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Experiment 1

To perform the study of an Educational


Wind Tunnel.
Apparatus

Educational Wind Tunnel

Introduction
Wind tunnel actually is the classic experiment system for aerodynamic
flow experiments. The model being studied remains at rest while the flow
medium is set in motion, and thus the desired flow around the model is
generated.
Gas Dynamics laboratory is equipped with an educational yet relatively
modern wind tunnel to simulate real flight conditions on a smaller scale.
Although all the flight conditions cannot be simulated in this tunnel but its
found well in case of smaller airfoils or components.
Our laboratory contains an HM 170 Educational Wind Tunnel manufactured
by GUNT. It is an "Eiffel" type open wind tunnel used to demonstrate and
measure the aerodynamic properties of various models. For this purpose,
air is drawn in from the environment and accelerated. The air flows
around a model, such as an aerofoil, in a measurement section. The air is
then decelerated in a diffuser and pumped back into the open by a fan.

Parts of Wind
Tunnel
1.
2.
3.
4.

Inlet contour
Flow straightener
Nozzle
Measurement
section
5. Drag body
6. Force sensor
7. Control unit
8. Diffuser
9. Switch cabinet
10. Manometer
11. Axial fan

Description of core parts of Wind Tunnel


1. Intel contour

Inlet contour is basically the contraction section of this wind tunnel. It


is a carefully designed nozzle contour and air actually enters the
system through this section.
2. Flow straightener
It is a honeycomb mesh which ensures the uniform velocity
distribution with little turbulence into the closed measurement
section through a nozzle.
3. Nozzle
A converging nozzle is installed right after the flow straightener
which increases the speed of the air flow while not disturbing its
uniform velocity distribution.
4. Measurement section
Any component or part which is required to be analyzed
aerodynamically is fixed in this section and its behavior under the
influence of drag is carefully examined in here.
5. Force sensor
It is an electric sensor used to determine the force being exerted on
the body under the influence of drag.
6. Display and control unit
Wind tunnel is controlled through this unit. For example speed of air
flow inside the tunnel is displayed and/or controlled through this unit.
7. Diffuser
It actually is a diverging nozzle section which greatly reduces the
speed of air after the measurement section.
8. Axial fan
It is a single-phase (220 VAC) electric fan with blades in such an
orientation that the flow through this, is parallel to the axis of
rotation of this fan.

Specifications of Wind Tunnel


Flow cross section in measurement section 292 x 292 mm
(W x H)
Flow cross section length
420 mm
Wind velocity range
3.1 to 28 ms-1
Electric power consumption
2.55 kW
Force measuring range (x2)
0 to 10 N
Pressure measuring range
0 to 5 mbar
LxWxH
2860 x 860 x 1700 mm
Weight (approx.)
250 kg
Electric connection
230 VAC/50 Hz/1-phase

Classification of Wind Tunnels

Low-speed wind tunnel (M < 1)


High-speed wind tunnel (M = 1)
Supersonic wind tunnel(M > 1)
Hypersonic wind tunnel(M > 3)
Subsonic wind tunnel (0.3 < M < 1)
Transonic wind tunnel (0.75 < M <1.2)
Open-circuit wind tunnel
Closed-circuit wind tunnel
Variable density wind tunnel

Schematic of an open-type wind tunnel (open-circuit wind tunnel).

Schematic of a closed-type wind tunnel (closed-circuit wind tunnel).

Applications of Wind Tunnel


Wind tunnels are extensively used in modern aerodynamics to analyze the
behavior of a body under drag. These are used in pressure, force and
moment measurements for a body under significant drag. It is also used in
flow visualization over a body. There are many distinct methods defined
for the flow visualization i.e. Smoke, Tufts, Fog, Oil, etc. In water-craft and
modern cars manufacturing, wind tunnels have also found their extensive
applications. Wind tunnels are also used in studying the behavior of

electric fan blades and modern steam turbine blades to hydro-power


turbine blades. Wind tunnels have also found their application in structural
designing e.g. taller building structuring with usual or unusual and
complicated shapes, cable suspension bridges or cable stayed bridges,
etc.

