administer
their own insulin safely and accurately if a switch to a long-acting insulin analogue
were made, or
who need help from a carer or healthcare professional to administer insulin
injections and for whom switching to a long-acting insulin analogue would reduce
the number of daily injections. [new 2009]
1.7.2.6 Monitor a person on a basal insulin regimen (NPH insulin or a long-acting
insulin analogue [insulin detemir, insulin glargine]) for the need for short-acting
insulin before meals (or a pre-mixed insulin preparation). [new 2009]
1.7.2.7 Monitor a person who is using pre-mixed insulin once or twice daily for the
need for a further injection of short-acting insulin before meals or for a change
to a regimen of mealtime plus basal insulin, based on NPH insulin or longacting insulin analogues (insulin detemir, insulin glargine), if blood glucose
control remains inadequate. [new 2009]

1.7.3 Insulin delivery devices


1.7.3.1 Offer education to a person who requires insulin about using an injection
device (usually a pen injector and cartridge or a disposable pen) that they and/
or their carer find easy to use.
1.7.3.2 Appropriate local arrangements should be in place for the disposal of sharps.

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1.7.3.3 If a person has a manual or visual disability and requires insulin, offer a device
or adaptation that:
takes into account his or her individual needs
he or she can use successfully.

1.8 Blood pressure therapy


1.8.1

Measure blood pressure at least annually in a person without previously


diagnosed hypertension or renal disease. Offer and reinforce preventive
lifestyle advice.

1.8.2

For a person on antihypertensive therapy at diagnosis of diabetes, review


control of blood pressure and medications used, and make changes only
where there is poor control or where current medications are not appropriate
because of microvascular complications or metabolic problems.

1.8.3

Repeat blood pressure (BP) measurements within:


1 month if BP is higher than 150/90 mmHg
2 months if BP is higher than 140/80 mmHg
2 months if BP is higher than 130/80 mmHg and there is kidney, eye or
cerebrovascular damage.
Offer lifestyle advice (diet and exercise) at the same time.

1.8.4

Offer lifestyle advice (see dietary recommendations in section 1.2.1 of this


guideline and the lifestyle recommendations in section 1.2 of Hypertension:
management of hypertension in adults in primary care [NICE clinical guideline
34]) if blood pressure is confirmed as being consistently above 140/80 mmHg
(or above 130/80 mmHg if there is kidney, eye or cerebrovascular damage).

1.8.5

Add medications if lifestyle advice does not reduce blood pressure to below
140/80 mmHg (below 130/80 mmHg if there is kidney, eye or cerebrovascular
damage).

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1.8.6

Monitor blood pressure 12-monthly, and intensify therapy if on medications


until blood pressure is consistently below 140/80 mmHg (below 130/80 mmHg
if there is kidney, eye or cerebrovascular disease).

1.8.7

First-line blood-pressure-lowering therapy should be a once-daily, generic


angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor. Exceptions to this are people
of African-Caribbean descent or women for whom there is a possibility of
becoming pregnant (see 1.8.8 and 1.8.9).

1.8.8

First-line blood-pressure-lowering therapy for a person of African-Caribbean


descent should be an ACE inhibitor plus either a diuretic or a generic calciumchannel antagonist (calcium-channel blocker).

1.8.9

A calcium-channel blocker should be the first-line blood-pressure-lowering


therapy for a woman for whom, after an informed discussion, it is agreed there
is a possibility of her becoming pregnant.

1.8.10 For a person with continuing intolerance to an ACE inhibitor (other than renal
deterioration or hyperkalaemia), substitute an angiotensin II-receptor
antagonist for the ACE inhibitor.
1.8.11

If the person's blood pressure is not reduced to the individually agreed target
with first-line therapy, add a calcium-channel blocker or a diuretic (usually
bendroflumethiazide, 2.5 mg daily). Add the other drug (that is, the calciumchannel blocker or diuretic) if the target is not reached with dual therapy.

1.8.12 If the person's blood pressure is not reduced to the individually agreed target
with triple therapy (see 1.8.11), add an alpha-blocker, a beta-blocker or a
potassium-sparing diuretic (the last with caution if the individual is already
taking an ACE inhibitor or an angiotensin II-receptor antagonist).
1.8.13 Monitor the blood pressure of a person who has attained and consistently
remained at his or her blood pressure target every 46 months, and check for
possible adverse effects of antihypertensive therapy including the risks from
unnecessarily low blood pressure.

