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TheElectronicTransactionsAct,2007

TheElectronicTransactionsAct,2007
IntheNameofAllah,theGracioustheMerciful
TheElectronicTransactionsAct,2007[1]
Beitherebypassed,bytheNationalAssembly,andsigned,bythePresidentoftheRepublic,in
accordancewiththeprovisionsoftheInterimNationalConstitutionoftheRepublicoftheSudan,
2005,thefollowingAct:
ChapterI
PreliminaryProvisions
Titleandcommencement
ThisActmaybecitedasthe,ElectronicTransactionsAct,2007,andshallcomeintoforce,asof
thedateofsignature.
Interpretation
InthisAct,unlessthecontextotherwiserequires:

Electronic
transactions

means the relations, financial disposals, personal status and all legal
matters other than criminal matters, including individual disposals or
contractsasmaybeconcludedorexecuted totallyorpartiallythrough
electronicdatamessage

Datamessage

meanstheinformationproduced,sent,receivedorsavedbyelectronic,
or visual means, or other technological means, including exchange of
electronicdata,electronicmail,telegraph,telexortelegraphiccopying

Information

meansthedata,texts,photographs,images,voices,signs,database,
andcomputerprogrammes,andthelike

Electronicrecord

meanstheentry,contractordatamessage,initiated,sent,receivedor
savedbyelectronicmeans

Electronic
instrument

meansthedocumentinitiated,saved,retrieved,copied,sent,servedor
received by an electronic means on a tangible medium, or any other
electronicmedium,andretrievableinsuchform,ascanbeunderstood

Digitalsignature

meansthesignatureinitiated,sentandsavedbyanelectronicmeans.
Itmaytaketheformofletters,digits,signsorsignalshavingadistinct
character,andallowsidentificationanddistinguishingthepersonalityof
thesignatoryfromothers

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Signaturedevice

meanstheset,oranyelectronicdatapreparedinadistinctform,toact
inanindependentway,orjointlywithotherdatasetsthesamebeing
for a particular specific digital status of a person. This operation
includes any systems, or sets, as may generate, or receive distinct
data, such as signs , arithmetical curricula , letters, digits, personal
codes,identificationnumbersoranyotherpersonalcharacteristics

Coding

means the use of signs, or uncirculated signals, whereby the


information intended to be passed, or sent becomes incapable of
understanding on the part of others, or the use of signs, or signals,
withoutwhichaccesstotheinformationcannotbemade

Authentication
Procedure

meanstheprocedurefollowed,toverifythattheelectronicsignature,or
recordhasbeenmadebyaspecificperson,ortracesuchchangesand
errors, as may have occurred in an electronic record, after its
establishment, including the use of analysis means, to identify the
signs,wordsanddigits,anddecoding,reverseaid,oranyothermeans
,orprocedure,asmayachievethepurpose

Committee

meanstheNationalElectronicLicensingCommittee

Person
authenticatingthe
signature

meansanynatural,orcorporateperson,whoislicensed,accordingto
thenatureofthesubject,toissuecertificatesassertingauthenticationof
thedigitalsignature,inordertoascertainthatsuchsignatureisissued
bythepersonconcerned

Electronicmedium

meansthecomputerprogramme,oranyotherelectronicdevice,used
for carrying out any process, for the initiation, sending or receiving an
informationmessage,withoutpersonalintervention

Receiver,ofthe
message

meanstheperson,towhomtheinitiatorofthemessageintends
deliveryoftheinformationincludedtherein

Initiator,orsenderof meanstheperson,whobyhimself,orbywhoeverhemayauthorize,
themessage
initiatesthedatamessage,andsendsthesame,beforesavingit
Authentication
certificates

meanthecertificatesissuedbythepersonlicensedtoauthenticate,for
theproofofattributionofthedigitalsignature,toaparticularperson,in
accordancewiththeapprovedauthenticationprocedure

Exchangeofdata

meanstheelectronictransferandexchangeofdata,betweentwoor
moreparties

Signatory

meansanyperson,whoisinpossessionofadigitalsignaturedevice,
pertainingthereto,fromtheauthenticatingperson,andeffectssignature
personally , or through an agent on a message, by the use of such
device

Dataprocessing
system

meansanyelectronicsystemusedtoinitiatedatamessages,send,
deliver,process,saveorpreparethesame,inanyotherway

