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1.

Which statements describe the action of a catalyst?


I.

It does not alter the H for a reaction.

II.

It increases the Ea for the reaction.

III.

It alters the mechanism (pathway) of a reaction.

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

2.

Consider the reaction between gaseous iodine and gaseous hydrogen.


I2(g) + H2(g)

2HI(g)

H = 9 kJ

Why do some collisions between iodine and hydrogen not result in the formation of the
product?
A.

The I2 and H2 molecules do not have sufficient energy.

B.

The system is in equilibrium.

C.

The temperature of the system is too high.

D.

The activation energy for this reaction is very low.


(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

3.

Curve X on the graph below shows the volume of oxygen formed during the catalytic
3
decomposition of a 1.0 mol dm solution of hydrogen peroxide.
2H2O2(aq) O2(g) + 2H2O(l)

Which change would produce the curve Y?


A.

Adding water

B.

Adding some 0.1 mol dm hydrogen peroxide solution

C.

Using a different catalyst

D.

Lowering the temperature

(Total 1 mark)

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4.

Bromine and nitrogen(II) oxide react according to the following equation.


Br2(g) + 2NO(g) 2NOBr(g)
Which rate equation is consistent with the experimental data?

[Br2] / mol dm

[NO] / mol dm

3 1

Rate / mol dm s

0.10

0.10

1.0 10

0.20

0.10

4.0 10

0.20

0.40

4.0 10

A.

rate = k[Br2] [NO]

B.

rate = k[Br2] [NO]

C.

rate = k[Br2]

D.

rate = k[NO]

(Total 1 mark)

5.

Which step is the rate-determining step of a reaction?


A.

The step with the lowest activation energy

B.

The final step

C.

The step with the highest activation energy

D.

The first step


(Total 1 mark)

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6.

1
Consider the following graph of ln k against T (temperature in Kelvin) for the second order
decomposition of N2O into N2 and O.
N2O N2 + O

1
/ 10 3 1
T
K

(a)

State how the rate constant, k varies with temperature, T.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

(b)

Determine the activation energy, Ea, for this reaction.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)

(c)

The rate expression for this reaction is rate = k [N2O] and the rate constant is
3

1 1

0.244 dm mol s at 750 C.


3

A sample of N2O of concentration 0.200 mol dm is allowed to decompose. Calculate


the rate when 10 % of the N2O has reacted.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 6 marks)

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7.

At 25 C, 200 cm of 1.0 mol dm nitric acid is added to 5.0 g of magnesium powder. If the
experiment is repeated using the same mass of magnesium powder, which conditions will result
in the same initial reaction rate?

Volume of HNO3 / cm

Concentration of
3
HNO3 / mol dm

Temperature / C

A.

200

2.0

25

B.

200

1.0

50

C.

100

2.0

25

D.

100

1.0

25
(Total 1 mark)

8.

Factors that affect the rate of a chemical reaction include particle size, concentration of reactants
and the temperature of the reaction.
(i)

Define the term rate of a chemical reaction.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

List the three characteristic properties of reactant particles which affect the rate of
reaction as described by the collision theory.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)
(Total 4 marks)

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9.

On the axes below sketch two Maxwell-Boltzmann energy distribution curves for the same
sample of gas, one at a temperature T and another at a higher temperature T . Label both axes.
Explain why raising the temperature increases the rate of a chemical reaction.

................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
................................................................................................................................................
(Total 5 marks)

10.

Sodium carbonate and hydrochloric acid react according to the equation below.
Na2CO3(s) + 2HCl(aq) CO2(g) + 2NaCl(aq) + H2O(l)
Which conditions will produce the fastest initial rate with 2.0 g of powdered sodium carbonate?
3

A.

100 cm of 1.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid at 323 K

B.

50 cm of 2.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid at 323 K

C.

100 cm of 1.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid at 348 K

D.

50 cm of 2.0 mol dm hydrochloric acid at 348 K

(Total 1 mark)

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11.

The rate information below was obtained for the following reaction at a constant temperature.
2NO2(g) + F2(g) 2NO2F(g)

[NO2] / mol dm

[F2] / mol dm

3 1

Rate / mol dm s

2.0 10

1.0 10

4.0 10

4.0 10

1.0 10

8.0 10

4.0 10

2.0 10

1.6 10

What are the orders of the reaction with respect to NO 2 and F2?
A.

