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UNIVERSITY OF NUEVA CACERES

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
CITY OF NAGA

Plate No. 1
ME 414

(MACHINE DESIGN I)

DESIGN OF A UNION OF
ROD JOINT
Submitted by:

EMERSON A. TUBALE
BSME EN 94 - 11407

Submitted to:

ENG'R. MANUEL L. BALAQUIAO


(Instructor)

AUGUST 29, 2012

August 29, 2012


ENGR. MANUEL L. BALAQUIAO
College of Engineering
University of Nueva Caceres
City of Naga 4400
Dear Sir,
GREETING OF PEACE!
This project design entitled DESIGN OF A UNION OF A RODS is submitted to
comply with the partial requirement in ME 414 Machine Design 1.
The sole purpose of this design is to know its uses, especially in machines.
The subject covers the strength of materials; the stress developed while in torsion, in
compression and shear when where the materials will collapse.
Under this purpose a design is, made to cover the subject matter completely and
thoroughly. The solution and computation of all the size and allowances; the drawn to scale
parts of the union of rods, the orthographic sectional, exploded, and isometric views are also
shown and included in this design.
I hope that this design will meet with your approval.

Respectfully yours,

EMERSON A. TUBALE
EN 94-11407

ii

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Title Page

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Letter of transmittal

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Table of Contents

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Acknowledgement

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Design Problem -----

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Analysis and Solutions -----

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Summary of Computed and Adjusted Value

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Glossary -----

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Bibliography

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Working Drawing

iii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
This design could hardly have been possible without the direct and indirect help of
many. I feel compelled to mention those who had a hand in getting this going, who gave me
input and help along the way. So I would lie to extend my sincere thanks to the person who
in one way or another helped in the completion of this project.
Especially to my parents for giving me their financial and moral support with them, I
couldnt do it alone.
To my Ate Gellete and Kuya Mac-Mac for helping me in making this in computer
and giving them courage to do this project.
To my classmate, friends and Professor Engr. Manuel L. Balaquiao whose given
ideas and thoughts, contributed for the organization of this work.
I would be remiss without acknowledging my girl friend Abigail for their inspiration,
assistance, moral support and understanding. Without her, this report would not be possible
Lastly to the almighty God who gave me this wisdom and spiritual strength to
accomplish this task.
My appreciation would be grateful acknowledgement of their invaluable assistance and
support.

Emerson

iv

DESIGN PROBLEM
Design union-of-rods joint to that shown for reserving load and material given in the
1
accompanying table. The taper of the cotter is to be 2 in. in 12 in, (see 172)
A). Using design stress based on yield strengths. Determine all dimensions to satisfy the
necessary strength equation.
B). Modify dimension as necessary for good proportion being careful not to weaken the
joint.
C). Decide upon tolerance and allowances for loose fit.
D). Sketch to scale each part of the joint showing all dimension needed for manufacture,
with tolerance and allowances.

Figure:

PROBLEM No.
NO. 50

LOAD,
3500 lbs.

AISI NO. AS ROLLED


1030

Strength base on yield strength


From table 1.1 p. 20 (factor of safety)
For repeated reversed gradual (mild shock)
N = 4, based on yield strength
F = 3500 lbs.
From table AT 7
Sy = 51 ksi
Sy = 51000 psi
For the design stresses
Ss = 0.5 Sy to 0.6 Sy
Used:

Ss =

0.5 Sy
N

0.5(51000)
4

Ss = 6375 psi

For Tension:

Ss =

For Compression:

Sy
N

Ss =

St = Sc =

51000
4

Sc = 12750 psi

Sy
N

ANALYSIS AND SOLUTION


A). Failure may occur to both end of the joint due to tensile force.
F
A

St =

F
2
d
4

d2
4

A circle =

4F
St

For the Area of the circle

4 (3500)
(12750)

d=0.59 12 in.

For standard fraction: (p.32)


1
16

Between

9
16

0.5912

16
16

3
16

7
8

to

in. = 0.5625 in

9.4592
16

10
16

in. =

5
8

in. = 0.625 in.

9
16

d=

Check if

9
16

0.59120.5625
0.5912

in. or

5
8 in.

in. (0. 5625 .) can be use

100 = 4.85% > 4- 5%

.. Use:

d=

5
8

For the figure:


Fig. 1

in.

