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Packaging it together: Language Change

1) Read the texts

4)

Identify GENRE, WRITER,


AUDIENCE, PURPOSE, TIME
OF WRITING

2) Ask yourself linguistic questions,


using the linguistic methods:
Lexis/semantics

Note AO2 links (AS


and A2 concepts)
Link the concept to
the data using AO1
exemplification

5)

Grammar
Pragmatics

Find
contextual
AO3 links to
features
(AO1)

Discourse
6)

Graphology
If a single text, identify the features to
discuses. Use a range of methods.
If two texts, find points of
comparisons/contrasts using linguistic
methods

Write your essay,


structuring your ideas
logically around a topic
you want to discuss.
Be systematic
Develop your ideas
Evaluate your findings

3) Annotate your exam paper

Modelling an approach
Linguistic Method
GRAPHOLOGY
ORTHOGRAPHY
SPELLING

Questions to ask
yourself
Are unfamiliar spellings,
letters and punctuation
used? Are these standard
or non-standard?
How is the text laid out?
Has the layout of a text
changed?

Possible AO2 links


standardisation
prescriptivism /
descriptivism
affordances/limitations of
technology
sociolect/ dialect
Informalisation

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Possible AO3 links


technological developments
media
social change
nature of intended audience
purpose of the text
the way the text would be
used

Packaging it together: Language Acquisition


Possible hierarchies for language features & analysis AO1/AO2/AO3
Higher performance
Awareness that the data should be treated as a whole working from the big picture to smaller detail
Most relevant methods selected organised / structured to demonstrate understanding of the layers in
a piece of data. All methods add interest / value to the analysis
Clustering of points e.g. all comment on phonological features together so sensible comparisons can
be drawn and evaluation is possible
Use of clusters of exemplification integrated into the body of the analysis
A precise and consistent degree of accuracy in use of technical detail and terms (AO1)
Understanding of relevant concepts to data and willingness to apply tentatively to the data
Salient selection from the data to exemplify language concepts
Willingness to see data as supporting/challenging language concepts
Consistent & relevant identification of how the language features exemplify contextual issues/link to
concepts

Extract from student response (June 2011)

Looking at the discourse for Texts B and C, the conversations Briony has between her and her mother are
structure around turn-taking as her mother initiates imperative utterances, do some talking now or
interrogative utterances what are you saying. This is so Briony will talk as her mother encourages her to with
transactional constructions from her mother expecting a reply whats the magic word. Brionys replies
however are expressive and holophrastic as she is trying to express that she wants her dummy by only
saying the common noun dummy. Similarly in Text C, Brionys mother continues initiating interrogative
utterances for turn-taking whats that but Briony chooses to repeat and form her own questions directly back
at her mother whats that. Briony breaks down the contraction by repeating the interrogative so she discovers
the auxiliary verb is in between what and the demonstrative pronoun, Whats that::t (.) What is that. In text
A however, Briony is the only speaker and only stating holophrastic one words utterances such as moons
moons to [looking at the solar lanterns] and using deixis to point towards a shadow to show her dad Theres
dad. These short expressions mostly indicate Briony is talking aloud on her own to justify her surrounding
environment such as the reduplication mok-mok, the proto-word just pointing at her milk. Cognitive theory
psychologist, Jean Piaget believed children are active learners and use ego-centric speech when alone to
explore a childs environment through language and Briony is using her environment to shape her lexical
choices with moons in Text A.

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Genre: Language Acquisition (literacy)


ENGB3
Exam series
January 2012
June 2011
January 2011

June 2010
January 2010

Context
7 years (Jenny)
7 years (Sam)
5 year 9 months /
7 years 4 months
(Tom)
6 year olds (Tania
+ Tom)
8 years 7 months
(Georgia)

Data Type
Narratives
Character study + planning notes (Flat Stanley)
Science experiments

Transcript of reading + reading scheme books


Diary entries

Legacy Specification: ENB6


Exam series
June 2009

June 2008
June 2007

Ages
7 years (Usman,
Becky and
Alexander)
5 years (William)
5 years, 8 years,
10 years, 11 years
(Oliver, Daniel,
Immy and Hannah)

Data Type
Narratives
(Mrs Pepperpot)
Narrative (Where the Wild Things Are)
Postcards

Genre: Language Change


ENGB3
Exam series
January 2012
June 2011
January 2011
June 2010
January 2010

Dates
1703 / 1896
1938
1726
1903 / 2007
2006
1975
1934 / 2008
1757
1878 / 1965

Data Type
Books: politeness
Books: motorcycle manual
Magazine: problem pages
Newspaper reports: weather
OED: online editorial
Book: job guide
Newspaper reports: football
Speech: Vice-Chancellors graduation address
Book: ballroom etiquette
Magazine article: Dancing to Romance

Legacy Specification: ENB6


Exam series
June 2009
June 2008
June 2007

Dates
1908
1789
2005
1950s

Data Type
Instruction Book: Scouting for Boys
Journal: travel
email
Magazine: fashion

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Genre in Language Change: Problem Pages


18th century / 20th century comparison

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Genre in Language Acquisition:

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