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GUIDELINES

FOR
SOILAND GRANULAR
MATERIAI,STABILIZATION
USING
|IEMENI L|ME& FLYASH

pubtishedby
INDIA^N
ROADSCONGRESS
KamaKotiMarg,
Sector6, R.K.puram,
, lNewDethi- 110O2Z
]NOVEMBER
- 2O1O

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fts, 3110/(Packing& postager:hargesexial

?():SP:B:l-20'l
0
irstPubfished : November,2010

('AllRightsReserued.No part ot
thispubricationshar be reproduced,
translatedor transmitted,in
any formor by ,a,ny
i.ri,*siwi*rout tt,e
permissionof thelndian Rctads
Oongress.l

Printecl
at : IndiaOffsetpress,New
Dr:lhf_l10
064
(500Cooies)

IFC:SP:89-10
20

CONTENTSi

I
i

:
Page No_

Personnelof the HighwaysSpecificatjons


andSlandards
Cr:nrmittee
CHAPTER1:

tr/

INTHODUCTION

1 . 1 Purpose
1 . 2 Scope
1 . 3 Definitions
1.4
CHAPTIiR2:
2.1
2.2

3.1

3.2
3.3
3.4
3.5

ckRprenc:
4.1

3
3

Effective
nessof Stabilization

MECHANICAL
STABILIZATION

tf

Mechanical
Stabilization
Designof Mechanicaily
Stabitized
Mixes
2.2.1 Stabilization
usingso-ftaggregaies
(Mehra'smethodof stabilization)
2.2.2 Designof mechanically
stabilized
nti;<es:
Conrbining
twornaterials
basedon plasticity
2.2.3 Rothfutch
rnethodfordesignof soil_ar;glegate
mixes

CHAPTT]R
3:

cENERALGUTDELTNES
FOR SOtTJ,cRA|NULAR
MATERIALSSTABILIZAfloN

11

Factorsto be considered
3.1.'l Umestabilization

11

3.1.2 Cementstabilization
3.1.3 Lime-flyash(LF)andlime-cernent_fly
ash
(LCF)srabittzation
properlies
Desirable
of Lime,Cementand
FlyArsh
for
Stabilization
Selection
of Stabilizer
TwoStageStabilization
UsingLimelollcrwed
by Cerneinl
M.odifi
r;alionandCemenlalion
SPECIFICATIONS
AND TESTREQU|FIEMEN,IS
FOR
STI\BIUZEDMATEBIALS
General
Requirement

1 1
i l

12
12
13
16
16
17
1B
1B

RC;SP;89-'2010
4.2

Slabilization
with Cemenl

1B

4.2.1 Requirernentforsoil
nrodification/subgradcl
improvernent

1B

4.2.2 Requirementfor boundsub-basesrbases

18

'4.3

Stabilizationwith Lime

19
19

,1.4

4.3.1 Requirement for soil nrodification/sub


grader
rmpfovement
Stabilizationwith Lime and FtyAsfi(LF)

,1.5

Stabilizationwith Lime,CenrentandFlyAsh

4.6
tl.7

CementStabilized FlyAsh

TestRequirements
4;,71
4.',7.2

IHAPTER5:
;.1

Unconfinedcornpressive
strengthtest
Durabilityof stabilizedmaterials

21

22
22
23
23
24

CONSTRUCflON OPERATIONS

26

Procedureof Stabilization

26

|:i.2 Mix-in-PlaceStabilization
5;.3 Plant-MixStabiti;:ation

26

5;.4

Compaction

30

QITALITYASSURAT{CE

31

6.1

Ge,neral

3't

6.2

PrelirninaryTrial

J I

6.3
6.5

Samplingand Te:;lingFrequency
Stcrrageand Handlingo{ ttre Stabilizer
Controlof the MoistureContent

31
32
33

66

Controlof the StabitizerConlent

6.7

RoutineStrengthDeterminations

-33
34

PRECAUI1IONS
T'OBE TAKENWHILEUSING
ST/\BILIZEDMAT'ERIALS

35

IHAPTER6:

6.4

;hapter7:
1 1
t , l

General
t.z
Crackingin StabilizedLayers
7 . 3 Prirnary
Cracking
7.4
TralficAssociatedCracks
t.c
Durability
of Stabilized
Malerials
7 . 6 controlof Feflective
pav()rnernts
crackingincementStabilized

29

35
35
36
37
37
38

lECl:r3P:89-21010
PERSoNNEL oF THE H|GHWAY$SPEc|F|cATloNS A$|D
STANDARDSCOMMTMEE
(As on lst MaY,2010)
.t.