NO2 is first order and F2 is second order

B.

NO2 is second order and F2 is first order

C.

NO2 is first order and F2 is first order

D.

NO2 is second order and F2 is second order


(Total 1 mark)

12.

Consider the following reaction.


2NO(g) + 2H2(g) N2(g) + 2H2O(g)
A proposed reaction mechanism is:
NO(g) + NO(g)
N2O2(g)
N2O2(g) + H2(g) N2O(g) + H2O(g)
N2O(g) + H2(g) N2(g) + H2O(g)

fast
slow
fast

What is the rate expression?


2

A.

rate = k[H2] [NO]

B.

rate = k[N2O2] [H2]

C.

rate = k[NO] [H2]

D.

rate = k[NO] [N2O2] [H2]

(Total 1 mark)

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13.

Hydrogen and nitrogen(II) oxide react according to the following equation.


2H2(g) + 2NO(g)

N2(g) + 2H2O(g)

At time = t seconds, the rate of the reaction is


rate = k[H2(g)][NO(g)]

(i)

Explain precisely what the square brackets around nitrogen(II) oxide, [NO(g)], represent
in this context.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(ii)

Deduce the units for the rate constant k.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 2 marks)

14.

Under which conditions will the reaction between 1.0 g calcium carbonate and excess
hydrochloric acid be the fastest? Assume that all reactions are carried out at the same
temperature.
3

A.

One large piece of calcium carbonate and 2 mol dm hydrochloric acid

B.

One large piece of calcium carbonate and 1 mol dm hydrochloric acid

C.

Powdered calcium carbonate and 2 mol dm hydrochloric acid

D.

Powdered calcium carbonate and 1 mol dm hydrochloric acid

3
3

(Total 1 mark)

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15.

Powdered manganese(IV) oxide, MnO2(s), increases the rate of the decomposition reaction of
hydrogen peroxide, H2O2(aq). Which statements about MnO2 are correct?
I.

The rate is independent of the particle size of MnO2.

II.

MnO2 provides an alternative reaction pathway for the decomposition with a lower
activation energy.

III.

All the MnO2 is present after the decomposition of the hydrogen peroxide is
complete.

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

16.

The Haber process uses an iron catalyst to convert hydrogen gas, H 2(g), and nitrogen gas, N2(g),
to ammonia gas, NH3(g).
3H2(g) + N2(g)

2NH3(g)

Which statements are correct for this equilibrium system?


I.

The iron catalyst increases the rates of the forward and reverse reactions equally.

II.

The iron catalyst does not affect the value of the equilibrium constant, Kc.

III.

The iron catalyst increases the yield of ammonia gas, NH 3(g).

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

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10

17.

Alex and Hannah were asked to investigate the kinetics involved in the iodination of propanone.
They were given the following equation by their teacher.

H ( aq )
CH3COCH3(aq) + I2(aq) CH2ICOCH3(aq) + HI(aq)

Alexs hypothesis was that the rate will be affected by changing the concentrations of the
propanone and the iodine, as the reaction can happen without a catalyst. Hannahs hypothesis
was that as the catalyst is involved in the reaction, the concentrations of the propanone, iodine
and the hydrogen ions will all affect the rate.
They carried out several experiments varying the concentration of one of the reactants or the
catalyst whilst keeping other concentrations and conditions the same. Their results are shown
graphically below.

(a)

Discuss whether either Alexs or Hannahs hypothesis is correct.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Explain why the reaction rate will increase with increasing temperature.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

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11

(c)

(i)

This reaction uses a catalyst. Sketch and annotate the Maxwell-Boltzmann energy
distribution curve for a reaction with and without a catalyst on labelled axes below.

(3)

(ii)

Describe how a catalyst works.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 8 marks)

18.

Which experimental procedure could be used to determine the rate of reaction for the reaction
between a solution of cobalt chloride, CoCl 2(aq), and concentrated hydrochloric acid, HCl(aq)?
2+

Co(H2O)6 (aq) + 4Cl (aq)

CoCl4 (aq) + 6H2O(l)

A.

Measure the change in pH in a given time

B.

Measure the change in mass in a given time

C.

Use a colorimeter to measure the change in colour in a given time

D.

Measure the change in volume of the solution in a given time


(Total 1 mark)

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12

19.

