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Basic Modern Russian Grammar, Eugenia Nekrasova, 1997.

Graphic Design, eBook puisher, Dmitry Pobedimsky, 2002.


ISBN 5-85550-119-1

Ron Maxim, Director,


Government Cargo Support Services, Maersk Sealand , Atlanta, GA, USA:
...Mzs.--n.ekzasova 's book is vezy czeative ...
Frederick Lyons, Resident Representative,
United Nations Development Programme in the Russian Federation
This book vezy dehiniteey heeped ipzove Russian .
With good hz d stzong didactic pzincipees it eeads thzough the
dihhicueties oh the Russian <;;zz.
Markku Lehto, Chief of Moscow Bureau
of the Finnish Broadcasting Company, Finland
The book is zeaeey vezy h. The expeaatios give i the
book aze ceeaz and inventive. The teaching ateziaes have vezy
weee sozted.

the Readers

This book is meant both for the learners and the teachers of Russian.
The name of the book speaks for itself:

"

Basic Modern Russian Grammar".

The attention is focused on the facts of Modern Russian language which are
basic, of high frequency and in common use.
As most of the learners are not professional linguists the author tried to avoid
unnecessary linguistic terms.
The explanations, charts and presentation of grammar material n the
learners of Russian understand some practical mechanisms of the language
in certain logical order .
The teachers of Russian can use it in their practical work.
All the charts originally belong to the author.
The author expresses her deep gratitude to D. Pobedimsky without whom
the book would not have succeeded and to Prof. . Wade (UK) for his encouragement.
)

wish

success,
E.ugenia --n.ekzasova

Shortly about tl1e Author


Eugenia Nekrasova, Moscow, Russia.
.. in Philology and Education , Moscow State University.
For many years she has been working as full-time senior
teacher and lecturer for the USSR / Russian Federation Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Language Service, teaching
Russian , English and related subjects to foreign diplomats,
businessmen and journalists, including the staff of the United Nations Moscow
office, Sea Land CIS Logistics, Caterpillar Overseas, Ernst & Young , the State
Finnish Radio & V Moscow office and many others.
Now she divides her time between teaching and writing books on language.
She has written five successful books on learning Modern Russian as Second
Language and on learning English for people speaking Russian :

1. " Basic Modern Russian Grammar" - 380 pages, "Gummerus", Helsinki,


Finland , 1998. Puished in Finnish, translated from English. ISBN 951-20-5264-4
2. "Exercises in Basic Modern Russian Grammar" - 250 pages,
"Gummerus", Helsinki, Finland , 2000 . Puished in Finnish , translated from English. ISBN 951-20-5507-4
3. "Living & Working in the Former USSR" - 211 pages, colour illustrated,
succesfully practised course book of Modern Russian, best used for crashcourses. ISBN 5-85550-121-3
4. "Popular English Grammar" - 400 pages, "Slavyansky Dom Knigi" Puish
ers, Moscow, Russia, 1999. First print - 25,000 copies. ISBN 5-93220-001-4
5. "English for Work and Travel" - 360 pages, "Slavyansky Dom Knigi" Publishers, Moscow, Russia, 2000, with D.Pobedimsky. First print - 15,000 copies.
ISBN 5-93220-052-9
The author would gladly accept any comments on the book
email: eugnekr@mail.ru

Basie Modern Russian Grammar

The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns


in the Singular

.!

=
~

AGREEMENT BETWEEN WORDS IN RUSSIAN


There are 2 main types of relations between the words in Russian
sentence: Agreement and Governing.
Agreement could in Gender, Number and Person.

...=

PRINCIPLE OF GENDER AGREEMENT

Agreement in Gender takes place:

between the long adjectives and the nouns,

between the adjectival pronouns and the nouns,

between the ordinal numerals and the nouns,

between the cardinal numeral one and nouns,


between the long participles and the nouns,

between the nouns/personal pronouns and the short participles

/short adjectives,

between the nouns/personal pronouns and the verbs in the Past


tense form.
Part 1 deals with the first five types of Gender Agreement.
Part 1 covers the proems of Gender Agreement between nouns and
words preceding them in units. 1 called the words preceeding nouns in
units - the characterizing words.
The characterizing words can :

adjectives,

adjectival pronouns (possessive, demonstrative etc),

ordinal numerals,

long participles,

cardinal numeral one.


You will learn:
estaish

how to

how to make the Singular form Gender Agreement between nouns


and words characterizing them.

Part 1

the Gender of

noun and

page 1

Basie Moler11 R11ssia11 G1a1111na1


HOW ESTABLISH GENDER OF NOUN
All Russian nouns attributed to one of the three genders:

Masculine (), Feminine (F) Neuter(N)


You will glad to know that the gender of the majority of the Russian
nouns one can tell from the ending of the dictionary form (Nominative
Case).
The gender of nouns is mostly formal thing.
Now you will learn how to determine the gender of noun.
[]

Nouns ending in consonants and

Nouns ending in

- car
- week

Nouns ending in

Feminine:

-, - , - , -

Neuter:

- seat
- sea
- compartment

- building
- TV
- health

But things never that simple in languages:


irrespective of the Feminine - , - ending
small group of nouns denoting .male_s ~ E.g.
has Masculine gender agreement

(so called Natural Masculines):


f(t;a-'

-tim

- grandfather
- uncle

Neuter:

- name
.
- interview

Part 1

() +

- father' dad
- man
The following nouns

-=

- Volga
- article
- surname
- Russia

-museum
- China

mommy

[]

- friend
- city

- , - , - , -

- mama,

Masculine:

- house
- man

[]

lai.'

- menu
- jury

- taxi

page2

=
=

IJ

rlJ

Basie Modern Russian Grammar

GENDER OF SOFT SIGN NOUNS


very ig group of nouns ending in - (soft sign) could either
Feminine or Masculine.
The Gender of these nouns could found in the dictionaries. ~

Nouns denoting males ( natural masculines) are Masculine: . 11r.


J
1

- guest, - driver, - teacher,


- writer, - Tzar, - king ,
- goalkeeper etc.

Names of months ending in

- news

are all Masculine:


- January, - February, etc.
Natural feminines are all Feminine:
- mother, - daughter etc.
Nouns ending in - , -, - are Feminine:

- life

- signature etc.

The Gender of other soft sign nouns


has to learned individually.

J totia'.1

REPLACING SINGULAR NOUNS PERSONAL PRONOUNS


noun could replaced the following personal pronouns
depending on the estaished gender:
D

Masculine nouns

- he, it

? ~ .
?

D Feminine nouns - she, it


? ~

D Neuter nou ns - it
? ~ .
? ~ .

Part 1

page 3

Basie Moler11 R11ssia11 G1a1111na1


HOW

ESTABLISH

All the place names could

GENDER OF PLACE NAMES

divided into 2 groups:

First group
The place names have the endings which formally fit the Russian system
of endings:

. , , , ,

F. , , , -
N. -
Second group
There are many place names which do not fit the Russian system of
endings:

-===
:..

, , , , , , , ~

These words exist only in this unchangeae (indeclinale) form. Their


gender is estaished in special way (through association with the
generic word).

.::
....

-=
1J.

FOREIGN INDECLINABLE NOUNS AND THEIR GENDER AGREEMENT ;


There is group of nouns of foreign origin in Russian which do not decline. ~
E.g.

- highway
- subway
- taxi,
- cafe
- compartment

- radio (set)
- movies, cinema
- studio,dress shop
- office
- interview
- overcoat etc.

All these words are Neuter and their Gender agreement and pronoun
replacement is Neuter.
E.g .

- Minsk highway -
- interesting interview -
- new overcoat -
but - Masculine - hot coffee

~
. f(t1a.'

Part 1

page4

='=
;

~
:.

~
~

Basie Moder11 Russian Gramu1ar

GENDER AGREEMENT BETWEEN NOUNS


AND CHARACTERIZING WORDS IN SINGULAR
The adjectives and adjectival words are registered in the dictionaries in the
Masculine.
You can make other gender forms on your own if you follow the rules which will
stipulated further.

= The gender agreement between nouns and adjectives

~
~

...=

The Masculine adjectival endings which


dictionary are as follows:

foreign learner

trace from the ;.

- like in

- new, - famous
- like in - ig , lage, - bad, expensive, d
- like in - Russian, - English, good, - small, little, - last

So, these adjectives can attached to the nouns the gender of


which is marked or estaished as Masculine, for example:

Masculine adjective + Masculine noun


.

+
.

Feminine adjective + Feminine noun


make Feminine adjective to attach it to

replace Masculine endings

, , -7

E.g.

new

F.

-7

Feminine noun, you have to

ending.

F.

new

lage , ig

Part 1

F.

-7

F.

ig

page 5

=
=
r/1
~

=
...

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1


F.

= bad
;..
=
~
1J

-7

~ expensive

F.

-?

bad

English

English school

F.

F.

F.

F.

expensive

F.

F.

F.

-7

good, nice

F.

good school
F.

F.

= Russian -7 Russian school small, little -7 small school


= The only exception to this rule presents limited group of ~
llii
~

"CJj

adjectives ending in

- last,
-

l
l

like
l,

rctice.1

- late etc.

in - is replaced -

-7
-7

l
l

- last page
- late autumn

-=

Neuter adjective + Neuter noun

make the Neuter adjective to attach it to


replace - , - - - :

Neuter noun, you have to

- new ovecoat
-7 - lage window
-7 - bad schedule
-7

-7
-7

IJ
1J

- Russian wod
- Finnish adio
-7 - small window

Exce.plLon
But - is replaced - if Masculine adjective ends in

- , - , - , - , - .

N.

E.g.
l
l
l

-7
-7
-7
-7

l -7

Part 1

N.

- last lette
l - fesh meat
l - good mood
l - hot milk
l - pesent time

=
=

lee

ltia.'

pageG

Basie Modern Russian Grammar

.!
~

r
...

GENDER AGREEMENT BETWEEN ADJECTIVES


AND NOUNS OF ADJECTIVAL ORIGIN
An adjectival noun has the form of an adjective but functions as noun. ~
Most of the adjectival nouns result from the omission of noun qualified .
the adjective, for example:
otic~.'
. () - scientist
F. () - bathroom
. () - Russian (nat.)
F. () - embankment
. (eoe)-unemployed N. () - second course
F. () - Russian (nat.)
N. () - main course
~
F. () - dining-room
N. - ice-cream

=
r./1

So, the adjectival nouns are qualified like normal nouns:


.

+ - famous scientist

F.

+ N.
N.
+

F.

large dining-room

,1,

"

" oiu:e.

=
rlJ.
=
=
=
~
;

- delicious ice-cream

The possessive pronouns used as characterizing words


.

This is my

hou~
s.
.

This is my car.

This

is our house.

Th1s 1s our seat.


?

;.

'=t

from

ls this your car?


F

ls this your seat?


?

ls this your house?

;.
~

"
=
? ~

ls this your car?


ls this your seat? N ._,___ __... F

Part 1

F This is our

. . ~
~ .. i~

This is my seat.

ls this your house?

rlJ.
rlJ.

page 7

~
~

Dasie Moder11 R11ssia11 G1am1na1

Possessive pronouns (his) , (her), (their) do not


change according to the gender principle, they exist only in one
unchangeae form :

(his)

- his

- his place

'1

(their)

thei

. lr!ia .'

- his house

=
...=

(her)

house

- h house

- h

- thei

- h place

- thei place
.f.flt lll ll iJ

,,,, , ,

, , , , , ,

, , , , , ,

-=

The demonstrative and determinative pronouns

used as characterizing words

- this, the". close to hand


.

is this house.

. ~ .
is this place. N

t.-

.....

is this .

~
~

... - this is, that is - Jjail cJl .'

This is my house.

F.

This is my

:.

N.

. ':/

This is my seat. :.
~

tfitirr.'

lt is necessary to distinguish the characterizing , which changes


according to genders and used in the meaning of this is, that is,
these are, those are. The latter is not characterizing word, and it does
not change according to genders.

Part 1

page8

-==
~

~
~

.:
~

Basie Modern R11ssian Gramo1ar

- that one, the one which was meant, distant object

/'i

is that house.

~ F .

is that place.

- this kind, the same

This kind of

is that steet.

This kind of house?

N
AF

This kind of

used in expressive sentences like:

/ \ lt is so windy today!
!

N~F

lt is so sunny today!

lt is so hot today!

- what ... , comines with

long adjectives:

What heavy wind!


!
What hot summe!

F
!

What

Part 1

heavy

thundestom!

page 9

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1111na1


Similar meaning could rendered

- such ... , what ...


!

!
What

/\

hot summe! N ~ F

What

comines

heavy wind!

!
What

heavy thundestom!

- the same, the same kind as,

with long adjectives:


.

The

.
The same kind of

- the

same kind of house.

/\

. N ~ F The same kind of .

r/J.

v, the most, most

lndicates precise location:


. .

lt' s the

v cente

of the city.

Comines with long adjectives to denote superlative meaning :


.

This is the

=
=
=
=
~
=

=
r/J.

iggest housQ.

. ;
This is the most expensive

....

~
,,.=

This is the most comfotae seat.

~
:.

- the same, the

v,

mentioned f

/\

NL____iF

Part 1

page 10


rl1

:.

Basie Moder11 Russian Gramo1ar


The lnterrogative Pronouns used as characterizing words
The lnterrogative Pronouns are used in questions:

- what, which, what kind of, what is the number of.. ?

? ~ ?

~
~

...=

N~F

What is your carriage number?


What is the class of your carriage?
What kind of person is he?

What is your telephone number?


What kind of telephone do you have?

r/1

-==
:.

What is the weather like tomorrow?

What kind of apartment do you have?


What is the number of your apartment?

;
rl1

What is the number of your compartment?i


What is the class of your compartment?

What is the number of your seat?

-?
.

- Whose ...?

Who is the owner?

whom it belongs?

? ?

Whose is this house?

NF

Whose is this compartment?

Part 1

Whose is this ?

page 11

Basie Mo1ler11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

=0

:.=
~
;

rJ)

Other characterizing words

- all, the whole

=
=
~

- the whole day

- all the time N ..____ ____.. F - the whole country

- one, ...

- one seat,

place

- is an emphatic pronoun, it can characterize both nouns and

personal pronouns:

/\

-=

- he himself

- itself N ~ F - she herself

GENDER OF NOUNS DENOTING PROFESSIONS IN RUSSIAN

=
=

r/)

~ ~

Names of professions ending in consonants and the soft sign are


exclusively masculine as originally they were male dominated.

E.g . : Q

profession
~ - doctor 7

1'

1'
.

. . ,

. 1rlra.

The characterizing words are always Masculine irrespective of sex:


Some other popular nouns denoting professions:

- announcer, - director, - teacher,


- chairman, - professor, - cook,
- engineer, - bookkeeper, - trainer,
- guide, - film-director, photographer, - editor etc.

Part 1

page 12

;i

Basie Modern Russian

=
.... Part 2

G1~an1mar

The Plural of Nouns.


rlJ.
=
l\Iumber Agreement of
r.
= The
SINGULAR - ONL NOUNS

Russian

l\ouns.

Not all the nouns have both Singular and Plural forms.
There are nouns which exist only in the Singular.
.$ They include nouns which denote:
~ collectives:
~

- dishware, - furniture, - footware,


weapons,
- clothes, - cosmetics, etc.

.$
~

human activities:

- policy/politics, - industry, ;;
- economy/economics, - medicine, - sports,
- television, - radio, etc.

substances; foods, cereals, fruits and

vegetaes:

- gold, - oil, - wool, - oil, butter,


- beer, - rice, - meat, - flour, - grapes,
- raisins, - cabbage, - onion, chocolate, etc.
feelings and sensations: - happiness, - envy, etc.

r.

FORMATION OF PLURAL NOUNS

The nouns of all Genders make Plural forms with the help of 2 groups
~
of endings: First Group
- or - ending: Big Group of Masculine& Feminine Nouns ~
Second Group
~
or
ending: Small Group of Masculine & Neuter Nouns

First Group: Masculine & Feminine Nouns


- ending (hard line) after hard consonants
Singular

Plural

. ~

- suitcases
- computers
etc.
- foreigners

ending instead of -

- cars
- apartments
- women
etc.

F.
F.

F.

Part2

rlJ.

page 13

=
=
=
~

Bitsie Moder11 lt11ssia11 Gritn1.n1a1


-

ending (soft line) instead of -, - and -


Singular

Plural

:>

:>

days
dictionaries

:>

roues

:>

F.

:>

guests
nights
museums
weeks
photos

:>

F.
F.

:>

:>

r/J

-=

, , ,+

Singular

F.

Plural

:>

. r::>

F.

- books

-textbooks
- matches
- rumours

:>

etc .

, , ,

...=

Plural

Singular

F.

:>

~
=
- skies
- knives =
~
- doctors f
- raincoats ~

Second Group: Masculine and Neuter nouns


This group is much smaller than the - , - group but the nouns

etc.

:..

.=~

- ending (hard line ) after hard consonants in the Masculine nouns ~=


frequently used.

Singular

Plural

:>

:>

Patt 2

i.::

- cities, towns
- houses
- forests, woods
- trains
- evenings
- islands
- colors
- banks, coasts
- passports
- ills , accounts
- numbers, hotel rooms
- craftsmen etc.

r/J

--==

page 14

Basie Modern Russian Gramma1

ending instead of

- lakes
- words
- faces
- armchairs
- eggs
- letters
- windows
- window glasses etc.

also
,

in Neuter nouns ( hard line)

- times
- names

ending (soft line) instead of


- fields
- buildings

- sentences, offers

Plural
>

- f riends

>

>

>

>

- chairs

>

- leaves

Singular

- trees

- brothers

Singular

- sons

Plural
>

- children

>

- people

Plural
>

- neighbours

>

ladies

>

>

- sirs,

gentlemen

&

>

Part 2

in Neuter nouns

SPECIAL CASES OF PLURAL NOUN FORMATION

Singular

- owners

- apples

- ears

page 15

rJ1

=
=
=
~

=
~

=
r/J
=
12
~

Bitsie Moder11 lt11ssia11 Gritn1.n1a1


Singular

Plural

>

>

- Christians
-Muslims

- citizens of Russia

-snts

- Armenians

- Gypsies

....=

..."!

r/'J

-=-=

- English

- Danes

-=

- citizens

r/'J

r/'J

etc.

==
~

...=

- kittens
- chicken

=
-=
~

etc.

PLURAL-ONL NOUNS
:.~
Some nouns do not have the Singular form . They exist only in the Plural
u
form (registered in the dictionaries in the Plural form). These words denote: ~

:.

objects which consist of two parts:

- glasses, - scissors, - scales, swings, - gate, - trousers, - jeans,


- pants, - tights etc.

collective actions:

- school or university vacation, negotiations, - elections, - tour (of artists),


- funeral, - farewell party, - hide and
seak, - childblrth etc.

.=~

also the following words:

- money, - chess, - clock, watch,


- chimes, - sublitles, - curls, - sledge,
- saw-dust, - wallpaper, - firewood, memoirs, - abacus, - applause etc.

page 18

r/J

--==

i
;

Basie Modern Russian G1amma1

~ - perfume, - cabbage-soup, - spaghetti,


- preserves, - cream etc.
rlJ.

=
;.
=
~ - 24 hours period, - dusk, - early frost
~

= Some place names

."

~
~

...=

some mountains:
, , , etc.

some islands:
, , , , etc.

some countries:
, ,

also

- tropics, - jungle

, , and lot of other geographic names mainly

denoting villages and towns on the territory of the former Soviet Union.

PERSONAL PRONOUNS IN PLURAL


All the plural nouns can replaced the personal pronoun

l
~

rlJ.

=
=
=

~
.

These are my books.


.

Eg. .
These are my friends.
.

They live in London now.

They are on the shelf.

Part 2

page 17

Bttsie Moder11 lt11ssia11 Gran1111a1

AGREEMENT BETWEEN NOUNS AND CHARACTERIZING WORDS


IN PLURAL
The Plural of Adjectives

Characterizing words also have the Plural form. All three Singular forms
- Masculine, Feminine and Neuter fall into one Plural form:

Masculine

Feminine

-.=..

r/J

Plural

=
=
=

Neuter

r/J

r/J

, group, for example:

Plural

Singular
.