Electronicpayment
device

means the device,which enablesitsowner to conductdirectremotely


controlledpaymentoperations,totallyorpartiallythroughthenetworks
including the electronic cheque, and the photocopy of the cheque, or
paymentcards,andotherwiseofmeans

Ministercompetent

meanstheMinistertobedeterminedbythePresidentoftheRepublic

Broker

is the person, or body, who on behalf of any other body, effects


sending, receipt or saving the data message, or renders any other
services,withrespecttothedatamessage
meansthesitewhereinthepersonpractiseshisordinaryactivity,and
includes the electronic site agreed to, between the initiator and the

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Quartersofwork

receiveroftheelectronicmessage

Identificationsign

means the sign allotted by the person licensed to authenticate


electronic transactions to the person concerned to use, from the
receiver in order to distinguish data messages issued by such person
fromothermessages

"Financialinstitution"

meansthelicensedbankorfinancialinstitutionauthorizedtomake
financialtransactionsinaccordancewithapplicablelaws

"Electronic
instrument"
ChapterII

meansfinancialorcommercialpaperwhichisnegotiableelectronically.

ElectronicContracting
Declarationandexpressionofwill
Thedatamessageshallbedeemedasameansof:
1. declarationofrenderingaservice,orcommodity
2. expressionofwilltotally,orpartially,forthemanifestationofofferandacceptance,withthe
viewofestablishingcontractualobligation.
Validityoftheelectroniccontracts
1. Electronic contracts shall be correct and valid when offer and acceptance coincide through
datamessageexchangedbythepartiestoexpresstwowillswhichcoincideonthesubject
matter,andputobligationoneachother.
2. Notwithstandingsubsection(1)thepartiesmayagreethatthecontractshallbecorrectand
validifthewillisexpressedpartiallythroughdatamessage.
Makingofferanditsreceipt
Unlessthepartiesotherwiseagreed,theoffershallbedeemed:
1. madethroughdatamessagewhensentorenteredinaninformationasystemnotcontrolled
byinitiatororwhoevermaydeputizetherefore
2. received by the receiver on entry of data message in an information system the use of
whichispreviously agreed to by the parties, or entered an information system belonging to
thereceiver.
Makingaacceptanceanditsreceipt
Unlessthepartiesotherwiseagreed,acceptanceshallbedeemed:
1. madethroughdatamessageatthetimeofentryinaninformationsystemnotcontrolledby
theinitiatororwhoeverhemaydeputizetherefore
2. receivedbythereceiveronentryofdatamessageinaninformationsystemtheuseofwhich
is previously agreed to by the parties, or entered an information system belonging to the
receiver.
ChapterIII
Noncontractualtransactions
Unilateralwill
ThedatamessagewhichcontainsunilateralwillasdetailedintheCivilTransactionsActshallhave
thelegalcogencyoftheformaldocumentwheneverissuedbyanapproveddigitalsignature.
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ChapterIV
DigitalSignatureandCogency
Legaleffectofdigitalsignature
1. Thelegaleffectofthedigitalsignatureshallnotbedeniedwithrespecttoitsvalidityandthe
possibility of its being acted upon merely for its being set out totally or partially in an
electronicform.
2. Where the law requires the signature of a document, or entails a legal effect for its being
bereft of signature, then where an electronic record is used in this respect, the digital
signaturethereonshallsatisfytherequirementsofthisAct.
3. Where,withrespecttoanyproceedings,adigitalsignatureisproducedaccompaniedbyan
approvedcertificatetoanypersonsuchsignatureshallbeequivalenttohishandsignature,
where:
1. amechanismisusedtodeterminetheidentityofsuchperson,andprovehisassentto
theinformationsetoutintheelectronicdatamessage
2. such mechanism is dependable, to an extent appropriate to purpose for which the
electronicdatamessageisinitiated,inthelightofthecircumstance,includinganyother
agreementconnectedwithsuchperson.
Wheretheelectronicsignatureisnotplacedbytheuseofanapprovedcertificate,thepresumption
ofvalidity,prescribedundertheprovisionsoftheprecedingsubsection,shallnotaffectanyofthe
electronicsignatureorrecord.
Secrecyofinformation
1. Dataoftheelectronicsignature,electronicmediumsandinformationpresentedtothebody
