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ne) AUS Aspects of Tourism Cora truer ANIMALS AND TOURISM Understanding Diverse Relationships Edited by Kevin Markwell 8 Killer Whales, Theme Parks and Controversy: An Exploration of the Evidence Jeffrey Ventre and John Jett History of the Captive Killer Whale Industry The practice of displaying k . ice of displaying killer whales or began in the United States in 1965 with the ki Purchased by Ted Griffin of the Sea 1997), The bull killer whale was th an vous ete rer re months later, in October 1965, Griffin c . mother (ABC, 2007), Shai Gnéff . Panion animal for Namu, but they a Ne the var asg ao No but hey proved tobe compatb Tus, Shas v old for USS70,000 to a new exe Califia called SeaWerlé which had opened in 968, Tre eer and Shamu catalysed the formation of a multbilliondollee eon and Shams ea > Of a multibilion-dollar marine pay Dacoe tina youngenteprencur, combined forces with Don Golsbeerh pecoming the pracy whale hunters fr SeaWol. According toes Fee ths Marine Mamma! Inventory Repore (MIR) matesined by te sued seine ah Atmosphene Adminiraion (US) (NOAA) Raw Senge nazi te Sele Aquarim; Shara ved ft six yeaa ate For over a decade after capeuting Ni ner turing Namu, the whale hunters collected a eo filet whales from the waters ofthe Pacific Northwest; lene sk Whales ded during capture (Center for Whale Research, 2014} Flo inhumane collection methods were used which violated there oan ee mits including the use of arcraft and explosives to spot ted Rents Garret, per. comm, 203), Pubic concen Se the nen Other factors including dolph “her factors including dolphins dying in tuna Bshery operations) heleed Killer Whales, Theme Parks and Controversy 129 trigger the passage of the Marine Mammal Protection Act by the US Congress in 1972. In Washington State, public outcry over live captures led to the ejection of SeaWorld, by court order, from those waters in 1976 (Senate Resolution 1976-222). These two events effectively ended collections in the Pacific Northwest and in US waters, but Goldsberry, and others, moved on. Wild collections continued in Iceland from 1976 to 1989, Japan in 1997 and, most recently, Russia. From September to October of 2018, Russian fisher man corralled pods of free-ranging killer whales in the Sea of Okhotsk, in two different operations, taking seven animals and reportedly dragging them up the beach by their tails (Hoyt, 2013) (An eighth animal, dubbed Narnia, had been captured previously in August 2012 by this same group) While the large number of killer whales taken by the marine park industry has left least one group ‘endangered’ (National Marine Fisheries, 2008), the succe: of artificial insemination and captive breeding techniques (Robeck cf 2004) has generally reduced wild takes, It remains to be seen if collections will continue in the territorial waters of Russia and some other northern hemisphere nations {As of November, 2014, there were 56 captive killer whales known to be living at theme parks in the United States, Canada, Japan, France, Argentina, Russia, Canary Islands (Spain) and China (WDC, 2014). Twenty-two of ther (39%) began their lives in the ocean, Killer whales have historically been held at facilities in nations including Hong Kong, Switzerland, Mexico, England, Brazil, the Netherlands and Iceland. According to data within phe MMIR, at least 154 killer whales have died in captivity since Namnu’s death in 1967, bringing the total number of captives, living and dead, to more than 200. Many more have reportedly been unaccounted for or ‘lst’ in the collec tion and display process (Kielty, 2011). Although the current value ofa single whale isnot generally known, a recent news report suggested that a particu- lar adult male killer whale housed in the United States was insured for 1US85,000,000 (CBS, 2010). In summarising the killer whale captivity debate, two prim: emerge. Pro-captivity elements include business interests that profit from the display of animals, theic employees, and the tourists who fund their opera- tions (Figure 8.1). The pro-captivity camp also includes the fishermen and trappers who collect and sell marine mammals for theme parks, traveling circuses (O'Barry, 2011), and the increasingly popular ‘swim-with-dolphin’ programmes around the world. Anti-captivity elements include a loosely “organised collection of non-governmental organisations such as the Humane Society International, the Born Free Foundation, Whale and Dolphin Conservation, and the Marine Connection, among others. They generally advocate for stronger animal protection policies and an end to captivity for