Key Terms
1. Turbulence
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is
characterized by chaotic property changes.

flow

regime

2. Turbulence Intensity
The turbulence intensity is referred to as turbulence level and is
defined as the ratio between the root-mean-square of the turbulent
velocity fluctuations and the mean velocity of flow.
3. Mach number
Mach number is defined as the ratio between the speed of an object
moving through air, or any other fluid and the speed of sound as it is
in that substance for its particular physical conditions, including
those of temperature and pressure.

Experiment 2

To study the Lift and Drag of a Symmetric


Airfoil using force balance by varying the
Angle of Attack.
Apparatus

Educational Wind Tunnel


DAQ System
Airfoil Specimen (NACA0015)

Theory
1. Foil and Airfoil
A foil is a solid object with a shape such that when placed in a
moving fluid at a suitable angle of attack the lift is substantially
larger than the drag. If the fluid is a gas, the foil is called
an airfoil and if the fluid is water the foil is called a hydrofoil.
An airfoil is
the
shape
of
a wing or
blade
(of
a propeller, rotor or turbine) or sail as seen in cross-section.
2. Lift
A fluid flowing past the surface of a body exerts a surface force on
it. Lift is the component of this force that is perpendicular to
the oncoming flow direction. If the fluid is air, the force is called
an aerodynamic force.
3. Drag
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance or fluid
resistance) refers to forces which act on a solid object in the
direction of the relative fluid flow velocity. Unlike other resistive
forces such as dry friction, which is nearly independent of velocity,
drag forces depend on velocity. Drag forces always decrease fluid
velocity relative to the solid object in the fluid's path.

Force balance on an asymmetric airfoil.

4. Symmetric airfoil
It is an airfoil that has the same shape on both sides of its centerline
(chord line). The movement of the center of pressure is the least in
this type of airfoil.
5. Asymmetric airfoil
It is actually an airfoil whose shape on either side of the chord is not
the same.
6. Airfoil Nomenclature
The various terms related to airfoils are defined below:

The upper surface is generally associated with higher velocity


and thus lower static pressure.
The lower surface has a comparatively higher static pressure
than the suction surface. The pressure gradient between these
two surfaces contributes to the lift force generated for a given
airfoil.
The leading edge is the point at the front of the airfoil that has
maximum curvature.
The trailing edge is defined similarly as the point of maximum
curvature at the rear of the airfoil.
The chord line is a straight line connecting the leading and
trailing edges of the airfoil.
The chord length or simply chord is the length of the chord line
and is the characteristic dimension of the airfoil section.
The angle of attack is the angle between the lifting body's
reference line and the oncoming flow.

7. NACA Airfoil Standards


The NACA airfoil standards are standard airfoil shapes for aircraft
wings developed by the National Advisory Committee for
Aeronautics (NACA). The shape of the NACA airfoils is described
using a series of digits following the word "NACA." The parameters
in the numerical code can be entered into equations to precisely
generate the cross-section of the airfoil and calculate its properties.
8. NACA 4-digit Series
The NACA four-digit wing sections define the profile by:

One digit
the chord.

One digit describing the distance of maximum camber from the


airfoil leading edge in tens of percent's of the chord.

Two digits describing maximum thickness of the airfoil as percent


of the chord.

describing

maximum camber as

percentage

of

For example, the NACA 2412 airfoil has a maximum camber of 2%


located 40% (0.4 chords) from the leading edge with a maximum
thickness of 12% of the chord. Four-digit series airfoils by default
have maximum thickness at 30% of the chord (0.3 chords) from the
leading edge.
The NACA 0015 airfoil is symmetrical, the 00 indicating that it has
no camber. The 15 indicates that the airfoil has a 15% thickness to
chord length ratio: it is 15% as thick as it is long.
9. NACA 5-digit Series

The NACA five-digit series describes more complex airfoil shapes:

The first digit, when multiplied


designed coefficient of lift (CL).

Second and third digits, when divided by 2, give p, the distance


of maximum camber from the leading edge (as per cent of
chord).

Fourth and fifth digits give the maximum thickness of the airfoil
(as per cent of the chord).

by

0.15,

gives

the

For example, the NACA 12018 airfoil would give an airfoil with
maximum thickness of 18% chord, maximum camber located at
10% chord, with a design lift coefficient of 0.15.
10.

Lift Coefficient (CL)

Lift coefficient may be used to relate the total lift generated by a


foil-equipped craft to the total area of the foil. In this application the
lift coefficient is called the aircraft or planform lift coefficient (CL). It
is given by:
C L=

2 FL
u2 bc

Where:

CL = lift coefficient
FL = lift force
= fluid density
u = true fluid velocity
b = span of airfoil
c = chord of airfoil

11.