Sodium thiosulfate solution, Na2S2O3(aq), and hydrochloric acid, HCl(aq), react spontaneously
to produce solid sulfur, S(s), according to the equation below.
2

S2O3 (aq) + 2H (aq) S(s) + SO2(aq) + H2O(l)


A student experimentally determined the rate expression to be:
2

rate = k[S2O3 (aq)]

Which graph is consistent with this information?

(Total 1 mark)

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13

20.

Alex and Hannah were asked to investigate the kinetics involved in the iodination of propanone.
They were given the following equation by their teacher.

H ( aq)
CH3COCH3(aq) + I2(aq) CH2ICOCH3(aq) + HI(aq)

Alexs hypothesis was that the rate will be affected by changing the concentrations of the
propanone and the iodine, as the reaction can happen without a catalyst. Hannahs hypothesis
was that as the catalyst is involved in the reaction, the concentrations of the propanone, iodine
and the hydrogen ions will all affect the rate.
They carried out several experiments varying the concentration of one of the reactants or the
catalyst while keeping other concentrations and conditions the same, and obtained the results
below.

Composition by volume of mixture / cm


Experiment

(a)

Initial rate
3

3 1

5.00 10
3
mol dm I2 in KI

/ mol dm s

10.0

20.0

4.96 10

50.0

10.0

30.0

5.04 10

5.0

65.0

10.0

20.0

2.47 10

10.0

65.0

5.0

20.0

2.51 10

1.00 mol dm
CH3COCH3(aq)

Water

10.0

60.0

10.0

3
4

1.00 mol dm
+
H (aq)

Explain why they added water to the mixtures.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

(i)

Deduce the order of reaction for each substance and the rate expression from the
results.
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

14

(ii)

Comment on whether Alexs or Hannahs hypothesis is correct.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Using the data from Experiment 1, determine the concentration of the substances used
and the rate constant for the reaction including its units.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(3)

(d)

(i)

This reaction uses a catalyst. Sketch and annotate the Maxwell-Boltzmann energy
distribution curve for a reaction with and without a catalyst on labelled axes below.

(3)

(ii)

Describe how a catalyst works.


...........................................................................................................................
...........................................................................................................................
(1)
(Total 11 marks)

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15

21.

(a)

The production of ammonia is an important industrial process.


N2(g) + 3H2(g)

(i)

2NH3(g)

Using the average bond enthalpy values in Table 10 of the Data Booklet, determine
the standard enthalpy change for this reaction.
(3)

(ii)

The standard entropy values, S, at 298 K for N2(g), H2(g) and NH3(g) are 193, 131
1

and 192 JK mol respectively. Calculate S for the reaction and with reference
O
to the equation above, explain the sign of S .
(4)

(iii)

Calculate G for the reaction at 298 K.


(1)

(iv)

Describe and explain the effect of increasing temperature on the spontaneity of the
reaction.
(2)

(b)

The reaction used in the production of ammonia is an equilibrium reaction. Outline the
characteristics of a system at equilibrium.
(2)

(c)

Deduce the equilibrium constant expression, Kc, for the production of ammonia.
(1)

(d)

(i)

0.20 mol of N2(g) and 0.20 mol of H2(g) were allowed to reach equilibrium in a
3

1 dm closed container. At equilibrium the concentration of NH3(g) was


3

0.060 mol dm . Determine the equilibrium concentrations of N2(g) and H2(g) and
calculate the value of Kc.
(3)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

16

(ii)

Predict and explain how increasing the temperature will affect the value of Kc.
(2)

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17

(e)

Describe how increasing the pressure affects the yield of ammonia.


(2)

(f)

In practice, typical conditions used in the Haber process are a temperature of 500 C and
a pressure of 200 atmospheres. Outline why these conditions are used rather than those
that give the highest yield.
(2)

(g)

A catalyst of iron is used in the Haber process. State and explain how the catalyst affects
Kc and the position of equilibrium.
(3)
(Total 25 marks)

22.

Which unit could be used for the rate of a chemical reaction?


A.

mol

B.

mol dm

C.

mol dm s

D.

dm

3
3 1

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

18

23.

Which of the following can increase the rate of a chemical reaction?


I.

Increasing the temperature

II.

Adding a catalyst

III.

Increasing the concentration of reactants

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

24.

The graph below shows how the volume of carbon dioxide formed varies with time when a
hydrochloric acid solution is added to excess calcium carbonate in a flask.