licensed to issue electronic licence certificates are secret, and whoever they have been
presented thereto, or come to his knowledge by virtue of his work, shall not disclose the
same to others, or use them otherwise than for the purpose for which they have been
presented.
2. The provider of service having the system of data processing shall take the steps and
procedureforprotectionofinformationbyallmeansandavailabletechnologies.
Legaleffectofelectronicrecords
1. Thelegaleffectoftheinformation,setoutinelectronicrecords,shallnotbedenied,astoits
validity,andthepossibilityofactionthereupon,merelyforbeingsetouttotally,orpartially,in
theformofanelectronicrecord,orbeingreferredtheretoinsuchrecord.
2. Wherethelawrequiresthatinformationshallbereducedintowriting,orentailsalegaleffect
fornonabidancebythesamethensettingouttheinformationinanelectronicrecordshall
satisfy the requirements of this Act on condition that such information shall be capable of
accesstheretoandretrievablesubsequently,bywayofdissimination,printing,orotherwise.
3. Wherethelawrequiresthattheinformation,presentedtoanotherperson,shallbereduced
into writing then presentation thereof, in the form of an electronic record, shall satisfy this
purpose,wherethefollowingconditionsarepresent:
1. the addressee is enabled access to such information, and retrieval thereof
subsequently,whetherbywayofdissimination,printingorotherwise
2. theaddresseeisenabledtopreservesuchinformation,insuchway,asmayenablethe
addresseetoascertaintheoriginofthedatamessage,itsdestination,andthedateand
timeofitsarrival,sendingandreceipt.
4. Regard,inassessmentofcogencyoftheelectronicrecordinevidenceshall,upondisputeas
toitssoundness,behadtothefollowing:
1. the extent of trust in the way, in the which the electronic record has been initiated,
saved,ordissiminated
2. theextentoftrustinthewayinwhich,theelectronicrecordhasbeensigned
3. the extent of trust in the way, which is used to preserve the soundness of the
information,includedintheelectronicrecord
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4. anyothermatters,asmayhavearelationtothesoundnessoftheelectronicrecord.
ChapterV
ElectronicInstruments
Negotiableelectronicinstrument
Anelectronicinstrumentshallbenegotiable,whereconditionsofthenegotiableinstrumentapply
toit,inaccordancewiththeCentralBankofSudanAct.
Cogencyoftheelectronicsatisfaction
1. Electronicsatisfaction,byanyofthefollowingmeansofelectronicpayment,shallhave
cogencyagainstall.
2. Meansofelectronicpaymentshallbe:
1. electroniccheque
2. electronicpaymentcard
3. anyothermeansofpaymenttobeapprovedbyordersoftheCentralBankofSudan.
Obligationsoffinancialinstitutions
Everyfinancialinstitution,whichpracticeselectronictransmissionofmoney,inaccordancewiththe
provisionsofthisAct,shallabidebyallthelaws,relatingtobankingbusiness,andsuchprocedure
andsafeguardsissuedbytheCentralBankofSudan.
ChapterVI
TheCommittee
Establishment,seatandsupervisionoftheCommittee
1. Thereshallbeestablishedacommittee,tobeknownasthe,ElectronicLicensingNational
Committee,havingcorporatepersonality.
2. The Committee shall be constituted by a decision of the Council of Ministers, upon
recommendation of the Minister Concerned from Chairperson and number of members,
providedthatregardinconstitutionthereof,shallbehadtorepresentationofMinistriesofthe
Interior and Justice, central Bank of Sudan, all competent bodies, the private sector, civil
societyorganizationsandnationalexpertiseinthisfield.
3. TheseatoftheCommitteeshallbeinKhartoum.
4. TheCommitteeshallbesubjecttosupervisionoftheMinister.
FunctionsandpowersoftheCommittee
1. The Committee shall be the highest administrative authority to lay down the bases of
licensing any body it deems qualified to practise the work of authenticating the digital
signature,andissuethenecessarycertificateandlicenseservices.Withoutprejudicetothe
foregoing,theCommitteeshallhavethefollowingfunctionsandpowers,to:
1. carryouttheoperationoflicensingtopractisetheworkofauthenticationofthedigital
signature,afterascertainingthetechnicalandfinancialcapabilitiesoftheapplicantand
investigationofthesame