B). The tension load may cause tearing across the cotter hole.
Fig. 2

St =

F
A

Where:
A = Area of the rod minus the area of the cotter

A=

F= St ( 4

e 2 - e (t)

e 2 - et)

equation 1

By crushing the cotter bearing into the end surface of the rod

Sc =

F
A

F = Sc A
Where:
A= e (t)
F= Sc (et)

equation 2

Equating the equation 1 and 2


F=F
Since Sc = St

Sc (et) = Sc ( 4

et =

e 2 - et)

e 2 - et

4t (e) =

e 2et

4t (e) = e ( e4 t
4t + 4t = e
8t = e

e=

8t

Substituting equation 3 to 2

equation 3

8t

e=

F = Sc

8t
)
t

8t
F = Sc ( )

F
8 Sc

Substituting the value:

t=

F
8 Sc

(3500)
8 (12750)

t = 0.3283 in.
For standard fraction: (p.32)
1
16

Between

5
16

3
16

to

7
8

in. = 0.3125 in.

0.3283

16
16

5.2528
16

6
16

t=

Check if
0.32830.3125
0.3283

5
16 in. or

5
16

3
8 in. = 0.375 in.

in. =

3
8 in.

in. (0.3125 in.) can be use

100 = 4.81% > 4- 5%

.. Use:
3
8

t=

in.

For e:
Solving for e:
e=

8t

from equation 3

Substitute the value of t to the equation 3


e=

8(0.375)

e = 0.9549 in.

For standard fraction: (p.32)


1
8

7
8
0.9549

8
8

7
8

Between

to 3

in. = 0.875 in.

7.6392
8
8
8

e=

Check if
0.95940.875
0.9594

7
8

7
8

in. or

in. = 1 in.

in.

in. (0.875 in.) can be use

100 = 8.80% > 4 - 5%

.. Use:
e=

in.

Fig. 3

10

C). The socket may fail across the cotter hole by a tensile force.
Fig. 4

F = Sc A
Where:
A = Area of the socket minus the area of rod

F= St [ 4

m2
e 2 ) - (m-e) t]
-

4F= St [

m2
e 2 ) 4t (m-e)]
-

4F

St =

m2
e 2 ) 4t (m-e)
-

Substituting the value


4F

St =

m2
e 2 ) 4t (m-e)
-

4(3500)

12750 =

1.0980 =

m2
(1)2 4(0.375) (m - 1)
2

-3.1416) 1.5 (m - 1)

11

m 2 - 3.1416 1.5m + 1.5

1.0980 =

1.0980 -1.25 + 3.1416 =

- 1.5m

2
2.9896 = m - 1.5m

m 2 - 1.5m 2.9896

Using quadratic equation and getting positive value


b b 4 ac
m=
2a
2

Where:
a=
b = 1.5
c = -2.9896

m=

1.25+ (1.5)2 4 ( )(2.9896)


2

m = 1.2032 in.

12

For standard fraction: (p.32)


1
8

Between

9
8
1.2032

8
8

7
8

to

in. = 1.125 in.

9.6256
8
10
8

m=

9
8

in. or

Check if
1.19451.125
1.1945

in. =

1
4

in. = 1.25 in.

1
4 in.

9
8 in. can be use

100 = 5.81% > 4 - 5%

.. Use:
m=

1
4 in.

13

D). By crushing the collar of the rod.


Fig. 5

F = Sc A
Where:
A=

k2 =

2
k
e )

4F
Sc

2
+ e

Substitute the value

k=

4 ( 3500 )
+(1)2
( 12750 )

k = 1.1617 in.
.

14

For standard fraction: (p.32)


1
8

1.1617

8
8

7
8

Between

to

9
8

in. =

10
8

in. =

1
8

in. = 1.125in.

9.2936
8

k=

Check if
1.16171.125
1.1617

9
1
1
in.
or
8
4

1
4

in

9
8 in. (1.125in.) can be use
100 = 3.16% < 4 - 5%

.. Use:

in. = 1.25 in

k=

1
8

in.

15

E). By crushing the cotter bearing surface in the socket.


Fig.6

Sc =

F
A

Where:

A = t (D-e)
F = Sc A
F = Sc [t (D-e)]
F
Sc t

D=

+e

Substitute the value


3500
12750( 0.375)

D=

+1

D = 1.7320 in.

16

For standard fraction: (p.32)


1
8

Between

0.7320

8
8

7
8

5
8

to

in. = 1.625 in.