F.

N.

- new house
- new
- new word

Singular

- new houses
- new cars
- new words

Plural

F.

- gold medals

N.

- golden bracelet
- gold medal
- golden ring

Summing - up t
.
~

F.

N. Plural

- - -
- - -

group, for example:

- last lesson
F. - last page
N. - last word

r/J

--==

Plural

Summing - up t
.

F.

- -

Part 2

N.

Plural

- last lessons
- last pages
- last words

page 18

Basie Modern R11ssian

Gramma1~

MIXED PLURAL ADJECTIVAL ENDINGS


ig

group of commonly used adjectives has the following peculiarities in


the Plural formation:

- - -

'

'

- , - , -

The adjectives with stems ending in , ,


have - Plural ending
(both spelt and pronounced), for example:

'

group

=
=

strict

expensive, dear

Plural

Plural

F.

F.

N.

N.

=
=

Jlllll

rlJ.
rlJ.

==

Russian
.

Plural

F.

N.

sity, urban
.

Plural

F.

N.

quiet, calm

bad, poor
.

Plural

F.

N.

Part 2

F.

N.

PI.

- - -
- - -
- - -

Plural

F.

N.

"/1

Summing - up
.

=
=
=
~

F.

N.

PI.

- - -
- - -
- - -

page 19

Basie Modern Russian Grammar


~

, , ,

- , - , - ,

The adjectives with stem in

- , - , -
group

have their Plural form spelt with


but pronounced - , e.g.:

- ,

11

fresh
.

Plural

F.

N.

ig,

=
=
=

large

F.

N.

Plural

=
=
11

11

=:=

-...==

alien

good, nice
.

Plural

Plural

F.

F.

N.

N.

:.~

hot

present, real , true, genuine ::

Plural

Plural

F.

F.

N.

N.

Summing - up
.

F.

N.

PI.

- - -
- - -
- - -

F.

N.

PI.

11

=
=
=
~

- - -
- - -
~

- - -

.,;/!&.mvi[y

fresh hot good

Part 2

ig

crunchy buns

page 20

Dasie Moder11 Russian Gra1nn1ar

f} The Possessive pronouns in the Plural

our

my
.

F.
N.

Plural

-7

Plural

F.
N.

- my keys

your
.

F.

N.

from

- our keys

your

from

-...

-7

Plural

F.
N.

Plural

-7

- your keys

- your keys

But his - , her - , their - have only one form for all Genders
and Numbers:

- his keys,

- her keys,

- their keys

The Demonstrative pronouns in the Plural

F.

N.

Plural

-7

F.
N.

-7

- those keys

- these keys

rlJ

F.
N.

-7

Plural

F.
N.

- this kind of keys


.

F.
N.

=
=
=

Plural

-7

- What kind of idiots


they are!

Plural

-7

- same kind of keys

Part 2

page 21

Basie ltlodern lt11ssia11

N.

...
=

F.

=
=

Plural

-7

F.

Gran1ar

- most expensive shops

r/)

Plural

r-7

- same kind of keys

N.

Whose?

F.

Plural

F.

N.

-7

Whose are these keys?


~

pair of ...

. t; lrr( /

- one pair of glasses

1~

There were only children there. etc.

The Plural of Other Characterizing Words - all, the whole


.

F.

-7

Plural
- all the things

N.
.
F.

N.

...selves

- all the people


-they themselves

also - many (people)

Part 2

r/)

-==

Plural

-7

Plural

Plural

-7

r/)

What are your plans?

~ ?

- only, alone,

-7

. .

F. ?
""?
N. .

r/)=

.?

N. ?

..."

The lnterrogative Pronouns in the Plural

What k1nd of?


What?

=
=
=
~

- some (people)

page 22

Basie Modetn Russian Grammar

The Deelension of Nouns, Adjeetives


and Adjeetival W ords in the Singular
ln this part you will learn the main case forms (declension types) of
[] nouns in the Singular
adjectives and adjectival characterizing words in the Singular

.! []

=
...=
~

GENERAL OUTLINE OF CASE SYSTEM


CASE SYSTEM AS RESUL OF GOVERNING PROCESS

As mentioned in Part 1 there are two main types of relations between the
~
words in Russian sentence: the Agreement and the Governing.
The Agreement in units was discussed in the first two Parts.
Part 3 of the Grammar Book deals with the Governing.

-:
"

Words and units being put together to form Russian sentence (to express ;some idea) are practically never equal .
~
Some words (or simple constructions) govern other words causing changes

"==

in their endings.
Various kinds of endings have been pigeon-holed or classified into the cases. rl'1

;...

The governors are mainly as follows:

verbs with or without prepositions


prepositions
all quantitative words including cardinal numerals from 2
nouns in the qualifying comblnations
negative constructions
impersonal constructions

The subordinates of the governing process are mainly as follows:

nouns
units (characterizing words + nouns)
personal pronouns
interrogative, indefinite and negative pronouns,
based on personal pronouns
numerals, both cardinal and ordinal

...."
~

"
~

-==
=
rlJ

=
~
~

=
,.::
~

Part3

page 23

ll~tsie

1'lotle111 It11ssitt11

G1~a111111t1r

;.

There are 6 cases in Russian:

1. The Nominative

4. The Accusative

2. The Genitive

5. The lnstrumental

'1'1

6. The Prepositional

.::
.....

3. The Dative

=
=
1111111

The Singular case endings of nouns and units (which are


characterizing words + nouns), fall into two main groups:

"
Eirst group
Masculine & Neuter

~
Secon~ ~roup

[_ Fem1n1ne

]
.

The Plural case endings of nouns and units form one group :

"

(/)

Special attention has to paid


to the mosaic-like Genitive Plural endings of nouns.

=
=
=
~
. r;1; _,

Try to memorize the case endings


in

cominations

with prepositions

or verbs most typical for this case.

Part 3

page 24

Basie Moder11 Rtassian Grammar

=
12=

DECLENSION OF MASCULINE NOUNS IN SINGULAR


All nouns are registered in the dictionaries in the Nominative case form .

All Masculine nouns, full first names and place names ending in
hissing consonant decline on the following pattern:

jiil.

1J

Hard-ending Masculine nouns

.~

...=

Nom.
.
Gen.
. lvan has dog.
Dat.
. 1have to call lvan.
. =Gen.

hard or

lnstr.
Prep.

1know lvan.
. 1go with lvan.
. We spoke about lvan.

Mind that the case endings are attached to consonants


but replace vowels, and (soft sign).

.,.

./

Of.f ,('.

- lesson
Nom .
Gen.
- after the lesson
Dat.
. is not ready for the lesson.
. =Nom.

lnstr.
Prep.
Nom .
Gen .

missed (skipped) the lesson.


- before the lesson
- at the lesson
.
.

lives not far from Petersburg.

Dat.

We walked about Petersburg.


.

=Nom.
.

lnstr.
Prep.

1am going to Petersburg.


. lt is close to Petersburg.
. lives in Petersburg.

page 25

Baasie Motler11 R11ssia11 G1at1n111a1r

:.

The ending vowel can vary depending on the stem consonant.


lf stem consonant is soft (ends in soft sign) or ends in ,
then Masculine noun declines on the following pattern:
~

Nom.

Gen.

Dat.

Nikolay has the tickets.


1have to call Nikolay.

Gen.
.

1know Nikolay.

lnstr.

1 go with Nikolay.

Prep.

We spoke about Nikolay.

Nom. .
.

The teacher has the book.


Dat.

1have to call the teacher.


Acc .=Gen.
.

1saw the teacher.

lnstr.

Prep.

Part 3

..:=
.....

Gen .

.=

=
-=
'11
,..

Soft-ending Masculine nouns

1 go with the teacher.


We spoke about the teacher.

page 28

Basie )fode1--11 R11ssian G1--a111111a1-Nom.


Gen.
Dat.
. =

F .

There is no hockey today.


~
- World hockey championship .S
r/),

Nom.
~ .

lnstr.
Prep.

:.

is fond of hockey.
. goes in for hockey.
. talks only of hockey.

Summing-up

-=
~

.....

Jllll

of hard and soft Masculine case endings

Hard

Soft

Gen.

Dat.

lnstr.

ACCUSATIVE OF MASCULINE NOUNS IN SINGULAR

The Accusative of Masculine nouns does not have any special ending .
Russians use the concept of Animacy and lnanimacy.

-=

-=
rlJ

-....."
~

Animate nouns, which are nouns denoting human beings and


~
representatives of the animal world, take the form of the Genitive case. ~

".

E.g.

rlJ

-=-=

- Nom.
. - .

- Nom.
. - .

page 27

G1~ain1nar

Biasie Moder11 Rt1ssia11

:.

=
; lnanimate nouns take the form of the Nominative case, so the Accusativei =
~

of inanimate nouns does not differ from the dictionary form , for example:

Nom .

00

,.:=

..=

Summing-up t of Masculine nouns and names in the Accusative "

r/l

...=

Accusative of
Animates=Genitive

"=:.

Accusative of
Animates=Genitive

...

-...=
....

~
~

"=
~

-=

"=,..
Some special case endings of the Masculine nouns in the Singular

r/l

There is

group of Masculine nouns denoting

place

....

which take / instead of in the Prepositional Case.


are some of them:

1985

- on the f loor

- in 1985

- in the port

- at the airport

Part 3

We were sitting in the garden.

We walked in the forest.

The files are in the bookcase.


There is traffic jam on the bridge.

page 28

Basie 1'1odern Russian Grammar

l lived before in the Crimea.


. The is in the corner.
. The house stood on the bank.

9
9
9

9
9

Some Masculine nouns ending in


ending instead of

- in hell
- in paradise

, , ,

and

take

when the ending is unstressed:


9

Some Masculine nouns ending in (soft sign) take - ending


in the lnstrumental Case:

! irthday!

- with

DECLENSION OF NEUTER NOUNS IN

dictionary

SINGULAR

The Neuter nouns have the same


case endings as the Masculine nouns
..

t,,. /
:.

Hard ending Neuter nouns


Neuter nouns ending in
for example:

Nom.
Gen.

decline like the Masculine noun

. is the lake.
.

Our summer cottage is not far from the lake.


. This road goes to the lake.

Dat.
.=

Nom.
.

lnstr.
Prep.

1am going to the lake.


. Our summer cottage is close
to the lake.
. Our summer cottage is on the lake.

Pa1 t 3
11

page 29

Baasie 1'loder11

Rt1ssi~t1t

G1aa111n1aar

=
~ 8

Neuter nouns ending in - decline like the soft Masculine noun

, for example:

jjil.

Nom.

- is the sea.

Gen.

Dat.

...=

lives not f fom the sea.

This
.=

goes to the sea .

Nom.
.

Prep.

lives close to the sea.

u summe

Nom. =

cottage is

Gen.

the sea.

- This is the Moscow egion

is the map of the Moscow

egion.

.
tavels

.=

= Prep.

Nom .

Dat.

- 1like sea.

lnstr.

lot about the Moscow

"

rl)

egion.

Nom.

lnstr.

knows the Moscow


ds

the Moscow

egion .

lives in the Moscow


Nom. =

Part 3

well.

This
Prep.

egion v

egion.

. =

Prep.

page 30

=
12=
~
~

Basie 1'1odern R11ssian Grammar

1J

Neuter nouns ending in - , like decline like


except for the Prepositional, for example:

Nom .

Gen.

Dat .

= .= Nom.

- schedule, timetae
- no schedule
- on schedule

.~

....=

lnstr.

Prep.

- 1saw the schedule

proems

with the schedule

- in the schedule

Several Neuter nouns, like - time, - first name,


and some others, decline as follows:

Nom .

Gen.

l .

- time

lvan has no time.


Dat.

to
.=

according to time

Nom.
.

lnstr.

only lost time.

l .

lvan is always short of time.


Prep.

l .

forgot about time.

page 31

Bitsie Mo1ler11 R11ssia11 Gra1n1nar

=
=
=
~

jjiii.

DECLENSION OF FEMININE NOUNS IN

1J

=
:

...

SINGULAR

[ Main types of endings ]

( ) ( ) ( ) [-__
)

[ ]

....=

( J

. .

Nom. .
Gen. .
.
Dat.

lnstr. .

r. .

lnstr. .
Prep. .

Gen. .
Dat. .

( )

-...
=-:

.:
~

Gen. .
Dat.

is the map of Russia.


.

1travelled lot about Russia.


.

1came to Russia year ago.


lnstr. .

We signed

treaty with Russia.

Prep. .

"

Now 1live in Russia.

1J

=
=
=

( )

Nom.

-,-

Gen.

Dat.

lnstr.

-/

Prep.

Part 3

Gen .

near the square


Dat. the square
.

lnstr.

Prep.

Do you see the square?


1nstr. behind the square

Nom.
Gen.
Dat.
.

Prep .

- in the square

page 32

-....==
~

1
1
1
1

=
1J

-=
=
~
~
~

,..~

Basie 1'loder11 Russian Grammar


There are 3 additional mixed types of Feminine noun case forms:

( Mixed types of endings )

'11

'11

."=

=
....=
~

- ,- ,-

nouns

Follows ,
but in the Genitive Case
q

- ,- ,
- ,-

nouns

is used instead of

- :

- q -

Follows ,
but in the lnstrumental Case - is used instead of - :
q

~
s

."=

- q -

Follows , but has two irregularities:


in the Genitive Case

q y ,

is spelt instead of

- :

- q -

in the lnstrumental Case - is used instead of - :


q

, - q - :

Natural Masculines follows similar types ~


of Feminine Nouns, for example:

/Ou',ce.I
like , like

like , like

Pa1 t 3
11

page 33

--=
....
:.

Summing-up t of the Masculine


and Neuter noun declension in the Singular

Hard declension

'CL

Soft declension

r./)

."=

Nom.

=
=t
...=
~

Nom.

Dat.
-

Gen.

Gen.

-...
-

,_
"~

Dat.

....'_,.-=
~

---

Hard declension

Anim.=Gen.
lnanim.=Nom.
=Gn.

=Gn.
.

ypOK=Nom.

Prep.
-

=Gn.

=Nm.

ope = No m .

oepo =No m .

= Nm .

lnstr.

."

Soft declension

Anim.=Gen.
lnanim.=Nom.

lnstr.

Prep.
-

r/)

=
=

" ut

Pa1t 3

ut

page 34

Basie

~lodern

Summing-up

Russian Grammar
of the Feminine noun declension in the Singular

, , ,

, ,

Nom.

/\

~ ,

'11

:.

, , ~

~~~~~~~~~ ~

/\

, ,

~, ,

/\

~ , ,

~
.,..,..

~
~~~~~~~~~~ ~
~
.'

, , ,

, , , ,

, ,

, ~

/\

'11

;...

;:
,
~
Prep.
:;---------~ ~

Declension of the Feminine nouns


!J/u.'cial rme.' Nom.

=
=

and

Gen.

Dat.

/= Nom.

lnstr.

Prep.

page 35

B~tsic

Motler11

R11ssi~t11

Gra1n111a1

ADJECTIVAL
OF DECLENSION IN RUSSIAN
=
~ The following categories of Russian words have the adjectival case forms:
jjili.

all types of adjectives

possessive pronouns - , , ,

.
.

=
.....
=
~

all demonstrative pronouns - ,

....=

and other pronouns in comblnation with them

r/J
~

interrogative/relative pronouns - , , - which, who ;


indefinite and negative pronouns based on , , ,

- only Plural

=
."
....
~

possessive reflexive pronoun -

~
Jl!lll8

determinative pronouns - , - whole, - each, every ~

all long participles - , , etc.

ordinal numerals - - first, - 21-st

adjectival nouns - - person on duty, - ice-

cream , - embankment etc.

participial nouns

- wounded person , -

passer

etc.

family names of adjectival origin - , etc.

place names and names of subway, railroad stations, hotels etc.

station), also

(earlier village, now part of Moscow) ,

(town), (station), (subway

(hotel) etc.

generalizing/replacing words

- this, that,

- everything,

- everybody,

everyone (only Plural) , - many (only Plural).

Part 3

page 38

-=

'-=,..

r/)
~

;;..

Basic ltlodern Russian Grammar

As for the declension types all the adjectives and adjectival words
can grouped as follows:

1J

~~

Masculine and Neuter


Singular adjectives

~
'1

Feminine
Singular adjectives

...

~
~- - - - - .~
----~----

.~

The declension of Masculine and Neuter adjectives in the Singular


Nom. .

This is our new director.

Gen. .

The new director has nice .


oat. . 1am going to the new director.
. . 1have already seen the new
director.
lnstr. . 1spoke with the new
director.
Prep. . 1told about the new
director.

The following words belong to this declension type:


all Masculine and Neuter long adjectives, long participles, ordinal
numerals and adjectival pronouns ending in - or - ,
all possessive adjectives like and their Neuter forms.

words with , , and , stems . A1tice.1

page 37

Baasic Motler11

R11ssi~t11

Nom.

G1a1n111ar

This is the last lesson.

Gen. .

came after the last lesson.

oat. .

came

the last lesson.

. .

missed the last lesson.

lnstr. .

."

came before the last lesson.

Prep. .

slept at the last lesson.

The following words belong to this declension type:


Masculine long adjectives ending in - , - , - , - , - ,
- , long participles ending in - - and their Neuter forms.
For example:
, , , etc .
Note that the lnstrumental ending - and - is only spelt
with , but pronounced with .
Also the numeral - third.
~ . l(:t;rc.1
Nm.

~----

- the Russian language


Gen. - Russian lesson
oat. - Russian exam
. . - 1learn Russian.
lnstr. . - 1study Russian.
. - Russian books

this declension type belongs very


long Masculine adjectives ending in
-

ig

group of commonly used

- - - - - - -
'

'

'

and their Neuter forms:


/

'

'

'

-
1

- small, little

/
/

'

- strict

- English
/

- quiet, calm

/
/

Part 3

- city, urban

- other, another
------+--

p a ge 38

Basie

~lodern

Russian Grammar
/

ig,

large
;..
=
- bad
- alien, strange
= The adjectival pronouns /, /
~

1J

and the Numeral

decline on the same pattern.

Summing-up t of the Masculine and Neuter adjectival


declension in the Singular

Gen.

Dat.

lnstr.

Nom.

.,...
....
~

DECLENSION OF FEMININE ADJECTIVES IN SINGULAR.f.

There are 3 declension types:


~
~
~

--~~--

1J

=:

=
i


Nom. .
Gen.

is Red square.

The museum is near Red square.


Dat.

? Have you seen Red square? ~

Pa1t 3

We walked in Red square.

page 39

=
jjji.

=
=
~

Biasie Motler11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

:.

l nstr.Coop .

The cathedral is close to Red square.

'11

Prep. .

We were in Red square.

Gen. =Dat. =lnstr. =Prep.

~ this type belong all - ending adjectives including ,

=
=
=
r./1
,..

=
= ('7.limi:
~
...= Adjectives and participles ending in unstressed - , - , - . ~ ;

etc., the adjectival pronouns

and the numeral

ro(ia .'

this declension type belong all

ending Feminine adjectives .

this declension type belong Feminine adjectives and participles

ending in unstressed

-, - , -

like

, ,

The summing-up t of declension of the Feminine adjectives


and participles in the Singular
Gen. = Dat. = lnstr. = Prep.

G.

D.

1.

Part 3

page 40

--

Part4

"

The Deelension oi Nouns~ Adjeetives


and Adjeetival words in the Plural

-=...

...=

;.

GENITIVE PLURAL OF NOUNS

Within the Plural declension of nouns special attention has to

paid to

the most frequent but irregular forms - the Genitive Plural forms of nouns .~
These forms have to treated separately and in first turn.
J

The formation of the Genitive Plural of nouns is based mainly on the


Nominative Singular forms, and only in limited number of cases it is
based on the Nominative Plural forms. You can find the formation of the

;J
~

....

Nominative Plural of nouns in Part 2.