(i)

Explain the shape of the curve.


(3)

(ii)

Copy the above graph on your answer sheet and sketch the curve you would obtain if
double the volume of hydrochloric acid solution of half the concentration as in the
example above is used instead, with all other variables kept constant from the original.
Explain why the shape of the curve is different.
(4)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

19

(iii)

Outline one other way in which the rate of this reaction can be studied in a school
laboratory. Sketch a graph to illustrate how the selected variable would change with time.
(2)

(iv)

Define the term activation energy and state one reason why the reaction between calcium
carbonate and hydrochloric acid takes place at a reasonably fast rate at room temperature.
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

25.

The following data were obtained for the reaction between gases A and B.

Experiment

Initial [A] / mol dm

1.0 10

1.0 10

2.0 10

2.0 10

1.0 10

2.0 10

2.0 10

2.0 10

4.0 10

Initial [B] / mol dm

Initial rate / mol dm min

Which relationship represents the rate expression for the reaction?


2

A.

rate = k[B]

B.

rate = k[A]

C.

rate = k[A]

D.

rate = k[B]

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

20

26.

Consider the following reaction.


NO2(g) + CO(g) NO(g) + CO2(g)
2

At T < 227 C the rate expression is rate = k[NO2] . Which of the following mechanisms is
consistent with this rate expression?
A.

NO2 + NO2
N2O4
N2O4 + 2CO 2NO + 2CO2

fast
slow

B.

NO2 + CO NO + CO2

slow

C.

NO2 NO + O
CO + O CO2

slow
fast

D.

NO2 + NO2 NO3 + NO


NO3 + CO NO2 + CO2

slow
fast
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

21

27.

A piece of zinc was added to aqueous nitric acid and the volume of hydrogen gas produced was
measured every minute. The results are plotted on the graph below.

Which graph would you expect if the same mass of powdered zinc was added to nitric acid with
the same concentration?

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

22

28.

Which changes increase the rate of the reaction below?


C4H10(g) + Cl2(g) C4H9Cl(l) + HCl(g)
I.

Increase of pressure

II.

Increase of temperature

III.

Removal of HCl(g)

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

29.

What is the equilibrium constant expression for the reaction below?


2NO2(g)

A.

[NO 2 ] 2
Kc = [N 2 O 4 ]

B.

[N 2 O 4 ]
Kc = [NO 2 ]

C.

[N 2 O 4 ]
Kc = 2[NO 2 ]

N2O4(g)

[N 2 O 4 ]
D.

2
Kc = [NO 2 ]

(Total 1 mark)

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23

30.

The formation of nitric acid, HNO3(aq), from nitrogen dioxide, NO2(g), is exothermic and is a
reversible reaction.
4NO2(g) + O2(g) + 2H2O(l)

4HNO3(aq)

What is the effect of a catalyst on this reaction?


A.

It increases the yield of nitric acid.

B.

It increases the rate of the forward reaction only.

C.

It increases the equilibrium constant.

D.

It has no effect on the equilibrium position.


(Total 1 mark)

31.

The Haber process enables the large-scale production of ammonia needed to make fertilizers.
The equation for the Haber process is given below.
N2(g) + 3H2

2NH3(g)

The percentage of ammonia in the equilibrium mixture varies with temperature.

(i)

Use the graph to deduce whether the forward reaction is exothermic or endothermic and
explain your choice.
(2)

(ii)

State and explain the effect of increasing the pressure on the yield of ammonia.
(2)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

24

(iii)

Explain the effect of increasing the temperature on the rate of reaction.


(2)
(Total 6 marks)

32.

Consider the following reaction.


2P + Q R + S
This reaction occurs according to the following mechanism.
P+QX
P+XR+S

slow
fast

What is the rate expression?


A.

rate = k[P]

B.

rate = k[P][X]

C.

rate = k[P][Q]

D.

rate = k[P] [Q]

(Total 1 mark)

33.

What happens when the temperature of a reaction increases?


A.

The activation energy increases.

B.

The rate constant increases.

C.

The enthalpy change increases.

D.

The order of the reaction increases.


(Total 1 mark)

34.

(a)

There are four structural isomers with the molecular formula C 4H9Br. One of these
structural isomers exists as two optical isomers. Draw diagrams to represent the threedimensional structures of the two optical isomers.
(2)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

25

(b)

All the isomers can by hydrolysed with aqueous sodium hydroxide solution. When the
reaction of one of these isomers, X, was investigated the following kinetic data were
obtained.