A.V.
sinha,
(Cmvenor)

of f]rriad
Ministry
(RD)& Spl.secrelary,
General
Director
NewDelhi
& l-lighways,
Transport
&
of RoadTransport
Adcll.DirectorGeneral,Ministry
NewDelhi
Highways,

2.

Puri,s.K.
(CoConvenor)

3.

&
chief Eryineer(R)s&Fl,Ministryof RoadTransport
c.
Kanrtasamy
(Member-Secretaryt) Highways,NewDelhi
Mentbers
Engg.Services(l)
Director,
Cc'rsulting
Executive
Pvt.Ltd-,New Delhi
ChiefEngineer(Retd'),llaryanaPWD

4.

Datta,P.K.

5.

GuptaK.K.

Sinfra,S.

7.
B.

Dr.L.R.
Kadiyali,
Katare,
P.K.

9.

Jain,Dr.S.S.

10.

Reddy,
K. Siva

11.

Basu,S.B.

12.

A.C.
Bordoloi,

13.

Raihore,S.S.

14.
15.
I6.

Pradhan,B.C.
Prasad,D.N.
Kumar,Ashok

17.

Kumar,Kamlesh

18.

Krishna,Prabhat

19.

V.L.
Patankar,

20.

Kumar,Mahesh

Haryana,
PWD
Engineer.-in-Chiel,

21.
22.

P.L.
Bongin*,ar,
Sinha,A.K.

Advisor,
L&T,Mumbai
(NH),UPPWD,Lucknow
Chil.iEngineer

CIDCO,
Engineer,
Adcll.ChiefTransportatron
NaviMumbai
New le,lhi
L.R.Kadiyali& Associates,
chief Execuitve,
Developnrenl
NationalRuralRoadq
Director(Projects-lll),
NewDelhi
Agency,{Minislryof RuralDevelopment),
EnEg.,
Centreof Trarsportation
Professor
& Coordinatcrr,
llT Roorf,,ae
Hyderabad
Pradesh,
E-in-C(Fi&B)Andhra
NewDelhi
(Reld.),
MoRT&l'i,
ChiefEngineer
ChiefEngineef(NFl)/rss?m,Guwahati
PrincipalSecrelaryto tlteGovt.of Gujarat,l1&BDeptl.
Gandhinagar
ChiefEngineer(NH),'Govt.ol Otissa,Bhubaneshwar
Patna
ChielEngineer(N]-{),lFlCD,
& Highway:s,
Chie{Engineei,Ministryol RoadTransport
NewDelhi
& Highways,
Ministryol RoadTransport
ChiefEngineer,
NewDelhi
ChiefEngineer(Betd),Ministryof RoadTransport& l-lighurays,
NewDelhi
Ministrl,
ot RoadTransport& Ftigfrwavs,
ChiefEngineer,
NewDeliri

(i)

IRC:SP:89-2010
.23-

Shamra, S.C.
.

DirectorGenerirl{Rll) li AS riRc,t<,.),
Ministryof RoadTransport&
Highways,New Delhi

24.

Shamta, 0r. V.M.

Consultant,AlVllt-NevvCielhi

25-

Gupta, D.P.

DireclorGeneml(RD) 8,AS 1Rr.rtcl.),


Ministryof RoadTransport&
Highways,New Delhi

26.

Mornin,S.S.

Former Menrber.MehareshtraF'ubliclServir:eCommission,
Mumbai

27.

Reddy, Dr. T.S.

Ex-Scienlisl,Grnlral Fiicard
ResearchInsfitute,New Delhi

28.

Shukla, F.S.

Ex-scientist,CentralFl;oadResearchInstilute,New Delhi

?-9.

Jain, R.K.

Chief Engineer(Retd.)tlaryarnaFVr/D,Sonrrpat

30.

Chandrasekhar,[]r. B.P. Direclor(-lech.),NatiorrLlRural lRoadDevelopmentAgency


(Minislryof Rur;alDevelopmenl)New Dethi

31.

Singh, B.N.

Chiei Engineer,Ministry'of lloarj Transport,l Highways,


'
New Ddhi

32.

Nashkar,S.S.

Chiel Engineer(NH),F\!'(R), Kolkata

33.

Haju, Dr. GV.S.

Ghief Engineer(B&El),AndhraF1'radesh,
Hy,Jerabad

34.

Alarn, Parvez

Vice President,Hinduslern
C,onstn.Co. Ltd., Mumbai

35- .

Gangopadhyay,Dr. S.

Director,CentrerlRoad FlesearclrInstilute,l,lew Delhi

36-

Sinha, V.K.

DirectorGeneral'(F[))& SS riRr:rtd.),
Ministryof Road Transport&
Highways,New Delhi

37.