The Genitive Plural noun endings can

grouped as follows:

-=~
-:=

-=

zero ending
group

...,
- group

-==
'./';

r:

gro

:: 11

"~
11111111

art 8

page 41

asie

Moder11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1nar

Group 1

jjii.

=
=
12

rlJ

group

Model

100

=
~

::>

[ Nom. Singular ]

'=1!

...=

This group includes only the Masculine hard stem


nouns:

100
100 meters

10

at 10 o' clock

100

100

100

lot of lessons

lot of parks

100 percent

-=LI

100 liters

100 dollars

100 kilometers

100

-=
~

100 sheets

100

Also some common Plural - only nouns:


~

."
rlJ

~=
"jjii.

."

...."
~
~

-=~
-==

lot of mushrooms ~
etc.

LI

.....

[ Gen. Plural ]
~

-==
-=-

jjii.

."

"

....
~

- without glasses

-=~

- no Jeans

8'

- during the negotiations

- after the elections

rl;

-=
=
"

-==
~

- no watch
- lot of memoirs

- lot of applause

- near Luzhniki (Moscow area)

- bottle of perfume

of canned food

."=
rl;

=
~
~

=
~

.=
~

Part4

page 42

Basie Modern R11ssian Grammar

=
Group 2
;...
~

1J

:.
=

...
f

zero-ending group
Model

This group includes the hard-stem Feminine


"
nouns with - ending in the Nominative Singular: ~

=-

Nom. Singular

=
=

~
'1

Gen. Plural

- lot of cars
- lot of dogs
- lot of women
- lot of proems
- lot of books
10 - 10 minutes
10 - 10 thousand

.=.....

and can introduced between


the final consonants for easier pronounciation
J VO!ia:'.t

- lot of mistakes
100 - 100 marks/poststamps
10 - 10 packs
10 - 10 kopecks etc.

The hard-stem Neuter nouns

- ending nouns) :

- lot of words

12 - twelve eggs

- no seats

The Feminine - ending nouns can also


of the zero-ending group:

lot of lakes

lot of windows

Part 4

etc.

considered

part

- 5 weeks

lot of villages

lot of honey-melons

page 43

=
jiila

=
=
12
(/)

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1am1nar

The zero-ending group also includes some commonly used Masculine


nouns:
(Nom. Singular ) = ( Gen. Plural )

=
~

...

10

Coll.

100 - 100 grams

Coll.

10 - 10 kilograms

Also

- 10 people/persons

- many times

- lot of Gypsies

words denoting people:

- many muslims

and other words like:


lot of Russian people

- lot of Christians

- lot of peasants

lot of English people

- lot of Danes

- citizens have ... etc.

Nouns from the group:


[ Nom. Plural

Also

[ Gen. Plural

- lot of children

- 5 kittens
- lot of chicken etc.

- no owners

- lot of apples

N.

Part4

lot of names
page 44

Basie Modern R11ssian Grammar

The zero-ending group includes the following Plural-only nouns:


[ Nom. Plural ]

::>

- near the gate

- no scissors

- after the vacation

- after the funeral

Gen. Plural

lot of money

- no sledge

- no firewood
- pack of cream

- two days (and nights)


- near the Alps
- near the Kuril islands

- near the Philippines

Group 3
-

group
Model 100

[ Nom. Singular ]

Part4

This group includes the soft - stem Masculine


and Feminine nouns (ending in the soft - sign
or hissing consonant , , , ):

::>

[ Gen. Plural ]

100 - 100 roues

10 - 10 days

lot of guests
- lot of teachers

page 45

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1nar

=
jjiii

[ Nom. Singular ]

=
.;=

>

1J

=
~

'=1)

...
"

[ Gen. Plural ]

:.

>

F.
F.
F.
F.
F.

>

>

10 - 10 notebooks

>

>

>

The Neuter

- ending

--=
=...

- lot of doctors

lot of news

- lot of horses

- lot of mice

>

....

'11

-=:.

=
...=
."
....

nouns:

>

."=

- 5 nights

"

~
~

lot of fields

"

- 5 seas

"=

=
rlJ.
....."...

Special case

( Nom. Singular ) > ( Nom. Plural ) > ( Gen. Plural )

F.

>
>

>

>

>

>

>

>

>

lot of friends

lot of sons

lot of children
lot of people

- lot of neighbours

- mothers have

-=~

rlJ.

-==
"

-==
~

."=
rlJ.

=
~
~

F.

>

>

- 5 daughters

=
~

-=~

Part4

page 46

....
=
rlJ.
=
:.
=

Basie Modern Rt1ssian Grammar


Grouo 4
-

group

this group belong Masculine nouns ending

in - and - in the Nominative Singular:

Model

-=
-=-=
:.

-=
~

[ Nom. Singular ]

11118'

>

[ Gen. Plural ]

>

>

...=

( is fleeting)

- lot of Japanese

- lot of foreigners

>

10 - 10 months

>

lot of museums

Several Masculine and Neuter nouns having the Plural Nominative


ending in - :

( Nom. Plural )

::>

>

>

>

>

"=:.

=
==
....
=

."

(Gen. Plural )

lot of trees
- lot of brothers
- lot of chairs
- lot of leaves

"=
~
"=

=
=
rlJ.

....

This small group includes Feminine nouns


ending in -, - and the Neuter Nouns ending
Model
in - in the Nominative Singular:

group

[ Nom. Singular ]
F.

[ Gen. Plural ]

>

- lot of photos

F.

>

F.

::>

N .

>

N.

>

- lot of sentences, offers

N.

>

lot of exercises

::>

N .

Part 4

rlJ.

Group 5
-

-=

lot of illustrations

- lot of families
-

lot of buildings

."
"=
~

...

rlJ.

=
=
=
~
-.
=
=
=
rlJ.
=

-=
~

lot of competitions

page 47

-=~

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1nar

~ ACCUSATIVE PLURAL OF NOUNS

=
rlJ
!2=

of nouns are used for the Accusative Plural of nouns.

The following scheme illustrates this:

There are no special endings for the Accusative Plural of nouns.

:.

As in the Masculine Singular, the Nominative Plural and the Genitive Plural

=
~

."=

( The Accusative Plural )

'~

-==

....=
of Masculine and Feminine Animates
= Genitive Plural
~

of Masculine and Feminine


lnanimates, also Neuter
nouns = Nominative Plural

....

;~"

Gen. PI.

-.=
!