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1.9 Cardiovascular risk estimation


1.9.1

This recommendation has been replaced by recommendation 1.1.10 in the


NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.

1.9.2

This recommendation has been replaced by recommendation 1.1.10 in the


NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.

1.9.3

This recommendation has been replaced by recommendation 1.1.10 in the


NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.

1.9.4

This recommendation has been replaced by recommendations 1.3.3 to 1.3.11


in the NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.

1.10 Management of blood lipid levels


1.10.1 Statins and ezetimibe
1.10.1.1 Review cardiovascular risk status annually by assessment of cardiovascular
risk factors, including features of the metabolic syndrome and waist
circumference, and change in personal or family cardiovascular history.
1.10.1.2 This recommendation has been replaced by recommendation 1.3.26 in the
NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.
1.10.1.3 This recommendation has been replaced by recommendation 1.3.26 in the
NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.
1.10.1.4 Once a person has been started on cholesterol-lowering therapy, assess his or
her lipid profile (together with other modifiable risk factors and any new
diagnosis of cardiovascular disease) 13 months after starting treatment, and
annually thereafter. In those not on cholesterol-lowering therapy, reassess
cardiovascular risk annually and consider initiating a statin (see 1.10.1.2 and
1.10.1.3).

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1.10.1.5 This recommendation has been replaced by recommendation 1.3.26 in the


NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.
1.10.1.6 This recommendation has been replaced by recommendation 1.3.28 in the
NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.
1.10.1.7 This recommendation has been replaced by recommendation 1.3.40 in the
NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.

1.10.2 Fibrates
1.10.2.1 If there is a history of elevated serum triglycerides, perform a full fasting lipid
profile (including HDL cholesterol and triglyceride estimations) when assessing
cardiovascular risk annually.
1.10.2.2 Assess possible secondary causes of high serum triglyceride levels, including
poor blood glucose control (others include hypothyroidism, renal impairment
and liver inflammation, particularly from alcohol). If a secondary cause is
identified, manage according to need.
1.10.2.3 This recommendation has been replaced by recommendation 1.3.45 in the
NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.
1.10.2.4 This recommendation has been replaced by recommendation 1.3.45 in the
NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.

1.10.3 Nicotinic acid


1.10.3.1 This recommendation has been replaced by recommendation 1.3.46 in the
NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.

1.10.4 Omega-3 fish oils


1.10.4.1 This recommendation has been replaced by recommendations 1.3.48 and
1.3.49 in the NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.

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1.10.4.2 This recommendation has been replaced by recommendations 1.3.48 and


1.3.49 in the NICE clinical guideline on lipid modification.

1.11 Anti-thrombotic therapy


1.11.1

Offer low-dose aspirin, 75 mg daily, to a person who is 50 years old or over, if


blood pressure is below 145/90 mmHg[ ].
8

1.11.2

Offer low-dose aspirin, 75 mg daily, to a person who is under 50 years old and
has significant other cardiovascular risk factors (features of the metabolic
syndrome, strong early family history of cardiovascular disease, smoking,
hypertension, extant cardiovascular disease, microalbuminuria)[ ].
8

1.11.3

Clopidogrel should be used instead of aspirin only in those with clear aspirin
intolerance (except in the context of acute cardiovascular events and
procedures). Follow the recommendations in 'Clopidogrel and modified-release
dipyridamole in the prevention of occlusive vascular events' (NICE technology
appraisal guidance 90).

1.12 Kidney damage


1.12.1 Ask all people with or without detected nephropathy to bring in a first-pass
morning urine specimen once a year. In the absence of proteinuria/urinary tract
infection (UTI), send this for laboratory estimation of albumin:creatinine ratio.
Request a specimen on a subsequent visit if UTI prevents analysis.
1.12.2 Make the measurement on a spot sample if a first-pass sample is not provided
(and repeat on a first-pass specimen if abnormal) or make a formal
arrangement for a first-pass specimen to be provided.
1.12.3 Measure serum creatinine and estimate the glomerular filtration rate (using the
method-abbreviated modification of diet in renal disease [MDRD] four-variable
equation) annually at the time of albumin:creatinine ratio estimation.
1.12.4 Repeat the test if an abnormal albumin:creatinine ratio is obtained (in the
absence of proteinuria/UTI) at each of the next two clinic visits but within a