Singh, NirmalJit

DireclorGeneraLl
(RD) & .SiS(lFetd.),Ministryof Foad Transporl&
Highways,New Delhi

38.

Jain, N.S.

Chief Enginner(Retcl.),ldinistryof Road Trernsporl


&
Highways,New Delhi

39.

chiel Engineer(Plg.)

Ministryof Roaclrrarrsport& Hitlhways,NervDelhi

40.

Representalive

DGBR, Director,ate
GerreiralElorderRoads,New Delhi
Ex-Offici<t Memlxtrs

1.
2.
3"

President,lRc

(Liansanga),Engineer-in-chiefand secretary,pwD Mizoram,


Aizawl

Transpnrt& Highways,
I DirectorGeneral(RD) & (Sinha,A.V.)Ministryof Ficrad
, Spl- Secretary
New Dethi
SecretaryGeneral,IRC (lndoria,R.P.),IndianRoarlsOongress,NerrvDelhi
Co r re s po n diing M em.ber:s

1.

Justo, Dr. C.E.G

EmeritusFellow,i3angalon:
Univ, Bangalorer

2.

fftaftar, M.D.

Consultant,Run,,,r,al
Cientfre,
Mlunrbai

3.

hgarwal,M.K.

E-in_C(Retd),H,aryana,
F)WD

4-

tlorge,V.B.

Secrelary(Roads)(Feic.l, MaharashtrapWD, Mumbai


(ii)

IRC:SP:89-2010
CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTIOI.I
'E:mbankrnenl'Ground
It was discussediinthe first meeting07'032009 o{ newly':onstiluted
which dealswithsoil
and DrainageCommittee'(H-4)thatlollowingIRC;guirJelirre:';
lmprovement
dev'elopments
need revisionin the lighlof currentpracticesand latestlech,nological
stabiiization
in thefield.The identifiedguidelinesvrere:
1)

for the Constructionof StabilizedSoilRoads


{ipecifications
IRC:28-1967:"Tentative
withSoftAggregatesinareasofModerateandllighFlilinfal|,

2)

artoConditionSurveycf Stabilized
"standard
lor Evaluation
Procedure
IRC:33-1969:
Soil Roads'

3)

CotlonSoilslor
o1'Blacl<
"Recommended
forthe Pulverisation
Practice
IRC:49-1973:
Lime Stabilization"

4\

llreuse of rllementModifiedSoils
DesignOriterrorrior
"Recommended
lFlC:SO-1973:
in BoadConstruction
'Guidelines
in RoadConslruction'
tor the useof Soil-UmeMixetsr
IRC:51-1992:

5)
6)

I R C : B B - 1 9 B 4" :R e c o m m e n d e dP r a c t i c ef ' ' l r L i m e - F l ) ' l \ s h S t a b i l i z e dS o i l s


in PavementConstruclion"
Base/Sub-base

{$, SCl,
ti1 and BBare relaledto
and it wasfoundthal.lFlL--3:3,
Alltheseguidelineswere reviewecl
soil stabilizationwith admixtures llowever, IRC-2|deralswith soil and soft ,aggregales
er(lompass tlre reviewof
throughthis;docunt,etlt
stabilizaLtion,
fhe revisedguidelines;presented
are made slronger
soil stahilizalionwhich is the processwherebysoilsand relatednratr:rii,tls
:;terbilizing
agentscan be
milny
Althcugtr
and more durableby nrixiqgwitha stabilizingagent.
on
used,cementand limeare by farlhernostimportantandtlreguidelinesilnainlyconcentrate
inclurle,
T lre guidelirtes
fly ash as stabilrzrrr
Cement,Lime-llyash/Lime-cement
use of L.ime,
guidelines{orsoit/granular
malerialstabilization,speci{ications
generalfeatures
of slabilization,
quality conlroland
and tesl requirementsfor stabilizedmaterials,conslru,;tionpro<rcclur,r:,
guirielines
ha.ve
b:renrnade considering
limitationson the use of stabilizedmaterials.These
prevailingIndianand International
practices.
l-l-4
was preparedby Shri SudhrrMalhui, lr'lermber-Secretarey,
The drerftof the gr.ridelines
Guru
Vittal.
Arun
ancl
U.K.
Mrs
Umet
namely
Swami,
and
collegues
R.K.
S/Shri
Committee his
of Shri MalteshKumar,
werelinalisedby H-z'Committee
undertlreOonvenorship
Theguidelines
Haryana,PublicWorks(Building
and Fl:ads)Deprarlnlent.
Engineer-in-Chief,

lFtC:SP:89-2010
cornittee(H4)
8rDrairtit'ge
Groundlmprovemeni
Duringthe seventhMeetingof Enrbankment,
to
lor crrtrculation
wasapproverd
on 09'04,2010,thedraftdocument
(penonnelgivenbelowjnrr-1.:

il;'gil+

(HSS)'
Cornmittee
& Stetndards
SpeciRcairions
Kumar,Mahesh
Kttma:'
Sharma,Arun

Convenor

Co-Convenor

Mathur,Sudhir

MemberSecretary

Menbers
Rao,Prof'CiV
Rao,Prof'F.J.

