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Common connective words indicating:

Addition
in addition
and similarly
likewise as well as
besides further more
also moreover and
then too not only ...
but even besides
this/that

Certainty
obviously certainly
plainly of course
undoubtedly

Example
for instance one
example for example
just as in particular
such as namely
to illustrate

Sequence
first(ly) initially
second(ly) etc.to
begin with then
next earlier/later
after this/that
following this/that
afterwards

Condition
if unless whether
provided that for
so that whether
depending on
Reason
since as so
because (of)
due to owing to
the reason why
in other words
leads to cause

Consequence

Contrast

as a result thus
so therefore
consequently
it follows that
thereby
eventually
then in that case
admittedly

however on the other


hand despite in spite of
though although but
on the contrary
otherwise yet instead of
rather whereas
nonetheless even though
compared with in
contrast alternatively

Definition

Summary

is refers to
means that is
consists of

Time
before since as
until meanwhile
at the moment
when whenever
as soon as just as

LANGUAGE FUNCTIONS
GIVING OPINION
The way I see it ...
In my view ...
I would say ...
I would have to say ...
As far as I can tell ...
It occurs to me that ... Still ... But ... However ... Nevertheless ...
I find it ...
I find it rather ...
I find it somewhat ...
I understand what you mean. However, ...
I would tend to agree with this, but ...
Here's my take on it:
I feel that ...

in conclusion in
summary lastly finally
to sum up to conclude
to recapitulate in short

I strongly believe that ...


I feel compelled to say that ...
I can't say I agree with this, and here's why ...
Expressing your opinion while recognizing, in a positive way, another person's opinion
I find it interesting that ..., but on the other hand ...
You have a point, but have you ever thought that ...
I understand what you mean, but I can't say I see it that way because ...
This is true, but ...
You make a strong case for ..., but I think you might have overlooked ...
More direct starters:
This is what I'm getting at.
What I mean to say is that ...
Let me tell you what I think,
I ...
That's wrong, and I'll tell you why. (If ...)
Suggesting
Example questions:
What would you suggest a visitor to your country see and do?
What do you think the government could/should do?
I'd .... (suggest, recommend, say, tell him/her/them) ....
Maybe/perhaps/possibly ... + could / should ...
It might/may help if ....+ past tense form of verb
It would probably + (be a good idea, be useful, help) if + past tense form of verb
I .... (suggest, recommend, say) ....
Expressing Opinions
Example question:
Do you think that children should always be offered an incentive (a reward of some kind) when
parents ask their children to do something?
I think ...
I believe ...
I feel ...
Personally, I (think, believe, feel) ...
I tend to + (think, feel, believe) that ...
In my opinion, ...
In my view, ...

I've always + (thought/believed/felt) that ...


I maintain that ...
I've always maintained that ...
It seems to me that ...
I'm convinced that ...
As far as I'm concerned, ...
My view is that ...
From my point of view, ...
To my mind, ...
The way I see it, ...
As I see it, ...
Don't say, "personally in my opinion".
Don't say, "In my eyes". Use, "In my view", instead.
Only use, "maintain" if the topic is something that you have discussed with others many times
before. "Maintain" means you always express this opinion. It is not suitable to use, "maintain" if the
question is something that you have probably never thought about before. And only use, "maintain"
a maximum of once in the speaking test.
Similarly, you should only say, "I firmly believe" when you are talking about a topic that suits a
strong opinion and a topic that you have deeply thought about before.
Your answers will be better if you include adverbs such as 'strongly', firmly', 'honestly', 'really' and
'personally'.
Only use, 'frankly' when saying something that expresses a rather strong or firm opinion. As well
as that, this opinion should be rather unexpected (for the person you are talking to) or be something
that you don't usually tell other people, like a 'small secret'. 'Frankly' is used when you are
expressing something in an unusually direct and honest way. For example, "Who's your favourite
film star?" "Frankly, I don't have a favourite film star because I don't often watch films."
Similarly, only start a sentence with the words, "To be honest, ..." when you are expressing an
opinion in an unusually direct and honest way, and this opinion is something the listener probably
does not expect.
Giving Reasons for Opinions
... because ...
... since ...
The main reason I say that is because ...
One of the reasons I say that is because ... (One reason I say that is because ... )
Don't use, 'as' or, 'for' to mean when speaking; they are too formal-sounding and unnatural when
speaking.
Explaining
Example question: Why are many older people reluctant to learn computer skills?
The reason why ... is because / is that ...
The main reason why ... is because / is that ...
One reason why ... is because / is that ...

One possible explanation (for that) is ...


To understand why ....., you first need to ..... (understand, know, be aware that)
Well, it's like this: ....
You could look at it this way: ...
Speculating ( Guessing When You Don't Know)
(When talking about the present or the past)
Example question: Do old people in China have opportunities to attend any forms of classes?
Well, I'm not sure but ...
Well, I've never thought about that before but ...
As far as I know, ...
I imagine ...
I guess ...
I suppose ...
I'd say ...
Since you're not sure, you can also use words such as, "maybe", "perhaps", "possibly", "probably",
"it's quite likely that ...", "it's quite possible that ...", "it's quite probable that ...", "may +V", "might
+V", "could + V".

Expressing Plans, Intentions and Hopes for the Future


Example question: What are your future work plans? (after you graduate)
I plan to ...
My plan is to ...
I plan on + Ving
I intend to ...
I hope to ...
I'm going to ...
My ambition is to ...
My immediate goal is to ...
My ultimate (final) goal is to ...
Ultimately, ...
Hopefully, ...
Ideally, ...
I expect to ...
Id like to ... = I want to ..
As an alternative, I might ...
If all goes well, I'll / I should ...
If everything goes according to plan, I'll / I should ...

My dream is to ...
It's always been my hope/plan/ambition/dream to ...
My heart is set on + Ving
Clarifying
What I mean is ..
My meaning is ....
In other words,
That is to say, ...
Let me put that another way.
To put that another way, ...
What I'm trying to say is ..
My point is that ...
More specifically, ...
For example, ...
For instance, ...
Explaining a Word When you have Forgotten (or don't know) the Word
"I can't remember the word but .....
it's a thing that ...
it's a type of ...
it's something you ...
he's a person who ...
it's something like ...
it's similar to ...
it's kind of like a ..."
These sentences use the present tense because you are speaking in general. For example, "It's a
thing, a tool that you use to put air into your bicycle tyre - you use it like this" (Show the action). (a
bicycle pump)
Speaking in General
On the whole, ..
As a rule, ...
In general,
Generally, ...
Generally speaking, ..
For the most part, ...
Typically,
Usually,
Use the Present Tense when speaking in general.