2. lay down such systems and safeguards as may organize coding, security and
periodicalrevisions
3. issuedecisionsforspecifyingtheliabilityofthelicensedbodywhereitisinbreachof
the duties of care and caution necessary for protection of the proprietor of the
certificate
4. withdraw the licence and take any other measure where the licensed body does not
abide by practicing the work as to such necessary rules and directions as the
Committeemayissue
5. followup and study the international and regional developments in the field of
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electroniclicensingandtheoperationsaccompanyingthesame
6. facilitatetheexchangeofinformationwithforeignpartiesundersuchagreementsasit
may conclude with such parties , for the purpose of exchange of recognition of
certificatesissuedinSudanandtheotherstates
7. specifytheforeignsimilarbodiesforthepurposeofdealingwiththemintheadmission
ofcertificatesissuedbylicensedlocalbodies
8. recommend to the Minister concerned to make the regulations concerning licensing
conditionsandorganizationofdigitalsignaturetechnology
9. makeregulationsfororganizationofitsbusiness.
2. The Committee may delegate any of its powers and functions to any committee to be
constitutedthereby,andthedecisionoftheconstitutionthereofshallspecifyitspowersand
functions,asitmaydeemfit.
SecretariateoftheCommittee
The Committee shall have a secretariate, presided over by a secretary, from its members to be
appointedbytheCommitteeinthefirstmeetingthereof.
MeetingsanddecisionsoftheCommittee
The Committee shall hold its meetings, and take its decisions , as to such manner, as the
regulationstobemadethereby,fortheconductofitsbusiness,mayspecify.
Conditionstobesatisfiedbythelicensedperson,orbody
The body, or person licensed for practice of work in the field of authentication of signature, and
licensingservices,shallsatisfythefollowingconditions:
1. heisofgoodconduct,andhasnotpreviouslybeenconvictedofanoffenceinvolvinghonour,
orhonesty
2. thelicensedbody,orperson,orwhoeverhemayappoint,tomanagetheworkshall
academicallyandpraticallybequalified.
Dutiesofthelicensedperson,orbody
The duties of the person, or body licensed to practise work in the field of authentication of
signatureandlicensingservices,shallbeasfollows,to:
1. abidebyactinginaccordancewiththedataunderwhichhehasbeengrantedthelicence
2. exertthecarenecessaryforensuringtheaccuracyandfullnessofwhateverhemaypresent
ofessentialdata,havingrelationtothecertificateheissues
3. providesuchnecessarymeans,asmayenabletheparty,whodependsonhisservices,to
ascertaintheidentityofthesupplieroflicensingservices,andthathehasfullcontroloverthe
signaturedevice,referredtointhecertificate
4. provide such means , as may enable signatories to notify him of any impediment, as the
signature device may be subjected to , and shall also secure provision of the service of
cancellationofsignature,attheappropriatetime
5. employinrenderinghisservices,approvedsystemsandprocedure,andhumanresources,
attested to for competence and experience, and worthy of dependence thereon, in such
work
6. abidebyallsuchrulesanddirections,astheCommitteemaymakeandissue
7. keepallthedocuments,relatingtothosedealingwithhim
8. keepsuchmessages,asunderwhichauthenticationcertificatesmayhavebeenissued,for
suchperiod,andastosuchclassification,astheCommitteemaylaydown.
Powersofarbitrationandcourts
1. In case of dispute between the Committee and other party the Minister of Justice shall
constitutearbitrationtribunal.
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2. Thecontestofthedecisionsofthearbitrationtribunalshallbebeforethenationalsupreme
court.
ChapterVII
Finance,AccountsandAudit
FinancialresourcesoftheCommittee
Thefinancialresourcesofthecommitteeshallconsistof:
1. suchappropriations,astheStatemayallocatethereto
2. contributionsofinstitutionsandindividuals
3. suchfunds,asitmayobtainasaresultofitsactivity,ortheconsiderationofsuchbusiness
andservices,asmayberenderedthereby
4. suchfunds,asitmayborrow
5. anyotherresources,asmaybeacceptedbytheCommittee.
BudgetoftheCommittee
TheCommitteeshallhaveanindependentbudget,tobepreparedastosuchsoundaccountancy