Drag Coefficient (CD)

In fluid
dynamics,
the drag
coefficient
is
a dimensionless
quantity that is used to quantify the drag or resistance of an object
in a fluid environment such as air or water. It is given by:
CD=

2 FD
2

u bc

Where:

CD = drag coefficient
FD = drag force
= fluid density
u = true fluid velocity
b = span of airfoil
c = chord of airfoil

Procedure
The symmetrical airfoil model under study is first installed in the wind
turbine by attaching it to the two-component force transducer. The angle
of attack for the airfoil can be set manually by adjusting the dial.After
installing the model, switch on the wind tunnel and set the air velocity to
15 m/s by adjusting the fan speed using the frequency converter. The
frequency converter permits infinite adjustment of rotational speed and
thus air velocity. The inclined-tube manometer is used to indicate the
current air speed at the entrance to the measurement section. So, the air
velocity can be verified manually.
Once the air velocity is set at 15 m/s, the values for drag and lift forces
are checked at different values of the angle of attack set manually and
varied gradually. The values for drag and lift for the corresponding values
of angle of attack are displayed digitally on the measurement amplifier
with two sensitivity settings.
The values of lift are then put in the following formula to determine the coefficient of lift:
1 2
F L = u cb C L
2
Where:

CL = lift coefficient
FL = lift force
= fluid density
u = true fluid velocity
b = span of airfoil
c = chord of airfoil

Similarly, the values of drag are put in the following formula to determine
the co-efficient of drag:
1
F D = u2 cb C D
2

Where:

CD = drag coefficient
FD = drag force

After determining the values of the lift and drag co-efficients, following
graphs are plotted in order to study the relationship of lift and drag with
the angle of attack:

Angle of Attack vs. Lift/Drag


Angle of Attack vs. Coefficient of Lift /Coefficient of Drag
Angle of Attack vs. CL/CD

Observations and Calculations


Air density = = 1.225 kg/m3
Chord of airfoil = c = 6.4 cm = 0.064 m
Span of airfoil = b = 1 m

For air velocity of 15 m/s


Sr. No.

1
2
3
4
5
6

Angle of
Attack

Lift Force

Drag Force
FD

Lift
Coefficient
CL

Drag
Coefficient
CD

FL

(deg)
0o
2o
5o
10o
12o
15o

(N)
0.02
0.13
0.28
0.51
0.62
0.71

(N)
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.12
0.15
0.18

0.02268
0.14739
0.31746
0.57823
0.70295
0.80499

0.05669
0.07365
0.09070
0.13605
0.17007
0.20408

Angle of
Attack

Lift Force

Drag Force

FL

FD

Lift
Coefficient
CL

Drag
Coefficient
CD

(deg)
0o

(N)
0.03

(N)
0.03

0.07653

0.07653

For air velocity of 10 m/s


Sr. No.

2
3
4
5
6
7

2o
5o
10o
12o
15o
18o

0.07
0.14
0.22
0.27
0.32
0.28

0.03
0.03
0.04
0.06
0.07
0.14

0.17857
0.35714
0.56122
0.68877
0.81632
0.71428

0.07653
0.07653
0.10204
0.15306
0.17857
0.35714

Graphs (15 m/s)

Graph: Angle of Attack and Lift/Drag


0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
Lift/Drag (Newtons)

Lift

0.4

Drag

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

10

12

Angle of Attack (degrees)

14

16

Graph: Angle of Attack and Lift/Drag Coefficient


0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
Lift Coefficient
Lift/Drag Coefficient
0.4

Drag Coefficient

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

10

12

Angle of Attack (degrees)

Graphs (10 m/s)

14

16

Graph: Angle of Attack and Lift/Drag


0.35
0.3
0.25
0.2
Lift/Drag (Newtons)

Lift
Drag

0.15
0.1
0.05
0
0

10

12

14

16

Angle of Attack (degrees)

Graph: Angle of Attack and Lift/Drag Coefficient


0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
Lift Coefficient
Lift/Drag Coefficient
0.4

Drag Coefficient

0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

10

12

14

Angle of Attack (degrees)

16

18

20

Stall (Decrease in Lift Coefficient)