various species, but especially for cetaceans. They are funded by charitable donations and supported philosophically by animal welfarists, conservation: ists, scientists and animal rights activists. Former marine mammal trainers, groups 130 Part 2: Conflict Contradiction and Contestation Figure 8.1 Activ titer whale ex . eral retreat objet ois tinea heme po Thedog whistle sen scales wl brig ané sedate inl ons es ‘thas completed a correct response, at whi ithas completed sponse, at which point the animal wil receive a reward including ourselves, fron I cere Have slo begun to emeiges an informed vole on the mse Contestation In their 2009 report summarising the to sides R submit he following base arguments” ar Oe sue Reset a Pro: The public display industs Po ry maintains that marine mammal exhib- ea valuable conservation function, people learn important infor- mation from seeing ii cing live animals, and captive marine mamma ‘good life. (Rose er al, 2009) pr immals live a Con: Animal protection (Hoy, 20138), counter thatthe ies of cape marine mammal ae imoverihe, that peopl ono civ a ccrate ptr of specs negatively impacts populations and habitats, - ” Examination of claims of killer whale research and conservation y the marine park industry as a means of justifying captivity Marine pas often claim the merits of thir research both asa mea of justifying killer whale captivity and as an It is ml ‘an important marketing strategy. Killer Whales, Theme Parks and Controversy 131 ‘An evaluation of published peer-eviewed killer whale research either con ducted or funded by a prominent marine-based theme park corporation in the United States provides insight into these claims and into their areas of focus. ‘Baced on a readily available bibliography of peer-reviewed literature pro- duced by the aforementioned entity (SeaWorld, 2014a), approximately articles are listed as published between 1976 and 2014. Of these, four could thot be located, 14 contributed to a basic understanding of captive killer ‘haley; three focused on wild-capture techniques; seven described captive killer whale husbandry techniques; six examined various pathologies among Captive killer whales; one evaluated photo-dentification techniques; two examined pathologies among wild killer whales; one evaluated caloric requirements, and one was not based on science. The corporation was also involved in funding basic field research focusing on killer whales, although allof the approximately 11 reports were apparently written prior to 1968 (SeaWorld, 20146) “The marine park industry is therefore credited with contributing to the literature regarding killer whales as they claim (SeaWorld, 2014e), although very few publications have focused directly on wild killer whales (n = 2), and jc appeats that no reports based on wild killer whale research have been fgenarted since 1968, Overtime, an increasing numberof their perreviewed Eontributions have concentrated on captive killer whale pathologies (eg. identification of West Nile infection, see St Leger et al, 2011), a5 well as reprodctive techniques as a means oF supplying captive killer whales to the theme park industry (eg, Robeck et al, 2004). Thus, at least one US-based theme park corporation has actively engaged in various research activities Since 1976, Although research emphases have changed through time, this Us-based entity is credited with uniquely contributing to the scientific ‘unde standing of killer whale attributes and husbandey requirements, Some of these contributions would have been difficult without their ability to study killer whales in captive environments Seemingly at odds with emphases on research and conservation, how- ever, the captive marine mammal industry is mostly absent in supporting the management and protection of wild killer whales. Notably, kill whale caprures by the marine park industry have contsibuted to the decline Of the Southern Resident population in the Pacific Northwest and its cus- rent isting as endangered (National Marine Fisheries, 2008). However, we know of no research conducted by the marine theme park industry, nor funding dedicated to developing a better understanding of, or otherwise assisting, this decimated population. The largest marine theme park cor- pora‘ion in the United States displays the following on their website, with Fo mention that their collecting activities contributed, in part, to the declining population of Southern Resident whales (National Marine Fisheries, 2008) 132 Port 2: Conflict, Contradiction and Contestation The research we conduct The tesasch we cond S and support SeaWorld is made availabe to he scientific community