Chahd,Faquir
DhodaPkar,A.NGairia,Maj.Gen- K.T',

M.M
Sangal,
R-B.
Singh,

GuPta,SanjaY
Gupta,Dr.PradeeP

Saha,D.C.
Sen,Samiren
Thomas,Dr.JitnmY'

Jain,NareshChi:rrd
Jain,M.K.
Jalota,Di-A.V'

VermaMaj.V'0.

Kansal,R.K.
Korulla,Nlinimol

Chitra,R.
(ReP.Dir.CSI\4RS)

Koul,R.L.

Tlwari,Dr.A.Fl'

Kumar,Saterrder
B.C.
Pradhan,

(ReP.of DGBR)
C.E.,PWD,lrt:ghalaY;a

Conesponding Members
Verma,M.S.
Ex-OfticioMemturs
Presidenl.lRC
DirectorGen,eral
(RD)& SS, IvloR-IH

(Liansanga)

SecrelaryGeneral,IRC

R.P.I
(lndoria,

(Sinha,A.\/.)

l . h e d r a f t d o c r l m e n t w a s s u b s e q u e n t | y a p p r o v e d w i t h s o r n e-[he
remarksblrtheHighways
dirattdocumlnt
andslandardscommilteein itsmeetingheldon r11.05.2010.
specifications
l[h':i
council in its
111.05.,2010.
c,n
held
wasapprovedby the Executivecomrnitteein itsmeeting
commenls'
sorrlre
wifl'h
the
documeml
approved
meetingheldat MunnaqKeralaon 22.05.2010
converpr
the
b),r
aptlrorrrcl
rrrrzts
commentsofcouncilMembers
iafterincorporaiing
Thedocument
forprintin0'
& litandardsCommittee
of Highways
Qrociflcations

lFtC:Sf):89-21]10
1.1

PurPose

granuli;rr
arrcl
pioperties
olsrrils
theengineering
forirnproving
thecriteria
suggest
Theseguidelines
ttrer
USer;rf
by
subgrade's
and
courses
basecourses,sub-base
usedforpavem(lnt
ntaterials

materialsto elilecttlte:desirrd
whiclhare rnixed into the soil/granular
additives/stabilizers,
the physicalend engineerirrlJ
to
improve
irvailable
are
A numberc,fadditives
improvement.
rs sur:tlas lim's,
to stabilize
itself
restricts
however,thiscJocument
propertiesof thesematerierls;
cement,fly ashor a mixturr:o{ the aboveadditives.

1.2

Scope

Theseguidelinesprescribethe appropriatetypeor typesof additivesto beru:sedwilh tlifferent


and
soiltypes,procedurestor deterrnininga designtreatmentlevelfor each typeoi atJclijiive
criteila
theadditiveintolhe s'cil.Thers;er
practicesfor incorporating
constructic,n
recommended
pavementl,ayer.
havinga slabilized
are applicableto alltypeof roadsand airfielcis

1.3

Definitions
a)

of z;tll
Sol'ls;Naturallyoccurringnraterialsthatare usedlor lhe c;{instruciiL:tt
andttrirt
(i.e.,concretearrdaspha.lt)
exceptthe surfacelayersof pavernents
(rf
tests{lS 1498)to providea gr;neral's)ncept
to classificalion
are subjrect
theirengineeringr;haracteristics,

b)

productsthat,whenaddedto llresoil in
comrrrercial
Additive,s:
ManufacturerJ
rrl thersoil
i'l ;a;':iclolislics
lhe properquantilies,improvesomeenginearirrg
.rddrerx;r:d
in this
Additirre.s;
andptasticity.
texture,workabilily,
suchas strerrglh,
manualare limitedto ccnrt:nt,LimealtdFlyash.

