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COURSE:

CE 201 (STATICS)

LECTURE NO.:

44 & 45

FACULTY:

DR. SHAMSHAD AHMAD

DEPARTMENT:

CIVIL ENGINEERING

UNIVERSITY:

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM


& MINERALS, DHAHRAN, SAUDI ARABIA

TEXT BOOK:

ENGINEERING MECHANICS-STATICS
by R.C. HIBBELER, PRENTICE HALL

LECTURE NO. 44 & 45


MOMENT OF INERTIA

Objectives:

To develop a method for determining the moment


of inertia for an area

To explain the Parallel-Axis Theorem

To show how to determine the moment of inertia


for composite areas

MOMENT OF INERTIA FOR AREAS


Moment of inertia for an area is determined by taking integral of
the second moment of area about an axis, as follows.

I x = y 2 dA
A

I y = x 2 dA
A

J o = r 2 dA = I x + I y
A

Where:
Ix = moment of inertia about x-axis
Iy = moment of inertia about y-axis
Jo = polar moment of inertia

PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM


The parallel-axis theorem is useful for determination of
the moment of inertia for composite bodies.
For an area, as shown in the figure below, the parallelaxis theorem may be stated as:

I x = I x ' + Ad

2
y

I y = I y ' + Ad

2
x

J o = J C + Ad

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 1


Determine the moment of inertia of the triangular area
about the y-axis.

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 1


Let us consider a differential element
of thickness dx at a distance x from
the y-axis, as shown in the following
figure:
b

h
dA=ydx= (b-x)dx
b

h
I y = x dA = x ( b x ) dx
b
o
2

h
h bx x
2
3
= ( bx x ) dx =

bo
b 3
4 o
b

h b 4 b 4 hb 4
= =
b 3 4 12b
hb3
Ans.
Iy =
12

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 2

Determine the moment of inertia of


the shaded area about the y-axis.

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 2


y

dA = y ' dx = (h y )dx

h 2

dA = h 2 x dx
b

h
dA = 2 ( b 2 x 2 ) dx
b

h
y'=h-y

x
dx

h
h
I y = x 2 dA = x 2 2 ( b 2 x 2 ) dx = 2
b
b
o
b

h b 2 x3 x5
h b5 b5
= 2
= 2
5 o b 3 5
b 3
2b3 h
Iy =
15

Ans.

(b x
2

x 4 ) dx

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 3


Locate the centroid x of the above
composite section. Then find the
moment of inertia of the composite
area about y-axis passing through the
centroid (i.e., about y-axis).

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 3


y

y'

x
2in
4in

A
Centroid
1in

x'

1in

B
x
4in

The x coordinate of the centroid (i.e., x ) can be determined as:


Rectangle

A(in2)

x (in)

A
B

42=8
8 2 = 16
A = 24

1
4


xA
8
64
x A = 72

x =


xA
72
=
= 3 in
A 24

4 ( 2)
2
I y' =
+ 4 2 ( 2 ) = 34.66 in 4
12
2 83
I y' =
+ 8 2 12 = 101.33 in 4
12
3

For rectangle A:
For rectangle B:
Summation:

I y ' = 34.66 + 101.33 = 136 in 4 Ans.

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 4


Determine the moment of inertia of the
following composite section about the xaxis.

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 4


y
x = 68mm

y'

2
80mm

80mm

x'

20mm

48mm
12mm

60mm

y = 80mm

3
x
80mm

80mm

The x coordinate of the centroid (i.e., x ) can be determined as:


Segment

A (mm2)

x ( mm )

 ( mm 3 )
xA

1
2
3

40 80 = 3200
160 40 = 6400
160 40 = 6400

20
80
80

64000
512000
512000

A = 16000 mm2 ;

 = 1088000 mm3 x =
xA


xA
1088000
=
= 68 mm
A
16000

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 4


y
x = 68mm

Rectangle 1:

y'

40 803
I x' =
= 1706666.66 mm 4
12
80 403
I y' =
+ 80 40 482 = 7799466.66 mm 4
12

2
80mm
1

x'

Rectangle 2:

48mm

20mm

80mm

12mm

60mm

y = 80mm

3
x
80mm

80mm

Rectangle 3:

160 403
Ix' =
+ 160 40 602 = 23893333.33 mm 4
12
40 1603
I y' =
+ 160 40 122 = 14574933.33 mm 4 .
12

160 403
I x' =
+ 160 40 602 = 23893333.33 mm 4
12
40 1603
I y' =
+ 160 40 122 = 14574933.33 mm 4 .
12

Summation

I x ' = 1706666.66 + 2 23893333.33 = 49.49 106 mm 4 A


I y ' = 7799466.66 + 2 14574933.33 = 36.94 106 mm 4 A

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 5


Determine the moment of inertia of the
following shaded area about the x and y
axes.

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 4

Segment
1
2
3
4

(in2)

18
9
24

12.566

Ix

(in4)

54
18
32

12.566

Iy

(in4)

13.5
4.5
72

12.566

dx
dy
(in) (in)
7
1.5
6
4.0
2
3.0
4

I x ( in 4 ) = I x ' + Ad y2

I y ( in4 ) = I y ' + Ad x2

936
342
128

54.0
148.5
288.0

3.0

213.628

126.663

Ans.

Ix= 1192.37 in4

Iy= 364.83 in4

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 6


Determine the moment of inertia of the
following composite section about the x
axis. y =154.4 mm

PROBLEM SOLVING: Example # 6


150mm
15mm

3
50mm

150 153
Segment 1: I x ' =
+ 150 15 146.92 = 48.596 106 mm 4
12

15 1503
Segment 2: I x ' =
+ 15 150 64.42 = 13.550 106 mm 4
12

Segment 3: I x ' =

Summation:

4
( 50 ) + (50)2 60.62

= 33.751 106 mm 4

Ix = 95.898 106 mm4

Ans.

100mm

dy3=60.6mm

dy2=64.4mm

y=154.4mm

150mm

dy1=146.9mm

15mm

Multiple Choice Problems


1. The moment of inertia of the composite section (shown in the following
figure) about the x-axis is

(a) 288 in4

(b) 928 in4

(c) 2016 in4

(d) 5760 in4

Ans: (d)
Feedback:
8 123
6 123

4
2
Ix =
+ 8 12 6 +
+ 6 12 22 = 5760 in
12
12

Multiple Choice Problems


2. The moment of inertia of the composite section (shown in the following
figure) about the x-axis is

y = 6.5 in

(a) 290.66 in4

(b) 190.66 in4

(c) 90.66 in4

Ans: (a)
Feedback:
2 83
8 23

4
2
I x' =
+ 2 8 2.5 +
+ 8 2 2.52 = 290.66 in
12
12

(d) 85.33 in4