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CALORIMETRY

A. A. APUYA
INSTITUTE OF CHEMISTRY, COLLEGE OF SCIENCE
UNIVERSITY OF THE PHILIPPINES, DILIMAN, QUEZON CITY, PHILIPPINES
DATE PERFORMED: JANUARY 29, 2015
INSTRUCTOR’S NAME: LAWRENCE JOHN PAULO TRINIDAD

INTRODUCTION
Chemical reactions are accompanied strong acid and base. Using the known
by energy changes. When a system gives off enthalpy of the reaction:
heat to its surroundings, the reaction is called H+ + OH- H2O ΔH=-55.85kJ/mol
exothermic. The value of heat of reaction in and the change in temperature measured, one
an exothermic reaction is negative (qrxn>0). can compute for Ccal by manipulating the
Alternatively, the reaction is said to be previous equations. 2
endothermic when the system absorbs heat 𝑐𝑐𝑎𝑙 = −
∆HnLR

from its surroundings (qrxn>0). 1 ∆T

At constant pressure, the heat


Lastly, calorimetry can be used to
measured is called enthalpy, H. The change in
determine most thermodynamic properties;
enthalpy is e.g. enthalpy changes for reactions (ΔH), for
q rxn phase changes, for mixing, etc.; equilibrium
∆H= constants and thus free energy changes for
nLR
many reactions; and, heat capacities. 3
A calorimeter is an insulated device To find the specific heat capacity of
solid – the solid is weighed and added to a
used for measuring the amount of heat
known mass and temperature of water. The
absorbed or released during a physical or final temperature obtained will be the final
chemical process. The coffee-cup calorimeter, temperature of both the solid and water. We
formally known as constant-pressure know that the system is adiabatic giving us: 1
calorimeter, will be used in the experiment
with the system as net ionic reaction. Since -qsolid = qH2O
the system is adiabatic (Δqsys=0), no heat -(mcΔT)solid = (mcΔT) H2O
(mcΔT)H2O
exchange will transpire between the system csolid =
(mΔT)solid
and its surroundings, the heat of the
surroundings is equal to the magnitude but
opposite the sign of the heat of reaction. 2 The experiment aims to recall the use
of a calorimeter and to determine the
qcal + qrxn = 0 enthalpy of a reaction through calorimetry.
Moreover, it aims to determine the specific
qcal=-qrxn heat of a metal and assess it purity by
comparing it to the known specific heat of the
Moreover, the calorimeter has a heat metal.
capacity, Ccal. The experiment makes use of a
REFERENCES
1
Silberberg, M.Principles of General Chemistry;
McGraw Hill Higher Education: United States,
2012.

2
Brown, T.; LeMay, E.; Bursten, B.Chemistry: The
Central Science; 12th ed.; Prentice Hall: United
States, 2011.

3
Petrucci, R.; Bissonnette, C.; Herring, G.;
Madura, J.General Chemistry: Principles and
Modern Applications; Pearson/Prentice Hall:
United States.

4
Hansen, L.; Russell, D.Which calorimeter is
best? A guide for choosing the best calorimeter
for a given task 2006.

Herrington, D.Journal of Chemical Education


2011,88, 1558–1561.
If a reaction occurs in an isolated system, that
is, one that exchanges no matter
or energy with its surroundings, the reaction
produces a change in the thermal
energy of the system the temperature either
increases or decreases.
Imagine that the previously isolated system is
allowed to interact with its surroundings.
The heat of reaction is the quantity of heat
exchanged between the
system and its surroundings as the system is
restored to its initial temperature
(Fig. 7-4). In actual practice, we do not
physically restore the system to its initial
temperature. Instead, we calculate the
quantity of heat that would be exchanged
in this restoration. To do this, a probe
(thermometer) is placed within the system
to record the temperature change produced
by the reaction. Then, we use
the temperature change and other system
data to calculate the heat of reaction
that would have occurred at constant
temperature.
Two widely used terms related to heats of
reaction are exothermic and
endothermic reactions. An exothermic
reaction is one that produces a temperature
increase in an isolated system or, in a
nonisolated system, gives off heat to
the surroundings. For an exothermic reaction,
the heat of reaction is a negative
quantity In an endothermic reaction, the
corresponding situation is
a temperature decrease in an isolated system
or a gain of heat from the surroundings
by a nonisolated system. In this case, the heat
of reaction is a positive
quantity Heats of reaction are experimentally
determined in a
calorimeter, a device for measuring
quantities of heat. We will consider two
types of calorimeters in this section, and we
will treat both of them as isolated
systems. (General Chem: Principles…)

The Calorimetry experiment deals


with……………………………………