. - from
Nom. PI.
F.
invited some guests.
. - from ~

~~~=~- - trom ~
likes dogs.
For the formation of the Genitive
Plural see the previous pages.

bought the
skies.
Nom. PI.

. - from ~
bought the tickets.
.:
N . PI .

N.

DATIVE, INSTRUMENTAL AND PREPOSITIONAL PLURAL


OF NOUNS
There are two types of endings in these cases:

Hard endings
Dat.
lnstr.
Prep.

Part4

-
-
-

.,.
~

. - from .~

learned the words.

Soft endings
Dat.
-
lnstr.
-
Prep .
-

page 4 8

Basie Modern R11ssian Grammar


The attribution of nouns to one of these groups is determined
Nominative Plural endings:

( Hard ending group ]


-

ending nouns:

- , - , -

ending nouns:

- , - , -

-=
~

=-

ending nouns:

, ,

ending nouns:

the

ending group ]

, ,

8 [ Sofl

ending nouns:

, ,

, ,

-=

- , - , - , -

ending nouns:

-, - ending nouns:

.:

.....

DECLENSION OF HARD ENDING NOUNS IN PLURAL ;;~

These are my skies.

-=

=
=

. (See the Genitive Plural of Nouns).

There are

lot of skies in the shop.

There are boots for skies.


Acc.=Nom. .
(lnanimate)

bought the skies.

.
1 go

in for skiing now.

.
Part 4

1 like

skiing.

page 49

f)

r/J.

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 G1am1na1

DECLENSION OF SOFT ENDING NOUNS IN PLURAL

12=

These are my friends.

."=

i
u

brother has lot of friends.

."=

..."

often calls his friends.

---

.""
Acc.=Gen.

(Animate)

~
~

brother invited his friends.

-:
.

=
r/J.

brother plays hockey with his friends. ~

(ut , , )

."
;
~

always tells about his friends.

DECLENSION OF PLURAL ADJECTIVES


AND ADJECTIVAL WORDS

All Plural characterizing words (adjectives and adjectival words)


fall into two ending groups:
First group

comprises words with

comprises words with

endings in the

Nominative Plural.

Part4

f) Second group

endings in the

Nominative Plural.

page 50

--

-:
~

Basie Modern R11ssian Grammar


Here you can find the examples with both types of endings:

Nom.

Gen.

are my new skies.

lt's the wax for my new skies.


Dat.

1have to buy boots to my new skies.


.

friend has not yet seen my new skies.

(lnanimate = Nom., Animate = Gen.)


lnstr.

Prep.

friend showed some interest in my new skies.

Here you can find the summing-up t of the Plural adjectival endings:

Second group

Gen.

Dat.

animates

inanimates

{ animates

-'

inanimates

lnstr.

Prep.

-'

Gen. = Prep.

Part4

.....
-=~

lt's nice to ride my new skies. (= Gen.)

Nom.

.....
~

First group

page 51

-:=

=
=

r1;

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

you can find list of words in the Nominative Plural declining like :

all adjectives ending in

like

=
LI
=
"~

etc.

= all possessive adjectives ending in , like etc.

~
~

participles ending in

majority of the adjectival pronouns:

...=

...

"

adjectival surnames like

-=

ordinal numeral

rlJ.

f)Here you can find list of words in the Nominative Plural declining like : ~
all adjectives ending in

like

all possessive adjectives ending in


ordinal numerals

participles ending in

like

etc.

like

etc.

etc.

few adjectival pronouns:


, , , ,

adjectival surnames like


Two adjectival pronouns
Nom.

Gen.

Dat.

Animates -

lnstr.

Prep.

Part4

and

have slightly different endings: - - -'ln ::


. f; /;.

rlJ~

-=
=
~
~

( = Gen.)

lnanimates - ,

( = Nom.)

~
~

-=~

( = Gen.)

page 52

Basie Modern R11ssian Grammar

DECLENSION TABLES OF ADJECTIVAL PRONOUNS,


SINGULAR AND PLURAL
The declension of the Possessive pronouns

N.

N.

PI.

G.

D.

, ,

1.

N.

N.

....
~

.....
~

F.

PI.

"
"==
~

G.

D.

....

....

,,

.~

1.

N.

F.

PI.

N.

G.

D.

. , ,

Part 4

F.

1.

page 53

1J

~
~

=
jlil.

=
rlJ
!2=
~

."=

...
~

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

N.

N.

F.

PI.

G.

D.

, ,

1.

'~

N.

N.

."=

F.

PI.

G.

D.

, ,

1.

-==
rlJ

The declension of the Demonstrative pronouns

N.

Part4

N.

F.

PI.

G.

D.

, ,

1.

pageM

Basie Modern R11ssian Grammar

=
....
=
:.

N.

F.

PI.

1J

N.

G.

D.

, ,

~
~

1.

....=

The declension of the Determinative pronoun

N.

N.

F.

PI.

G.

D.

, ,

1.

The declension of the lnterrogative/Relative pronouns

N.

Part 4

N.

F.

PI.

G.

D.

, ,

1.

page 55

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1nar

jjiit

=
=
~

N.

1J

N.

=
....=
~

F.

PI.

G.

D.

, ,

1.

The declension

ot the Relative pronoun

N.

N.

."=

F.

PI.

G.

D.

,
,

1.

r/J--

-==
"

The use

ot the Possessive - reflexive pronoun

appears in the Nominative on ly in the possessive constructions,

for example:
.

1have my own key.

r/J=

declines like

ln other cases qualifies the object which has kind of ownship


relation with the subject, for example:

Part4

=
~
~

does not like his job.


. 1will call my friend.

-==

(someone' s own) ~

=
~

page 56

Basie Modern R11ssian

Gramm~tr

The Deelension oi Names, Geographie Names


and Noun-replaeing Pronouns

DECLENSION OF RUSSIAN SURNAMES


ci: Russian common male surnames usually end in -/-/-

..
~

or - /- , for example:

~~

, , , ,

.....=

~
-;

-=t
~

:.
1

Russian common female surnames usually end in -/-/-

tf--;
~,,,..~
, , ,, \__~ -}

or -/- , for example:

=
=
=
=
"==
11

The Plural forms of Russian surnames usually end in -/-/-


or -/- , for example:

ci:

, , ,, ~1 . ~~ ~ ~
tr-: ~
.~
All these types of Russian surnames decline the
, ) ~ "'
i.
pattern of // :

0 Nom .

\J

8 Gen .

_etr::~

{~~ ~

=
~
~

lnstr.

\.~ -? ~

Dat.

\_~ f

811'

Prep.

-----+--

page 57

Basie Modern R11ssia11 G1 a1111nar


11

DECLENSION OF RUSSIAN ADJECTIVAL SURNAMES


....
=
Many common Russian surnames decline like adjectives.
There
two main types:
~=

~
[-
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_
_]

=
~

The Nominative ends in

'1

...=

-
-

[____________________]

The Nominative ends in

F.

F.

PI.

PI.

They decline on the pattern of

They decline on the pattern of

- Mixed declension type

- Hard declension type

Nom .
.

F.
PI.

@ Gen.

lnstr.

Dat.

Part 5

=
=
=
1J

=
~

..

page 58

=
~

.::
~

=
=
:.. ~~~
=
_...

Grantm~tr

Basie Modern R11ssia11

11

Nom.

@ Gen .

F.
PI.

~~

~,
",

)
Q

'

Dat.

;:
;

lnstr.

DECLENSION OF RUSSIAN PATRONIMICS

Russian Male Patronimics end in

-/-/-

like

, , .

Russian Female Patronimics end in

-/-/-

Prep.

,.::

i~

For example:
Nom.
.

lnstr.
Prep.

WJ

~ (~ ~

= =

.~

All Russian female patronimics decline on the pattern of :

Gen.
Dat.

like

=
-=
=
=
11

, , '-)!

-=f=~

=
~

page 59

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 G1an11na1

r/)

All Russian male patronimics decline on the pattern of ,

except for the lnstrumental (-/- instead of -).

=
=

:.=
;.
~

For example:
Nom .

Gen.

Dat.

Acc.=Gen.

:.

lnstr.

=
=

...-'=1)

=
=~

(- in )
.

. l~tia.'
DECLENSION OF NON-RUSSIAN PEOPLE' S NAMES

-==-

First names

Male names

Foreign first male names decline, only if they end in consonant -/- ,
:.
soft consonant (consonant + ).
'=IJ

For example:
~

Female names
Foreign female names decline only if they end in
For example:

Part 5

- , - , - - .

page GO

Basie Moden R11ssian Grammar


So, the majority of non-Russian first names,
both male and female, are indeclinae in Russian . .Ati~"('.1
For example:

8 SURNAMES

Only consonant - ending male surnames can decline .


For example:

etc.

DECLENSION OF NON-RUSSIAN GEOGRAPHIC NAMES


Russians decline (as nouns) only those non-Russian geographic

names which are transcribed in Russian with the final consonant (both
hard and soft) , - , -, - , - or -.
For example:
?

/ ,

/ ,

etc.

Plural-only nouns:

etc.

page GI

asie

1'1odetn R11ssia11 G1an11nar

1J

=
=
=
=
f

PERSONAL PRONOUNS
Russian personal pronouns are as follows:
Singular
Plural

;..

1. - 1
1. - we
''
2. - you (informal) , - you (formal) 2. - you - (referring to
~
3. - he, it, - she, it, - it
3. _ they more than one).!

:::.

USE OF

AND

:..1

The use of and in Russian , when referring to one person, presents :


certain difficulty for foreign learner.
;
you may find the main guidelines:

Talking to strangers in
adult & child

puic

places
adult & teenager

young person

'

adult & adult

~
Part 5

----

,/,----~

( ,

r/J

young person & young person

,,,-----~ , ,V

~ ~1L ~
' ~

page 62

Basie Mode1n R11ssian Grammar


Talking to familiar person
friends and relatives always use

friend & friend

relative & relative

at work
same status
younger person & older person

different status
lower status & higher status

~
The choice depends
on many factors !

is used seldom

at kindergartens, schools, colleges and universities


kindergarten
school
child & teacher
'

schoolchild & teacher

-.....

';
___
"
/
....._

...

<:~

11age 63

r./)

=
=
,..=
=
:.

QQ]le_ge or unlversity
student & teacher
student & student

..,..,....------

;..
'=t
,..

~
"

=.
~
:.
1

children and teenagers use only

lf
in

is used instead of

puic

place, it can

=
=
=

to each other.

to an unknown adult

taken for an insutlJ_

. taia.'

.
i

Referring to God, nature and animals we use .

'

', -- ~"

DECLENSION OF PERSONAL AND OTHER


NOUN-REPLACING PRONOUNS
All the pronouns can divided into
2 groups

"

First group
Pronouns
used as words
characterizing nouns

Pttrt 5

~
Second group
Pronouns
replacing nouns
and proper names

page G4

Basie Modern R11ssia11

Gramm~r

The first group was described in Part 1 and Part 2.


Now 1 will describe the second group.
Among these pronouns are:
the personal pronouns ////// / ,

ci=

the lnterrogative/Relative pronouns / ,

the lndefinite pronouns based on /,

=D

~1

=D
... D

the Reflexive pronoun ,


the Nominative pronoun

the generalizing words like , .

DECLENSION OF

PERSONAL PRONOUNS

The third-person pronouns he, it , it, She, it,

they

noun is replaced

these pronouns depending on the formally

gender.
Same pronouns are used both
for the animate and inanimate objects.
The case forms are as follows:
estaished

The case forms of he, it


Nom. .=
Gen.
This is my friend.

Dat.

has .

1will visit him in the summer.


or

1called him in the morning.


.

1met him in Paris.


lnstr.

We went to school together.


Prep. .
1 often think of him.- - - - + - -

page 65

Basie

~lode111

R11ssia11 G1a1111na1

=
;... Nom. .=

r/)

Gen. .

There is parking neat it.

This is my house.
Dat.

. ;

.!

ig bus came up to it.


,.

20 .

....=
~

;.

lnstr. .

lt was built 20 years ago.


There is

=
=

=
f

parking behind it.

Prep. 6 .

=
=

There are 6 entrances in it.


The same case forms has the Neuter pronoun it.
l;Jict .'
~

The case forms of she, it

Nom.

Gen. .

is my (girl)friend.

She has dog.


oat.

1will go to her in the summer.


or

1will call her tomorrow.


.

1saw her yesterday.


lnstr. .

1will go to Paris with her.


Prep. .

Part 5

page GG

Basie Moden R11ssian Grammar

1;

=
; Nom. . = Gen. .
1;

is my summer cottage.

There is ig lake near it.


oat. .

We drove up to it early in the

."=

'1

morning~

. .

=
=
=
=
:.
=
=..
!

t
'811

We built it many years ago.

....=

lnstr. .

There is

ig

garden in front of it.

Prep. .

1live in it only in the summer.


The case forms take initial

when governed
/ , / etc.

preposition:

tOr,U.'e.
. /: 1

The case forms of the pronoun - they


Nom. . =

These are my friends.


Gen. .

1stayed with them in the summer.


Dat.

1will go to them tomorrow.


or

1called them yesterday.


.

1met them in London.


lnstr. .

1will go with them to Paris.


Prep. .

1often think of them.

page 87

=
=
=
=

Basie Modern R11ssia11 G1a1111nar


Nom.

(/)

=
=
=
-=:.

These are the new regions.


.

Gen.

=-'=t

There is usually forest near the.

"~

Dat.

"=
=-

There is one ig road going to the.

1don' t like the.

lnstr.

:.
1

There is usually bus line between the and etro station. S


.

Prep.

They don't have etro line.

=
=

The case forms of I,


Gen.

. 1have . - YJrcial .-.1

Dat.

didn ' t call

will

to

=
~

toorrow .

lnstr.

Prep.

doesn' t know .

goes with .
Did John speak of ?

The case forms of YOU (informal)


Gen.

? - Y}ail r.)( .'


Do you have ?

o at.

1' 11 call you toorrow.

1' 11

lnstr.

Prep.

Part 5

to you toorrow.

1love you .
1' 11 go with you.
1often think of you.

Gen. =ACC. ~
Dat. = Prep. ~
ftia .'

(/)
~

page 88

=
=
=
:.
~

rlJ

Basie Modern R11ssian Gran101ar

Dat .

-==

call you.

Do you have fax machine?


ll

.=
"

"

=-

1will come to you tomorrow.

=
=
=
=
:..

you - polite singular or plural form

? - YJ~cial:.1

Gen.

~
~

The case forms of

rlJ

:.

1don' t know you.


.

lnstr.

ll

go with you.

1 heard much of you.

=
=
~ "==
=
=
rlJ
~

The case forms of

We

~'- (f~~
) _'f .

-=~

:.=

\_)

Gen.

. - Y}a'iai r'.1

We don't have .

.._

Dat .

rlJ

.
didn ' t call us.
.
will come to us tomorrow.

=
=
=
=
-rlJ
=
"
~

They don' t know us.


lnstr.

They go with us.


.

,.::

They don' t know anything about us.

Part 5

page G9

....
=
=
12=
r./)

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 Gra1111nar

SUMMARV TABLE OF

Nom.

r./)

THIRD-PERSON PERSONAL PRONOUNS

..

--"
....=
'CI

=
1

...=

=
=
f

;..

=
=

()

8Gen.

()

lnstr.

()

F ()

-==
1

=
=
=

()
)

:.
"

()

r./)

Dat.
()

()

()

DECLENSION OF PRONOUNS /

The lnterrogative/Relative pronoun refers to people.


lt is used both in the direct questions like:
? Who is that person? and in the indirect ones:
, .

the case forms of

Nom .
Gen .

Dat.

asked who would go to Kiev.

Who is that man?


? Who has ?

?
?

Whom did you tell it?


Whom are you going to?

lnstr.

Part 5

8'

r./)

Whom do you know here?


? Whom are you going with?
? Whom are you talking about?

page 70

Basie Mode1.n R11ssia11 Grammar

The lnterrogative / Relative pronoun

refers to

thing, animal or an action

What is that?
? What is that?
? What is he doing?

=
~

Like

can

used both in direct and indirect questions:

Nom. ? What is that?


Gen. ? What are you afraid of?
Dat. ? What is he delighted with?
. ? What do you like?
lnstr. ? What are you

Prep. ?

:..
1

=
=
"

dissatisfied with?
What are you thinking about?
rlJ

The case forms of and are similar


to the Masculine adjectival endings.

~
.Aoti.t

The comblnation ?
This comination is used as an equivalent of the pronoun rlJ
especially when the answer with specifying word is expected, as in: ~

8\

- ? What kind of building is it?


- .

The comination is used only in the Nominative of all genders and


numbers.
Compare:

s.

What kind of program is it?


PI.

What kind of people are they?

page 71

=
~

1J

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11

G1~a1111nar

1J

DECLENSION AND USE OF INDEFINITE PRONOUNS

The lndefinite particles - , - , - attached to ,


(also to , , , , , , )

-, -
- takes the

12

Masculine form even when reference is to


- . Someone called you.
- takes the Neuter form :

.~

Female:

:.
;.

if

- . Something awfull.
- - Someone, denotes an unknown or forgotten person ,
- - Something, denotes definite object or thing,

- . Something fell down.

details of which are unknown to

t
~
=

-i

"=

speaker.

=
11
=

-, -

Forms in - denote someone or something indefinite, still to


decided or selected.
~
- forms are mostly used in questions, after imperatives,

in conditional constructions:
~

- ?

Has something happened?


- ? Has anyone called?
- .

Will you buy something for breakfast.


n - ___-=r, .

lf someone arrives, call me.


The Case Forms of these pronouns are similar to and forms:
Notice that - and - do not change.
~
Gen.

- ?
Does anyone have

Dat.

t; .'

Did you call anyone?


.

- ?

Do you kow anyone here?


lnstr.

- ?

Did you talk to anyone?


Prep.

- ?

Did you discuss anyone with John?

Part5

page 72

"'
~

i_

Basie Moden R11ssia11 Gran1mi1r

rJ1

=
=
=
=

: -, -

rJ1

:.
=

The lndefinite pronouns - and - decline like and , ~


- forms refer to people or things which are not specified purposely,

=."

'1

....= .

does not decline,

- - reters to group of people,

."~

-=t

- reters to thing or two :

- .

1have some things to do.

lf prepositions are used, they appear between


.

:.

and the case form: ;:

1have to talk to someone.

DECLENSION AND USE OF REFLEXIVE PRONOUN

"

rJ1

The Reflexive pronoun and its case forms are used for all persons
~

and both numbers irrespective of Gender.

lt may correspond to:

forms with -self,


or it is not translated at all .

This pronoun does not have the Nominative Case form.

cominations

,.::

with possessive pronouns or

Gen.

cominations

with own,

'1

=
~
~

John is at his office.


Dat.

1invite you to my place.


.

lnstr.

loves only himself.

Do you have any papers with you?


Prep.

=f

thinks only about himself.

page 73

~
~

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 G1a1111na1

r/)

=
These pronouns can used in sentence both as subject and an object. S
REPLACING GENERALIZING PRONOUNS AND

ct

Their gender and number agreement is as follows:

.!

~ / + the Neuter of the Past tense verbs

....
:

E.g.

. lt was interesting.
.

Everything was all right.

f:-

-=

/ + the 3-d person Singular of the Present/Future tense verbs.

E.g.

lt will interesting.
Everything will all right.

When used as an object and have the following case forms:


Nom.

Gen.

Dat.

lnstr.

Prep.

lt is interesting.
She is afraid of it.

She believes it.

She knows it.

She is interested in it.

She knows it.

Nom .

Gen.

Dat.

. She believes everything.

lnstr.

Prep.

Part 5

Everything is good.
She is afraid of everything.

=
~
~

She knows everything.

,;

She is interested in everything.

She knows everything.

page 74

Basie Modet"n Rtassian Grammar

Part 6

....
=
=

0 USE OF NOMINATIVE CASE

11
~

=
if
~

The Case Usage

The forms of the Nominative Case coincide with the dictionary form.
The Nominative is used as follows:
lt is used to denote the subject of an action or state:
.
.

lt is used in

gaage .

1 live in Moscow .

phrases:

. This is my house .
.

._.

is in the

lt is used in

These my fiends.
phrases:

is my house.
. my documents.

lt is used in possessive constructions:


?

Do you have ?
. Lena has s ticket.

lt is used in definitions:

-
Bulgakov is my favouite wite.

USE OF GENITIVE CASE

The Genitive is the most frequently used Russian case.


lt comprises about 70 / of all the case forms.
The Genitive case can

used both with or without prepositions.

We can speak about:

Part G

the Genitive of Negation / Absense / Exception


the Genitive of Possession
the Genitive of Relation / Description
the Genitive of Quantity
the Genitive of Time
the Genitive of Place
the Genitive used after certain prepositions
the Genitive used after certain verbs
the Genitive of Comparison
the Genitive of Special Descriptive characteristics

page 75

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

GENITIVE OF NEGATION / ABSENSE / EXCEPTION


The Genitive is used to express an absense or non-availiabllity
of person , object or quality, for example:
Gen.
.

is not availae.
. - Natasha was not at home.
Gen.

Two prepositions - - without and - except are used in the


same meaning, for example:

,

- 1have no .

- without suga
- eveyon e except Natasha

GENITIVE OF POSSESSION

The comination with the preposition is used to denote possession


of an object or some characteristics, for example:
Gen.
.

Natasha has

dog.

The Genitive is used to denote an owner:


.

lt' s my

bother's .

GENITIVE OF RELATION / DESCRIPTION


An object or person is described in relation to another object/person ,
for example:

Gen.
noun or
proper name

PartG

noun or
proper name

- map of Russia
- tain schedule

page 7G

Basie Modet"n R11ssian Gramn1ar

GENITIVE OF QUANTITY
The Genitive is used after words of indefinite or relative amount,

for example:

- more
- less
- few, little
- many, much
-- not few
- not many, few
- several
- how many, how much
- so many, so much
- (coll.) - it

of

countaes

Gen. Sing.
of

uncountaes

many books

much snow

The Genitive is used after words denoting certain amount, measure,


containers, set of objects, for example:

Gen. PI.

Gen. PI.
of cou ntaes

Gen. Sing.
of

uncountales

The Genitive is used to denote part of whole, for example:


, .h Genitive is used also after

- 1 1/ 2

- 2 1/ 2

- 3
- 1/ 4
- 3/ 4

Part 8

1
/

Gen.
+

Only the Genitive Singular ~


is used atter these words.

page 77

=
~

Basie Modetn R11ssia11 G1a1n1nar

The Genitive is used to denote the exact number of persons

objects:

~
1J

E.g.

=
=

...

2
12

10
100

=
~
'!

cardinal numerals + Gen.

There is certain rule which regulates the use of the Genitive ~


.
Singular the Genitive Plural after the cardinal numerals.
See below:
~ 1cticc.t

2, 3, 4
any number ending in

2, 3, 4

take the Genitive Singular

E.g.

22

102

etc.

any number from 5 to 19


any number ending in numeral from 5 to 19 take the Genitive Plural
any number ending in
E.g.

5
15

125
120

Cardinal numeral 1 and any number ending in


take the Nominative Singular, for example:
1 , 21 etc.

The Genitive Plural is used after the following collective and doue
numerals:
,,,,,

for example:
The Genitive Plural is used after the following words:
- thousand, - million,
for example:

- illion (10

12

, .

Part G

page 78

._.
=
~
11

=
.....=
~
~

Basie Modet"n R11ssian Gramn1ar

GENITIVE OF TIME

The Genitive of Time can

used both with or without prepositions.

The Genitive is used to denote:

dates of events
Gen.

Gen.

intervals
~-7

Gen.

1300

Gen.

Gen.

~-7

1400

Gen.

time points
Gen.
.

works here from September.

age points or limits


Gen.
.

started smoking from the age of 14.

phases or parts of time words


1941

Gen.

1945

~1~

Gen.

~1~

Gen.

1991

Gen.

Gen. I

Gen.

PartG

Gen.

Gen.

coll. 6 - 6 a.m.
Gen.

~1

- 2 p.m.

- 6 p.m.

Gen.

2 - 2 a.m.

page 79

Basie Modetn R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

approximate time
coll . - about twelve clock
time of the day
firsLpart of an hour:
Gen.

115 , 235

second part of an hour:


Gen.

11 30 ,

2330 -

Gen.

Gen.

11 55 ,

2355 -

GENITIVE OF PLACE
Genitive of Place is used only after prepositions.
lt is used to denote the position of an object/person in relation
to another object/person - both stationary and moving.

The following prepositions and

adverial cominations

- near

- to the left from


- to the right from
- in front of
/ - behind
- inside
- outside
- around
- along
~
- across

- near, at

used here:

- not far from

- close to
- far from
- far from
- opposite
/

- in the middle of
- among

+[ Genitive
E.g

- ,

passing

Gen.

Part G

- not far from our house


We stayed at our friends.

page 80

Basie Mode1n Rt1ssian Grammiar

= The Genitive is used to denote place from where the action is directed
r11
(the starting point of motion). The following prepositions are used:
=
, , - from place
- - from behind
+ Genitive
~
- from beneath
=
E.g.

=
...=
~
~

.
came back from Paris yesterday night.

80 .

1usually leave home at 80


.
came from work very late.
.

We went from Stockholm

bus.

The Genitive is used to denote distance between two or more objects/


persons or part of the way:

+ Gen.

+ Gen.

From Moscow to Kiev we were driving the whole night .


After preposition
destination:

the Genitive is used to denote

place of

How to get to the railway station?

() ?

How long does it take to get to London

air?

also
.

1can' t reach you

PartG

phone).

page 81

Basie Mode1n R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

GENITIVE USED AFTER CERTAIN PREPOSITIONS.

The Genitive can also used after several other prepositions


in other meanings than described earlier.
=

Preposition

is used to denote

sender of an object:

'=1

...=

denote relation between two objects

phenomena:
- key to the (lit. key fom the )

Preposition

anti -allegic

is used to denote

medicine

reason

cause:

- .

1came late to
Preposition

wok

because of

taffic

jam.

means for, meant for:

The

Preposition

is f the

pinte.

is used mostly with the following verbs:

/ - to make
/

to make, to

manifactue ,

to

poduce

- to build

/ - to cook

- to consist
/ - to sew
/

]
Genitive

of

- to knit
E.g. .

This

is made of wood.

This book consists of five

PartG

chaptes.

page 82

~
~

r/J.

GENITIVE USED AFTER CERTAIN VERBS

The following verbs take the Genitive:

- to wish

E.g. ! 1wish you succes.


Very often the verb is omitted:

=
,..=

Basie Mode1--n Rt1ssian Gramn1ar

All the best to you!

lt comes from !

- to wait

E.g. . We are waiting for your reply.

- to lack, to

E.g.

short of- used only impersonally


. 1am short of time.

E.g. . does not want any scandal.


.

does not want the watermelon.

The Genitive is also used after some other verbs:

- to

afraid of

- to avoid
- to shy, to feel uneasy
- to achieve, to gain
, - to get to, to reach
- to worth
- to take from someone
- to ask someone
- to ask someone to do or give something
- to buy something from person or company
/ ... - to translate from
E.g. . She is afraid of dogs.
.

1'11 ask my brother.

You have to translate it from English.

Part 8

page 83

Basie Modetn R11ssia11 G1a1111na1

GENITIVE OF COMPARISON
As an alternative to + Nom. the Genitive is used to denote an object
or person of comparison:
.

brother is younger than me. =

, .

GENITIVE OF SPECIAL DESCRIPTIVE CHARACTERISTICS


The Genitive is used without any preposition to describe some
characteristics of an object or person: colour, model, size, dimension,
age, brand etc.
E.g. .
bought the latest Volvo model. (lit. Volvo of the latest model).
Very often the Genitive descriptive cominations are used in questions:
Asking about ...
.. ?
~
?
...

size
model, type
breed (of dogs, cats etc.)
height of person
length
width
height
depth
brand, sort, type
quality

.. ?
.. ?

.. ?.
.. ?
.. ?
.. ?
.. ?
.. ?
~

0 USE OF DATIVE CASE

The Dative of Person


The primary meaning of the Dative Case is to denote
an action is performed, for example:
0 at
.

person for whom

Help me.

The main verbs which take the Dative of Person are as follows:
/

- to speak/say/tell
/ - to answer/reply
/ - to tell
/

PartG

- to call/phone
/ - to show
/ - to give
page 84

=
;

~
~
~

Basie Mode1n Rt1ssian Grammar


/ - to send
/ - to bring
/ - to
/ - to help
/ - to send
/ - to bring
/ - to help

.
...=
=
~

The Dative of Person can used in formally impersonal senteces.


When Russians wish to specify the state of person they use
the Dative, for example:
.

(lit.

me it is cold).

The Dative is used to denote age:

- 1 cold.

20

- 1 20 years old.

The Dative is also used in formally impersonal sentences with


general meaning of necessity, possibllity or oigation:
E.g. . - 1have to k phone call.
(lit. lt is necessary to me... )
also with , - it is necessary, one has to ...

- , it is possi e/peritted
- it is not allowed, one ust not

The Dative is used after prepositions.


Two common prepositions and take the Dative Case.
- towards, to + verbs of motion
.

to see us.

We approached Moscow late in the evening.

- , along, about, according to, across, in

lt is the vaguest of all Russian prepositions, see some examples:


- to go Tverskaya (street)
- Russian (exam in/about
Russian)
- to travel about/around
- according to the law

Part8

- in the

Russia

ornings

page 85

=
rlJ
=
~
~

Basic Mode1n R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1


Preposition is also used with communication verbs to denote
means of communication :
/
/

- to show
- to watch, to see

/ - to call phone

=
=

- to say

'~

Dat.

/ - to speak, to talk

- to send
/ - to send
/ - to send
/ - to recieve

Dat.

- to hear
/ - to broadcast
/ - to broadcast
/ - to speak

Dat.

Dat.

USE OF ACCUSATIVE CASE


The Accusative can used both with or without prepositions.
The Accusative is used:

to denote an object of an action (without prepositions).

direction of an action (with prepositions),


with number of prepositional verbs and comblnations,
with preposition (about)
with great number of time-expressions (both with or without
prepositions) .
to denote

The Accusative without prepositions is used after transitive verbs


to denote an object of an action (Direct object), for example:

subject

Part 6

action
expressed
transitive verbs

- 1bought dog.

object
in Accusative

page 86

Basie Mode1n R11ssian Grttmn1ar

The Accusative is also used with the same model to denote cost,

measure, distance:
.

The dog costs one thousand dollars.


.

We drove

thousand kilometers.

The Accusative is used to denote the direction of an action or place


of destination after prepositions , , , , , for
example:

subject

action
expressed
motion verbs

1am going to London.

object in Accusative

Some other examples include:


.

1am going to the exhibltion.


.

1sent f to London.
.

put the money into the safe.

was admitted to the university.

1made call to Paris.


.

put

under the

t.

went to work abroad.

_ .

1am going to the countryside.


.

shot

policeman.

was wounded in his knee.

Part 8

page 87

asie

Modet11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1nar

The Accusative is used after certain prepositional verbs:


__

-to for the ticket


- to believe i God
__ - to sell for thousad dollars
- to puish for crime
- to vote for the Grees
- to spet m books
- to aswer questio
- to fall i love with eighbour
- to play footbal 1
.. - to kock the door
- to coverse through
iterpreter

The Accusative is also used in some


cominations:

- prescriptio for atiiotics

- flight to Ld
- ticket for the cocert
- ill for
- m for the ticket

ln everyday conversation the preposition (about) followed


the Accusative is used instead of about followed the
Prepositional:

- to tell about the trip

Some prepositional verbs with preposition are used to denote the


date or the time for which something has been arranged:
_~__..
arrage

the

meetig

for

Jauary

the

secod.

Other verbs which are used in the construction include:

- to order for
- to postpoe to .. .
- to postpoe to .. .

Part G

page 88

Basie Modern R11ssian Grammar


The Accusative can

used in the following time-expressions:

with days of the week:



- on Monday

- on Tuesday

- on Wednesday
- on Thursday
- on Friday
- on Saturday
- on Sunday

with festivals and

to denote

puic

holidays:
/ - at the New Year
/ - at Christmas
- at Easter

period of time:

after - in

with

after

1spent week in Spain.


. 1am going to Spain for week.

ln week 1am going to Spain.

- ago

1went to Spain week ago.

- to denote the time taken to complete the action:

lt took us an hour to get to the town.

to denote frequency of occurence:




Part 8

- once week
- once month
- once year

page 89

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1


with - in, during, in the time of ...

- in bad weather
- when it' s hot
] d . th
- when it' s cold
(
)
ung
war
11 .
- in winter time
- in the middle ages
- in our time
-in Stalin' s time
- in stagnation period
- at midday
- at midnight
- at one ' clock
- at the last minute
, , - this, last, next Tuesday
- on the first day
- that morning
- in the reign of Peter the First
Note

+ Gen is used mostly for the distant past.

USE OF INSTRUMENTAL CASE

The case got its name from one of its uses


it is the case form for the instrument used to do something, as in:
1

- to cut oneself with

knife.

However, it is not the most important use to learn.


More important is its use after six prepositions:
, , , , ,

The Preposition
- with, don't confuse it with + Gen. meaning from
1

- 1go there with Natasha.

-Yesterday 1spoke to ... (lit. with Natasha)


also - together with - .
- caviar sandwich (lit. sandwich with caviar)

11

The lnstrumental is used after some verbs taking the preposition


- to congratulate on
- to settle with somebody
- to meet with

PartG

11

.::
~

page 90

Basie Mode1--n R11ssian Grammar

= The lnstrumental is used after 5 prepositions to denote


;

r/J.

=
:.

- behind

The

is

paked

place of an object:

behind the house.

- between

=
...=
~
~

is paked between the houses.


- above, v,
. We flew above the Alps.
- in font of, f
The

The

was

Preposition

paked

- unde

font

can also

in

of the house.

- bef

used in time-expressions:

beakfast

.
h

ig gaage unde

the hotel.
also - n Moscow ~
The lnstrumental is used after number of verbs of which
J l.-Otice/
the most common are

is

/:

was famous

photogaphe.

will become sugeon.


... When 1was small ...

Also , ,

Some other verbs which take the lnstrumental:

- to
- to seem
- to consideed
- to command
- to emain , to stay

to contol
~
- to poud of

to manage, to un '=t
- to delight in
- to own
rJJ.
- to obsessed with -sacifice
~
- to boast of
- to sick
r/J.
- to distinguished - to (in)
~
- to smell of
- to feed (with)
- to tade in
- to wd (with)

2
5

Part G

page 91

=
jjili.
~
1J

The lnstrumental case is used after some prepositional verbs:


.
.

12=
~

Basie Modet11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

=
=
.~
=
....

Preposition

is also used to denote

. 1 am

worked on contract.
laughed at his friend.

purpose of action:

going to buy bread.

The lnstrumental without preposition is used to denote the time of


events (parts of the day, seasons):

- in the morning
- in the afternoon
- in the evening
- at night
- in (the) winter
- in (the) spring
- in (the) summer
- in (the) fall/autumn

Also .

USE OF PREPOSITIONAL CASE


The Prepositional case is used only after the following prepositions:
, - to denote place or time,
- about, - in the time of

The Prepositional is used after

and

is satisfied with his job.

to denote

place:

. 1 live
.

in Moscow now.
1 have been to the exhibltion.

- in January etc.
- last year
- next month
- this week etc.
( ) .

- lt was in 1948.
.

Part G

lived in the 19-th century.

page 92

Basie Modern

R11ssi~t11 Gramm~tr

Some other verbs used with this case after prepositons

, :

- to work
/ - to study
/ - to (situated)
/ - to take walk
/ - to born
/ - to stay
/ - to sit
/ - to lie
/ - to hang
- to play (sports)
- to play (music instruments) and some others.

After

the Prepositional is used to denote means of transport:

1will go

The Prepositonal is used with the following verbs after the preposition
.. .

- to think
... - to speak, to talk
". - to write
". - to read
.. . - to tell
... - to ask
... - to know
E.g
.

After

does not like to talk about his work.

the Prepositional is used to denote

period in history:

- in tzar time
- in Stalin's time ~~~~~

Part 6

page 93

Basie Mode1n R11ssia11 G1a1nma1

Part7

Verbs

SVSTEM OF RUSSIAN VERB


Russian verbs have the following forms:
The lnfinitive - - to read
Present Tense - - 1read , 1am reading

The lndicative mood { Past Tense -

- 1read, 1have read


Future Tense - - 1will read,
1will reading
The lmperative - , ! - Please, read!
The Conjunctive mood - Past Tense + ,
- 1would read ,
The verbs also have some other forms:
The participles and
The adverblal participles gerunds
Many verbs have the reflexive particle - (- ) attached to all their
forms, for example:

- to return ,
- to study etc.

When studying the Russian Verb system you have also to

such an unusual characteristics as the Aspect.


The verbs of motion, particularly non-prefixed verbs, form
group which needs special treatment.

in mind

peculiar

INFINITIVE AS BASE FOR VERB FORMS


ln the dictionaries the Russian verbs registered in the lnfinitive.
The lnfinitive is the form which does not have any ending indicating
the Tense. lt is possie to say that the lnfinitive is the naked form
of the verb . So, to dress the verb you have to add the Tense endings
to it. Further you will learn how to do it.
There

three Tenses in Russian:

The Present Tense


The Past Tense
The Future Tense

Part7

page 94

Basie Mode1n R11ssian Grammar

USE OF

INFINITIVE IN RUSSIAN

( -, -, - , -, - , -, - ]

The infinitives end in:

The comblnations with the lnfinitive can


scheme:

represented

the following

( Verbs )

lnfinitive

lt is phrases
with forms

The lnfinitive is normally comblned with great many verbs:


.

1like

eading.

1want to go sightseeing.
. asked to .
. 1will always help you.

f} The lnfinitive is used in the sentences with the meaning of


supposition, permission or prohibltion, for example:
.

1have to

wok.

/ 1 ust

oigation,

wok.

should tw.
is supposed to tw.

.u

go

subway.

.u

cannot k u h .
lt' s fobldden to k u h.

The infinitive is used with the ... - forms in phrases like:


.

lt is difficult to

Part 7

dive

in Moscow.

page 95

Basie Mode1.11 R11ssia11 G1a1nmar

ASPECT
The Russian verb has an extra characteristics: the Aspect.
The action expressed verb may viewed from different stand
points: completion, frequency of occurance, action in progress,
statement of fact etc.
The Aspect is manifested through prefixes or suffixes and not through
the endings as the tenses do. Practically each Russian verb belongs
either to the lmperfective or the Perfective Aspect.
Most Russian verbs go in pairs of lmperfective and Perfective verbs,
for example: - - to do
The Aspect of the Verb is always marked in the dictionaries. ~
E.g.

._ totia.'

- lmperfective
- Perfective

The verbs which make up an Aspect pair generally have the same
meaning, i.e. they name one and the same real action, for example:
/

- to do,
-lit., to have something done.

The Tense formation scheme:


of

- to do,