A stall is a reduction in the lift coefficient generated by a foil as angle of
attack increases. This occurs when the critical angle of attack of the foil is
exceeded. The critical angle of attack is typically about 15 degrees, but it
may vary significantly depending on the fluid, foil, and Reynolds number.
The critical angle of attack is the angle of attack which produces
maximum lift coefficient. This is also called the "stall angle of attack".
Below the critical angle of attack, as the angle of attack increases, the
coefficient of lift increases. At the same time, below the critical angle of
attack, as angle of attack increases, the air begins to flow less smoothly
over the upper surface of the airfoil and begins to separate from the upper
surface. On most airfoil shapes, as the angle of attack increases, the
upper surface separation point of the flow moves from the trailing edge
towards the leading edge. At the critical angle of attack, upper surface
flow is more separated and the airfoil or wing is producing its maximum
coefficient of lift. As angle of attack increases further, the upper surface
flow becomes more and more fully separated and the airfoil/wing
produces less coefficient of lift.

Experiment 3

To study and observe the aerodynamic


behavior of a sphere in an Educational Wind
tunnel.
Apparatus

Educational Wind Tunnel


DAQ System
Sphere Specimen

Theory
1. Boundary Layer
A boundary layer is the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a
bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant. On
an aircraft wing the boundary layer is the part of the flow close to
the wing, where viscous forces distort the surrounding non-viscous
flow.
2. Boundary Layer Flow Separation
Flow separation occurs when the boundary layer travels far enough
against an adverse pressure gradient that the speed of the
boundary layer relative to the object falls almost to zero. The fluid
flow
becomes
detached
from the surface of the
object, and instead takes
the forms of eddies and
vortices.
In
aerodynamics,
flow
separation can often result
in
increased
drag,
particularly pressure drag
which is caused by the
pressure
differential
between the front and rear Flow separation over the surface of
surfaces of the object as it airfoil.
travels through the fluid. For this reason much effort and research
has gone into the design of aerodynamic and hydrodynamic
surfaces which delay flow separation and keep the local flow
attached for as long as possible.
3. Reynolds Number

In fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number (Re) is a dimensionless


number that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous
forces and consequently quantifies the relative importance of these
two types of forces for given flow conditions.
Reynolds number can be defined for a number of different situations
where a fluid is in relative motion to a surface. These definitions
generally include the fluid properties of density and viscosity, plus a
velocity and a characteristic dimension. This dimension is a matter
of convention for example a radius or diameter is equally valid for
spheres or circles, but one is chosen by convention. For aircraft or
ships, the length or width can be used. For flow in a pipe or a sphere
moving in a fluid the internal diameter is generally used.
=

uD

Where:
= Density of fluid (air) = 1.225 kg/m3
u = Velocity of air relative to sphere
D = Diameter of sphere
= kinematic viscosity of air (at 25 oC) = 15.68 x 10-6

m2/s
4. Critical Reynolds Number
The value of Reynolds number at which the flow of a fluid changes
from laminar to turbulent is the Critical Reynolds number.
5. Vortex
A vortex is a spinning, often turbulent, flow of fluid. Any spiral
motion with closed streamlines is vortex flow. The motion of the fluid
swirling rapidly around a center is called a vortex.
6. Vortex Shedding
Vortex shedding is an unsteady flow that takes place in special flow
velocities (according to the size and shape of the body). In this flow,
vortices are created at the back of the body and detach periodically
from either side of the body.

Vortex shedding just behind the sphere.

Vortex shedding is caused when a fluid flows past a blunt object.


The fluid flow past the object creates alternating low-pressure
vortices on the downstream side of the object. The object will tend
to move toward the low-pressure zone.
7. Flow patterns for flow over a Sphere
Since density, kinematic viscosity (dependant on temperature) and
diameter of a sphere are all constant, the value of Reynolds number
varies with the variation in the speed of air relative to the sphere.

When Re < 1 i.e., at very low air velocities, there is no boundary


layer separation and the flow is completely laminar and
streamlined.
When Re = 1, the laminar flow turns into turbulent flow and the
flow separation at the boundary layers begin to form.
When Re varies between 1 and 10 i.e., at intermediate air
velocities, the vortices begin to form downstream of the sphere
and the flow is turbulent.
When Re ranges between 10 and 100,000 i.e., at high velocities
of air, vortex shedding is caused due to regions of negative (or
low) suction pressures at the back of sphere downstream of the
fluid flow. The sphere tends to move in the direction of the low
pressure region.