c)

gabilization:Stiabilization
mstoiialswilih
is theprocessof blendingandrnixirrg
a soil to improvecertainpropertiesof the soil.The processmay includtllhe
ol corrnerr.:ially
orthernixirtg
a desiredgradation
blending
of soilsto aclrirsve
()racl as a
texlureor plilr;ticity,
addiliveslhal mayalterthegradation,
availabler
fc,r
the
of
soil.
binder cernenlation

o)

iry mixing
is accom[,lishe,J
MechanicalStabilization:
Mechanical
stabilization
to
agrlregatras
or mixingsoilvr,ith
or blendingsoilsof two or moregradations
obtaina materialmeetingthe requiredspecification.
The srrilblernding
mily
takeplaceatthe conshuclionsite,a centralplant,or a bonc'wiarea.Tlr':blsrdcd
materialis then spreadand compactedto requireddensitiesby <nnl'entiorral
means.

e)

Additive.lChemiqal
Stabilizalion:Addilivestabilizationis achie'v'edb;' lr'19
'of
proper
percenlages
additionof
of cement,lime,fly ash orr-tnt,1t"u116ps
centai:le
of typeandquantityc,rlhe trxn
thesematerialsto thesoil.TheselecJi.Jn

IRC:[iP:89-2010

andthe degree
soilOlassification
upon1:he
ol additiveto be usedis depentjerrt
$malleramountsof addilives
desired'Generally,
in soilquality
of improvement
arerequiredwhenitissimplycesirerjtonro:lifysoi|propertiessuchas
gradation,workabi|ityandplasticitl.Whetlitisdex;iredtoimp,rovelhestrength
3rr3usad.After the
and durabititysignificanily,largerrquantitiesol iadcJitive
water and
additivehas been mixed with tre soil, spreading,sprinkling
compactionatoMCareachietredbycon.renli.onia|means.
that resultsin
Modificafion:Modificationreft:rsto the r;tabiliziltionprocess

improvementinsomepropert.yc,fthesoilbutdoesnot,byrJesign,resu|tin
significanlincreasein soilstrengthanddttrability'
t.4

EtfectivenessofStabilization

structuralstrengthwill be
spe,cifi,:d
ravemenl desigrris based on the premisethat nrinimu.rn
must resistshearing'
layer
syslent'Eiar:h
achievedfor each layerof materialin the pavemernt
thel:ryeror in overlyinglayersand
thatcausefaliguecrackjngwithirn
avoidexcessivedeflections
'{s the qualityof a soillayeris
preventexcessivepermanentdeformalionthroughdensiiicirtic'n'
area is generallyincreased
the abrlityo{ that layerto distributethraloirdovera greatr3r
irrcreased,
Someol
be prermitted'
may
so that a reduclionin the requiredthicknessol lhe pavernentlayerrs
belovr'
are indicalecl
the attributesol soil modificatioir/stabilization
a)

achievedthrough
eualily improvemenfThe nost comm()rlirnp'rovements
of plasticityindex or
includebetters;oilgradation,rer:lluction
stabitization
in dunabili\'andstrength'ln wet wealher,
swellingpolentialand increarse,
platformfor construction
a vror:1<ing
may also be useClc provicler
stabilization
are relerredto as soil
intprovrr)menl
operations.These types of soil ,qualitry
can errhancelhepr<perliesof toad materialsand
Stabilization
modificationgivepavementlayersthefollowingatlributes:
l;lrengthis retainedeven after they
A substantialproportionof lherfu
becomesaturatedwithwater.

: ;:'J::"*,::ffi;::;:,,,
.

Materialsin the supp,crtingftrrrercannot contaminatetire stabilized


layer.

abrlvestabilizedlayer
crlns;trucled
layers;
The elasticmoduliofgrranrrlar

ffiiffi::,

tayer
orworking
foruseascappitrg
issuitetblt;'
materiial

platformwhen the in-silurmaleriafil; excessivelywel or weak and


.
removalis notecononrica

IRC:SP:19-2010
b,)Thicknessreduction:Thestrengthandsliffnelsiso|asoi|layercanbe
improverJtnrougrrtheuseo|additivestopetnrilarelductionindesign
thicknessofthestabi|izedmateria|compareclwilhanun-st;'tbi|izedorunbound
material.
c)Possib|eproblems:Theincreaseinthestrcn$htl|pavementlayersisalso
problems:
possible
wilhthe{ollowing
.
associaterl
rTraffic,thermalandshrinkagecracl.scanGause:stabilizedlayersto
crack.
.Crackscanreflectthroughthesr.rrfacingart,dal|owwatertoenterthe
pavementstructurereactions
has accessto the nlaterial,the sli'tbilization
o
ll carbondioxicJe
r

arereversibleandthestrengthoflher|ayerscandr=lcrease.
more s;kilisilnd controithan lor
l-he conslructionoperationsrecluir:e
materials'
eouivalentun-stabilized

Theseissueshavebeenfurtherhighlightedin Ohapter'/'