Experiment

(i)

Initial [X] /
3
mol dm

Initial [OH ] /
3
mol dm

Initial rate of reaction /


3
1
mol dm min

2.0 10

2.0 10

4.0 10

2.0 10

4.0 10

4.0 10

4.0 10

4.0 10

8.0 10

Deduce the rate expression for the reaction.


(3)

(ii)

Determine the value of the rate constant for the reaction and state its units.
(2)

(iii)

State the name of isomer X and explain your choice.


(2)

(iv)

State equations for the steps that take place in the mechanism of this reaction and
state which of the steps is slow and which is fast.
(2)
(Total 11 marks)

35.

What is the best definition of rate of reaction?


A.

The time it takes to use up all the reactants

B.

The rate at which all the reactants are used up

C.

The time it takes for one of the reactants to be used up

D.

The increase in concentration of a product per unit time


(Total 1 mark)

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26

IB Questionbank Chemistry

27

36.

Which factors can affect reaction rate?


I.

The state of the reactants

II.

The frequency of the collisions between particles

III.

The average kinetic energy of the particles

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

37.

Equal masses of powdered calcium carbonate were added to separate solutions of hydrochloric
acid. The calcium carbonate was in excess. The volume of carbon dioxide produced was
measured at regular intervals. Which curves best represent the evolution of carbon dioxide
against time for the acid solutions shown in the table below.

25 cm of 2 mol dm HCl

50 cm of 1 mol dm HCl

25 cm of 1 mol dm HCl

A.

III

IV

B.

IV

III

C.

II

III

D.

II

III
(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

28

38.

This question refers to the following reaction.


X2 + 2Y 2XY
The reaction occurs in a series of steps.
X2 2X
X + Y XY

slow
fast

What is the rate-determining step for this reaction mechanism?


A.

X2 + 2Y 2XY

B.

X2 + Y XY + X

C.

X2 2X

D.

X + Y XY
(Total 1 mark)

39.

This question refers to the following reaction.


X2 + 2Y 2XY
The reaction occurs in a series of steps.
X2 2X
X + Y XY

slow
fast

What is the rate expression for this reaction?


A.

rate = k[XY]

B.

rate = k[X2][Y]

C.

rate = k[X2]

D.

rate = k[2X]

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

29

40.

What is the function of iron in the Haber process?


A.

It shifts the position of equilibrium towards the products.

B.

It decreases the rate of the reaction.

C.

It provides an alternative reaction pathway with a lower activation energy.

D.

It reduces the enthalpy change of the reaction.


(Total 1 mark)

41.

(a)

Define the term activation energy, Ea.


......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(1)

(b)

State two conditions necessary for a reaction to take place between two reactant particles.
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................
(2)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

30

(c)

Sketch an enthalpy level diagram to describe the effect of a catalyst on an exothermic


reaction.

(3)
(Total 6 marks)

42.

Consider the following reaction.

5Br (aq) + BrO3 (aq) + 6H (aq) 3Br2(aq) + 3H2O(l)


The rate expression for the reaction is found to be:

+ 2

rate = k[Br ] [BrO3 ][H ]


Which statement is correct?
A.

The overall order is 12.

B.

Doubling the concentration of all of the reactants at the same time would increase the rate
of the reaction by a factor of 16.

C.

The units of the rate constant, k, are mol dm s .

D.

A change in concentration of Br or BrO3 does not affect the rate of the reaction.

3 1

(Total 1 mark)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

31

43.

The rate expression for a reaction is:


rate = k [X][Y]
Which statement is correct?
A.

As the temperature increases the rate constant decreases.

B.

The rate constant increases with increased temperature but eventually reaches a constant
value.

C.

As the temperature increases the rate constant increases.

D.

The rate constant is not affected by a change in temperature.


(Total 1 mark)

44.

Consider the following reaction mechanism.

Step 1

H2O2 + I H2O + IO

Step 2

H2O2 + IO H2O + O2 + I

slow

fast

Which statement correctly identifies the rate-determining step and the explanation?
A.

Step 2 because it is the faster step

B.

Step 1 because it is the slower step

C.

Step 1 because it is the first step

D.

Step 2 because it is the last step


(Total 1 mark)

45.

(i)

Define the term rate of reaction.