5.856
8

5
D=1 8

6
8

in. or

in. =

3
4

3
4

in.

in. = 1.75 in.

5
Check if 1 8
1.73201.625
1.7320

in. can be use

100 = 6.17% > 4 - 5%

.. Use:
D=

3
4

in.

17

F). The cotter may be sheared off by the rod and the socket.
Fig. 7

F = Ss A
A = ct
Since it will be sheared
A = 2 (c t)
F = Ss (2 c t)
c=

F
2( Ss)(t )

Substituting the value

c=

3500
2(6375)( 0.375)

c = 0.7320 in.

18

For standard fraction: (p.32)


1
16

Between

3
16

11
16

to

7
8

in. = 0.6875 in.

0.7320

16
16

11.712
16
12
16

in. =

3
4

in.

3
4

in.

c=

11
16

in. or

Check if

11
16

in (0.6875 in.) can be use

0.73200.6875
0.7320

100 = 6.08% > 4 - 5%

.. Use:
c=

3
4

in.

19

G). By shearing the rod end.

Fig. 8

F = Ss A
Where:
A=2fe
F = Ss (2 f e)
f=

F
2( e)( Ss)

Substituting the value


f=

3500
2( 1)(6375)

f = 0.2745 in.

20

For standard fraction: (p.32)


1
16

Between

1
4
0.2745

16
16

to

7
8

in. = 0.25 in.

4.392
16
5
16

f=

3
16

1
4

in. or

Check if
0.27450.25
0.2745

1
4

in. = 0.3125 in.

5
16

in.

in. can be use

100 = 8.92% > 4 - 5%

.. Use:
f=

5
16

in.

21

H). by shearing the socket end


Fig. 9

F = Ss A
Where:
A = 2 b (D - e)
F = Ss [2 b (D - e)]
b=

F
2(Ss)(De)

Substituting the value

3500
2( 6375)(1.751)

b=

b = 0.3660 in.

22

For standard fraction: (p.32)


1
16

0.3660

16
16

b=

Between

3
16

to

7
8

5
16

in. = 0.3125 in.

6
16

in. =

5.64
16

5
16

Check if
0.36600.3125
0.3660

in. or

5
16

3
8

3
8

in = 0.375 in.

in.

in. can be use

100 = 14.61% > 4 - 5%

.. Use:
b=

3
8

in.

23

I). By shearing off the collar in the rod end.


Fig. 10

F = Ss A
Where:
A = ( ) (e) (a)
F = Ss (

a=

e a)

F
Ss ( )(e )

Substituting the value

a=

3500
(6375)()(1)

a = 0.1748 in.

24

For standard fraction: (p.32)


1
32

Between
5
32

0.1748

32
32

1
32

3
16

in. = 0.1563 in.

5.5936
32
6
32

a=

to

5
32

in. or

3
16

in. =

in.

3
16

in. = 0.1875 in.

Check if

5
32

0.17480.1563
0.1748

in. (0.1563 in.) can be use

100 = 10.58% > 4 - 5%

.. Use:
a=

3
16

in.

25

FOR THE TAPER OF THE COTTER


From the Problem, the taper or the cotter is in. in 12 in.

Fig. 11

For the height and the cotter


(D + 1) = 1.75 + 1 = 2.75
Assume that the length of the cotter is equal to 2.75 in.
x
2.75

0.5
12

0.5(2.75)
12

x=

x = 0.1146 in.

26

For standard fraction: (p.32)


1
32

Between
3
32

0.1146

32
32

3.6672
32

1
32

to

3
16

in. = 0.09375 in.

4
32

x=

Check if

3
32

3
32

0.11460.09375
0.1146

in. or

1
8

in. =

1
8

in. = 0.125 in.

in.

in. (0.09375 in.) can be use

100 = 18.19% > 4 - 5%

.. Use:
x=

1
8

in.

27

J). For the tolerance and allowances


Cotter and Hole RC 8

Value of t =
Nominal Size
0.24 0.40

3
8

in. = 0.375 in

Hole
+ 2.2
0

Shaft
- 3.0
- 4.4

3
* The number given are the standard limits in thousands of inch multiply by 10 .

Hole Tolerance:

0.0022 0 = 0.0022 in.

Cotter Tolerance:

- 0.003 (-0.0014) = 0.0014 in.

Allowances:

0 (-0.003) = 0.003 in.

