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Author

(Andreia Schfer et al.)

(Silva et al.)

(Silva et al.)

(Marangoni & Rousseau)

Finding
Blending and chemical interesterifications are an
effective way to modify the physical and chemical
properties of palm stearin, palm olein and their
blends. The mixture and chemical
interesterification allowed obtaining fats with
various degrees of plasticity, increasing the
possibilities for the commercial use of palm
stearin and palm olein.
Interesterification of palm stearin (PS) with liquid
vegetable oils could yield a good solid fat stock
that may impart desirable physical properties,
because PS is a useful source of vegetable hard
fat, providing stable solid fats
The interesterified blends of lard and soybean oil
demonstrated physical properties and chemical
composition similar to human milk fat and they
could be used for the production of a human milk
fat substitute.
Sensory evaluation of spreads made using these
modified fats showed that interesterification
improved spreadability significantly, however, at
the expense of some of the butter-like flavor.

Years
2009

2010

2009

1998

The studies revealed that CBRs could be prepared by blending MSF and PS, and
they could be utilised by chocolate manufacturers in tropical countries
The formulations showed a higher SFC at 2025 C and did not decrease to 0% at
37.5 C and shifted to 0% at and above 40 C. These blends could be used for the
production of high temperatures resistant hard butter for countries with a hot
climate. Moreover, blends of MSF and PS could solve the tempering difficulties for
chocolate manufacturers in tropical countries or in countries with a moderate
climate during summer season.
Cookies with in-es shortenings showed significantly higher (p<0.50) spread ratios
and L Hunter color than their non-in-es shortenings added counterparts
(Din, Javidipour, zbas, & Tekin, 2014)
chemical interesterification are effective in modifying the physicochemical
properties of palm stearin, palm kernel oil, soybean oil and their mixtures (Fauzi,
Rashid, & Omar, 2013)

Ternary blends of OO with PMF and POs may be suitable for producing shortening
and cocoa butter substitutes with better characteristics than individual oils and fats.
(Ramli, Said, Mizan, Tan, & Ayob, 2014)
CIE blends showed the same SFC profile with the NIE blends which their SFC
increased with increasing amounts of PS in the blends due to the presence of high
melting triglycerides in PS. The 50:50 PSSBO blend was the most suitable for
margarine production as the SMP was closed to the body temperature.(Salleh, 2013)

Interesterification resulted in substantial rearrangement of the triacylglycerol


species and alteration of thermal behaviors. The interesterified lard exhibited a
predominant polymorph, as opposed to the dominating -form crystals found in
the original lard.
Interesterified lard can be used as a suitable shortening in the baked food
industry(Zhang et al., 2015)

Author

Finding

Years
2013

(Nusantoro et al.)

The use of Palm Stearin (PS) or Fully


Hydrogenated
Rapeseed Oil (FHRO) as the hard fat gave
comparable SFC
profiles but the fat blends with FHRO
melted completely
(SFC 0 %) at higher temperature (60 C)
while those of PS did not.

2009
(Jennings & Akoh.)

Fractionation and blending of palm oil


with rice bran oil and mahua oil, with
palm stearin and RBO has resulted in
trans-free shortenings.
2009

(Costales et al.)

A wide range of consumer table


margarines and spreads, bakery
margarines and frying shortenings can be
formulated by mixing interesterified
blends and native oils in adequate
proportions
2009

(Ribeiro et al.)

The original and interesterified blends had


significant predominance of polymorph,
which is interesting for several food
applications.

(Norizzah et al.)

The PS and PKOo interesterified blends


produced by chemical interesterification could
be used for the production of margarine and
shortenings, non-temper type confectionery
fats, whip creams and similar products, as
they impart smooth texture to the product
with a slight lingering mouthfeel.

Author
(Rodrigues & Gioielli.)

Finding
Blending and chemical
interesterification are an
effective way to modify the

2004

Years
2003

physical and chemical


properties of milkfat.

2014
(Shankar et al.)

The interesterification
process is alternative
process to hydrogenation
to obtain trans free plastic
fats
2011

(Dhaka et al.)

Interesterification modifies
the melting and
crystallization behaviour
of the fat, thus producing
fats with the desirable
physical properties of
trans fats but without
Trans Fatty Acid

(Meng et al.)

2010
The CIE product obtained
has an increased potential
for manufacturing bakery
shortenings and
margarines with reduced
graininess formation,
increasing the possibilities
for the commercial use of
beef tallow and canola oil

(Lee et al.)

2007
The produced
interesterified fats
containing trans-free fatty
acids could be used as an
alternative to
hydrogenated-type
shortening