~~~erb ~

( Tense ending )

The Aspect formation scheme:


( Suffix J

'11

Mind that the Aspect goes through the whole system of the verb:
lmperatives

Part7

Participles

page 98

Basie Mode1--n R11ssian Grammar

ASPECT IN TENSE SYSTEM


The Aspect is kind of rod which goes through the Tense system
of the Russian verb.

With reference to the Aspect, the Tense system of the Russian verb can

presented

the following scheme:

lmperfective Aspect (First Form)


( PAST TENSE )

( PRESENT TENSE

FUTURE TENSE }-7

These verbs are simply called the lmperfective verbs.

8 Perfective Aspect
( PAST TENSE )

(Second Form)
( FUTURE TENSE

}-7

These verbs are simply


called the Perfective verbs.

PRESENT TENSE OF

Only the lmperfective verbs can

VERBS

used in the Present Tense.

1mperfective verb
( PAST TENSE

)1------1(

PRESENT TENSE

]1-----1(FUTURE TENSE }-7

ln the Present Tense verbs change for person and numer - they conjugate.
Each person has its own ending. There are two types of personal endings,
in accordance with which verbs fall into
~

-st
conjugation

and

8 -nd
conjugation

As base for the Present tense formation we use part of the lnfinitive,
for example:
The infinitive

Part 7

Present tense stem

-7
-7

page 97

Basie Modetn R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

-ST CONJUGATION, REGULAR FORMATION


Many Russian 1-st conjugation verbs are conjugated on the pattern
of (vowel stem) :

The 1-st conjugation

conjugation) comprises the verbs ending in

- , - , - , - , - , - , - , - .

The Present Tense endings are as follows:


Singular
Plural
- - after consonants

-/-
- /-

- after vowels
and

(soft

{-

sign)

-/ -

- after consonants

- after vowels and


(soft sign)

, -/ -

'tr.r!flr"o .1.1.1 Some - verbs also belong to the 1-st Conjugation:


- to live, - to drink, - to pour and some others.

-ND CONJUGATION, REGULAR FORMATION

Many Russian 2-nd conjugation verbs are conjugated on the pattern


of (consonant stem):

The 2-nd conjugation comprises verbs ending in -

The Present Tense endings are as follows:


Plural

Singular
{ - after , , , , , .
-

Part7

- in other cases.

after

, , ,
, , .

in other cases.

page 98

Basie Modet"n Rttssian Gramn1ar

't/,.'rcej>iimi///

ig

group of common verbs ending in -, - and -


also belongs to the 2-nd Conjugation ( Conjugation).
Among them are:

- to watch,

to look at, to see


- to see
- to hear
- to lie
- to sit
- to stand
- to sleep
,

E.g.

- to silent
- to shout, to scream
- to depend on
- to knock
- to hold, to keep
- to breathe

and many others.

Prefixed verbs of both conjugations follow the same conjugation ~


pattern as their ro~t ve~bs , for example:
~A!OtirA"/
- 2-nd conJugatn - to see -
- 2-nd conjugation - to see (suddenly)-

IRREGULAR 1-ST CONJUGATION


With some verbs the Present Tense stem differs from the lnfinitive stem.
See them below.
Dropping of some parts of the lnfinitive
Verbs in - :
- to give
- is dropped.
The stem is -




also -

Verbs in -/- :

--

- to vote

is dropped,

--

is added.

- to recognize
- to get up etc.

also - - to demand

Part 7

etc.

page 99

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

changing of the stem vowel

- to sing

- to take

appears in conjugation :

- to live

Verbs in

also - - to swim

- :

- to drink

also

- to strike,

- to pour,

- to sew,

Verbs in


etc.

- :

- to wash

Part7

page 100

Basie Mode1n R11ssian Grammar


-

Verbs in

with consonant interchange throughout conjugation:


- to write, / interchange

- to look for, to seek

- - to whisper -
/ - - to weep -
/ - - to knit -
/

verbs:

, ,

to go

, ,

to convey

, ,
, ,

to grow

, ,
, ,

to carry

, ,

to lead

, ,

, ,

Verbs in

, ,
-

like:

- to wait

Part 7

also

- to tear,
- to lie

page 101

Basic Modetn R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

Verbs in -/ :

- to place

The verbs described before had the peculiarity gone throughout ~


the conjugation. But now you' ll meet with special case:
" ltia.'

Verbs in - :

