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SALALAH COLLEGE OF

TECHNOLOGY
MINISTRY OF MANPOWER
SULTANATE OF OMAN

Impact of technology on learning

Name: Mohammed Rashid Al-Harsoosi


I.D: 42S1210

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CONTENTS
Introduction............................................................................................................. 1
Technology and Content Area Learning..............................................................1
Technology and Reading Comprehension...........................................................1
Technology and Language Acquisition................................................................2
Technology and Improved Test Scores................................................................3
Technology and Learner Motivation.....................................................................4
Technology Use and Self-Esteem..........................................................................5
Positive Effects of Technology on Education......................................................6
Negative Effects of Technology on Education....................................................6
Conclusion................................................................................................................ 7
References............................................................................................................... 8

IMPACT OF TECHNOLOGY ON LEARNING

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INTRODUCTION

Research literature throughout the past decade has shown that technology can enhance
literacy development, impact language acquisition, provide greater access to information,
support learning, motivate students, and enhance their self-esteem (ACT, 2004; CEO Forum,
2001; Boster et al., 2004; Mann et al., 1999; Tracey & Young, 2006; WestEd, 2002). Indeed,
researchers have affirmed that computer technology provides abundant opportunities for
students to build or modify their personal knowledge through the rich experiences that
technology affords.

TECHNOLOGY AND CONTENT AREA LEARNING


Kinzer and Leu (1997) demonstrated positive effects of technology on both learning in a
content area and learning to use technology itself. They studied the potential of multimedia
and hypermedia technologies. One study, The Reporter Project, used multimedia technology
to enhance sixth-grade students information gathering and writing skills. The Reporter
Project was developed and tested in sixth-grade classrooms for two years and showed that
students made statistically significant improvement in their recognition and use of elements
such as main ideas, supporting details, and cause and effect relationships. Their writing was
also more cohesive than their control-group peers who were taught using similar materials
and sequences but without the use of technology.

TECHNOLOGY AND READING COMPREHENSION


Findings consistent with these emerged from a meta-analysis conducted by Pearson et al.
(2005). The authors reviewed 20 research studies related to using digital tools and learning
environments on middle-school students in the following areas:

Strategy Use

Metacognition

Reading Motivation

Reading Engagement
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Reading Comprehension

They defined digital tools to include a wide range of media forms: images, video and audio
clips, hypertext, hypermedia, and Web pages. The majority of studies they found dealt with
reading comprehension and vocabulary development. Pearson et al. concluded that a wide
range of digital tools enhance reading comprehension and vocabulary development by
providing students access to word pronunciation, word meaning, contextual information, and
comprehension scaffolds to guide an individuals reading. Thus, a strong research base
supports the conclusion that technology can enhance all aspects of literacy development.

TECHNOLOGY AND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION


There is also a large body of research that supports the benefits of technology for language
acquisition (OHara & Pritchard, 2006; Pritchard & OHara, 2005; Leu, 2005; Cummins, 2005;
Zhao, 2005; Duran, 2005; Egbert, Chao, & Hanson-Smith, 1999; Pennington, 1996; Zhao,
2003). Numerous other studies demonstrate that students who learn in existing multimedia
and/or hypertext environments show greater gains in areas of language development than
students who learn in more traditional environments (Ayersman, 1996; Boone & Higgins,
1992; Charney, 1994; Martinez-Lage, 1997). Studies investigating the impact of student
construction of hypermedia environments on language development came to similar
conclusions (Goetze, 2000; Lehrer et al., 1994; Nikolova, 2002).
In a review of studies that focused on technologys impact on language acquisition, Zhao
(2005) examined studies that researched the use of digital multimedia and language. Zhao
concluded that technology can be used to enhance language acquisition in the following
ways:

Enhancing access efficiency through digital multimedia. Multimedia presentations


(video, images, sound, text) can create stronger memory links than text alone. In
addition, digital technologies allow instant playbacks, which provide the learner with
quick and easy access to different sections of instructional materials than when they
are using a textbook.

Enhancing authenticity using video and the Internet. The Internet provides learners
with access to authentic materials, like news and literature, while video can offer
context-rich linguistic and culturally relevant materials to learners.
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Enhancing comprehensibility through learner control and multimedia annotations.


Video materials online can be enhanced with full captions, key-word captions, and
speech slowdown, allowing the reader to more easily digest the information. Digital
reading materials can be hyperlinked to different media, which students can choose to
help their comprehension of the material.

Providing meaningful and authentic communication opportunities. Students can


engage in authentic types of communication through e-mail, chat rooms, and other
digital means. (p. 16)

TECHNOLOGY AND IMPROVED TEST SCORES


In addition to facilitating language and literacy development, technology has also had
positive effects on mathematics achievement. Bosters study (2004) of 2,500 sixth and
eighth graders in Los Angeles showed a statistically significant increase in math achievement
scores when students used digital video.

In a study reviewed by the Milken Exchange (Mann et al., 1999), teachers using the West
Virginia Basic Skills/Computer Education (BS/CE) program found that all their fifth graders
test scores rose on standardized tests, with the lower achieving student scores rising the
most. Other findings revealed that BS/CE was more cost effective in improving student
achievement than class size reduction, increasing instructional time, and cross-age tutoring
programs.