and may someday help researchers understan why this Southern Resident) population of whales is in ‘vce haps help to reverse the trend. (SeaWorld, 201 lecline and per ‘our italics) - Examination of published research io on the edi Of displaying killer whales in captivity oe eet in their online informational booklet, a prominent theme park corponiien in the United States claims: Sale Most people do not have th Most peop have the opportunity to observe these animals in the id. Visitors are not only entertained, but also educate ability to observe and learn directly from live animals ed. The unique n increases public *88 and appreciation of wildlife. (SeaWorld, 2014d) , elcatinal efeary of 200s and aquarlumssmive. For oamiee enh (1998) determined that among those at a tiger exhibit, 77% perceive that tos iho participated in a self-guided aquarium tour reported no change in etfective than passive viewing in extending the tise coon oe ae with the animal, which Ballantyne et a, (2011: 8) suggest a term impact to strive for. ° ewes during and immediately after a 20 8 tely after a z00 experience, research suggests that these Kitlee Whales. Theme Parks and Controversy 132 commitments generaly fail to persist (Adelman er a, 2000; Dierking etal 2004; Manubay eal, 2002), It was once accepted that simply educating visi- tors was sufficient to lead to behavioural changes consistent with a conserva tion mission, although this is no longer considered true (Ogden & Heimlich, 7009) Consistent with this, both widely cited theories of reasoned action (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1975) and planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991) demonstrate that intentions to perform a particular behaviour are a complex function of nd, in the case of planned behaviour, behav- attitudes, subjective norms ioural control. In an attempt to demonstrate the al effectiveness of 200s and aquariums, Falk etal, (2007), on behalf of the American Zoo and Aq ‘Aeeociation (AZA), evaluated how zoos and aquariums affect visitor knowl- edge and beliefs, As the primary accrediting body for many 200s and aquati- tums in the United States, including facilities housing captive killer whales, the AZA possessed a keen interest in the study. Their findings have sinc been cited as proof that ‘visiting accredited zoos and aquariums in North America has a measurable impact on the conservation attitudes and under ing of adule vistors’ (AZ, 2006) ‘Given the historically discordant approach to assessing visitor impacts, and given how litte is actually known, the questions posed by Falk ct al's (2007) study are certainly relevant, However, Marino et al. (2010) point out serious methodological flaws in the study. Among their concerns, they suggest that, although the goal ofthe study was to assess whether visiting z00s and aquari- tums affect beliefs and knowledge, Falk eral, only evaluated what respofidents said they believed or knew. That is, no direct evaluations of knowledge were administered; all measures of knowledge were sel(-reports. Marino¢t al. (2010) Clucidate at least six other methodological concerns with the study, including non-random sampling of subjects and a 14% response rate associated wi Jong-term impacts. The findings are now widely marketed by AZA-accredited facilities. Although Falk er al, (2007) acknowledged that no significant gains in knowledge were identified among those comprising their sample, their rebuttal Falk et a, 2010: 417) to Marino al, (2010) cites Ballantyneet al. (2007) and the National Research Council (2009) as growing evidence that ‘visits to 2008 land aquariums almost always esult in enhanced scientific understanding and strengthened belief in the value of nature conservation. Concerns with Falk et al’s study aside, a full exploration of the zoo edu- cation literature is beyond the scope of this chapter. However, Kellert (1997: 99) notes that ‘many visitors leave the zoo more convinced than ever of human superiority over the natural world”. Whether or not 200 animal dem- onstrations are more effective than static displays in garnering conservation support towards the animal being shown (Swanagan, 2000), amusement parks do routinely exhibit human superiority over the killer whales in their Care (Figure 8.2). Its unknown how these exhibitions of human superiority visitors’ beliefs or anthropocentric views. effect 136 Patt 2 Conflict, Contradiction and Contestat Figure 8.2 A trainer performing a “fast swim ride’ Faure 8.2 4 ato 19a ast swim ride’ on the back ofa captive killer whale Regus of edstiona cacy, a ete tional nerature provide tn che pic bythe ma ‘ helping to demonstrate the accuracy of ther materals: Longevity meng captive killer whales is a persistent source of discord between i captivity factions. On the issue of killer whl patk corporation inthe United Seats uation of existing educa- pro- and anti- longevity, one major theme tates on their website: Scientists in the Pacific Northwest estimate life expectancies by using information derived from tld obseritions These stents believe that ifa hile whale sures the Fie so ‘months, a female's life expectancy is 50 years and a mal = (SeaWorld, 2014e) . 