- to

// interchange

~~~- - - ~
,

- to flow
- to bake

also

/ .1nterc h ange

Regular
+

IRREGULAR 2-ND CONJUGATION

verbs are conjugated as

consonant stem

- to remember, - to smoke,
- to believe, - to teach, to learn,
- to give (as present).

vowel stem

- to build, - to coast

also

- to stand
- to f ear

lrregular conjugation of verbs


consistent feature of the second conjugation is the change
(mutation) of the consonant in the first person Singular of verbs
ending in - and - .
So, the 1-st Person Sigular differs from other forms.

~
/(;{ic.'

Part 7

page 102

Basie Mode1n Rt1ssian Grammiar

appears in the 1-st Person Singular:

- to love, to like

- to cook, to prepare - ,
l - to put - ,
l - to sleep - ,
l - to feed - ,
l - to catch - ,
l - to tolerate - and some others

also

/ interchange:

-to see

- to sit
l - to iron
l - to go, to walk

also

/ interchange:

-to fly

interchange:

/ interchange :

-to

'

Part 7

-to ask

page 103

Basic Modetn R11ssia11 G1a1n1nar


IRREGULAR VERBS NOT FOLLOWING ANY RN
number of verbs do not follow any of the above patterns.
Some of them also include the elements of both conjugations.
See them below:

- to want

lrlirr.'

- to eat

'

l
l

(also / interchange)

l - to run , also / interchange

- to

Only one form is used - ,


which is the 3-d Person Singular and Plural

1( lirc'

PAST TENSE OF VERBS

The Past Tense formation is based on the Gender Principal (Singulars).


The stem which serves as base for the Past Tense formation comes
from the infinitive.
The infinitives end in: - , - , - , - , - , - , - .
As for the Past Tense Formation all the verbs
fall into 2 groups
~

First Group
- , -

verbs
Regular Past Tense formation,
modern productive type of verbs,
vowel stem.

Part 7

Second Group

- , - , - , - ,

- ,

several

verbs

lrregular Past Tense formation ,


non-productive old type of verbs,
consonant stem.

page 104

...,
=
~

:.

Basie Mode1"n R11ssian Grammar

First Group, Regular Past Tense Formation

( - verbs, vowel stem ]

Let us take , for example, the verb to - .

give the Masculine Past we have to replace

- - :

he was, he has been


[ Stem +

- ]

The Feminine Past - we replace

- - :

she was, she has been


[stem +

The Neuter Past - we replace

- ]

- -:

~ ,

it was, it has been


[ Stem +

The Past agrees also in Number:


- we were, we have been


- you were, you have been
- they were, they have been
[ Stem

So, the full

+-]

is:

lnf.

Singular
.

, ,

F. , ,
N. ,

Part 7

Plural & Polite


, ,

page 105

asie

Modetn R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

verbs
as part of the Regular Group

E.g .

- to fall down

get the Past tense forms we have to replace

or - .
So, the full
as follows:
lnf.

- -, -, -

of the Past Tense formation of this type of verbs is

Singular

Plural & Polite

, ,

F.

, ,

N.

, ,

Some other verbs of the same type:

- to eat, - to steal
- to get to,
- to disappear, to vanish.

The use of Personal pronouns

and

with the Past Tense.

Personal pronouns - 1 and (informal YOU)


are of Common Gender.
So, the Gender agreement is determined the real sex
of person.

- 1was -
- 1fell down -

. l(lirr .'

- you were -
- you fell down -

r/J
~

:.
~

Part7

page IOG

::~ 8

rlJ
=

=
12
~

=
=

~
~

Basie Modern Rttssian Grammar


IRREGULAR PAST TENSE FORMATION
Verbs ending in
Some types of verbs have no - in the Masculine Past.
These mainly the oldest verbs of the Russian language which
have the consonant stem.
No - is added to this stem in the Masculine Past.
ln addition to that the stem consonant is very often replaced
its interchanging pair consonant : , etc.
Let us take for example the verb - to to,
will replaced . So, the Past Tense forms :
Singular
.

, ,

F.
N.

, ,

Plural & Polite


, ,

Some other verbs of the same type of the Past Tense Formation:

- to help
- he helped
- she helped
- it helped
- they helped
/ - interchange

- to flow

- interchange

- to lie down

- to cut (hair), grass

- interchange

- interchange

Part 7

- to bake

- interchange

page 107

Basie Modetn R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1


- to save, to keep, to guard, to protect

- interchange

- to light, to switch

or

lamp
match

- interchange

- to cross, to intersect

- interchange

Similar Past Tense formation have lot of other verbs.

Some - verbs (consonant stem) also have the lrregular Past


Tense Formation - no - in the Masculine Past, f example:

- to die.

So, the Past Tense forms


as follows:

- he died
- she died
- they died

this type belong


some other verbs:

lot of

- to lock,
- to wipe etc.

verbs (consonant stem):

- to get used to

the stem is S ,

the Past Tense forms

- he got used to
- she got used to
- they got used to

Part7

page 108

Basie Mode1n R11ssian Grammar


Some other verbs of the same type:

- to perish

- to freeze

- to become dry

- to go out (about light)

- to go out (about light)

- to disappear, to vanish

- to become

ind

- to become sour

- to become wet

- to become rotten etc.

lrregular Past Tense forms of verbs ending in

lot of frequently used verbs ending in - ,


have the following forms in the Past Tense:

- , - , - , - .

- , - , -

Non-prefixed basic motion verbs


Past Tense
lnfinitive

going verb
carrying verb
leading verb

q
q

, , ,

, , ,

, , ,

different
stems

, , ,

These Past Tense forms serve as basic forms for other verbs,
for example:
lnf. - to go (from )

Past Tense
, , ,

Part 7

page 109

Rasic Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1


lnt.

- to leave

lnt.

- to

(trom )

(trom )

Past Tense

Past Tense

, , ,

, , ,

carrying verbs
lnt.

lnt.

(trom )

(trom )

Past Tense

Past Tense

, , ,

, , ,

leading verbs
lnt.

lnt.

(trom )

(trom )

w
Past Tense

Past Tense

, , ,

, , ,

))--\

,...-....-J.....,

Part 7

There many other


prefixes which not only
add some new shades
ot meaning but
also change the
meaning of verb.
But the formation of
the Past ense is
always based on the
Past Tense forms of
non-prefixed verbs of
motion.

page 110


=
jliii
~

Basie

Mode1~n

Rt1ssian Grammar

Some other verbs with the same peculiarities in the Past Tense formation :
Past Tense forms

lnfinitive

rlJ

:.
=

=
....=
~
~

to grow , , ,
to save,
to rescue - , , ,
to m - , , ,
to shake - , , ,
to sweep - , , ,
to row , ,
to climb up - , , ,
to crawl - , , ,

The above mentioned verbs can have different prefixes


or meanings, but their Past Tense Formation retains
the same peculiarities.

FUTURE TENSE OF VERBS

Depending on the Aspect of verb, there are 2 ways to form


the Future Tense:
The Compound Future for the lmperfectives and

The Simple Future for the Perfectives

COMPOUND FUTURE FOR IMPERFECTIVES

consists of two verbs:


The Future Tense
of the verb

So,

- to

The lmperfective
lnfinitive

!Jlurn/f'Jlfl1i1f

So, the lmperfective verbs have the following Tense forms:


( PAST TENSE )

Part 7

}?

( PRESENT TENSE )

( FUTURE TENSE

page 111

=8
=
jjil.

rlJ

~~

Basie Mode1n R11ssia11 G1am111a1


SIMPLE FUTURE FOR PERFECTIVES consists of one verb.

ln most of the cases the Perfectives borrow the patterns of their Future
Tense formation from the lmperfective Present Tense Forms:
The Present Tense Form of the lmperfective:
.

The Future Tense Form of the Perfective:

=
...=
~

=t

!Jlt;JJUJtal/j
So, the Perfective verbs have the following Tense forms:
( PAST TENSE

FUTURE TENSE

The Future Perfectives follow all the patterns


of the Present lmperfectives of the same root.

1( 1/.1

are some difficult forms of the Future Perfectives:

- to give

- to sell

-1 will sell

-1 will give

- to start, to begin

- 1will start

- to understand

- 1will understand

- to take

- 1will take

- to get up

- 1will get up

rlJ

Part7

page 112

..=

:.
~
;....

Basie JJlodern Rtassian Grammar

- to sit, to take sit

-1 will sit

=
~

...=

- to find

- 1will find

- to translate

- to arrive

- 1will arrive

- 1 will translate

- to

- to say, to tell

-1 will come

-1 will tell

- to show

-1 will show

IMPERATIVE OF VERBS

When asking people to do things Russians make such requests with form
of the verb called the lmperative + the word (please).
FORMATION OF IMPERATIVE
Both Aspects may have the lmperatives.
There are 3 possie endings for the lmperative:

-
, }
-
-

lf you are speaking


to someone you call
lf you are speaking to someone called , drop the -.
The basis for the lnfinitive is the Present Tense Stem.

! form,
! form.

page 113

Basie Modetn R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

The most common ending 1s -().


~
Use it if stem ends in consonant.

=
~
~

lnfinitive

=
...=
~

to say, to tell
to buy
to forgive
to write down
to
to go
to wait
to talk, to speak
to call
to bring
to enter
to help

( vowel stem +

lnfinitive

Present Stem

lmperative

- /

()

()

()

- /

()

()

()

()

()

()

()
()

- /

()

- () )

lmperative

()

lnfinitive

to open
to give
to pass
to find out

Present Stem

lmperative

- /

()

( )

()

( )

The rarest ending is -(),


it is used also after the consonant stems:

- to forget
- to answer
- to

.<J}trial

m .)( .'

()
( )
()

lf the verb is reflexive it retains the reflexive ending /: ~

! / !
!

Part7

. r;,1"rr.'

Have seat!
Come back!

page 114

Basie

Mode1~n

R11ssian Grammar

MAIN TYPES OF PARTICIPLES


( Short Participles J
~

Short Passive Participles


from Perfectives
(only transitive verbs)

."=
= .

Short Active Participles


Used only in the official or bookish style! ~
There are always ways to avoid them ,
you have only to recognize them.
.~~/

~ The shop has been already

...= closed .

Short Active Participles


from Perfectives
= Having done smth

Short Active Participles


from lmperfectives
= While/when doing smth

. from l

While/when closing the door,


he dropped the keys.
ending in -, - ,
(- , - if Reflexive)

from
Having come back home he went to bed
at once.
ending in - ,
(- , if Reflexive)

( Long Participles ]
Long Passive Participles
~

lt!

8 from Perfectives

f) from lmperfectives
- , -

- , - , -

- favourite film

- unfinished novel

- broken glass

Long Active Participles


~

from Perfectives

from lmperfectives
- ,- ,- ,-

from - the

from - the passenger

passenger who might miss the


train

who has missed the train

Part 7

page 115

=
=
rlJ
jlil.

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF SHORT PASSIVE


PERFECTIVE PARTICIPLES
The Short Passive Perfective Participles are used to describe states
which the results ! some actions.

They end in

=
=

These participles agree with the subject in gender and number:

'81

- , - , -

and

- to do, to have smth done


.

F.

PI.
.

N.

- The renovation has been done.


F. . - The work has been done.
N. . - Everything has been done.
PI. . - All the things have been done.
The agent of the action may

rendered

the lnstrumental, for example:


lnstr.

These works were painted Renoir.


Some participles take trom - to occupy
from - to open
from - to close

trom - to dress
from - to wash etc.
The short Passive Perfective Participles are used only as
complement to the verb - to be(in Compound Predicates),f.
for example:
. rlia.'
Past tense

The shop was closed yesterday.


Present tense .

The shop is closed today.


Future tense

The shop will closed tomorrow.

Part 7

page llG

Basie ltlode1n R11ssian Grammar


LONG PARTICIPLES AS ADJECTIVES AND NOUNS
Many long participles are also used as adjectives or nouns.

Most common long participles used as adjectives:

- next
- next
- present, real
- suitae

- outstanding
- favourite
- respected ,
honourae

- indispensae,
necessary
- independant

also

- broken lock
- roasted meat
- pickled
cucumbers
- smoked sausage
- ground coffee
- grated cheese
- whipped cream
- sliced sausage
etc.

Long participles used as nouns (participial nouns):

- the present
- the futu
- the past
- madman
- wounded person
- the accused
- convict
- passer-by
- civil servant
- pupils, students
- people present at ...
All long participles are declined as ordinary adjectives

page 117

Basie Mode1.n R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1


USAGE (MEANING) OF ASPECTS

lmperfective verbs describe:

Ja

~!

action in progress

was writig his ovel for the whole year.

repeated action

...=

~ ~ ,g

. wrote every day.

'Cf)

2S 9

statement of fact

- ?

- .

wrote

What did he do last year?

ovel.

succesion of events ~ => ~ => ~


, , .

Saturday he read, took walk, played

teis d

wrote his

ovel.
Perfective verbs describe the completion of single action.

Usually, result is implied, for example:

. ~W~

has writte ovel.

SOME FACTORS WHICH DETERMINE CHOICE OF AN ASPECT

lf you are asked question with an lmperfective verb you have to use
an lmperfecive verb in your reply, for example:
lmp.

What did you do yesterday?

lmp.

- . 1WOked.
Follow the rule:

Aspect in Question

lmperfective
Perferfective

~
~

Aspect in Answer

lmperfective
Perferfective

The lmperfective aspect is used with the time expressions denoting


frequency or occurence:

ofte

week
- m times
- every day

- sometimes
- always
r/J
- ever
other expressions with ,.=:
- seldom
- i the morigs
- several times - Modays etc. ...

Part 7

page 118

Basie Modern Rttssian Grammar

=
PRACTICAL TABLE OF MOST COMMON VERBS
,_. Below you will find practical
of basic forms of most common verbs
~ of both Aspects:
= The verb - to Present
Future

Past

, ,


, ,

only in the
Possessive
Constructions

, ,

- , to

- is used

to, to manage

Past

Present

Future

, , /
, , /
/
, , /

- to want, to wish

Past

Present

, ,

, ,

, ,

- to give

Past

Present

Future

, ,

, ,

, ,

- to eat

Past

Present

Future

, ,

etc.

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

Pa1t 7

------

page 119

Past,

s.

, ,

, ,

lnf. & Present,

3-.,

/ ,

Sing.

to t ake

, ,

, ,

- t o get up
to talk, speak, say

- to do

/
,

, ,

- t o wait

- to live

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

art 7

- to call , to phone

- to put

- to go to bed, to lie down

- to lie

- to love, like

- to fi nd

- to open

/
,

, ,

Sing.

, ,

, ,

- to return

/,

, ,

, ,

3-.,

- t o see

/
,

Future,

- to w rite

page 120

.,..
=
rlJ
=
=
~

~
~

...=

Basie Moder11 R11ssian Grammar

Past,

s.

lnf. & Present and

3-.,

- to sing

,,

, ,

/-

,,

/-

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

, ,

- to sit

, ,

N.

- to sit down, to take

- to happen

- to hear

to see, look at

, ,

art 7

sit

- to listen

- to ask to do smth

- to send

, ,

,,

- to understand

to help

- to get, receive

, ,

, ,

to show

to buy

/-

Future, 3-., Sing .

Sing.

- to watch,

- to ask

- to read

page 121

"11

-=
~
~

.....

Basie Mode1n R11ssia11 G1am1na1

Part8
Verbs and Construetions
Th is part deals with:

The Retlexive Verbs

'=t

Modal Verbs and Constructions

Possessive Constructions

Russian Word Order

(- verbs)

REFLEXIVE VERBS (- verbs)

The suffix - () was originally the Accusative of the Reflexive


pronoun - self. ln many verbs the reflexive meaning of the
suffix has been lost, but there also verbs in which this meaning
has been preserved: the so called true reflexives.
The conjugation of reflexive - verb does not differ from its
non-reflexive pair verb.
The ending - is attached to verb forms ending in consonant
- :

[ consonant

- + - J

E.g. l .
l .
l !

is also attached to all active participles .

is attached to forms ending in

vowel , for example:

l .

vowel +

Part8

page 122

=
r/J.
=

Basie Moder11 Rttssian Grammiar

There are also 2 Aspect forms:

lmp.

Perf.

:==

...=

lmperfective

Perfective

- to make up one's face

- to dye one's hair

- to do one's hair

- to change one's clothes

- to dress oneself

- to undress oneself

- to put

- to wash oneself

- to go to sauna

- to wash one's hands and f ~

- to bathe oneself

- to shave oneself

- to find him/herself in/at

- to get oneself ready

.~

MAIN USE OF REFLEXIVES


The true Reflexives
group of true Reflexives is limited to groomingverbs:

one's shoes

r/J.

=
,.,=
."
,.,
~

r/J.

=
=

"'=

=
=
r/J.

J:

~
~

....
Pa1t 8

page 123

Rasic Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

= The Reflexives can


jjji.
~
11

~=
~

used in the sentences with inanimate objects


and the action is presented as if preformed itself:
.

The door d.
190 . The performace starts at 190 .
. Suddely the computer switched off.
? Whe does the shop ?
. broke.

= lmperfective
= also
~

Perfective

- to close
- to switch
- to spill
- to cotiue
- to decrease, to lesse
- to icrease , to grow
- to improve
- to deteriorate
- to stop
- to get lost

and some others


The Reflexives with the passive meaning
Reflexive suffix adds the passive meaning to many transitive verbs:
non - Reflexives
Reflexives

?
11

- How is this word spelt?

:>

.....

proouced?

- How is this word

=
=

:.
.....

- How to wash this sweater?

:>

:>

:>

Part 8

this stove?

- Where is this
There is usually

traslated?

- How to switch

-"=

- How is this word

11

11
,.=
:.

situated?

third-person subject in these sentences.

page 124

Basie '/Jlodern Rttssian Grammar

= The Reflexives are used to denote purposeful action:


;
/ - to try
=
/ - to attempt
r/J.

/ + gen. - to achieve

The Reflexives are used to describe human states or feelings:


.~
lmperfective
~
+ gen. - to fear
~
+ gen. - to get frightened

- to seem
+ . - to hope f or

lmperfective / Perfective
/

+ dat. - to like (used only impersonally)


/ + dat. - to smile
/ + instr. - to laugh at
+ instr. - to proud of
/ + dat. - to surprised
/ - to worry
/ - to get excited
/ + dat. - to rejoice
/ + - + gen. - to get upset
/ + . - to get angry with
/ - to wake up
/ - to have good sleep
/ - to get drunk

YJ~1xal Cf(J)(}:

. ~

dog does not ite.

~ i(~tice.t

The Reflexives are also used to denote human activities or actions:


lmperfective
+

instr. - to go in for, to study


- to study

lmperfective / Perfective
/

- to ride
/ - to back
/ - to get involved into
/ - to make mistake

Pa1t 8

page 125

Basic Modetn R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

The Reflexives are used to denote

joint action:

We met in Moscow.

.
.

The counterpart is expressed


Other verbs with

+ lnstrumental -

similar meaning:

lmperfective

Perfective

- to settle, to agree

- to see each other

- to gather

- to marry, to get married

- to say good-bye

- to unite

- to divorce

- to quarrel

- to settle

- to kiss

- to embrace each other

to say hello

MODAL VERBS AND CONSTRUCTIONS


The sentences with the modal verbs or constructions can

Personal sentences

with /
with

or

lmpersonal sentences

with

or

with /
with

J:..

...

Part 8

page 128

Basie Mode1n Rttssian Grammar

=
=

PERSONAL SENTENCES
Personal sentences with / + lnfinitive,

1J
~

- can,

to

lnfinitive

Perfective :

Present
~

Past, Masc.

/
Future

=
...=
~
~

lmperfective:

Past

E.g. . 1cannot .
.

1could not .11 failed to

Personal sentences with + infinitive


They express oigation, necessity or supposition, for example:
.

1have to go = 1ust go = 1have to go.


.

She should

here soon.

changes according to gender and number,

like the Past Tense forms of the verbs:

Part 8

Masc.

, ,

Fem.

, ,

PI. & Pol .

, ,

page 127

Basic Modetn R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1


f} IMPERSONAL SENTENCES

lmpersonal sentences with

oigation,

They express necessity

+ infinitive .

for example:

.
.

1have got to go.


1must go.
1have to go.

( = )

is more conversational.

lmpersonal sentences with / + infinitive.

Sentences with denote permission:


?

1see?

1have

look?

Sentences with also denote possibllity:


?

How 1get there?

Sentences with denote prohibltion:


!

You may not here!

impossibllity:

You cannot get there

@ )

the subway.

lmpersonal sentences with / + lnfinitive


denote possibllity impossibllity:
, .

1think, it is

possie

to do this.

, .

1think, it is

Part8

impossie

to do this.

page 128

Basie ltlodern Rt1ssian Grammiar

,_..
=

=
~
1J

The Tense forms of modal constructions


Modal constructions are based on the verb

forms:

Present

Future

Past

=
~

...=

Present

Future

Past

+ inf.
F. + inf.
N. + inf.
PI. + inf.

. + inf.

F. + inf.
N. + inf.
PI. + inf.

+ inf.
F. + inf.
N. + inf.
PI. + inf.

POSSESSIVE CONSTRUCTIONS

(1 have / 1do not have)

The Possessive construction is the Russian equivalent to the verb


for example:
1 have

dog.

= .

+ +

Genitive

Nominative
object
which is possessed

person
who possesses

have,

Thus, literally There is dog me.


So, the Genitive denotes person or thing which possesses an
object.
The object functions as subject of sentence and is denoted
the Nominative.

= there is, is

The Possessive construction can


object is specified:

used without

when the

1 have ig

Part8

dog.

page 129

Basie Mode1n R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1


The Negative of the Possessive Construction
Positive

Negative

1have dog.

1 have dog.

ln the Negative Possessive construction the negated object


Gen.
is expressed the Genitive: .

The Tense forms of possessive constructions

POSITIVE

Prese nt

Past
.

F.

Future

PI .

PI.
used depedig
the number
of the possessed
objects

used depedig
the gender d
umber of the
possessed objects

NEGATIVE

Prese nt

Past

s.

Future

These verb forms are used only in one form, irrespective of gender
or number of possessed objects:

+ + .

6.
Part8

lrlia.1

page 130

Basie Mode1n R11ssian Grammar

RUSSIAN WORD ORDER


The direct word order
The order Subject + Verb + Object is encountered in the vast
ajority of sentences which contain these three eleents,
for l:

~ + ( ) + ( )
1

bought
+ Verb

Subject

Pronoun object

+ Object

precede the Verb:

----------

1do not

1 not h you.

~nything.

The reverse word order


lpersonal sentences norally have the reverse word order:

~ + [ ] + [ ]
lndirect object

Verb

Subject

The position of characterizing words in

sentence

The long for of the adjectives, all adjectival pronouns and


ordinal nuerals precede the noun or the pronoun they qualify:
.

1bought new .

The long adjective follows the noun/pronoun when used


as complement to the verb:
.

is v old.

Russian equivalent to h is / h sentences


ln such sentences the place odifiers always first:
.

There are many new hotels in Moscow.

Part8

page 131

=
....
=
=
rlJ

Basie Modean R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1


The position of adverbs and adverblal phrases

Some adverbs usually precede the verb:

~~

has not yet.

Some other adverbs of this kind:

, , , ,

..."

Time expressions like


,

1948 ,

, , ,

etc. normally

occupy the final position , for example:


.

came early in the morning.

1 went

there in the winter.

1948 .
was born in 1948.

19 .
lived in the 19-th century.

The order of the elements in sentence is often determined


the necessity to place the new or important information towards
the end of

sentence, for example:

lvan does not love Masha.


ln!irr.1

Part8

page 132

Basie Modern R11ssia11

Part9

Gramm~tr

Verbs oi Motion
GENERAL REMARKS

The group of motion verbs in Russian is quite

ig.

lt presents

certain difficulty for foreign learner. The group of motion verbs


embraces such types as going, carrying, flying, leading,
running and many other types of verbs.

Many of these verbs can

used in

special meaning, not denoting

the motion as such.

This chapter deals with

ig

group of non-prefixed and prefixed

going verbs and with the most common prefixed verbs of


carrying and flying.

Non-Prefixed going verbs

ln contrast to the prefixed verbs of going which mainly follow the


standard grammatical verb characteristics, non-prefixed going
verbs cannot easily pigeon-holed.

The category of the Aspect cannot

successfuly and logically applied

to non-prefixed verbs of going.

ln connection with going and carrying verbs, we have to mention


such

phenomenon as pairing of the verbs: each element of the

pair differs in submeaning but has the same grammatical usage.


Further you will find the basic forms of the pairs of non-prefixed
going verbs and the description of their submeaning differences.

page 133

!
1J.

Basie Modean R11ssia11 G1a111111ar


BASIC FORMS OF NON-PREFIXED PAIR-VERBS OF GOING

First Pair
Present & Future Tense

=
~

'1

....=
Second Pair
Present & Future Tense

Third Pair
Past Tense

Summing-up pair

lnfinitives

Part 9

page 134

Basie Modern R11ssian Grammar


PAIR-DIFFERENCE IN MEANING

1 /,
These verbs are used in two cases:
When person goes on foot (some walking distances),
for example:
.

- 1 am going to bed.
.

- 1am going for walk.

person visits some places of interest within


the city limits, like theater,cinema, stadium, restaurant,
exhibltion, concert, friends, school, university, work, doctor
etc., for example:

When

- 1am going to the theater tonight.


.

- 1did not go to school yesterday.

PAIR - DIFFERENCE IN MEANING

/,

verbs)

person travels with help of car,


train, subway, bus, tram, icycle, horse etc.
This group is always used when person travels beyond the
city limits, for example:
These verbs are used when

1am going to my summer cottage.


.

1 have been to Spain.

Part 9

page 135

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 Gram1nar


GRAMMATICAL USAGE OF NON-PREFIXED GOING VERBS

=
~

used properly non-prefixed going verbs have to divided

as follows:

71

( Unidirectional verbs J

...=

7
~

( Multidirectional verbs )

Verbs of
single motion
Verbs of habltual

8 /repeated motion
)

Verbs of
motion in progress

0 (Verbs of general abllity capacity )


0

Verbs with special (figu rative) meaning

UNIDIRECTIONAL VERBS
Verbs of

First Pair

single motion

Present and Future Tense

The verbs of the first pair describe single (one-time) motion in


definite direction (visits) , either actual ly taking place at given time
planned to accomplished , for example:

"=

We are going to the theater tonight.


/ .

1am going to London in

Part 9

=
."=

week.

page 138

Basie Mode1n R11ssian

Gramm~tr

are the Present and the Future Tense forms of unidirectional


verbs of single motion.
,

,
,

These verbs usually comb1ne w1th the follow1ng time-expressions:

- now
- today
- tomorrow
- soon

, ,

- in

week, month, year

- next week, month, year


- in January etc.

Verbs of habltual/repeated motion


Second Pair
Present and Future Tense

The verbs of the second pair are used to describe motion


in definite direction when it is repeated or habltual:
E.g. .

1go to the pool every Saturday.


. 1often visit London.
The following time-expressions accompany the verbs:
- often
- every day
- always
- usually
- sometimes

- every week
- every month
- every year etc.

- once week
- every other day
- Saturdays, etc.

Pa1t 9

page 137

Basic Moder11 R11ssia11 Gram1nar

are the Present and the Future Tense forms of unidirectional verbs
of the repeated/habltual motion:
Present Tense

Future Tense

Present Tense

Future Tense

and

The Past Tense forms of verbs of both single and habltual/repeated


motion (within the unidirectional verbs)
lt so happened that both groups of verbs (single motion and
habltual/repeated motion) have one and the same Past Tense forms:
Present & Future
Single motion in definite direction

Present & Future


Repeated or habltual motion
in definite direction

Past Tense
/
/
.

, , ,

F.

, , ,

Pl.&Pol.

Part 9

, , ,

page 138

Basie Modern R11ssia11

Gramm~tr

The Present and the Past Tense Forms of Verbs denoting


Motion in Progress (within the unidirectional verbs)

The following verbs and time-expressions are used for that:


Present ense
/

- now
- for long time
- slowly
- fast, quickly

Past Tense
/

For example:
/ , .

When 1was going/driving home 1met Natasha.

Here are the ense forms:


Present

ense

/
/

/
/

Past Tense
, , /
, , /
,
, , /

Multidirectional going verbs


The verbs and are used to denote visiting
different places, for example:
.

We were shopping (going round the shops) the whole day.


.

We were driving about the city for several hours.


Present Tense
/

Future Tense
/

Past Tense
/

page 139

=
12=

Basic Moder11 R11ssia11 G1 a1n1nar

Going vebs denoting abllity capacity to perform an action


( used when talking of likes and dislikes)

1J.

11

Only the vebs


f example:

and

used in these meanings,

daughter started to walk whe she was 10 moths old .

...=

Natasha t ride

'CI

10 .

icycle.

. 1 d ' t

like

goig

subway.

. 1 like walkig.

some

othe

vebs

common

.
.

of motion used in these meanings:

- 1 dislike joggig.
-

1 t

1 t

swim.
drive .

- 1 like skiig.

Non-prefixed going ve bs with special (figuative) meaning


foms:

we use the following

Pesent - ,

Past - , , ,
Futue - ,
,

Some examples:
.

Part9

- The film is .

- The

lesso

- lt is sowig.

is

- This suits you.

-Time goes fast.

page 140

Basie Modern R11ssia11

Gramm~tr

SOME COMMON PREFIXED VERBS OF MOTION


Various prefixes can added to the verbs of motion to specify the action:
to or away from place, happening or person; into or out of place,
happening or person etc.
ln contrast to non-prefixed verbs of motion the prefixed ones form the
standard aspect pairs (through internal modification), for example:
lmperfective -
Perfective -

Prefixed verbs of going and carrying form submeaning pairs


(as their root non-prefixed verbs do), with reference to the mode of action:
Group 1

Someone either goes on foot or visits some place of interest or


working place without reference to transport used to perform an action.
lmperfective
Perfective

Group 2

Some means of transport are used to perform an action.


lmperfective

Perfective

See:
Group 1 .
Group 2 .

page 141

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 Gra1n1na1

TENSE FORMS AND GENERAL MEANING OF ASPECT


PAIRS OF MOST COMMON PREFIXED VERBS OF MOTION
First

lmp.
L::::

Perf.

'11
~

'11

Present

Past

Future

Past

Future

Meaning: coming , arriving at

place, visiting someone either on foot

or the motion is unspecified

lmp.

Present

Past

Meaning: coming, arriving at

(also

'11

L::::

rt.

Future

Past

Future

place, visiting someone

transport

planes)
lmp.
L::::

Perf.

'11

Present

Past

Future

Past

Future

Meaning: coming

lmp.
L::::

air, arriving at

place

Perf.

Present

Past

Future

Past

Future

Meaning: coming on foot (or the motion is unspecified) and bringing

(delivering) something or someone to somewhere or somebody.

lmp.
L::::

Perf.

~
~

'1;

Present

Past

Future

Past

Future

Meaning: coming transport and bringing (delivering) something

or someone to somewhere or somebody

Part9

J
~

.;,

page 142

Basie Mode1.n R11ssia11

....
=
= lmp.
:.
=
Present
1J

Second

=
...=
~

Meaning :
leaving place

Perf.

Gramm~r

Past

Future

Past

Future

person, going either on foot

lmp.
~

the motion is unspecified

~
~

Perf.

Present

Past

Future

Past

Future

Meaning: leaving

lmp.
~

place

person

transport
Perf.

~
~

Present

Past

Future

Past

Future

Meaning: leaving

person

air

lmp.
~

Perf.
~

'11

Present

Past

Future

Past

Future

Meaning:
taking thing

place

person, going either on foot

lmp.
~

the motion is not specified


Perf.

~
~

Present

Past

Future

Past

Future

Meaning: taking

Part9

thing

person to some place

transport

page 143

Basie Modern R11ssia11 Gra1n1nar


Here you find t of the PREPOSITIONS AND CASES
ACCOMPANYING some common PREFIXED VERBS OF MOTION

coming, arriving at
/
/
/

- to place
- to place
happening
- to person

- from place
- f rom place
+ Gen.
happening
- f rom person

+ .

+ Dat.

delivering, carrying to
/
/

- from place
- f rom place
happening
- from person

- to place

+ Gen.