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maximum of 34 months. Take the result to be confirming microalbuminuria if a


further specimen (out of two more) is also abnormal (> 2.5 mg/mmol for men,
> 3.5 mg/mmol for women).
1.12.5 Suspect renal disease other than diabetic nephropathy and consider further
investigation or referral when the albumin:creatinine ratio (ACR) is raised and
any of the following apply:
there is no significant or progressive retinopathy
blood pressure is particularly high or resistant to treatment
the person previously had a documented normal ACR and develops heavy
proteinuria (ACR > 100 mg/mmol)
significant haematuria is present
the glomerular filtration rate has worsened rapidly
the person is systemically ill.
1.12.6 Discuss the significance of a finding of abnormal albumin excretion rate, and
its trend over time, with the individual concerned.
1.12.7 Start ACE inhibitors with the usual precautions and titrate to full dose in all
individuals with confirmed raised albumin excretion rate (> 2.5 mg/mmol for
men, > 3.5 mg/mmol for women).
1.12.8 Have an informed discussion before starting an ACE inhibitor in a woman for
whom there is a possibility of pregnancy, assessing the relative risks and
benefits of the use of the ACE inhibitor.
1.12.9 Substitute an angiotensin II-receptor antagonist for an ACE inhibitor for a
person with an abnormal albumin:creatinine ratio if an ACE inhibitor is poorly
tolerated.
1.12.10 For a person with an abnormal albumin:creatinine ratio, maintain blood
pressure below 130/80 mmHg.

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1.12.11 Agree referral criteria for specialist renal care between local diabetes
specialists and nephrologists.

1.13 Eye damage


1.13.1 Arrange or perform eye screening at or around the time of diagnosis. Arrange
repeat of structured eye surveillance annually.
1.13.2 Explain the reasons for, and success of, eye surveillance systems to the
individual and ensure attendance is not reduced by ignorance of need or fear
of outcome.
1.13.3 Use mydriasis with tropicamide when photographing the retina, after prior
informed agreement following discussion of the advantages and
disadvantages. Discussions should include precautions for driving.
1.13.4 Use a quality-assured digital retinal photography programme using
appropriately trained staff.
1.13.5 Perform visual acuity testing as a routine part of eye surveillance programmes.
1.13.6 Repeat structured eye surveillance according to the findings by:
routine review in 1 year, or
earlier review, or
referral to an ophthalmologist.
1.13.7 Arrange emergency review by an ophthalmologist for:
sudden loss of vision
rubeosis iridis
pre-retinal or vitreous haemorrhage
retinal detachment.

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1.13.8 Arrange rapid review by an ophthalmologist for new vessel formation.


1.13.9 Refer to an ophthalmologist in accordance with the National Screening
Committee criteria and timelines if any of these features is present:
referable maculopathy:
exudate or retinal thickening within one disc diameter of the centre of the
fovea
circinate or group of exudates within the macula (the macula is defined here
as a circle centred on the fovea, with a diameter the distance between the
temporal border of the optic disc and the fovea)
any microaneurysm or haemorrhage within one disc diameter of the centre of
the fovea, only if associated with deterioration of best visual acuity to 6/12 or
worse
referable pre-proliferative retinopathy (if cotton wool spots are present, look carefully
for the following features, but cotton wool spots themselves do not define preproliferative retinopathy):
any venous beading
any venous loop or reduplication
any intraretinal microvascular abnormalities
multiple deep, round or blot haemorrhages
any unexplained drop in visual acuity.

1.14 Nerve damage


1.14.1 For the management of foot problems relating to type 2 diabetes, follow
recommendations in Type 2 diabetes: prevention and management of foot
problems (NICE clinical guideline 10).