Procedure
The sphere specimen under study is first installed in the wind turbine by
attaching it to the two-component force transducer. After installing the
model, switch on the wind tunnel and set the air velocity to 5 m/s by
adjusting the fan speed using the frequency converter. The frequency
converter permits infinite adjustment of rotational speed and thus air
velocity. The inclined-tube manometer is used to indicate the current air

speed at the entrance to the measurement section. So, the air velocity
can be verified manually.
Once the model is installed, the values for drag and lift forces are checked
at different values of the air speed set manually and varied gradually. The
values for drag and lift for the corresponding values of air speed are
displayed digitally on the measurement amplifier with two sensitivity
settings.
The values of lift are then put in the following formula to determine the coefficient of lift:
1
F L = u 2 A C L
2
Where:

CL = lift coefficient
FL = lift force
= fluid density
u = true fluid velocity
A = surface area of sphere

Similarly, the values of drag are put in the following formula to determine
the co-efficient of drag:
1
F D = u2 A C D
2

Where:

CD = drag coefficient
FD = drag force

After determining the values of the lift and drag co-efficient, following
graphs are plotted in order to study the relationship of lift and drag with
the true air velocity:

Air speed vs. Co-efficient of Lift


Air speed vs. Coefficient of Drag

Observations and Calculations


Air density = = 1.225 kg/m3
Diameter of sphere = d = 9.0 cm = 0.09 m

Surface area of sphere = A = 4r2 = 4 (0.045)2 = 0.02545 m2


Sr. No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12

Air
Velocity
u

Lift Force

(ms-1)
5.0
6.0
7.0
7.5
8.0
9.0
9.5
10.0
10.5
11.0
11.5
12.0

(N)
0.00
0.00
0.00
0.01
0.01
0.02
0.02
0.02
0.03
0.03
0.04
0.04

Drag
Force

FL
FD
(N)
0.03
0.05
0.07
0.08
0.10
0.13
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.19
0.21
0.22

Lift
Coefficie
nt
CL

Drag
Coefficie
nt
CD

0.0
0.0
0.0
0.01140
0.01002
0.01584
0.01422
0.01283
0.01746
0.01591
0.01940
0.01782

0.07698
0.08909
0.09164
0.09123
0.10023
0.10296
0.09951
0.10264
0.10473
0.10073
0.10186
0.09801

Graphs

Graph: Velocity vs. Coefficient of Lift


0.03

0.02

0.02
Co-efficient of Lift (CL)
0.01

0.01

0
4

Velocity (u)

10

11

12

13

Graph: Velocity vs. Coefficient of Drag


0.12
0.1
0.08

Co-efficient of Drag (CD)

0.06
0.04
0.02
0
4

10

11

12

13

Velocity (u)

Experiment 4

To study the boundary layer and visualize it


on wind tunnel.
Apparatus

Educational Wind Tunnel


DAQ System
Metal Slab (for simulation of external flow)

Theory
1. Boundary Layer
A boundary layer is the layer of fluid in the immediate vicinity of a
bounding surface where the effects of viscosity are significant. On
an aircraft wing the boundary layer is the part of the flow close to
the wing, where viscous forces distort the surrounding non-viscous
flow.

2. Liquid-Solid Interfacing
One of the important characteristics of a liquid penetrant material is
its ability to freely wet the surface of the object being inspected. At
the liquid-solid surface interface, if the molecules of the liquid have
a stronger attraction to the molecules of the solid surface than to
each other (the adhesive forces are stronger than the cohesive
forces), wetting of the surface occurs. Alternately, if the liquid
molecules are more strongly attracted to each other than the
molecules of the solid surface (the cohesive forces are stronger than
the adhesive forces), the liquid beads-up and does not wet the
surface of the part.
3. Viscosity
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid which is being
deformed by either shear or tensile stress. The less viscous the fluid
is, the greater its ease of movement (fluidity).
Viscosity describes a fluid's internal resistance to flow and may be
thought of as a measure of fluid friction. For example, high-viscosity
magma will create a tall, steep strato-volcano, because it cannot
flow far before it cools, while low-viscosity lava will create a wide,
shallow-sloped shield volcano. All real fluids (except superfluids)
have some resistance to stress and therefore are viscous, but a fluid
which has no resistance to shear stress is known as an ideal
fluid or inviscid fluid.
4. Boundary-layer Thickness
The boundary layer thickness, , is the distance across a boundary
layer from the wall to a point where the flow velocity has essentially
reached the 'free stream' velocity. It is given by (for laminar
boundary layer over a flat plate):