30 years, eee ie Northwest (see Olesiuk ct «/,, 2005). In addition, these Ventre, in press). Our analysis of captive killer whale ns f les demenstrates that Killer Whales, Theme Parks and Controversy 135, only 2% of males (dead and alive) have survived beyond 3) years once an animal enters captivity, while 5% of eaptive females have survived beyond 30 years (curvival estimates are discussed in greater detail later in this chap- ter). Thus it appears that few killer whales held in captivity have neared the maximum life expectancy described among their wild counterparts. The theme park literature exarnined here may fail to mention estimated maxi- ‘mum lifespan among wild killer whales as it appears inconsistent with observations of their captive killer whales. “The collapsed dorsal fins of captive killer whales are a conspicuous con- sequence of captivity, where 100% of adult males demonstrate full collapse as do many adult females. In captive environments, dorsal collapse is the fecule of whales spending an inordinate amount of time floating at the sur- face of the water (also known as ‘logging’), with the dorsal fin unsupported by water. In stark contrast to captive whales, itis reported that less than 1% of wild adult male killer whales in the Pacific Northwest possess the defor rity (Ford e al, 194). In her evaluation of 30 adult wild male killer whales in New Zealand, Visser (1998) found that seven (23.3%) had various stages cf dorsal fin malformation. However, only one observed animal (3.3%) pos- sessed a Fully collapsed dorsal fin, with the author stating shat the collapse may have been due to an apparent entanglement injury. The marine theme park industry is therefore placed in the challenging position of explaining the Obvious deformities of their captive whales. Attempting to explain dorsal fin. collapse among captives, one prominent theme park corporation in the United States provides the following statement on their website: ales bend, but it No one is exactly sure why the dor may have to do with genetics, inju n be taller than many humans without any hard bones or muscles for support. Some killer whales (both male and female) have irregulat-shaped dorsal fins: they may be curved, wavy, twisted, scarred, or bent, Of the 30 adult male kilier whales that have been photo-identified in New Zealand ‘waters, seven have collapsing or bent dorsal fins. (SeaWorld, 20148) While the above explanations are not necessarily untrue they fail to accu- rately convey the details of the phenomenon. First, while itis true that many wild killer whales, both male and female, possess dorsal fins with slight ‘waves, twists, bends or lean, the full collapse observed in all adult captive males is exceedingly uncommon among wild killer whales (Figure 8.3). ‘Thetefore, full collapse is, without question, a function of the captive envi- ronment. Secondly, the next statement from their educational website takes considerable liberty with Visser's (1998) findings. Visser cbserved only one adult male witha fully collapsed dorsal fin, whereas the other images included in her manuscript depicted wavy, leaning, hooked (atthe tp) and concertina shaped dorsal ins among the wild male killer whales she photographed. 136 Part 2: Conflict, Contradiction and Contestation Figure 8.3 Left image depicts the ful ly collapsed dorsal fir ofa captive 2dult male killer whale, re with a trainer measuring the degree of collapse. The right image demon. strates a malformed dorsal fin on an adult wild animal. Deformations as seen in ‘cork screw’ ate usually the result of mechanical trauma, Fully collapsed dorsal firs are rere ‘among wild killer whales but common among captives Photos: JefTrey Ventre (lef); Ingrid Visser (right) Examination of killer whale survival, health effects and captivity-related stressors A review of captive killer whale survival is useful as it allows for numer fal comparisons with wild killer whale lifespan estimates, based upon cnown studies. Among humans, longevity positively correlates with qualit oF ite (QOL) (Stewart af, 2013), Kilt Whale survival may