IHC:SP:89-20lCl

CHAPTER2
MECHANICALSTABILIZATION

2.'t

lt|echanical Stabilization

to obtain desired
Mochanicalstabilizatronis a processin whichmaterialsare propc,rtionrxl
of lhe mlx. Correctlyproportioned
arrdsoil)can be
gradationand plzrsticity
material(aggregzrte
stablepavemenlla1'sr.'t'"1rmethodis called
adequalelycompactedto form a mechanically
Thus;the basicprinciplesin this rnett^odof stabiliziation
are :
rner;hanical
slatrilization.
ilnd b) Compaaion.lf a granularsoilcontaining
witha
neglligible
a) Proportioning
finesi:srnixecJ
certainproportionof bindersoil,il Lspossiblelo increasethe stabilit,l.
of a
Similariyther:;tability
lrf granular
firn grainedsoil can be considerablyimprovedby mixinga suitatrleprol)rsrtion
rrnterialto get a desiredgradation.
Mechanicalstabilizationhas been successfully
appliedfor sub-baser
and biirsecourse
conslruclion.
ll hasak;obeenusedas a surfacecoursefor lowcostroadsl;uc:has villageioaG
whenthe trafficerndrainfallare low.The desirablepropertiesof soil aggrol;ates;
nrixturgsare
fewerchangesin volumeand stabilityvrithvilr,atiorrsiinmoisture
sirength;incompressibility;
content;gooddrarinage;
lessfrostsusceptibility
believed
andeaseof compaclion.
lt is glenererlly
ihatthe stabilityof a soil aggregalemixcan be increasedby increasing
its rjryden:sity.
Hence
prolrcrtioning
of rnixesis doneto altainmaximumdry density.
Thefactorsto be consideredin ttre designof mixare gradation,density,irrcl'cx
p,roperties
and
stability.Of these,the gradationis the mostinrpodantfactor,Theparlicles;i;url
dislnbutionthat
gives maximumdensityis genorallyaimedat. Fuller'sformulanrzrybe u$ed lo obtain the
theorelicalgradalion
formaxirnumdensityandis givenby:
p= 100 (d/D)'z
wtnre
P - per centliner ttrandiameter'd'(mm)in the materriarl
D = diamelerof lhe largestparticle,mm
'l-he
following are the recommended values ol the liquid limil and plar;ticirrde:<for tihe material
passing 425 micnrn sieve, to be used for mechanicalstabilization

Liquidlimit
lnclex
Plasticity

Base Course

SurfaceCourse for Cira'uelRoads

25 percenlmax.

3i5percent rnax

6 percentmex.

l5to .10p{3rcent

IRC:S;F':,89-11O10
Design of MechanicallyStabilizedMixes

2.2

tcrmixthen in ,sur::lt
Whena fewmaterialsare availablein thenearvicinityof site,it is necessan/
a proportion,which would produce a mix v,tithhighestdensity-As an exampl,eif coar:;;e
threedepositsorborrowpits,it is tirslr:sserntial
aggregate,sandand finesoilare availablefrom
graphhal
Themostcornmonly
tr,Jopted
to decidetheproportionof thesecornponenl
malerials.
in
i:;the Rothfutch's
Detailsof Rothfutch
rnethod{orproportioning
methocj
areirrc:sented
rnethod.
lhe tlasis
twomaterials(soilandaggregates)on
Section2.2.3.Thedesignbasedon combining
of lheirsieveanalysisto a,chievespecifiedgradationis givenbelow:
o

rrialAa rtd
sizedistribution
of mate
Column2 and 6 in theTablegivetheparlicle
gradalion
which
requirement
B
do not satisfythe
of lhe specificatirrn.

Column3 showsthe standard


sievesizes,colurnn4 shorars
the recornrmended
limitsfor a particularpavernent
the avenlgevaluc
courseandcolumn5 shovvs
of corra;pondinglimitsshownin colui'nn
4.

ThGinvt>rseratioof lhe totalsin columns1 and 7 givestherproporlirrn


c'fthe
materialsto tp mixedto obtainthe desiredmix.
A : B = z l 5 :1 3 9( 1 : 3 ) .