4.91 x

And for turbulent boundary layer over a flat plate:

0.382 x
5

Where:
= Overall thickness of the boundary layer
x = distance downstream from the start of the boundary layer
Re = Reynolds number

Procedure
The flat plate specimen for the simulation of external flows over the plate
is first installed in the wind turbine by attaching it to walls of the test
section in the tunnel. After installing the plate, we install a screw gage just
over the plate to visually measure the height of the boundary layer. Now
we switch on the wind tunnel and set the air velocity to 20 m/s by
adjusting the fan speed using the frequency converter. The frequency
converter permits infinite adjustment of rotational speed and thus air
velocity. The inclined-tube manometer is used to indicate the current air
speed at the entrance to the measurement section. So, the air velocity
can be verified manually.
Once the plate is installed, the value for height of boundary layer (y) is
checked at different values of the downstream distance from the start of
the plate (x). Air speed set manually is not varied in this experiment. The
screw gage installed right over the flat plate gives us the height of the
boundary layer for corresponding distance of downstream.
Once all values are determined, a graph is plotted (x vs. y) to show the
increasing thickness of boundary layer.

Observations and Calculations


Air density = = 1.225 kg/m3
Least count of screw gage = 0.01 mm
Zero error of screw gage = -1.55 mm (to be added)
Air speed in wind tunnel = V = 20 m/s
Sr. No.

Air
Velocity
u

Metal Slab Length


L

Boundary Layer
Thickness
t

1
2
3
4
5

(ms-1)
20
20
20
20
20

(mm)
0
50
100
150
170

(mm)
0.24
1.67
2.15
2.69
2.98

Graphs (corrected for zero error of screw gage)

Boundary Line (Thickness Visualization)


5
4.5
4
3.5
3
Boundary Line Thickness (mm)

2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
0
0

20

40

60

80 100 120 140 160 180

Length of Metal Slab (mm)

LAB# 5
To study the aerodynamic behavior of an Airship specimen.

Apparatus

Educational Wind Tunnel


DAQ System
Airship Specimen

Theory
1. Airship
An airship or dirigible is a type of aerostat or "lighter-than-air aircraft" that can be
steered and propelled through the air using rudders and propellers or other thrust
mechanisms. Unlike aerodynamic aircraft such as fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters,
which produce lift by moving a wing through the air, aerostatic aircraft stay aloft by
having a large "envelope" filled with a gas which is less dense than the surrounding
atmosphere. The first lifting gas used was hydrogen, although this had well-known
concerns over its flammability. Helium was rare in most parts of the world, but large
amounts were discovered in the USA. This meant that this non-flammable gas was
rarely used for airships outside of the USA. All modern airships, since the 1960s, use
helium.

Procedure
The airship specimen under study is first installed in the wind turbine by attaching it to the
two-component force transducer. After installing the model, switch on the wind tunnel and set
the air velocity to 15 m/s by adjusting the fan speed using the frequency converter. The
frequency converter permits infinite adjustment of rotational speed and thus air velocity. The
inclined-tube manometer is used to indicate the current air speed at the entrance to the
measurement section. So, the air velocity can be verified manually.
Once the model is installed, the values for drag and lift forces are checked at different values
of the air speed set manually and varied gradually. The values for drag and lift for the
corresponding values of air speed are displayed digitally on the measurement amplifier with
two sensitivity settings.
The values of lift are then put in the following formula to determine the co-efficient of lift:
1 2
F L = u A C L
2
Where:CL = lift coefficient
FL = lift force
= fluid density
u = true fluid velocity
A = surface area of airship
Similarly, the values of drag are put in the following formula to determine the co-efficient of
drag:

1
F D = u2 A C D
2

Where:CD = drag coefficient


FD = drag force
After determining the values of the lift and drag co-efficient, following graphs are plotted in
order to study the relationship of lift and drag with the angle of attack:

Angle of Attack vs. Co-efficient of Lift


Angle of Attack vs. Coefficient of Drag

Also (according to NACA-TN86 standards):


Area of an Airs h ip= A=C S DL
Where:Cs = coefficient of area for an airship (depends upon airship)
D = maximum diameter
L = overall length

Observations and Calculations

Air density = = 1.225 kg/m3


Air speed = u = 15 ms-1
Over length of Airship specimen = L = 242 mm
Maximum diameter of specimen = D = 58 mm
Surface area of airship = A = CsDL = 1.25 x 0.058 x 0.242 = 0.017545 m2

Sr. No.