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1.14.2 Diabetic neuropathic pain management


1.14.2.1 Make a formal enquiry annually about the development of neuropathic
symptoms causing distress.
Discuss the cause and prognosis (including possible medium-term remission) of
troublesome neuropathic symptoms, if present (bearing in mind alternative
diagnoses).
Agree appropriate therapeutic options and review understanding at each clinical
contact.
1.14.2.2 Be alert to the psychological consequences of chronic, painful diabetic
neuropathy and offer psychological support according to the needs of the
individual.
1.14.2.3 This recommendation has been replaced by 'neuropathic pain' ( NICE
clinical guideline 96 ).
1.14.2.4 This recommendation has been replaced by 'neuropathic pain' ( NICE
clinical guideline 96 ).
1.14.2.5 This recommendation has been replaced by 'neuropathic pain' ( NICE
clinical guideline 96 ).
1.14.2.6 This recommendation has been replaced by 'neuropathic pain' ( NICE
clinical guideline 96 ).
1.14.2.7 If neuropathic symptoms cannot be controlled adequately, it may be helpful to
further discuss:
the reasons for the problem
the likelihood of remission in the medium term
the role of improved blood glucose control.

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1.14.3 Gastroparesis
1.14.3.1 Consider the diagnosis of gastroparesis in an adult with erratic blood glucose
control or unexplained gastric bloating or vomiting, taking into consideration
possible alternative diagnoses.
1.14.3.2 Consider a trial of metoclopramide, domperidone or erythromycin for an adult
with gastroparesis.
1.14.3.3 If gastroparesis is suspected, consider referral to specialist services if:
the differential diagnosis is in doubt, or
persistent or severe vomiting occurs.

1.14.4 Erectile dysfunction


1.14.4.1 Review the issue of erectile dysfunction with men annually.
1.14.4.2 Provide assessment and education for men with erectile dysfunction to
address contributory factors and treatment options.
1.14.4.3 Offer a phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor (choosing the drug with the lowest
acquisition cost), in the absence of contraindications, if erectile dysfunction is a
problem.
1.14.4.4 Following discussion, refer to a service offering other medical, surgical, or
psychological management of erectile dysfunction if phosphodiesterase-5
inhibitors have been unsuccessful.

1.14.5 Other aspects of autonomic neuropathy


1.14.5.1 Consider the possibility of contributory sympathetic nervous system damage
for a person who loses the warning signs of hypoglycaemia.
1.14.5.2 Consider the possibility of autonomic neuropathy affecting the gut in an adult
with unexplained diarrhoea, particularly at night.

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1.14.5.3 When using tricyclic drugs and antihypertensive medications in people with
autonomic neuropathy, be aware of the increased likelihood of side effects
such as orthostatic hypotension.
1.14.5.4 Investigate a person with unexplained bladder-emptying problems for the
possibility of autonomic neuropathy affecting the bladder.
1.14.5.5 Include in the management of autonomic neuropathy symptoms the specific
interventions indicated by the manifestations (for example, for abnormal
sweating or nocturnal diarrhoea).

[ 2]

Structured patient education in diabetes: report from the patient education working group.

[ 3]

Little RR, Rohlfing CL, Wiedmeyer HM, et al (2001) The National Glycohemoglobin
Standardization Program (NGSP): a five-year progress report. Clinical Chemistry 47:
19851992
[ 4]

See Obesity: the prevention, identification, assessment and management of overweight and
obesity in adults and children (NICE clinical guideline 43).
[ 5]

At the time of publication, sitagliptin was the only DPP-4 inhibitor with UK marketing
authorisation for use in this combination.
[ 6]

Because of employment, social or recreational issues related to putative hypoglycaemia,


injection anxieties, other personal issues or obesity.
[ 7]

The recommendations in this section replace 'Guidance on the use of glitazones for the
treatment of type 2 diabetes' (NICE technology appraisal guidance 63).
The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency has issued advice on risk of bladder
cancer with the anti-diabetic drug pioglitazone. Please refer to the advice when prescribing
pioglitazone.
[ 8]

The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Authority (MHRA) Drug safety update
(Volume 3, Issue 3, October 2009) gives the following advice on using aspirin for the primary

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prevention of vascular events, which is relevant to recommendations 1.11.1 and 1.11.2 in this
guideline:
Aspirin is not licensed for the primary prevention of vascular events. If aspirin is used in primary
prevention, the balance of benefits and risks should be considered for each individual,
particularly the presence of risk factors for vascular disease (including conditions such as
diabetes) and the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding.