therefor me, vide insight into the relative physical, emotional and psychosocial states of those animals held in captivity. Contrasting the lives of captive killer whales, free-ranging killer whales live in kin-based, stable matrilineal family unite with females having an unusually long post-reproductive lifespan, similar to ‘humans. For example, one Southern Resident matriarch ()-2), still living at time of publication, is listed in the Orca Survey field catalogue as being est- mated to have been born in 1911. Female kilier whales reach reproductive senescence (menopause) at about 40, with mean life mately 46 years, provided expectancy of approxi- hey survive their first six months (Olesiukcet al, 2005). Male killer whales are not as long lived, with an average life exp tancy of 30, again, provided they survive their first six months of life Using the Kaplan-Meier survival estimate model applied to the afore- mentioned 189 killer whales who entered captivity between 1961 and 1 January 2014, we found the overall median survival over the history of cap tivity to be 6.2 years (Jett & Ventre, in press). Male median survival wes found to be 5.1 years, while female median survival was 10.0 years. In 1965, larger pool dimensions ushered in a modern era of successful captive killer whale breeding. This benefited free-ranging populations demand for wik space for by decreasing the > wild-captured killer whales, Larger facilities also provided more he captives to swim, Indeed, based on our analyses, it was found yy Killer Whales, Theme Parks and Controversy ned cars was significantly that after | January 1985, che median survival of 11.8 yea igniican higher than prior to 1985, which was only four years in all likelihood, the larger pool volumes, combined with improved husbandry and veterinary medicine, explain the improved, modern-era survival numbers, This aside, ‘ur analyses demonstrate several considerable departures from wild killer whale survival data, Among these, while Olesiuk et al. (2005) report that % 4 ‘only two captive 41-75% of wild females survive to about 40 years of age, only two captive females (f the 55 who entered captivity prior to 1 January 1985) (3.6%) have survived more than 40 years. By neatly all metrics, when compared to data Collected on free-ranging animals, killer whales in captive environments demonstrate poorer survival than wild whales. Based on human studies, itis known, for example, that low socio-eco nomie status is asocated with cardiovascular dias, and early mortality imilarly, environmental stressors, such as crowding, frustration and noise skeovntoincenseppesion nurans (Busha & Hursmann, 2010) ‘ss killer whale trainers at a US marine park in the 1980s and 1990s, and having participated in a wild killer whale photo-identfication study, we Commonly witnessed health issues and behaviouts not seen or described among wild animals. Indeed, since killer whales were Ftst placed into cap- tivity, various health and behavioural sues relating to their confinement have become apparent. These include poor dentition (from stereotypic Sehaviouts andj popping), excessive logging behaviour, ultraviolet ade ation (UVR) exposure, exposure to biting insects, generalised social strife leading to inter nimal aggression, ‘medication effects, and other health and swe al eegegtion gtesare the primary method of separating killer whales for breeding, training sessions, shows, or when tensions exist between ani- mals. When separated by these gates it s common for whales to engage in a particular behaviour known as jaw-popping which san open-mouth threat, display of teth followed by quick clesure, or ‘popping’ of the upper an lower os the ler whale changing gate te jw pop cn damage eth if they contact the metal bars. behaviours and wil chew’ on concrete pool corners or ther proxruing . tures of an exhibit. An analogous behaviour among horses is called ‘cribbing creating ands considered an abnormal stale vie (Clegg al, 2008) Killer whale facilities are thus constructed to be as sterile as possible, without atures that can be bitten or chewed. Tooth breakage leaves the soft pulp of some teeth exposed (Figure €.4). If eft alone, the decaying pulp can form a Cavity that leads to food plugging. As a corollary, human studies show that tooth caries can create inflammation and become a focus for systemic infec- tion (Padilha eal, 2008). Thus, as a prophylactic measure, the fleshy pulp the whale’s tooth is bored out, creating an open hole into the (upper or lower) jaw (bore holes are visible in Figure cerinarians and trainers using 2 | 158 Part 2: Coaflict, Contradiction and Contestation