Mixing25 percentof lhe nraterialA


lhe
and75 percentof malerialB woul,clgive
desiredgradationas sholn in theTable.
Table I Mixing of Aggregatesfor DesiredGradation

Numerical MaterialA Sieve size Recomm- Average


percent
Difference percent
ended
between passing
passing
Limils
percent
rnaterialA
passing
and
average
percent
passing
Col 2

Col3

100

40 mm

t1

98

26

33

Col 1

Col4

Materiall I
B percerrt I
passin'g I
I
I
I
I
I
I

Col5

Col 6

100

100

100

20 mm

80-100

90

7i)

94

10 rnm

55-80

68

5r;

B3

4.75mm

40-60

-i-iil- -lI
(.ill7
---:-*-l

-ir-I
-;__
t
3
*--r-I
l7

8
-*----*"-1

3ft

5
5
-------*-"-t

32

72

2.36mni

30-50

33

55

600 pm

15-30

22

21

17

75 pm

5-15

10

Total= 139

difiierence
oinierenc
I
betfwerer I
belfweren
material I
B anrJ
El
anrJ
I
average I
average
perrcent
perrcerrt
I
pasising
pasisrng

411

'40

Nurneric:
N;ffi;ll

. 1__
_i
1

1
1

g,l--,gl
Tot;ll=,4

IRC:SP:89-2010
22.'l

Stabilizationusing soft aggregates(lt.le*-a's,nethodof .stabitization)

When hardvarietyof aggregatesis nol locallyavailabler,


lhe localsoftaggregatesmay haveto
be used lor conslruclionin order to keep the ccxtstrur:tion
cost as low as possible.The soft
aggregatehave low crushingstrengthand lo,war3gregette
imparctvalue.Stillthey have been
adopted in the constructionof mechanicallystallilizerJ
sub-lca:,;e,
base course and even in
wearingcourselayers.Commonlyusedsoftaggregates
{rx ncadcc}nstruclion
are kankar,moorum,
latedteandbrokenbrickaggregates.Becauserlfll'ielou,s;lrength,
theseaggrcgatesare likelyto
break downat theirpointsof conlact.lf thesezrggregatr..r;
;aremilledwith surtableproportionof
soil so thateacirparticleof sotl aggregateis ervek>ped
by soil,therewouldnot be any problem
of crushingof theseaggregatesduringcompaotion
or unCrertrafl'ric
load.
of construclion
Mehra'srnethocl
can be adoptedforcons':ruction
ol lowvolumeruralroads.ln this
method,basecoursernaterialconsisisof conrpa,c;ted
soilwith s;,and
content(of size less than
0.425mm andgreaterthan0.075mm)beingnotl,sssthan150
p'ert.:ent
and plasticigindex5 to 7.
Wearing coursematerialmnsistsof brickaE;reglatesandsoil mixedin the ratio of 1:2. The
sand contentin the soil shouldbe lesslhan 3il prrcenl:
ilnd ptas;ticily
index 9 to 12. However,
when biluminoussurfacetreatmentis required/de:;ired,
!ne pl:rsticityindexs;houldbe limitedto
8 lo 10.Thismethod,proposedby Prof.S.R.Mehra,
giivern
is br:iefly
below:
1)

Soilis collectedfrom approvedborrovv


pitsaLrxlslackedorrroadside.

2)

Wateris added upto OMC and soil is rrrixec|


a.rrdspreadto desired camber
andgrade.

3)

11,5cm thickloosebasecoursermateriai
(sandysoil)is spreadand rolledby
8 tonnesrollerto a compacterJ
ilricknessof 7.St;m.
Surfacecoursemalerial(briclkaglgregatc'
anrJs,cilin the ralio 't:2) mixedwith
adequalewateris spreadto 11.{icm lcos,alhiicknessand tl"relayeris rolledby
I tonnesrollerto a compacterJ
thicknessof 7.5 r::m.

4)

tL2-2

5)

Afterrolling,the surfaceis wraterred


anrj left ol'ernight.The surfaceis again
rolledand finished.

6)

Theroad is closedto trafficlor 4-15


days:urdkepr:sprinkledurithwater. For next
fewdays,onlyrubber-tyred
traflicis allolvr:dand afterabout2 weeks,the road
is openedto alltraffic.Mehra's;
nrelhodol constructioncan carryS0 tonnesof
trafficper day in placesof liglrtrainfalrl.
With biluminoussirrfacing,the road
givessatisfactoryserviceupto2{)0tonnesper cl,ayeven in placeswith hearry
rainfall.

DesiEn of mechanically stabilized mi.res: c'ombining two materials based on


plasticity

L-ettherebe two soilsA and B which are to be nrirerrJ


to gerta soil cf requiredplasticityindex p.
fitep-l

Deterrnine
the plasticityindexol lhe lwo soiis.Lelllhesr.-be Poanri p, for soilA and
SoilB respectivety.