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2 Notes on the scope of the guidance


NICE guidelines are developed in accordance with a scope that defines what the guideline will
and will not cover. The scope for this guideline is available and the scope for NICE clinical
guideline 66 is also available.
The application of the guideline to children has not been excluded. However, we were not able to
specifically search for paediatric literature due to the volume of work involved. Healthcare
professionals need to use their clinical judgement when applying this guideline to children. For
further assistance with applying this guideline to children, refer to the 'British national formulary
for children' (BNFC) 2007.
How this guideline was developed
NICE commissioned the National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions to develop this
guideline. The Centre established a Guideline Development Group (see appendix A), which
reviewed the evidence and developed the recommendations. An independent Guideline Review
Panel oversaw the development of the guideline (see appendix B). The Centre for Clinical
Practice at NICE developed or updated the recommendations in sections 1.6 and 1.7.2 in line
with the NICE short clinical guideline process. The members of the Guideline Development
Group for this short guideline are also given in appendix A. Members of the independent
Guideline Review Panel that oversaw the development of the short guideline are given in
appendix B.
There is more information about how NICE clinical guidelines are developed on the NICE
website. A booklet, 'How NICE clinical guidelines are developed: an overview for stakeholders,
the public and the NHS' is available.

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3 Implementation
NICE has developed tools to help organisations implement this guidance.

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4 Research recommendations
The Guideline Development Group has made the following recommendations for research,
based on its review of evidence, to improve NICE guidance and patient care in the future.

4.1 Glucose control: oral glucose-lowering therapy


Metformin: confirmatory studies of the advantage in terms of cardiovascular outcome studies.
Why this is important
The UKPDS study confirmed that metformin offered cardiovascular protection. However, the
extent of the relative risk reduction was unexpectedly large and needs formal testing in a further
study. This is critical to the positioning of metformin in the treatment cascade.

4.2 Glucose control: oral glucose-lowering therapy


Studies of the role of sulfonylureas when starting a pre-mixed insulin preparation.
Why this is important
Both pre-mixed insulins and sulfonylureas are effective glucose-lowering agents throughout the
day, but can cause hypoglycaemia. When starting insulin, continuing sulfonylureas prevents
deterioration of glucose control during insulin dose titration and reduces the requirement for
insulin. However, it is not clear that these advantages are not offset by an increased risk of
hypoglycaemia.

4.3 Self-monitoring of plasma glucose


Longer-term studies of the role of self-monitoring as part of an integrated package with patient
education and therapies used to target.
Why this is important

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Studies of self-monitoring, in people not using insulin, continue to fail to address the complicated
issue of its integration into patient education and self-management behaviours. Self-monitoring
can be moderately expensive and a significant burden if not used appropriately. While it is
accepted that study designs are difficult in this area, the positive results from large observational
studies need further support.

4.4 Blood-pressure-lowering medications


The use of ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II-receptor antagonists in combination in early diabetic
nephropathy.
Why this is important
Both of these classes of reninangiotensin system blockers are effective in reducing the rate of
progression of diabetic kidney damage. However, there are acute risks of side effects associated
with both classes of drug. As these risks are similar, it is not clear whether the expected
combined benefit from ACE inhibitors and angiotensin II-receptor antagonists would outweigh the
combined risks.

4.5 Diabetic neuropathic pain management


Comparison studies on tricyclic drugs, duloxetine, gabapentin and pregabalin.
Why this is important
While all these drugs are partially effective in the control of neuropathic pain, they differ in cost
and side-effect profile. This makes the recommendations of treatment cascade uncertain to
some extent. There is a need for comparative studies between these drugs and, in particular, of
the newer agents with the tricyclic drugs.
The Guideline Development Group that developed the recommendations in sections 1.6 and
1.7.2 on newer agents for blood glucose control made the following recommendations for
research.

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4.6 Effectiveness and safety of GLP-1 mimetics


Studies of the effectiveness and safety of GLP-1 mimetics (with and without insulin) in the longterm management of blood glucose.
Why this is important
There is a lack of long-term evidence (12 months or longer) on the clinical and cost effectiveness
of GLP-1 mimetics compared with standard UK practice or other newer agents. There is also
limited evidence on the effect of replacing insulin with a GLP-1 mimetic and it is not clear
whether some subgroups would benefit from this more than others. GLP-1 mimetics do not
currently have UK marketing authorisation for use with insulin, but there is anecdotal evidence
that this combination is being used. More evidence is needed on safety and effectiveness.