Angle of
Attack

Lift Force

Drag Force

FL

(deg)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65

(N)
0.0
0.06
0.11
0.18
0.22
0.27
0.30
0.41
0.50
0.55
0.60
0.62
0.64
0.65

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

FD

Lift
Coefficient
CL

Drag
Coefficient
CD

(N)
0.0
0.10
0.15
0.19
0.21
0.24
0.29
0.31
0.46
0.58
0.69
0.76
0.82
0.96

0
0.002481
0.004549
0.007444
0.009099
0.011167
0.012407
0.016957
0.020679
0.022747
0.024815
0.025642
0.026469
0.026883

0
0.004136
0.006204
0.007858
0.008685
0.009926
0.011994
0.012821
0.019025
0.023988
0.028537
0.031432
0.033914
0.039704

Angle of Attack vs. Lift Coefficient


0.03
0.03
0.02
Lift Coefficient

0.02
0.01
0.01
0
0

10

20

30

40

Angle of Attack (deg)

50

60

70

Angle of Attack vs. Drag Coefficient


0.05
0.04
0.04
0.03
0.03
Drag Coefficient

0.02
0.02
0.01
0.01
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Angle of Attack (deg)

Angle of Attack vs. CL/CD


1.4
1.2
1
0.8
CL/CD

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

10

20

30

40

Angle of Attack (deg)

50

60

70

LAB#6
To study the aerodynamic behavior of solid circular disc and hollow
circular disc.
Apparatus

Educational Wind Tunnel


DAQ System
Solid Circular Disc
Hollow Circular Disc

Theory
1. Kutta-Joukowski Condition
Kutta-Joukowski condition is a boundary condition or fluid flow about an airfoil
which requires that the circulation of the flow be such that a streamline leaves the
trailing edge of the airfoil smoothly, or, equivalently, that the fluid velocity at the
trailing edge be finite.

At the trailing edge of the airfoil, smooth streamlines can be seen leaving it.
This circulation is required in Kutta-Joukowski condition.

2. Coand effect
The Coand effect is the tendency of a fluid jet to be attracted to a nearby surface. The
Coand effect is a result of entrainment of ambient fluid around the fluid jet. When a
nearby wall does not allow the surrounding fluid to be pulled inwards towards the jet
(i.e. to be entrained), the jet moves towards the wall instead. The fluid of the jet and
the surrounding fluid should be essentially the same substance (a gas jet into a body
of gas or a liquid jet into a body of liquid). In one application, a jet of air is blown
over the upper surface of an airfoil, which can have a strong influence on the overall
lift, especially at high angles of attack when the flow would otherwise separate (stall).

In the above figure, horizontal water jet can be


seen to stick to the spoon surface while
leaving it. This is because of the tendency of
the fluid to stick to a nearby surface while
flowing.
In the second figure, when air is blown across
the surface of a paper, the paper rises. Now
here we can see that the fluid actually passing
across a surface tends to attract a paper by

Procedure
The two circular disc specimens under study are first installed one by one in the wind turbine
by attaching it to the two-component force transducer. After installing each of the models,
switch on the wind tunnel and set the air velocity to 15 m/s by adjusting the fan speed using
the frequency converter. The frequency converter permits infinite adjustment of rotational
speed and thus air velocity. The inclined-tube manometer is used to indicate the current air
speed at the entrance to the measurement section. So, the air velocity can be verified
manually.
Once the specimens are installed (one by one in tunnel), the values for drag and lift forces are
checked at different values of the angle of attack set manually and varied gradually. The
values for drag and lift for the corresponding values of angle of attack are displayed digitally
on the measurement amplifier with two sensitivity settings.
The values of lift are then put in the following formula to determine the co-efficient of lift:
1 2
F L = u A C L
2
Where:CL = lift coefficient
FL = lift force