+Hole tolerance
Hole: Nominal Size
- 0.0000

+0.0000
Cotter: (Nominal Size Allowance)
-Cotter Tolerance

28

+0.0022 in.

Hole:

0.375 in
- 0.0000 in.

+0.0000 in.
Cotter: (0.375 - 0.003) in.
-0.0014 in.

+0.0000 in.
Cotter:

0.372 in.
-0.0014 in.

Limit Dimension
Hole: 0.375 in. to 0.3772 in.
Cotter: 0.3095 in. to 0.3706 in.

Preferred Method

29

Rod and Socket Hole RC 8

Value of e = 1 in.
Nominal Size
0.71 1.19

Hole
+ 3.5
0

Shaft
- 4.5
- 6.5

*multiply by 10 .
Socket Hole Tolerance:
Rod Tolerance:

0.0035 0 = 0.0035 in.


- 0.0045 (-0.0065) = 0.002 in.

Allowances:

0 (-0.0045) = 0.0045 in.


+Hole tolerance

Hole: Nominal Size


- 0.0000
+0.0000
Cotter: (Nominal Size Allowance)
- Cotter Tolerance

30

+0.0035 in.

Socket Hole:

1 in.
- 0.0000 in.
+0.0000 in.

Rod: (1 -0.0045) in.


-0.002 in.

Limit Dimension
Hole: 1 in. to 1.0035 in.
Cotter: 0.9955 in. to 0.9935 in.

Preferred Method

31

K). Summary

SUMMARY OF COMPUTED AND ADJUSTED VALUES

Parts

Computed Values
(in.)

Adjusted Values in
Fraction. (in.)

Adjusted Values in
Decimal. (in.)

5
8

3
4

0.75

3
8

3
8

0.375

1
1 4

1
1 4

1.25

1
1 2

1.5

3
1 4

3
1 4

1.75

3
4

3
4

0.75

5
16

3
8

0.375

3
8

3
8

0.375

3
16

5
16

0.3125

1
8

1
8

0.125

32

GLOSSARY

Allowance - It is the difference in size, which in running fits is the maximum specified
difference between the dimensions of the pin and the hole.
Allowable Stress - The stress used in design for a safe one to use for computations if failure
is not occur.
Compress - Flattened from side to side.
Cotter - A key of wedge, used to fasten parts of machinery together, as a wheel on its shaft.
Design Factor - Is a number that is divided into a criterion of strength in order to obtain
design criteria.
Ductility - Is that property that permits permanent deformation before fracture on tension.
Design stress (Working stress) - It is a design, used in such a way all criteria of strength are
modified.
Machine design It is involve the calculation of the forces acting on different part of the
machines.
Stress - The state of an elastic body under conditions of strain expressed quantity as force
applied per unit area.
Shear - A deformation within a body on which two adjacent planes tend to move in a
parallel direction relative to one another while remaining parallel.
Tension Is a force tending to cause extension of a body, or the shape of an extended elastic
object.
Tolerance - It is the stated permissible variation of the size of a dimension.
Strength of material - It is the capacity to resist the action or applied forces.
Ultimate strength or tensile strength - The highest point on the stress strain curves, is the
maximum load divided by the original before straining occurs.
Yield strength - Is the stress for a specified deviation from the straight part of the stress strain curve.

33

B I B LI O G RAPH Y

Faires,Virgil Moring, Design of machine Elements, 4th Edition,


New York:
Mcmillan Publishing Company, Inc. 1965.
Ferdinand L. Singer/Andrew Pytel Strength of Materials 3rd
Edition
The Harpers and Row Company, New York, 1989.
Doughtie,Venton Levy, Design of Machine Members, 4th
Edition, New York:
Mcgraw-Hill Book Company, Inc. 1964.
Clark, Donalds,Engineering Materials and Processes , 3rd
Edition, International
Textbook Company, Pennsy Lvania, C 1967.
Parker, Sybil P., McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Engineering , 3rd
Edition,
McGraw-Hill Book Company, New York, C 1984.

34

WORKING
DRAWINGS
SCALE 1:1
NOTE: ALL DIMENSION ARE IN INCHES

Machine Design 1
Criteria for Grading
Name: Emerson A.

Tubale

Technical Report

Format
Contents

10% _________
30% _________

Working Drawings

Standard Used 10% _________


Completeness 30% _________

Meeting the Deadline

20% _________

Engr. Manuel L. Balaquiao


Date: 8/24/12