Figure 8.4 Broken, ground and drilled teeth of a captive killer whale. These anomalies often (eave the soft pulp component of their teeth exposed, which can lead to local or general infections Photos: Ingrid Visser (Lf): Sara Childers (right). variable speed drill perform this procedure, known asa ‘modified pulaotomy’ This is an uncomfortable husbandry procedure for the whales, which we observed refusing to participate by sinking down into the water, shuddering, or splitting from their keepers. These bore holes are typically not filled with amalgam and thus serve as a conduit for fish debris and pathogens to pene trate into the mandible, which is highly vascular. Among humans itis known that periodontal caries result in bacteraemia and, given the large-diameter bore holes in the teeth of many captives (>4 mm) itis likely that these ‘gate. ‘ways’ are associated with chronic bacteria loading and other health implica tions, In an attempt to control negative health impacts, trainers at theme parks irrigate the bored teeth two to three times each day while describing the procedures to the public as ‘superior dental care’ This occurs for the rest of the whale’s life, making many captive killer whales poor candidat release into the wild Captive killer whales often live in sunny, low latitude tourist destina- tions, in shallow pools, and in clear water, From the perspective of a park guest, clear water allows for the visualisation of the animals and their trainers (Figure 8.5). Thick clear acrylic panels are installed at most facilities to provide an optimal view Crom the grandstand Free-ranging killer whales are found in all oceans of the world; however, the majority live in high-latitude, cold-water environments North Atlantic, the North Pacific and the Southern Oceans. At these lat! tudes, UVR exposure is diminished, overall. Additionally, wild killer whales spend most of their time below the surface of the water, protected by sus. Pended particles that block sunlight. At marine theme parks, such as in the Canary Islands near Africa, and US locations such as Miami, Orlando, San for has in the killer Whales, Theme Parks and Controversy 139 er whale pols allows gt to ee re 6.5 Ther shlowwte of captive lr whl ws Taide thse nerbuts Ysa gh atv aalon expose espedaly song ile fs hese n opel an stop etonmets ronnie na Vw a exposure is substantial, especially ntonio and Southern California, UVR exposure is sub ally avon the overall lack of shade structures at these facilities, Consequently, we commonly eid unbured doa eso he eter = won See Sone tek ane one ceam was euinly apled othe skin's sr face to hide these blemishes. . cnton tn idee tions from bacteria, viruses and other pathogens that do not typically cause serious infections (Sleijffers er al., 2002). Exemplifying this, two copie within the MMIR, pneumonia isthe leading cause of death among captiv “As Killer whale trainers we commonly witnessed mosquitoes a ccesing the dorsal surfaces of captive. ee oon hee ee 140 Part 2: Conflict, Contradiction ané Contestation Mosquitoes are attracted to the exhaled carbon dioxide (Dekker et al, 2005), dark surfaces (Brown & Bennett, 1961), heat (Wang ¢1 al, 2009) and other cues present during the logging behaviour exhibited by captive killer whales. Social strife is magnified for killer whales in captive environments, where whales collected from different parts of the world, or who are ipped from various marine parks, are often housed together. Captive killer whales will often ram, rake and displace other animals in displays of aggression and as a means of establishing hierarchy within a group. ‘The aforementioned jaw popping behaviour relates to the social instability cre. ated by artifical killer whale pods. In an extreme example, a female ki whale at a marine theme park in California (US) rammed another female in 1989 during a show in a display of dominance (Reza & Johnson, 1989). The impact fractured her jaw and ruptured major arteries in the whale's nasal passages, causing the whale to bleed to death. In stark contrast, a -ranging animal can simply flee when tensions mount. The extreme spatial constraints imposed on whales in captive environments prevent a natural escape response and exacerbate incompatibilities, Along these lines, Hoye (1992) estimated that the minimum volume of water traversed by a wild killer whale in an average 24 hours totalied 6,006,000,000 fe, con- taining over 45,302,778,000 gallons. Hoyt concluded this volume to be over 9000 times larger than the sum of the interconnecting killer whale pools at any of the SeaWorld parks. Captive killer whale attacks Keeping killer whales in