~~~~~~~~~~~

l + .

- to place happening 5
to

person - with

without preposition + Dat.


~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

-==

=
~

Part9

page 144

Basie Modern R11ssian Grammar


going away, leaving,
departing

/
/

- to place
- to place
+ .
or happening
- to person + Dat.

- from place
- f rom place
+ Gen.
or happening
- from person

delivering, taking to

/
/

- to place

- to place or happeningj + .
to

person

with or without preposition + Dat.

setting off for destination

- to place

- to place or happening 5+
- to person + Dat.

page 145

Basic Moder11 R11ssia11 Gra1n1nar

Part 10

Adverbs

THIS PART DEALS WITH


Adverbs, including predicative adverbs ( - forms and modal words) .
The degrees of comparison of some adverbs,
also the degrees of comparison of some adjectives.
The short form of some adjectives.
ADVERBS

Adverbs can originate from different parts of speech, for example:


- in the evening, comes from noun (evening);

- in group of two,

comes from collective numeral ( group of two) .

lf an adverb is not registered in


your own from an adjective:

dictionary you can try to form it on

[ Adjective J ~ [ Adverb )

Most adverbs derived from adjectives have the ending


>

>

- :

From adjectives denoting nationality the adverbs are usually


derived means of the ending - in comination with the prefix -:
> -
- .

Some adverbs can used in


verbs (predicative adverbs):

- .

sentence as

compliment to some

- forms
.

Modal words

lt was cold yesterday.


lt is hard to say.

, , , :

Part 10

1have got to go.


? 1have look?

page 148

Basie Mode1n R11ssian Grammar

=
-.,
~

~
~

.!

._.

Common Adverbs of Measure and Grade

- . lt's very hot today.


- . works lot.
- . sleeps little.
- - - . (coll.) was it late .
- . The tea is too hot.
- . lt is almost dark.
- . lt' s rather cold today.
- - doue expensive
- - much more expensive

- .

came twice.

does not know anything at all.

The meat has burnt completely.


also - partially, - fully.

Here you can find

Adverbs of Time
list of most common Adverbs of Time:

? - when?
- in (the) winter
- in (the) spring
- in (the) summer
- in (the) autumn

~~ ~

.~ _
- - ~"'---

- yesterday
- today
- tomorrow
- the day before yesterday
- the day after tomorrow

~, ~~~
,~~
~r

--\~~~~ .'~!))
~ ,K\t)

- in the morning

- in the afternoon
- in the evening, at night
- at night

page 147

;
~
~
~

.!

Dasic Modern R11ssia11 Gram1nar

- long time ago, for long time


- before, earlier
- not long ago, recently
- now, nowadays
- now
- afterwards
- then
- late
- early
- immediately
- at once, immediately
- finally, at last
- beforehand
- often
- seldom
- always
- sometimes
- usually
- never
- (for ) long time
- for long time, for long
- forever
- ago
- daily
- weekly
- monthly
- annually
Adverbs of Place and Direction
Some adverbs of place and direction present certain difficulty for
learner. Below you can find t containing these adverbs.

advers of place

Where?

advers

foreign

of direction
?

Where (to)?

Where from?
? From what side?

lives here.

here!

left (from here) an hour ago.

1will go there tomorrow. 1will come back (from there) in week.

lives there now.

".

1do not see anything in front of me. Go straight on".

You have to bypass trams from the front.

rlJ

-=
~
~

Jilt

-=~
~

J::

Part 10

page 148

.,..
=
=
:.=
1;

Basie Moden
adverbs of place

Gramm~r
adverbs of direction

R11ssia11

We will go back at once.

stood in the back and 1


did not notice them.
- return ticket

ou

have to bypass
buses from the back.

The shop is on the right .

....=

You have to turn .


to the right now.
Arabs write from

right to left.
. Will you, please,
move it to the right.

We write from left to


right.

The shop is on the left.

You have to turn


to the left now.

Will you , please, move


it to the left.

is waiting upstairs.

There is

knob at the top.

is waiting downstairs.

went upstai rs.

Hands up!

You'd better drill


from the top.

went downstai rs.

You' d better drill


from the bottom.

There is
bottom.

knob at the

.:

...
First insert the card ...

The fax machi ne does not


work: the paper got stuck
inside.

Someone locked th
door from inside.

The door opens outside.

Someone
locked the door fro
outside.

but

1 am going home.

- from home

was waiting outside.

is at home now.

Pa1t 10

page 149

1;

:.
~

.,..

"
~

.::
~

lt is not always easy to pigeonhole even common adverbs.


Below you find some of them.

is still sleeping.
has not yet.

is still sleeping.

anyore .

does not sleep

has already

is still sleeping.

has not yet.


lndefinite Advers

- , -

soewhere ,

anywhere
-, - - soewhere (to), anywhere (to) - direction
-, - - s tie, any tie, ever
- , - - for soe/any reason
- , - - for soe/any reason
Negative

Advers

- no place, no r, nowhere
- no place, no r , nowhere - direction
- no reason , useless

Pitrt 10

page 150

Basie Mode1n R11ssian

Gramm~tr

DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF SOME ADVERBS.


Only the adverbs of manner can have the degrees of comparison.

The Comparative Degree


The Comparative Degree of the adverbs is formed with the help
of suffixes //, for example:
Comparative

- faster, quicker

Since many of these comparatives are very irregular in their formation,


it is better to learn them as new vocabulary items:
Comparative

- better
- worse
- less, fewer
- more

Also:

- more expensive,
- cheaper
- more difficult,
- easier,
- colder,
- warmer,
- hotter,
- more convenient, comfortae,
- earlier,
- later,
- louder,
- more quiet,
- softer,
- more delicious,
- more complicated,
- easier,
- f urther,
- closer,
- higher, taller,
- lower,
- wider,
- narrower etc.
ln colloquial style the comparatives can
!

prefixed with

Will you, please,

:
earlier.

it

page 151

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 Gram1nar


The comparatives can

emphasized

the following words:

l
much (much more)
For example:

- much quicker

- m uch better
- much earlier

person or an object compared to can expressed in two ways:


the Genitive, which is more common:
Gen.
. ,

+ Nominative comination:
, .

or

SUPERLATIVE DEGREE OF ADVERBS

The Superlative Degree is formed as follows:

- faster than anyone when compared to

group of people or objects.

- best of al 1when compared to something abstract.


Summary of the degrees of comparison:

f( lia .'

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

Part 10

page 152

Basie Modern R11ssia11 Gramm11r

DEGREES OF COMPARISON OF SOME ADJECTIVES


....
=
~ Only the qualitative adjectives can have the degrees of comparison.
;. There are two Comparative Degree forms: Simple and Complex.
=
Their choice depends on the position (function) of the adjective in sentence.

~
~

The Simple Adjective Comparative and the Adverb Comparative coincide:

~
~

Adverb

Comparative

q
q

Adjective

COMPARATIVE DEGREE OF

ADJECTIVES

SIMPLE FORM

link verb + adjective/adverb ending in //


E.g.
, .

Nikolay's

is

expensive than John' s

COMPLEX FORM

[ + adjective + noun
E.g.
, .

Nikolay bought

expensive

than lvan.

- does not change.

The Comparative forms can

1much

emphasized

the following words:

E.g .
, .

Nikolay' s

Part 10

is much

expensive than lvan's .

page 153

Basic Modern R11ssia11 Gra1n1nar

=
....

SUPERLATIVE DEGREE OF

ADJECTIVES

~ Most common is the complex form with (declines as an adjective) :

Nikolay bought the most expensive

Sometimes the complex form is used with

for example:

bought the most expensive .


~ Some adjectives can form the Superlative Degree with the suffixes /:

...=

E.g.

- the latest model

(jJ, CLl

ji,f?('/, f!J

F
_o_u_r_m
_ o_
s t_ co
_m
_ m_o_n_ a_
d j_e_c t_iv_e_s_h_a_v_e_t_h_e _f_
ol_lo_w_i_
n g_ fo_r_m_s_: --~ ~
~

Positive

Comparative

Superlative

lotirc1

SHORT FORM OF ADJECTIVES


Some Russian Adjectives can used in two functions:
~

as characterizing words

as compliment to the link verb


+ adjective

adjective + noun

As compliment to the verb (function 8 )


some common adjectives can used in shortened form, for example:
l

- f , vacant

is f.

The short adjectives can have the following forms:


.

F.

N.

, ,

, ,

()

'11

-=
~
~
~

"=
~

-=~

PI . & Pol.
, ,

Part 10

page 154

=
~=
1J.

~~

..-.

Gramm~tr

Basie Modern R11ssia11

avoid difficulties with this tricky subject check the list


of most common short adjectives:

// - glad
.

- 1 am

glad.

// - to g
? Do you g?
//

- sue

you

sue

in that?

/// - guilty
.
//
?

No one is guilty.
- satisfied, pleased

you satisfied?

///
.

- simila , alike

You look v much alike.

///
?

///

you

tonight?

- must, have to

.
///

- f, vacant

You have to do it today.

necessay ,

need

You have to go. lt is necessary to go.

/// - ight
.

is not

ight .

///

- healthy,

vd

She has aleady vd.

page 155

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1111nar


6//6/ - sick, ill

~=

Natasha is sick.

/// - oiged, must

. You must go.

The short adjectives are used in some forms of politeness:

,...
,

...

Would you

so kind)

careful!
healthy!

The short adjectives are used also as Size- adjectives:


, , 6 ,
, ,

- too small
, - too

ig

E.g.
.

This suit is too small.


.

This suit is too

ig.

Manyother
~--J....

adjectives

used in the short


form

the native

speakers.

PartlO

page 158

Basie Mode1n Rttssian Grammiar

Part 11

Negative Sentenees

SIMPLE NEGATIVE WITH

You can negate any meaningful word in Russian with the help of the particle
The particle

always preceeds the negated word:

did not .

1am not going to London.


, .

1am not going to London, but 1am going to

Pais.

lt' s not my .
.

lt's not new .


.

lt's not cold today.

Here is the summary

of the use of the Simple Negative in Russian:

etc.

etc.
1J.

/
/

etc.

etc.

"~

......

etc.

etc.

r/'J.

~
jiil.

."
......

~
~

Part 11

page 167

Basie Modet11 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1


f} COMPOUND NEGATIVE

=
liii-

1J

lot of Russian negative sentences can have the following pattern:


[

~
'!

...=

verbs + words ]

This pattern is called the Compound Negative, for example:


Russian:

word

verb

English: not verb

any word

1do not know

anything.

Russian :

word

English:

word

Nobody

Negative pronouns
and their case forms
based on / :
N. /

G. /
D. /
. /

1. /
/
. /

words can

verb

verb

came.

Negative adverbs:

Negative adjectival
pronouns:

- never

- nowhere

- nowhere (direction)
- not at all

and their case forms.


- in no way
- not once
- from nowhere

1J
~
~

....=
~

=
~

r/J.

Prepositions inserted between and the pronoun,


for example:

Part 11

-7

. (;{; /

page 158

liii-

Basie Modern Rt1ssian Grammar


The use of the Negative pronouns
and its case torms -

no one, nobody, anybody

Nom.

Nobody came.
.

Gen.

did not ask anybody.

did not tell anything to anybody.

1don't know anybody here.


.

lnstr.

1didn' t speak to anybody about that.


.

Prep.

is not guilty in anything.

and its case torms -

Nom.

nothing, anything

Nothing interests him.


Gen.

1don not have anything.


Dat.

1don not believe anything.


.

1don not know anything.


lnstr.

Prep.

Part 11

is not interested in anything.


is not sure in anything.

page 159

asie

Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

The use of the Negative adverbs

She does not work anywhere.

has never been to England.

1am not tired at all.

did not go anywhere.

does not get letters from anywhere.

Some other negative adverbs include:

+ verb

not yet
. She has not

- not yet
- ? Has

yet.

he arrived?

Not yet.

is used when the verb is omitted.

+ verb
+ verb

l no longer, not any more


5

.
.

does not live here any more.

replaces

when the verb is omitted:

- ?
ls he still in Moscow?
- . .
Not any more. has left for London.

Part 11

page 180

Basie Mode1n Rt1ssian Grammiar

= The Negative constructions denoting non-existence or non-availiaity


;
These constructions are always impersonal.
= .
11

...=

is not at home.

. Future
will not at home.

Past

.
was not at home.

LI

Present .

have no time.

Future

Past

1will not have time.

1did not have time.

The Negative sentences denoting unadvisae actions or prohibltion.


These sentences are used with the following words:

- you should not, do not

.u

should not go there.

- you should not, it's not necessary

You should not do it.


lt's not necessary to do it.

- should not

.u

- you

should not late.

not, it's forbldden , you should not

You should not smoke so much.

Part 11

page lGl

Basie 1'lode1"n R11ssit111 G1"a1n111a1"

In1personal Construetions

impersonal constructions the Russians understand the sentences

without any subject or without subject expressed the Nominative.

The impersonal constructions

used quite

lot in Modern Russian .

The impersonal constructions reflect the old thinking of the Russian folk
who considered themselves to part of collective an object affected

fate, pagan gods

an external force. With time the group of affecting

factors also included the authorities.

The impersonal constructions present an important, vast and productive


type of Russian grammatical constructions. They

used quite

lot in

Russian literature, particularly poetry and songs.

The impersonal constructions may deal both with people and with
natural phenomena.

IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS INVOLVING PEOPLE

ln these constructions person (people) may


one of the three forms:

the Dative

"

the Accusative

presented

the Genitive

"

The Detailed Description of the lmpersonal Constructions with th


Dative of Person.

The Dative of Person is used in constructions denoting age:


20 . 1am 20 years old.
Dative
lit. 20 years were given.
'8

Partl2

page IG2

Basie Moder11

Rttssi~tn

Grammar

Constructions denoting the internal state of

person or feelings:

- 1am feeling cold.


. - 1am feeling hot.
. - 1am feeling bad.
. - 1am feeling better.
. - 1am scared.
.

- lt hurts.
... - 1like ...
. - 1feel thirsty.
. - 1do not feel sleepy.
... - lt seems to ...
... - 1 had dream ...
Constructions denoting objective necessity :

l - 1have to, 1need

- 1had to
Constructions denoting permission (asking permission) or prohibltion:
? - 1take it?
. - is not allowed to jog.
Constructions with the verbs denoting chance, luck or succes:
.

- 1was very lucky.


. - is always lucky.
... - 1succeeded ...
The verbs in the Present Tense are used in the third - person:
. - is always lucky.
ln the Past Tense the verbs are used in the Neuter:
. - was lucky.
Constructions with / , ,
could used in different tense forms:

1need, 1have to
Present Tense
Future tense

1will have to

Past Tense

1had to
p~1ge

163

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a111111a1

The impersonal constructions with the verbs taking the Dative


(they constructions):
,

- 1was told, they told me


- 1got (the message)
- 1got it as present
- They bought me icycle
- 1 got phone call
-They showed me or 1was shown
- 1have been operated etc.

ln the Past Tense the verbs are used in the Plural:


.

._

- They called me in the evening.

roti.t

ln the Present Tense the third-person Plural is used:


.

- They normally call me in the morning.

The Detailed Description of the lmpersonal


Constructions with the Accusative of Person.
The Passive Constructions.

Accusative=
Genitive

The Accusative of Person is used in the impersonal constructions with


verbs taking the Accusative and in the sentences involving an external
force or the authority. Quite often these sentences deal with accidents
or unpleasant situations:
. - was dismissed/fired.

r./J

was fined.

was cheated.

was transferred/moved.

Partl2

was arrested.

...

.!
,:

was wounded.
-

=:
~

. - was killed.
.

r./J

was taken to hospital.

page 164

Rt1ssi~tn

Basie Mode1n
.

was robbed .
. was transferred into another unit.
. - was poisoned. etc.

Grammar

ln the Past Tense the verbs are used in the Plural :


.

- was cheated.

ln the Present and Future tense the verbs are used


in the third-person Plural.
.

- is always cheated.

'tf' ,/:_

._! <..1

are some common Present Tense examples:

() .

- You are wanted on the phone.


. - Someone is (some people are) waiting for me.
? - What is your name? (lit.) How do they call you?

The lmpersonal constructions with the Genitive of person


The impersonal constructions with the Genitive of Person can of
three types:
The negative constructions denoting absense of person or thing:
.

is not avail iae .


. was not availiae .
. will not availiae.

does not have money.


. did not have money.
. will not have money.

The impersonal constructions denoting accidents:


.
.

passport has been stolen.


has been stolen.

The verb is always in the Plural form.


The lmpersonal constructions expressing general statements:
.

No smoking here.

The verb is always in the third-person Plural.

Part 12

p~tge

185

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1an1111a1

jiii.

IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS DEALING

WITH NATURE OR OBJECTIVE REALITV


=
~ The subjectless sentence. The - forms.

~~

=
~

...=

When descriing natural phenomena, situations and objects the


Russians normally use the impersonal subjectless sentences with the
so-called - forms, for example:
.

- lt is cold today .
. - lt is occupied here.
. - Wet paint. (literaty lt has been painted.)
. - lt is late. . - lt is still early. etc.
The forms the short adjectives like ~
the Neuter form of the short perfective participles like ,
.

These sentences could


Present Tense
Future Tense
Past Tense

used with the following tense forms:

- lt is cold today.
. - lt will cold tomorrow.
. -lt was cold yesterday.

IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS
DEALING WITH HUMAN STATES AND NATURE

(w1 ACCUSATIVE OF PERSON OR AN OBJECT).

There is limited group of impersonal sentences dealing both with people


and nature, where the Accusative is used. The verbs in the third- r./'J
person Singular in the Present and Future, and in the Past the Neuter
form is used:
::
. - lt' s getting dark early in the winter.
~

- lt has got dark already.


. - got an electric shock.
. - 1f eel sick.
. - 1got sea-sick.
. - Everything was flooded water.
. - The road was snow-bound.
The natural phenomenon

Partl2

etc.

the external force is in the lnstrumental:

water.
. - snow

page IGG

Basie Mode1--11

R11ssi~n

Grammar

SEMl-IMPERSONAL CONSTRUCTIONS

one and you constructions =

constructions

The second-person Singular of the Present Tense form of


is used in these constructions ( forms):

verb

- , .
- Vou work lot, but still no money.
These sentences are used quite
general statements like:

lot in Russian proverbs, sayings and

- .
- Haste makes waste.
(lit. lf you haste you will make people laugh).

they constructions =

constructions

They constructions are used mostly in mass-media contexts:


, ...
,

- they say.. .
... - they write ...