Sandoltz et al. (1997) reported positive findings from the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow
(ACOT) project after nearly eight years of studying the effects of computers on the
classroom. Aside from performing better on achievement tests, they found that ACOT
students were developing a variety of competencies not usually measured. ACOT students
delivered lectures along with their teachers. They became socially aware and more
confident, communicating effectively about complex processes. They became independent
learners and self-starters, worked well collaboratively, and developed a positive orientation
to their future. Children were seen as learners and as expert resources, as they were
challenged by complex and open-ended problems. These are the skills that will enable
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students to live productive lives in the emerging age of communication. Moreover,


technology use in the classroom helped to decrease absenteeism, lower dropout rates, and
motivate more students to continue on to college (Sandholtz et al., 1997).

In 2002, The WestEd Regional Technology in Education Consortium reviewed a number of


research studies related to the impact of technology on learning. They chose studies that
they judged to be the most methodologically sound and that had analyzed change over time.
When reviewing this body of research they found convincing evidence that technology can
be effective in teaching basic skills, can significantly improve scores on standardized
achievement tests, can provide the means for students with special needs to communicate
via e-mail, and can help teachers accommodate students varying learning styles.

TECHNOLOGY AND LEARNER MOTIVATION


Technology also motivates and engages the learner. When students have a choice in their
assignment, see the relevancy, or can self-assess with teacher feedback intertwined, student
motivation increases (Daniels, 2002; Ganske et al., 2003; Harvey, 2002). Technology lends
itself to all of the above.

In the article, Nonfiction Inquiry: Using Real Reading and Writing to Explore the World
(2002), Harvey concluded that the vehicle for increasing relevancy and motivation was
through surrounding kids with compelling nonfiction. Researching online or using a CD-ROM
allows students to search for information they are passionate about learning. Students can
make choices when navigating online, which is engaging for learners. When students are
given more choice in their tasks, those tasks are more meaningful and increase the students
intrinsic motivation (Jordan & Hendricks, 2002).

TECHNOLOGY USE AND SELF-ESTEEM

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The research literature also suggests that technology can have a positive impact on the selfesteem of students, especially for at-risk students with low self-esteem and self-confidence
(ODonnell, 2005; Kenny & Gunter, 2004; Taylor, Hasselbring, & Williams, 2001). In 2005, a
study conducted by Romi and Zoabi examined the impact of computer technology on the
self-esteem of dropout youth. The study focused on a control and intervention group, both
consisting of 60 secondary level students. The intervention group was exposed to the MS
Office Suite of tools to use in their learning, while the control group had no access to
technology. Pre- and post-questionnaires were administered to determine attitudes toward
learning, self-esteem, and self-efficacy. The findings showed a significant increase on all
measures.

In 2000, researchers commissioned by the Software and Information Industry Association


(SIIA) examined 311 research reviews and reports from published and unpublished sources.
They reported that the reviews show that technology can have a positive effect on student
attitudes toward learning, self-confidence, and self-esteem (Sivin-Kachala&Bialo, 2000).
Other reviews (Coley, 1997) have reported that technology has been found to improve
school attendance and decrease dropout rates with a positive impact on students
independence and feelings of responsibility for their own learning.

POSITIVE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON EDUCATION


Research
If a school's library is outdated or lacking in a selection of titles, a student might find it
difficult to compile the necessary research for an essay or research paper.

Globalization
When schools in different parts of the state, country or world connect, students can "meet"
their counterparts through video conferencing without leaving the classroom.
Educational Games

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In younger grades, teachers expose children to computers through educational games. Instead of playing board games that
focus on education, students can learn the basics of spelling, counting and other early educational lessons through computer
games that make learning fun.

Distance Education
In the past, students could take distance or continuing education classes, also called "correspondence courses," at community
colleges and universities.

Web Seminars
Not every school has the resources and budget to send its students on field trips related to the course of study.

NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF TECHNOLOGY ON EDUCATION


Elevated Exasperation
These days, children indulge themselves in internet, games or texting. These activities have
affected their psyche negatively, consequently leading to increased frustration.
Deteriorated Patience
Patience is a very precious virtue and its scarcity could deteriorate a persons Will.
Determination is a necessity that comes with patience and without it no individual can
survive the hardships of life.
Declining Writing Skills
Due to the excessive usage of online chatting and shortcuts, the writing skills of todays
young generation have declined quite tremendously.

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Lack of Physical Interactivity


No one can deny the fact that the advancement of technology has produced a completely
unique method of interaction and communication.

CONCLUSION
Today the rapid advances in technology are reshaping our society, social institutions and
schools. Modern technologies have vastly increased our capacity to know and do things and
to communicate and collaborate with others. They allow us to transmit information quickly
and widely, linking distant places and diverse areas of endeavor in productive new ways.
These advances allow us to form and sustain communities for work, play and learning in
ways unimaginable just a decade ago. The students of today have a wide range of new
technology open and available to them. This information changes the relationship between
people and knowledge.

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REFERENCES
http://www.aect.org/edtech/ed1/06/06-08.html
http://www.slideshare.net/loraevanouski/impact-of-technology-in-education-final-draft5263010
http://smallbusiness.chron.com/five-positive-effects-technology-education-31222.html
http://campustechnology.com/Articles/2014/02/03/The-6-Most-Important-Technologies-ToImpact-Teaching-and-Learning-in-the-Next-5-Years.aspx
http://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/01/education/technology-is-changing-how-students-learnteachers-say.html?_r=0

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