(1)

(ii)

State an equation for the reaction of magnesium carbonate with dilute hydrochloric acid.
(1)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

32

(iii)

The rate of this reaction in (ii), can be studied by measuring the volume of gas collected
over a period of time. Sketch a graph which shows how the volume of gas collected
changes with time.
(1)

(iv)

The experiment is repeated using a sample of hydrochloric acid with double the volume,
but half the concentration of the original acid. Draw a second line on the graph you
sketched in part (iii) to show the results in this experiment. Explain why this line is
different from the original line.
(4)
(Total 7 marks)

46.

Nitrogen monoxide reacts at 1280 C with hydrogen to form nitrogen and water.
All reactants and products are in the gaseous phase.
(i)

The kinetics of the reaction were studied at this temperature. The table shows the initial
rate of reaction for different concentrations of each reactant.

[H2(g)]/

experiment

[NO(g)]/
3
3
mol dm 10

5.00

2.00

1.25

10.00

2.00

5.00

10.00

4.00

10.00

mol dm 10

Initial rate/
3 1
5
mol dm s 10

Deduce the order of the reaction with respect to NO and H 2, and explain your reasoning.
(4)

(ii)

Deduce the rate expression for the reaction.


(1)

(iii)

Determine the value of the rate constant for the reaction from Experiment 3 and state its
units.
(2)
(Total 7 marks)

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47.

The gas-phase decomposition of dinitrogen monoxide is considered to occur in two steps.


k1
Step 1: N2O(g) N2(g) + O(g)
k2
Step 2: N2O(g) + O(g) N2(g) + O2(g)

The experimental rate expression for this reaction is rate = k [N2O].

(i)

Identify the rate-determining step.


(1)

(ii)

Identify the intermediate involved in the reaction.


(1)
(Total 2 marks)

48.

The conversion of CH3NC into CH3CN is an exothermic reaction which can be represented as
follows.
CH3NC

transition state

CH3CN

This reaction was carried out at different temperatures and a value of the rate constant, k, was
obtained for each temperature. A graph of ln k against 1/T is shown below.

IB Questionbank Chemistry

34

(i)

Define the term activation energy, Ea.


(1)

(ii)

Construct the enthalpy level diagram and label the activation energy, Ea, the enthalpy
change, H, and the position of the transition state.
(3)

(iii)

Describe qualitatively the relationship between the rate constant, k, and the temperature,
T.
(1)

(iv)

Calculate the activation energy, Ea, for the reaction, using Table 1 of the Data Booklet.
(4)
(Total 9 marks)

49.

Hydrochloric acid is reacted with large pieces of calcium carbonate, the reaction is then
repeated using calcium carbonate powder. How does this change affect the activation energy
and the collision frequency?

Activation energy

Collision frequency

A.

increases

increases

B.

stays constant

increases

C.

increases

stays constant

D.

stays constant

stays constant
(Total 1 mark)

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35

50.

Which statement is true about using sulfuric acid as a catalyst in the following reaction?

H ( aq )
CH3COCH3(aq) + I2(aq) CH3COCH2I(aq) + HI(aq)

I.

The catalyst increases the rate of reaction.

II.

The catalyst lowers the activation energy for the reaction.

III.

The catalyst has been consumed at the end of the chemical reaction.

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

51.

Graphing is an important method in the study of the rates of chemical reaction. Sketch a graph
to show how the reactant concentration changes with time in a typical chemical reaction taking
place in solution. Show how the rate of the reaction at a particular time can be determined.
(Total 4 marks)

52.

(a)

A solution of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2, is added to a solution of sodium iodide, NaI,


acidified with hydrochloric acid, HCl. The yellow colour of the iodine, I 2, can be used to
determine the rate of reaction.
H2O2(aq) + 2NaI(aq) + 2HCl(aq) 2NaCl(aq) + I 2(aq) + 2H2O(l)

The experiment is repeated with some changes to the reaction conditions. For each of the
changes that follow, predict, stating a reason, its effect on the rate of reaction.
(i)

The concentration of H2O2 is increased at constant temperature.


(2)

(ii)

The solution of NaI is prepared from a fine powder instead of large crystals.
(2)

IB Questionbank Chemistry

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(b)

Explain why the rate of a reaction increases when the temperature of the system
increases.
(3)
(Total 7 marks)

53.