= fluid density
u = true fluid velocity
A = surface area of hollow or solid circular disc
Similarly, the values of drag are put in the following formula to determine the co-efficient of
drag:
1
F D = u2 A C D
2

Where:CD = drag coefficient


FD = drag force
After determining the values of the lift and drag co-efficient, following graphs are plotted in
order to study the relationship of lift and drag with the angle of attack:

Angle of Attack vs. Co-efficient of Lift


Angle of Attack vs. Coefficient of Drag
Angle of Attack vs. CL/CD

Similar procedure is done for the hollow circular disc. Same graphs are plotted for the case of
hollow disc for the sake of investigating the difference in the aerodynamic behavior of the
two discs.
Area of Solid Disc =A= r

Area of Hollow Disc= A= (r 2e r 2i )

Observations and Calculations (Solid Circular Disc)

Sr. No.

Air density = = 1.225 kg/m3


Air speed = u = 15 ms-1
Diameter of Solid disc = d = 80 mm
Surface area of Solid disc = A = r2 = (0.04)2 = 0.00502 m2
Angle of
Attack

Lift Force

Drag Force
FD

Lift
Coefficient
CL

Drag
Coefficient
CD

FL

(deg)
0

(N)
0.15

(N)
0.94

0.2168

1.3588

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11

5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

0.21
0.28
0.34
0.40
0.46
0.51
0.56
0.61
0.62
0.65

0.92
0.91
0.89
0.85
0.81
0.78
0.73
0.69
0.62
0.56

0.3036
0.4047
0.4915
0.5782
0.6649
0.7372
0.8095
0.8816
0.8962
0.9396

1.3299
1.3154
1.2865
1.2286
1.1709
1.1275
1.0552
0.9974
0.8962
0.8095

Graphs

Angle of Attack vs. Lift Coefficient


1
0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
Lift Coefficient

0.5
0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
0

10

20

30

40

Angle of Attack (deg)

50

60

Angle of Attack vs. Drag Coefficient


1.6
1.4
1.2
1
Drag Coefficient

0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Angle of Attack (deg)

Angle of Attack vs. CL/CD


1.4
1.2
1
0.8
CL/CD

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
0

10

20

30

40

Angle of Attack (deg)

50

60

Observations and Calculations (Hollow Circular Disc)

Sr. No.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
Graphs

Air density = = 1.225 kg/m3


Air speed = u = 15 ms-1
External diameter of Solid disc = de = 115 mm
Internal diameter = di = 56 mm
Surface area of disc = A = (re2 ri2) = [(0.0575)2 (0.028)2]= 0.007924 m2

Angle of
Attack

Lift Force

Drag Force
FD

Lift
Coefficient
CL

Drag
Coefficient
CD

FL

(deg)
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

(N)
0.00
0.12
0.23
0.34
0.43
0.52
0.59
0.64
0.71
0.74
0.80
0.83
0.84
0.76
0.61
0.38
0.15
0.03
-0.04

(N)
1.40
1.36
1.34
1.29
1.23
1.15
1.06
0.95
0.85
0.72
0.64
0.60
0.52
0.42
0.30
0.19
0.09
0.03
-0.03

0.0
0.1099
0.2106
0.3113
0.3937
0.4762
0.5403
0.5861
0.6502
0.6776
0.7326
0.7600
0.7692
0.6959
0.5586
0.3479
0.1374
0.0274
-0.0366

1.2820
1.2454
1.2271
1.1813
1.1263
1.0531
0.9707
0.8700
0.7784
0.6593
0.5861
0.5494
0.4762
0.3846
0.2747
0.1739
0.0824
0.0274
-0.0275

Angle of Attack vs. Lift Coefficient


0.9
0.8
0.7
0.6
0.5
Lift Coefficient

0.4
0.3
0.2
0.1
0
-0.1
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

90

100

Angle of Attack (deg)

Angle of Attack vs. Drag Coefficient


1.4
1.2
1
0.8
Drag Coefficient

0.6
0.4
0.2
0
-0.2
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

Angle of Attack (deg)

80

90

100

Angle of Attack vs. CL/CD


2.5

1.5
CL/CD
1

0.5

0
0

10

20

30

40

50

60

Angle of Attack (deg)

70

80

90