4.7 Effectiveness of DPP-4 inhibitors


Studies of the clinical and cost effectiveness of DPP-4 inhibitors in the long-term management of
blood glucose.
Why this is important
There is a lack of long-term evidence (12 months or longer) on the clinical and cost effectiveness
of DPP-4 inhibitors compared with standard UK practice or other newer agents. It is not clear
whether there are any subgroups in which DPP-4 inhibitors are more clinically and cost effective.

4.8 Adherence with different complexities of treatment


regimen
Studies of how adherence varies with complexity of treatment regimen.
Why this is important
Adherence to treatment is important for clinical (blood glucose control) and patient (healthrelated quality of life) outcomes. There are currently few data on how the complexity of treatment
regimen affects adherence.

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4.9 Health-related quality of life


Studies to investigate how the initiation and titration of long-acting insulin affects health-related
quality of life, the changes associated with hypoglycaemia and the direct affect of weight loss or
avoiding weight gain.
Why this is important
Heath-related quality of life is an important determinant of adherence to treatment.

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5 Other versions of this guideline


5.1 Full guidelines
The full guideline, 'Type 2 diabetes (update): national clinical guideline for management in
primary and secondary care' contains details of the methods and evidence used to develop the
guideline. It is published by the National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions. The short
clinical guideline 'Type 2 diabetes: newer agents for blood glucose control in type 2 diabetes'
contains details of the methods and evidence used to develop the recommendations in 1.6 and
1.7.2.

5.2 Information for the public


NICE has produced 'information for the public' explaining this guideline.
We encourage NHS and voluntary sector organisations to use text from this information in their
own materials about type 2 diabetes.

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6 Related NICE guidance


Published
Chronic kidney disease. NICE clinical guideline 73 (2008).
Lipid modification. NICE clinical guideline 67 (2008).
Diabetes in pregnancy. NICE clinical guideline 63 (2008).
Smoking cessation services in primary care, pharmacies, local authorities and workplaces,
particularly for manual working groups, pregnant women and hard to reach communities.
NICE public health guidance 10 (2008).
Promoting and creating built or natural environments that encourage and support physical
activity. NICE public health guidance 8 (2008).
Ezetimibe for the treatment of primary (heterozygous-familial and non-familial)
hypercholesterolaemia. NICE technology appraisal guidance 132 (2007).
Brief interventions and referral for smoking cessation in primary care and other settings.
NICE public health intervention guidance 1 (2006).
Four commonly used methods to increase physical activity: brief interventions in primary
care, exercise referral schemes, pedometers and community-based exercise programmes
for walking and cycling. NICE public health intervention guidance 2 (2006).
Hypertension (partial update of NICE clinical guideline 18). NICE clinical guideline 34 (2006).
[Replaced by NICE clinical guideline 127]
Obesity. NICE clinical guideline 43 (2006).
Statins for the prevention of cardiovascular events. NICE technology appraisal guidance 94
(2006).
Clopidogrel and modified-release dipyridamole in the prevention of occlusive vascular
events. NICE technology appraisal guidance 90 (2005). [Replaced by NICE technology
appraisal guidance 210].

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Depression. NICE clinical guideline 23 (2004, amended 2007). [Replaced by NICE


technology appraisal guidance 90].
Type 1 diabetes. NICE clinical guideline 15 (2004).
Type 2 diabetes: prevention and management of foot problems. NICE clinical guideline 10
(2004).
Preventing type 2 diabetes: population and community-level interventions in high-risk groups
and the general population. NICE public health guidance 35 (2011).

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7 Updating the guideline


NICE clinical guidelines are updated so that recommendations take into account important new
information. New evidence is checked 3 years after publication, and healthcare professionals
and patients are asked for their views; we use this information to decide whether all or part of a
guideline needs updating. If important new evidence is published at other times, we may decide
to do a more rapid update of some recommendations.