Two species, P and Q, react together according to the following equation.


P+QR
The accepted mechanism for this reaction is
P+P
P2
P2 + Q R + P

fast
slow

What is the order with respect to P and Q?

A.

B.

C.

D.

2
(Total 1 mark)

54.

The activation energy of a reaction may be determined by studying the effect of a particular
variable on the reaction rate. Which variable must be changed?
A.

pH

B.

Concentration

C.

Surface area

D.

Temperature
(Total 1 mark)

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37

55.

Consider the following reaction studied at 263 K.


2NO(g) + Cl2(g)

2NOCl(g)

It was found that the forward reaction is first order with respect to Cl 2 and second order with
respect to NO. The reverse reaction is second order with respect to NOCl.

(i)

State the rate expression for the forward reaction.


(1)

(ii)

Predict the effect on the rate of the forward reaction and on the rate constant if the
concentration of NO is halved.
(2)

(iii)

1.0 mol of Cl2 and 1.0 mol of NO are mixed in a closed container at constant temperature.
Sketch a graph to show how the concentration of NO and NOCl change with time until
after equilibrium has been reached. Identify the point on the graph where equilibrium is
established.
(4)
(Total 7 marks)

56.

Consider the following reaction.


NO2(g) + CO(g) NO(g) + CO2(g)
Possible reaction mechanisms are:
Above 775 K:

NO2 + CO NO + CO2

slow

Below 775 K:

2NO2 NO + NO3
NO3 + CO NO2 + CO2

slow
fast

Based on the mechanisms, deduce the rate expressions above and below 775 K.
(Total 2 marks)

57.

State two situations when the rate of a chemical reaction is equal to the rate constant.
(Total 2 marks)

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38

1
q 58. Consider the following graph of ln k against T for the first order decomposition of N2O4 into
NO2. Determine the activation energy in kJ mol

for this reaction.

(Total 2 marks)

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39

59.

Excess magnesium, was added to a beaker of aqueous hydrochloric acid. A graph of the mass of
the beaker and contents was plotted against time (line 1).

M ass

1
2
T im e

What change in the experiment could give line 2?


A.

The same mass of magnesium in smaller pieces

B.

The same volume of a more concentrated solution of hydrochloric acid

C.

A lower temperature

D.

A more accurate instrument to measure the time


(Total 1 mark)

60.

Which quantities in the enthalpy level diagram are altered by the use of a catalyst?

E n th a lp y

II
III
T im e

A.

I and II only

B.

I and III only

C.

II and III only

D.

I, II and III
(Total 1 mark)

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61.

What is the order of reaction with respect to NO2(g) and F2(g) given the following rate data at a
certain temperature?
[NO2(g)] / mol dm

[F2(g)] / mol dm

Rate / mol dm min

0.1

0.2

0.1

0.2

0.2

0.4

0.1

0.4

0.2

Order with respect to NO2(g)

Order with respect to F2(g)

A.

first

first

B.

first

second

C.

second

first

D.

second

second

(Total 1 mark)

62.

Nitrogen(II) oxide reacts with hydrogen according to the following equation:


2NO(g) + 2H2(g) N2(g) + 2H2O(g)
The table shows how the rate of reaction varies as the concentrations of the reactants are
changed.
Experiment

Initial [NO] /
3
mol dm

Initial [H2] /

0.100

0.100

2.5310

0.100

0.200

5.0510

0.200

0.100

1.0110

0.300

0.100

2.2810

IB Questionbank Chemistry

mol dm

Initial rate /
3 1
mol (N2) dm s

41

(a)

Determine the order of reaction with respect to H2 and with respect to NO.
H2 ................................................................................................................................
NO ..............................................................................................................................
(2)

(b)

Write the rate expression for the reaction.


.....................................................................................................................................
(1)

(c)

Calculate the value for the rate constant, and state its units using the data from
experiment 1.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

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(d)

A suggested mechanism for this reaction is as follows.


H2 + NO
X
X + NO Y + H2O
Y + H2 N2 + H2O

fast step
slow step
fast step

State and explain whether this mechanism agrees with the experimental rate expression in
(b).
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(4)

(e)

Explain why a single step mechanism is unlikely for a reaction of this kind.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)

(f)

Deduce and explain how the initial rate of formation of H 2O compares with that of N2.
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................
(2)
(Total 13 marks)

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IB Questionbank Chemistry

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