bases , as the State may prescribe from time to time and the Committee shall submit, to the
competentbodies,withinsufficienttimebeforetheendofeveryfinancialyear,theannualbudget
oftherevenuesandexpenditureofthecomingfinancialyear,forapprovalthereof.
UseoffinancialresourcesoftheCommittee
ThefinancialresourcesoftheCommitteeshallbeusedtoachieveitsobjects.Withoutprejudice,to
thegeneralityoftheforegoing,suchresourcesshallbeusedinthefollowing:
1. paymentofwagesofemployeesoftheCommittee,andremunerationofmembersofthe
Committee
2. anyotheritemsofexpenditurenecessaryforrunningofbusinessoftheCommittee.
Keepingofaccountsandbooks
The Committee shall keep accurate and comprehensive accounts of its business, in accordance
withsoundaccountancybasesandkeepthebooksandrecords,relatingthereto.
The Committee shall deposit its funds with banks, in current, or deposit accounts provided that
dealings in such accounts and withdrawal therefrom shall be made as to such manner, as the
Committeemayspecify.
Audit
TheNationalAuditChambers,shallaudittheaccountsoftheCommittee,aftertheendofevery
financialyear.
StatementofthefinalaccountandtheNationalAuditingChambersreport
TheCommitteeshallannuallysubmit,totheMinister,concernedwithinaperiodnotexceedingsix
months of the end of the financial year, a statement of the final account of the committee
accompaniedbyareportofthenationalAuditingChambers..
ChapterVIII
GeneralProvisions
Competentcourt
TheGeneralCourt,shallbethecompetentcourt,toconsiderdisputes,relatingtoapplicationofthe
provisionsofthisAct.
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Penalties
1. Inadditiontoanyotherpenaltyprovidedforinanyotherlaw,thereshallbepunishedupon
conviction:
1. withimprisonmentforatermnotexceedingtenyearsorwithfineorwithboth,whoever:
1. disclosesthecodekeys,depositedatthecodingoffice
2. disclosesthecodifiedinformationsavedthereby,otherwisethanpermittedcases
3. misusestheinformationsavedthereby
2. withimprisonmentforatermnotexceedingtwelveyearsorwithfineorwithboth
whoever.
1. usesasystem,orprogramme,toimpedethecompletionofanytransactions,or
tradebyelectronicmeans,bymodificationthereof,erosionoftheirdata,spoiling,
destroyingthesameordisruptingthesystemsthereof
2. manufactures,possesses,orobtainsasystem,orprogrammeforthepreparation
ofanelectronicsignature,withouttheconsentofthepersonhavingcompetence
3. forges, or imitates a document, or electronic signature, or an authentication
certificate of an electronic signature, or uses a forged document, a forged
electronic identification, or a forged certificate for the authentication of an
electronicsignature,whileheknowsthesame
4. perusessecretinformation,ordisclosessuchinformation
3. whoeverpresentsinaccurateinformationtoanybodylicensedtopractisethebusiness
ofauthentication,withintenttoextractacertificate,orsuspenditsvalidityorcancelthe
same, shall be punished, with imprisonment, for a term, not exceeding seven years,
andwithfine,orwithboth
4. where any body, which practises the business of authentication, and rendering
electronic services, supplies inaccurate information, in the registration application, or
discloses the secrets of any of its customers, or contravenes the systems and
instructions,issuedunderthisAct,shallbepunishedwithimprisonmentforaterm,not
exceedingtenyearsorwithfine,orwithboth.
2. Withoutprejudicetoanysevererpenalty,providedforbyanyotherlaw,whoevercommitsan
act in contravention of the provisions of any law, by using an electronic means, shall be
punished,withimprisonment,foraterm,notexceedingsevenyears,orwithfine,orwithboth
.
Applicationandsaving
1. TheprovisionsofCivilTransactionsAct,EvidenceActandCivilProcedureActshallapply
wherenoexpressprovisionismadeinthisAct.
2. TheprovisionsofthisActshallnotapplytomarriageanddivorce.
PowertomakeRegulations
1. TheMinisterconcernedmaymakesuchregulations,necessary,fortheimplementationofthe
provisionsofthisAct.
2. Withoutaffectingtheprovisionsofsubsection(1),suchregulationsmayincludethefollowing
matters:
1. conditionsoflicensing
2. suchprocedure,asmayorganizearbitrationinthesuitssubmittedtotheCommittee
3. suchprocedure,asmayorganizethetechniqueofdigitalsignature.

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