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Appendix A: The Guideline Development Groups


The Guideline Development Group for NICE clinical guideline 66
Mrs Lina Bakhshi
Information Scientist, NCC-CC
Ms Margaret Bannister
Nurse Consultant in Diabetes Care
Mrs Katherine Cullen
Health Economist, NCC-CC, and Research Fellow, Queen Mary University of London
Professor Melanie Davies
Professor of Diabetes Medicine, University of Leicester
Dr Jose Diaz
Health Services Research Fellow in Guideline Development, NCC-CC
Mrs Barbara Elster
Patient and Carer Representative, Essex
Dr Roger Gadsby
General Practitioner and Senior Lecturer in Primary Care, Warwickshire
Dr Anupam Garrib
Health Services Research Fellow in Guideline Development, NCC-CC
Ms Irene Gummerson
Primary Care Pharmacist, Yorkshire
Dr Martin Hadley-Brown
General Practitioner (trainer), University of Cambridge
Professor Philip Home (Clinical Adviser to the GDG)
Professor of Diabetes Medicine, Newcastle University

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Mrs Kathryn Leivesley


Practice Nurse, North Manchester Primary Care Trust
Professor Jonathan Mant (Chair)
Professor of Primary Care Stroke Research, University of Birmingham
Mrs Emma Marcus
Clinical Specialist Diabetes Dietitian, Hinckley and Bosworth Primary Care Trust
Mr Leo Nherera
Health Economist, National Collaborating Centre for Women's and Children's Health
Ms Roberta Richey
Health Services Research Fellow in Guideline Development, NCC-CC
Mr John Roberts
Patient and Carer Representative, Merseyside
Dr Mark Savage
Consultant Physician, North Manchester General Hospital
Dr Stuart Smellie
Consultant Chemical Pathologist, Bishop Auckland General Hospital
Ms Nicole Stack
Guideline Development Project Manager, NCC-CC
Ms Claire Turner
Guideline Development Project Manager, NCC-CC
Ms Susan Varney
Health Services Research Fellow in Guideline Development, NCC-CC
Dr Jiten Vora
Consultant Physician Endocrinologist, Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University Hospitals

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The following experts were invited to attend specific meetings and to advise the Guideline
Development Group:
Dr Julian Barth
Consultant Chemical Pathologist, Leeds NHS Trust (attended one meeting as a deputy for Dr
Stuart Smellie)
Dr Indranil Dasgupta
Consultant Physician and Nephrologist, Birmingham Heartlands Hospital
Dr Michael Feher
Consultant Physician, Chelsea Westminster Hospital (attended one meeting as a deputy for Dr
Mark Savage)
Dr Charles Fox
Consultant Physician, Northampton General Trust (attended one meeting as a deputy for
Professor Melanie Davies)
Natasha Jacques
Principal Pharmacist, Solihull Hospital (attended one meeting as a deputy for Ms Irene
Gummerson)
Dr Eric Kilpatrick
Consultant Chemical Pathologist, University of Hull (attended one meeting as a deputy for Dr
Stuart Smellie)
Dr Ian Lawrence
Consultant Diabetologist, University of Leicester (attended one meeting as a deputy for
Professor Melanie Davies and Dr Jiten Vora)
Professor Sally Marshall
Professor of Diabetes, Newcastle University
Professor David Wood
Professor of Cardiovascular Medicine, Imperial College London

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The Guideline Development Group for the short clinical guideline (recommendations in 1.6 and
1.7.2)
Amanda Adler (Chair)
Consultant Physician with an interest in diabetes, Addenbrooke's Hospital, Cambridge
Claudette Allerdyce
Principal Locality Pharmacist, Croydon Primary Care Trust
Tony Doherty
Diabetes Nurse Specialist and Service Improvement Officer, Diabetes UK (Scotland)
Andrew Farmer
University Lecturer in General Practice, University of Oxford
Niru Goenka
Consultant Physician with an interest in diabetes/endocrinology, Countess of Chester NHS
Foundation Trust
Martin Hadley-Brown
General Practitioner, Thetford, Norfolk; Clinical Teacher at University of Cambridge Clinical
School of Medicine
Philip Home
Professor of Diabetes Medicine and Consultant Physician in Diabetes and Metabolic Medicine,
Newcastle Primary Care Trust
Philip Ivory
Patient/carer representative
Yvonne Johns
Patient/carer representative
Ian Lewin
Consultant Physician with an interest in diabetes/endocrinology, North Devon District Hospital