...

- they show...
... - they broadcast...

For the Past tense we use the Plural

forms):

r/J.

, - they said, told, it was said

- they wrote, it was written


;
- they showed, it was shown
r.
- they broadcast, it has been
r/J.
broadcast

=
=

Part 12

p~ige

167

Dasie

Modern R11ssia11 G1a111111a1

Part 13

Numeral.s

The numerals are divided into two main groups:


~

k:::
The Cardinals
, etc.

The Ordinals

, etc.

There are three smaller groups:

8 Doue numerals: /
lndefinite numerals: , etc.

0 Collective numerals: , etc.


The Cardinals

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
30
40
50

/
///
/

60
70
80
90
100
200
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1
2
5
1
2
5
1 /
1

Part 13

page 188

,...11

=
~
r.

Basie Mode1--n

R11ssi~1n

Grammar

How to make the compound cardinals


The pattern is as follows:

175 = 100 + 70 + 5

The Cardinals from 2 govern the nouns they precede, they take the
Genitive case. For the use of the Genitive case after the cardinals see
The Use of the Genitive Case.

lf preceded preposition or verb, or being used in the negative


construction all cardinals change according to the cases.
The gender and the case forms of some cardinal numerals
Two Russian numerals fall out from the main line:
the equivalents for one and two.

The cardinal numeral one has 3 Gender forms and the Plural form:

1
~
.

The plural form

~
F.

N.

is used with the plural-only nouns, like:

- glasses

- pair of glasses

CJt::J'

The words , , , and their case forms


can used in different meaning: to denote unspecified object.
.
1 read

it in some magazine.
Meaning Same :
.

We live in the same building.


Meaning Alone :
.

1 go

there alone.

page 169

Basie Mode1"11 R11ssia11 G1"a1nma1"

The declension of

jiilii
~
1J.

M/N

PI

N.
G.
D.

, ,

1.

~=
~

._. The Nominative case of the Russian cardinal numerals


has two Gender forms:
E.g.
Masculine and Neuter - ,
.

Feminine - .
N.
F.

used for two,

All the other case forms do not have this Gender difference.
You' ll find them below.

The case forms of the cardinal numerals / , ,

2,3,4
Gen.

1will come after two.

Dat.

1will come

two.

1will come at two.

lnstr.

1will come between two and three.

Prep.
= Gen.

The dictionary was in two volumes.

Part 13

page 170

Basic

Mode1~n

R11ssia11 Grammar

The case forms of the cardinal numerals

5-20,30,50,G0,70,80

;.
=

Model

11

.=
"
u=
=
~

-5
- 1255

Gen .
Dat.

lnstr.
Prep.

- f ive ' clock


- at five ' clock

- between five and six


- in five instances out of ten

Gen. = Dat. = Prep.


.= Nom.

The case forms of the cardinal numerals 40, 90, 100

Model - 100
Most common are the two case forms:
Gen.
, ,

is about hundred years old.

.= Nom. - .

- The

costs one hundred thousand.

The Genitive is also commonly used after

- more,

- less, -about.
.

Gen. = Dat. = lnstr. = Prep.

= Nom.

The case forms of the cardinal numerals

200,300,400,500,G00,700,800,900

Most common are the two case forms:


Gen.- , , , ,
, , , .

Acc.=Nom.

The noun

follows the noun

declension type.

page 171

Basie Mode1"11 R11ssia11 G1"a1n111a1"

The case forms of the compound cardinal numerals


Each part of

Nom.

Nom.

compound numeral changes, for example:


Nom.

Nom.

+ + 175

Gen.

Gen.

Gen.

Gen. + +

Gen. = Dat. = Prep


Nom. =.

The use of the cardinals in telling time ( inofficial way )


The second half of an hour is rendered with the cardinals, both for
hours and minutes:

Genitive

1635
1640
1645
1650
1655

Partl3

Nominative

page 172

Basie Mode1.n

R11ssi~tn

Grammar

Halves
1
/ " + Genitive
- half, is reduced to and forms compound word
with noun in the Genitive, for example:

- half an hour
- half liter

1 1/

"

also - semifinal

+ Genitive

- for Masculine and Neuter nouns,


- for Feminine nouns, for example:

11/

hour
ton

Nom. ,
Gen. ,

2 1/

~ 3 1/

2 ..

+ Genitive, for example:

2 1 / 2 meter

The comblnations with the cardinal numerals


The comblnations of the type [ cardinal numeral + noun )
ln the Nominative the case and the number of noun follows the
basic rules explained in the part The Use of the Genitive Case.
ln all the other cases noun in such comblnations must
always used in the Genitive Plural, for example:
Singular

Nom. -

Plural

Gen. -

Plural

Nom. -

The comblnations of the type

Plural

Gen. -

cardinal + characterizing + noun


numeral
word

The characterizing words in such


in the Plural form.
E.g.
Gen. PI. Gen. Sing.

Pa1.t 13

cominations

are always

Gen. PI.

Gen. PI.

page 173

Basie Modern Russiatt Gram1nar

ORDINAL NUMERALS
The ordinal numerals have all the gender, number and case forms
as the adjectives (hard-type adjectives, except for - third).
They are as follows:

1st

2nd

3 rd

4th
5th
5th
Jlh
ath
gth
1Qth
11th
12th
1th
14th
15th
16th
17th
18th
1gth
20th
21st
22nd

Oth

31st
40th
41 st
soth
51st
60th
1 st

Part 13

70th
71st
80th
a1 st
90th
91 st
100th
101 st
200th
201st
OOth
o1 st

400th
401st
500th
so1st
600th
o1 st

700th
701st
800th
ao1 st
900th
901st
1000th
1001st
1002nd
2000th
2001st
1 OOOth
100 OOOth
1 OOOth
page 174

:
~

Basie Modern

Rttssi~tn

Grammar

The ordinal numerals can used both as characterizing words


and as compliment to the verb - to , for example:

- first floor

. - is always first.

:== Compound ordinals


~

...=

ln the compound ordinals only the last part is ordinal and changes according
to cases, for example:
cardinal
ordinal

- the 21st floor


- on the 21st floor

The use of the ordinals


The ordinals are used as characterizing words to denote the number
of an apartment,

hotel room ,

floor, an air flight,

street,

trolleybus, bus, tram line;

size,

congress,

school,

train,

hospital,

carriage,

page,

chapter,

hospital ward,

living

compartment, row,

k ,

seat,

TV and radio channel;

class etc.

The ordinals are used in dates, in exact time-expressions. Both the


cardinals and the ordinals can

used with pages and chapters:

The cardinals are used instead of ordinals when the information


is rendered officially:

flight

707

- coll .
- off.

page 175

Basie Moder11 R11ssia11 Gra1n1na1


The use of ordinals in dates
The date is denoted the Neuter of the ordinal, for example:
Neuter

- ?

What is the date today?


The teth of Jauary.

( Neuter ordinal + Noun in Genitive ]

The Genitive of ordinals is used to denote the date answering the


question ? - whe?, for example:
Masculine/Neuter ordinal in Genitive + Noun in Genitive
Genitive

.
- 1'11 back the secod

of

Genitive

Genitive

.
- was the secod of 1975.

The use of ordinals in telling time


The ordinals are used when telling the time (unofficial way) , for example:

- just after five


(lit. the begiig of the sixth hour)

The first half of an hour is rendered with the ordinals to denote an hour
in contrast to the second half of an hour, when the cardinals are used.

The Genitive
of the ordinal

165
1610
1615
1620
1625

16 ( )

1635

r/)
Jlllllll

The ordinals are also used to denote historical periods, for example:

- i the 19th cetury

Part 13

:.

i the thirties
~
_______
page 17G

R11ssi~1n

Basie Mode111

=
Nouns based on numerals
....
~

1J

;.
=

Grammar

The Neuter nouns based on numerals are used when talking of


anniversaries or historical periods, for example :
l

- 10-th anniversary, 10-year period


l - 50-th anniversary
l - centennial
l - icentennial
l - millenium

~ The Feminine nouns are used in evaluation, marking grades, in card games, etc.

...

3
4

8
9

10

got an excellent mark.

When counting in some units we use:

- ten
- hundred

- ten eggs
- twins, - triplets

DOUBLE NUMERALS
The doue numerals / -both deal with two people,

two animals or two objects.

The doue numeral is used for group of two Masculine nouns


or group of one Masculine and one Feminine noun, for example:

two people

- both students
- they both
.

~
two animals
.

F.

1
w

- both students

- they both

i
~

= - both tigers

=
=

- they both

page 177

Basie Mode1n R11ssia11 G1a111111a1

two objects
.

+ =

=
=
._.
~

N.

- both houses
- they both

.$

N.

+ =

- both windows
- they both

The doue numeral is used for group of two Feminine nouns


denoting two people, two animals or two objects, for example:

11

F.

F.
+
=

F.

F.

F.

- both girls
- they both

F.

+ =

- both cars
- they both

- both dogs
- they both

INDEFINITE NUMERALS

The lndefinite Numerals are as follows:

- many, much, lot


- not many, few
- how many, how much
- little, few

- several
- enough
- so many
.., - as much .., as

All the lndefinite Numerals exist only in one

unchangeae

All of them are followed the Genitive Singular for the


the Genitive Plural for the Countaes , for example:
Uncountaes

Gen. S.

- much snow

form.

Uncountaes

an

Countaes

Gen. PI.

- many books

Special case:

- lot of people

~
. lrtia .1

Partl3

page 178

Basie Mode111

Rttssi~tn

Grammar

COLLECTIVE NUMERALS

Most commonly used


Collective Numerals
are as follows:

Other
Collective
Numerals:

- group of two
- group of three
- group of four

group of five
- group of six
- group of seven

The Collectives are used to denote groups of people either solely


male or mixed (male + female), for example:

?
.

How many are you?


We are three.

The Collective Numerals always take the Genitive Plural form of the
nouns, adjectival nouns and personal pronouns, for example:
Gen.

- We are three. - There are three of us.


- three children

The verb comined with the Collective Numerals


has the following forms, for example:
Present . - The verb is omitted - We are three.
Past
. - The Neuter torm - We were three.
Future . - The 3-d person Sing. - We will three.

The Collective Numerals are used in the impersonal sentences only.

page 179

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

Part 14

P1epositions

Prepositios

are small but importat words. They belog to the class


of goverors - words which chage (gover) the case forms.
Further you will fid the list of most commo prepositios d their
uses give i the alphabetical order.

You will also discover that prepositios


d have differet meaigs .

gover differet

cases

( + Gen.

- without sugar
( + .

- 1am going to London.


. - 1will go to London on Friday.
( + Prep.

.
.

- 1live in Moscow.

- 1was born in

( + lnstr. J
.

- 1 go with my brother.

( + Gen. ]
.

- will play instead of me.

( + Gen.

- paper for the printer

Part 14

- That' s news to me.

page 180

Basie Mode1n R11ssian Grammar

i=

( +

Gen. )

? How can 1get to the railway station?

- works till five.


! - See you tomorrow!

..-.

( + . )
.

- lt took us an hour to get there.


. You have to reserve the tickets week in advance.
. - 1am glad for you.
. -Thank you for your help.
. - You have to the telephone ill.
- ill for
100 . - bought this book for
hundred dollars.
( + lnstr. )
.

- The

is behind the house.

- 1 am going to the railway station to buy the tickets.


.

- 1 will come to fetch you early in the morning.

( + Gen. )

=
rlJ.

7. - l leave home at seven.


. - All parts are made of wood. ~
.
;
- Some of us will go to ltaly this summer.
:_
~

r.

Part 14

page 181

=-

asie

Mode1n R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

i=
=

( - + Gen. )

- .

(() +

r..=

- Everyone left the t.


. - 1 late because of

traffic-ja.

Dat. )

- to see .

- We approached Moscow late at night.


. - 1will two.

( + Gen. )
, .

eats everything except fish.


( + lnstr. )

- hockey

atch

between Sweden and Canada

( + Gen. )
.

- We drove past the railway station.

( + .
.

- 1 going to the railway station.

- 1 going to the concert toorrow.


-.
- 1will go for three days to New York.

Part 14

page 182

Basie Modet"n R11ssian Grammar

=
;
1J

~
~

=
~

+ Prep. )

. - is now at wok.
. - They at the disco now.
. - h is some wate on the floo.
.
1will go to Pais next week.

( + lnstr. )
.

- h is bell

the

entance.

woks

on new book.

( (, )+ Prep. )
.
?

- We spoke about the

ms.

What is this film about?

( + Gen. )

- n the house
- about

hunded dollas

( + Gen. )
.

- 1got lette fom Nikolay.

- key to the
- anti-allegic medicine

- We

dove fom

Boston

- lt is seven

Part 14

700

hunded kilometes fom

Moscow to Kiev.

page 183

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

( + lnstr.]
.

stood in front of us.


. - We will talk before the lesson.

+ Dat.

travels lot about Russia.


- Russian exam

- in the mornings
- according to the law

is talking

the phone now.

( + . J
.

put the

under the

t.

( + lnstr. J
.

- The

is under the

t.

( + Gen. J
.

- 1will come after lunch.


+ .

(
.

+ lnstr.

told about his trip.

- 1go with my brother.

- is my schoolmate.
(lit. 1studied with him at school.)
. - 1don ' t like tea with milk.

Part 14

page 184

Basie Mode1n Rttssian Gramn1ar


+ Gen.

(
.

- 1 have dog.

- 1' 11

waiting for you at the entrance.

( + . )
.

- We will fly to Moscow via Frankfurt.


. - We will go through the center.
. - 1will come in an hour.

NOUN COMBINABILITV OF PREPOSITIONS

and

The choice of the Accusative or the Prepositional after and


is described in Part 6 and in the beginning of this Part.
Below you' ll find the examples which show what nouns and noun groups
can comblne with these prepositions.

The primary use of prepositions and

+ Acc./Prep. -

i, ito, iside

.
.

+ Acc./Prep. - ,

- put the key ito the pocket.


- The key is i the pocket.

to,

top of,

the surface

.
.

Part 14

- 1put the key the t .


- The key is the t .

page 185

Basic Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1n111a1

More complicated use of prepositions and

The preposition

rlJ.

=
~
~

=
=
~

~
~

+ Acc./Prep. is used with nouns denoting:

continents:
, , , , , ,

countries: , , , , etc.,
territories and administrative units:
, , , , etc. ,

towns, various settlements and their parts:

, -, , , , ,
, - center, downtown, - suburbs etc. ,
some town and settlement features (objects):

- lane,

most of workplaces,

- park, - garden, - yard etc. ,

puic

places, organizations and buildings:

, , , , , , etc.,

organized groups of people:

, , , ,

camp, - department etc.,


buildings and their parts: - building, , - building,

- entrance, - entrance hall, - corridor, large hall, - room , all other names of rooms, classroom, - cellar etc. ,
some activity (limited group): - leave, vacation,

- business trip,

- tourist trip etc.,

rlJ.

=
~

some natural features: - forest, woods, - mountains, hills, ::


- taiga woods etc. ,
some mountain ranges, mostly with the Plural names:
, , etc.

Partl4

page 188

Basie Modern Rttssian

The Preposition

Gramm~ar

+ Acc./Prep. is used with nouns denoting:

islands, some island countries and peninsulas:

-Cyprus, , ,
but - Japan, - lceland are used with

some mountain ranges and territories:


, , , etc.,
town and settlement features, some organizations, activity areas:

- street,
- square,
- highway,
- prospect, avenue,
- embankment,
- boulevard
- bridge,
- stop, station,
- (railway) station,
- parking,
- filling station,
- outskirts,
- railroad station,
- market,
- post-office,
- stadium,
- warehouse,
- construction site,
, - factory,
- sports ground,
- soccer field,
- tennis court,

page 187

Batsie 1'1 ode111 R11ssia11 G 1at111111at1


some events or organized activity

- work,
- concert,
- exam,
- performance,
- meeting,
- negotiations,
- irthday party,
- tour,
- lesson,
- lecture etc.
some parts of buildings

- attic,
- porch,
- stairs, staircase,
- floor,
- balcony,
some organizational units

- department,
- faculty,
- chair,
- course.
Preposition

is used with the following words:

- radio,

- television,
- pension, retirement,
- motherland ,
- Rus,
- summer cottage.

Partl4

page 188

Basie Modet"n R11ssian Grammar

Nouns used with both prepositions


Many nouns can used with both prepositions, but only few of them
are used without significant meaning difference:

- school/university vacation
- kitchen
- navy
E.g. =
Many nouns are used with both prepositions but with meaning difference:

E.g. vehicles

Prepositions

( 8 +

and

. ) ~ -7

- going bus

- inside

as correlated to

bus

and

+ Gen.

( 8 + Prep. ) ~ -7 '--fr_
om
_ _, _
o_ut_o_f~
+ .

- .
1will go to New Vork tomorrow.

+ Prep.

- .
1will stay for three days in New Vork.
+

Gen.

- .
1will come back from New Vork on Sunday.

( + . J~-7

+ Gen .

( + Prep. ) ~-7 from, down from


+ .

Prep.

l like going to hockey.

1was at hockey yesterday.


+

Gen.

1came home late from hockey.

Part 14

page 189

Basie Modern Russia11 G1a1n1na1

Conjunetions
Conjunctions are invariae words linking parts of sentences or sentences
together in some logical order.
There are two main types of conjunctions:

[ Coordinating ) and [ Subordinating J

( Coordinating conjunctions ]
include

connective

- d

... - both, d

...

- either,

disjunctive

adversative

- but
- but

- or
- either, or

Connective conjunctions

- and

1have to buy

...

and

pad.

- both ... and

, .

1have to buy both

.. ,

and

pad.

- neither.. , nor

r/J

, .

....

came neither yesterday nor today.

- and

(used in the beginning of sentence)

Part 15

And where are you

=
=
=

goig w?

page 190

Basie ltlode1n Rt1ssian Grammar


Adversative conjunctions
Foreign learners permanently experience difficulty in making the choice
between the adversative conjunctions and . See the difference:

- but

Adversative conjunction is used when we have the opposition of two


objects, actions, features, states, facts, etc. , for example:
, .

is sleeping but 1 working.


, .

has

icycle

but 1don 't.

- but
Adversative conjunction introduces clause which contains
information contrary to what was said, known or planned, or it
contain some clarifying information, for example:
, .

- 1have

tickets for

hockey

atch

but 1don't want to go.

, .

- 1will

but not today.

, .

did not today but he

proised

to

toorrow.

Disjunctive conjunctions

- either... or

- 1have to buy tickets either for Saturday or for Sunday.


... ,

- either... or

, .

- 1have to buy tickets either for Saturday or for Sunday.

Part 15

page 191

Basie Mode111 R11ssia11 G1a1n1na1

Most Common Subordinating Conjunctions

that

, .

said (that) he would

toorrow.

+ Past Tense of verb


, .

told

to

toorrow .

- if

, .

- Tell

if he s .

'

2- because

, .

- She is crying because she fell down.

+ Past Tense of verb

, .

- lf he

in

tie

we would have

it.

- although

, .

- We went to

disco club although we were very tired.

- as if

,
.

looked at

as if we never t before.

- as
, .

does everything as 1do.

r/J
~

....=

- than
, .

works

=
=
=

than his boss.

Part 15

page 192

Eugenia Nekrasova
Basic Modern Russian Grammar
Part 1
The Gender Agreement of Russian Nouns in the Singular

Part 2
The Plural of Nouns. The Number Agreement of Russian Nouns

16

Part 3
The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival Words in the Singular

26

Part 4
The Declension of Nouns, Adjectives and Adjectival words in the Plural

44

Part 5
The Declension of Names, Geographic Names and Noun-replacing Pronouns 57
Part 6
The Case Usage

78

Part 7
Verbs

97

Part 8
Verbs nd Constructions

125

Part 9
Verbs of Motion

136

Part 1 Adverbs

149

Part 11 Negative Sentences

160

Part 12 lmpersonal Constructions

165

Part 13 Numerals

171

Part 14 Prepositions

183

Part 15 Conjunctions

193