captivity has proven to be detrimental to the health and safety of animals and trainers alike, On Christmas Eve 2009, trainer Alexis Martinez was killed by a male captive-bred killer whale named Keto, who was on loan from SeaWorld to Lora Parque in the Canary Islands, Spain. Two months later, in February 2010, trainer Dawn Brancheau was killed by SeaWorld’s male killer whale, Tilikum (Figure 6.6). This particular whale also killed trainer Keltie Byrne at a theme park in Canada prior to his arrival at SeaWorld. Tilikum additionally caused the death of park guest, Daniel Dukes, who had hidden in the park after hours. Medical Examiner (ME) reports described massive trauma to both Dawn and Alexis, and less to Daniel (Medical Examiner's Report, 1999, 2010), Deaths and serious injuries led to a US Federal judge requiring that SeaWorld end the practice of placing trainers in their pools with killer whales during shows (Welsch, 2011). In a2-1 ruling in April 2014, the US Court of Appeals denied SeaWorld’s appeal of citations issued by the occupational Safety and Health Administration. As former killer whale trainers, we conclude that there is no way to fully mitigate the safety risks associated with swimming with captive killer whales Killer Whales, Theme Parks and Controversy 141 Figure 8.6 012 February 2010 the Seaford orca thu’ woul claim his third vet, ‘Dawn Brancheau, who is depicted here on a mural at the Orlando, Florida, Internationa Airport in 236, Oawn Lt er ie ust sty dys aftr ater tae, Alexis Martine vrs kled by te SeaMari re et! in the Canary Islands, Medel examine! reports revealed brutal attacks and traumatic as of ie for both trans, asing the question ‘af whether killer whales should be kept in concrete enclosures for human amusemer Photo Creat: Jlfay Ventre. Speculation on the Future of the Industry J ison the rise globally, the pas ide tivity to millions of potential While demand for captive cetaces ars have bought the story of cetacean cee eae on pkentetainment Ino003, Academy Awardusnning deeumenary Tis Ge highlighted the ongoing eaptre and slaughter of snl etacans neo Tall Jpan Sine then» nomi acs group known as the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society has Pee aun 1B video feeds hom the Tif cove exposing the practices ofthe hunters cere to mractices frem the current US Ambassador to Japan, Carolyn Kennedy, as yall asa etter fromm Yoko Ono Lennon tothe fisherman of Tai In 2013 the documentary Blackfish brought the plight of killer whales in captivity to mil- ions of viewers worldwide. with captivity, the practice is likely to slowly fall from favour, with corpora~ vronacanteatng changes to their business model. Thee i, howeve, a grOW- ing demand, especially in Asian markets, ve whales and dolphins Tess har celerated cllections of Kl whales for puble display, collect- ing igh: aumals since 2012, Facies inthe Mid Eas, uch as Alans, ‘The Palm’ in Dubai already display cetaceans and seem interested in acquir Pace a SiTS the fomner CEO of Seon Achzon, eld he Ne ‘We could take our Shamu show in Orlando and probably New York Ton Mz Part 2 Conflict, Contradiction and Contestation show it in Malaysia or Abu Dhabi o Dubai Thee brands rm overt (Alen, 2019). ir Atchison wat Toco to sage December 2014 du to collapsed stock valve and diminished attendance st SeaWorld US Paks SeaWorld has continued with oveseasenpansion fase Conclusions earn OO nd HES de cas ot rtd el Sapa ate ern ot cha te sna ranning ep wd ten myriad weys, Having worked within the marine park industry, we accept that there are many animal species whose environmental and social equite, rence sce a sam naar sing Thee ewe orig sn th nl cy ce say Conca en cna cel nay Hirde ee mc smn aie financial incentives to continue ina business-as-usual fashion, and these same financial incentives exist in developing countries It seems reasonable to pre= dict that developing countries will increase the number of facilit housing captive marine mammals in the near future. However, social media is now: igen ape ae a Mite nt seen mama capi clan veo A cineponignne enero eet of entertainment. The practice of housing killer whales for entertainment see nee dc pag AG what rea tice. It is our hope that marine parks will choose to evolve on the issue. References ‘ABC (2007) SeaWorld investigation: Sectts below the surface, American Broad Gant 2 Stay. 1Onewscomnewsseawoncirsestgton sea the-surface (accessed 21 January 2014). = ‘Adelman Fall J-and James, 5. 2000) Impact of national aquarium in Bakimore on rss the: a ae ata clin enh a Decision Processes 50 (2), 179-211. 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