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Alistair McGuire
Head of Social Policy, London School of Economics
Julie Wood
Diabetes Nurse Specialist, Diabetes and Renal Programme Manager, Kirklees Primary Care
Trust
The following people were not full members of the GDG but were co-opted onto the group as
expert advisers.
Anthony Barnett
Professor of Medicine, University of Birmingham and Heart of England NHS Foundation Trust
Andrew Krentz
Consultant in Diabetes and Endocrinology, Southampton University Hospitals
The following person contributed expertise.
Alistair Gray
Director of the Health Economics Research Centre, Division of Public Health and Primary Care,
University of Oxford
The following people, who are employees of NICE, made up the technical team working on the
short guideline.
Tim Stokes
Associate Director
Beth Shaw
Technical Adviser
Francis Ruiz
Technical Adviser in Health Economics
Michael Heath
Project Manager

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Lynda Ayiku
Information Specialist
Nicole Elliott
Commissioning Manager
Emma Banks
Coordinator

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Appendix B: The Guideline Review Panel


The Guideline Review Panel is an independent panel that oversees the development of the
guideline and takes responsibility for monitoring adherence to NICE guideline development
processes. In particular, the panel ensures that stakeholder comments have been adequately
considered and responded to. The panel includes members from the following perspectives:
primary care, lay, public health and industry.
Members of the Guideline Review Panel for NICE clinical guideline 66
Dr Robert Walker (Chair)
General Practitioner, Cumbria
Dr Mark Hill
Head of Medical Affairs, Novartis Pharmaceuticals UK
Dr John Harley
Clinical Governance and Prescribing Lead, North Tees Primary Care Trust
Ailsa Donnelly
Lay member
Members of the Guideline Review Panel for the short clinical guideline (recommendations in 1.6
and 1.7.2)
Robert Walker (Chair)
General Practitioner, Workington
John Harley
Clinical Governance and Prescribing Lead and General Practitioner, North Tees Primary Care
Trust
Ailsa Donnelly
Lay member

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Appendix C: The algorithms


The full guideline contains the algorithms.

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Changes after publication


April 2015
Minor maintenance
December 2014
Information on HbA1c units added.
September 2014
Minor maintenance
July 2014
Recommendations 1.9.1 to 1.9.4, 1.10.1.2, 1.10.1.3, 1.10.1.5 to 1.10.1.7, 1.10.2.3, 1.10.2.4,
1.10.3.1, 1.10.4.1 and 1.10.4.2 have been updated and replaced by Lipid modification:
cardiovascular risk assessment and the modification of blood lipids for the primary and
secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease (NICE clinical guideline 181, published July
2014)

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About this guideline


NICE clinical guidelines are recommendations about the treatment and care of people with
specific diseases and conditions in the NHS in England and Wales.
The guideline was developed by the National Collaborating Centre for Chronic Conditions and
the Centre for Clinical Practice at NICE. The Collaborating Centre worked with a group of
healthcare professionals (including consultants, GPs and nurses), patients and carers, and
technical staff, who reviewed the evidence and drafted the recommendations. The
recommendations were finalised after public consultation.
The methods and processes for developing NICE clinical guidelines are described in The
guidelines manual.
This guideline partially updates and replaced NICE clinical guideline 66.
The recommendations from this guideline have been incorporated into a NICE Pathway. We
have produced information for the public explaining this guideline. Tools to help you put the
guideline into practice and information about the evidence it is based on are also available.
Your responsibility
This guidance represents the view of NICE, which was arrived at after careful consideration of
the evidence available. Healthcare professionals are expected to take it fully into account when
exercising their clinical judgement. However, the guidance does not override the individual
responsibility of healthcare professionals to make decisions appropriate to the circumstances of
the individual patient, in consultation with the patient and/or guardian or carer, and informed by
the summary of product characteristics of any drugs they are considering.
Implementation of this guidance is the responsibility of local commissioners and/or providers.
Commissioners and providers are reminded that it is their responsibility to implement the
guidance, in their local context, in light of their duties to avoid unlawful discrimination and to have
regard to promoting equality of opportunity. Nothing in this guidance should be interpreted in a
way that would be inconsistent with compliance with those duties.
Copyright

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National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence 2009. All rights reserved. NICE copyright
material can be downloaded for private research and study, and may be reproduced for
educational and not-for-profit purposes. No reproduction by or for commercial organisations, or
for commercial purposes, is allowed without the written permission of NICE.

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