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# The University of the South Pacific

Serving the Cook Islands, Fiji, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vanuatu.

## School of Engineering and Physics

MM312: Solid Mechanics 2
FINAL EXAMINATION SEMESTER 1, 2014
Time Allowed 3 hours plus 10 minutes reading
100 marks (50% of final grade)
INSTRUCTIONS
1. This paper carries 100 marks.
2. This paper has two parts:
i. Part A: 40 marks
ii. Part B: 60 marks
3. Answer ALL questions in Part A and any FOUR questions from Part B.
4. Check to see that you have a complete question paper - 7 pages
5. Candidates may bring:
i. A non-programmable calculator (memory cleared)
ii. Drawing instruments & rulers
into the examination
NOTE:

## Drawings and sketches may be completed in pencil however all

calculations and written work must be completed in ink

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PART A

## (Answer ALL questions = 40 marks)

1. Large wind turbines encounter large amount of axial and thrust forces on its rotors
and this force is transferred to wind turbine towers. As a result wind turbine
towers go through large cyclic normal and shearing stresses. If you are working as
mechanical engineer for wind energy industry, and you are required to measure
the normal and shearing stresses practically. Discuss in detail how you will
perform this experiment, how you will analyse the data you measured to calculate
these stresses, and also give the list of instruments that you will need to perform
this experiment. (5 Marks)
2. Explain using an example what you understand by Particle-reinforced, fiberreinforced and structural composites. (3 marks)

## 3. Fiber-reinforced composites can have fibers arranged in many different ways;

explain all the different ways the fibers can be arranged, give advantage and
disadvantages of each type of arrangement. (4 marks)
4. Briefly explain how does Finite Element Model (FEM) works, why it is not
possible to get exact solution using FEM? In what way can you ensure that FEM
solutions are to nearest approximation. What types of refinement in FEM and
which one will give better results? (5 marks)

5. Explain the difference between brittle and ductile fracture? And what do you
understand by fracture toughness ? (3 marks)
6. What do you understand by theoretical cohesive force, does this force govern
fracture mechanism of materials? Explain? (3 marks)

## 7. What do you understand by Bauschingers Effect? Please give detail explanation.

(4marks)
8. Explain what you understand by strain hardening and strain softening, and explain
in detail what are the hardening rules. (5 marks)

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## 9. What is the difference between non-associated flow rule in plastic deformation of

materials? Give detail explanation (4 marks)
10. Give brief explanation about how you will perform Crack opening displacement
(COD) test experiment. What are the reading you will get and how you can
calculate the displacement using the recorded results? (4 marks)

PART B

## Question 1 (15 Marks Total)

A pin jointed frame (PJF) is shown in Figure 1. An external force of 5 kN is applied at
point A. Determine the internal forces in members AB, AC, and AD and state if the
members are in tension or compression. (15 marks)

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## Question 2 (15 Marks Total)

A pressurized tank shown in Figure 2 has a 150-mm outer diameter and 9-mm wall
thickness. Knowing that the butt welded seams forming an angle = 25 with a
transverse plane and an external force F (F) of 100 KN acts on the vessel. Determine the
largest allowable gage pressure, knowing that the allowable normal stress perpendicular
to the weld is 125 MPa and the allowable shearing stress parallel to the weld is 70 MPa.
(15 marks)

Figure 2
Question 3 (15 Marks Total)
The blades of a turbine rotor are fitted into aluminium alloy discs on the rotor as shown
in figure 3a. If during the assembly of the system a 0.1 mm deep scratch is made in the
surface of the disc as indicated, if the rotor is required to undergo at least 2000 cycles in
service. The rotation of the turbine causes a stress of 350 MPa at the plane of the scratch
and the crack growth data for the disc material is given in Figure 3b, use Y=1.12 and m =
3.54.
(i) Calculate how many stress cycles the disc can withstand before fatigue failure
occurs (8 marks)
(ii) By what factor should the rotational speed be increased in a test to verify that any
cracks in the disc are too small to grow to a critical size in service? (7 marks)

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Figure 3a

Figure 3b
Question 4 (15 Marks Total)
A simply supported steel plate shown in Figure 4, having dimensions of 0.9 m by 2 m by
45 mm thick, absorbs solar radiation at a rate of 150 W/m2 on the outer surface. The inner
surface is maintained at 20C. The properties of the steel are as follows. = 11.7 x 10-6
C-1, E = 200 GPa, = 0.3, kt = 0.1688W/m-C, and Sy = 250 MPa. Determine:
(i) the temperature on outer surface. (4 marks)
(ii) the maximum lateral deflection and. (7 marks)
(iii) the maximum thermal stress. (4 marks)

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Figure 4

## Question 5 (15 Marks Total)

A machine component is shown in figure 5 is made of Steel with S y = 325 MPa. If the
force of 10 kN is applied at point C.
(i) Determine state of stress at point K (5 marks)
(ii) Using the maximum-distortion-energy criterion and maximum-shearing stress
criterion, determine whether yield will occur or not. If yield does not occur, determine
the corresponding factor of safety. (10 mark)

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Figure 5

End of paper.

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