IRC:SP:89-2010
Step2

pa:;sing425
Determinefrom sieveanalysisfor eachsoil'th'ep']rcentttlleof nlaterial
Thenlhe
micronsieve.Lei lhese be Soand S, for the SoilA and SOilB rerspectively.
percentageof SoilA to be miied witn SoitB to gel the desiiredprlasticityinclexi.e" P,
is givenby the relation:
e /p-.p'

A%= ss(p;hqi=il
Materiat
2.2.3

Rothfutch methodfor design of soil-aggregalerrixes;:

Rothfutcfrrnethodis adoptedwhen a numberof materials,arelo be mblerJtogetherlo obtaina


'these
combinedmaterialconforming1o a desired gradalion.lt is to brnoliedthat noneiof
The
gradation'
the
d'r'sired
individualconsliluentsof combinedmaterialwouldbe abrleto satisl/
pnrposed
by
ratioof mixingthese individualconstituentsis determinedbiasedon methodology
Tlrismaybe
de::ireclgradation.
In this process,thefirstslepwouldbe to detenninerthe
Rothfutcl"r.
or other
gi'uen
Fuller
by
per
erquatiorr
theoretical
based on the specificationlimits or as
then
paper
and
graph
gradaiion
curve:i
on
The procedureinvolvesdrawingthe
research,ers.
{indingorrtoptimurnmix proportionas describedbelow:
On a graph sheet percentpassingis rnarlreclon Y iaxisin a suir;ablelinear
nrrhichis to tre rnarked,
scale.X axis representslhe particlesize Cistribuilpn,
basedon desiredgradation.

The comerO andO' arejoinedby straigiitline.

"
.

OO'representsrequiredgradationlinet'

Sieve sizes are marked correspondinglo percent ;:assing of required


gradation.This can be done by locatingthe averagepercentagespecifiedlor
any particularsieve,locatingthatpoint,cntlreY axir;and tlnenproceedingto cut
and OCI,a vertical
of iltis horizcrntalline
the lineOO'.Atthe pointof intersection
line is drawnto cut X axis. This intersalion poitrtorr ,l.iaxis representsthe
sizes
In thismanner,all the .sieve
sievesizeselectedfor.thedesiredgrachlrion.
the
X
axis.
-aremarlcedone by one on

Gradatkrndistributionof matorialsA, B and C arerthrendrawn, by usingthe


. sievesizesmarkedon the X axisandllheroercenl,age
finer rnarkedon Y axis.

in such a way that areaon


Balancinglinefor rnaterialsA, B and C a,redrrawrr
eithersitjeof balancinglineand gradationcurveale a1ui,tl,Balancinglinesare
distri.rutionof respective
straightlines which representthe paniiclersizer
materialin a best possiblemanner.'[his;can be acccmplished by using a
lransparenlplaslicscale, movingit on eithersiderof tf re material gradation
betweenbalancingline
enclo,sed
curveandcountingthe numberof square's
line :;houlrJbe drawn in such a
and materialgradationcurve.The balarrr;ing
(area)
on eithersicleof balancinglineandlhe
mannerlhatnumberof squares
selectect
curveshouldbe equat.
aradation

l|:lC:SP:89-2010
"Thoppositeendsorthetwoadjoiningba|ancirrg|itresareltrerrjcined.:
cThepoiintsvyherethesejoining|inescutoo'representtheper(;entageofthat
materialinthemix'
Them'ethodis illuslratedin Fig' 1 below:
ORICINAL C1JRVE

BAS

8F E

GO

OH

GO

CURVE
Dl-t: BOT-IOMOF OH wlTH IOPGO:
,olN UoTIOM oF l',c; wlTH TOP OF
AxlS
P
R
O J E C T F R o MM . 8 L c ) \ Y M
&
L
:
A
T
C'T
NTERSECTING

OASHED

t
t
I

u g)

z
G

Cnx;hed
Stff

u
d,
U

l0

H75
Mict6

600
Micrc.

235

4.
mh

l1m

SIEVE SIZE

ltilixers
Frig-1 Rothfutch Method ol Designing soil-Aggregate

10

IRC:Sit):BSl-2tl)]0
CHAPTER 3
.CUIOT'IIruES
MATERIALSSTITBILIZANON
FOR SOIUGRANULAR
GENERAL

3.1

Factorsto be Considered

consideredarerthr:type'lf Soiltr: be
ln the selectionof a stabiliz{lr,the taclorsthal mustbe
cesireclthe
the purposeliorwhichthe statlilizedlayeris used,the soil imSrrovement
stabilized,
conditions'
layerandthecostanden"rirg'rmenlal
ancldurabilltyof thestabilized
requiredStrength
r:f
whileselectingthe type S;labiliz'ilr'
The followingparametersare requiredtObe considered
Theremay be morethan ornecandidaleslabilizer
soit types and additive.s:
a)
gui&riines
therearesorn(|gener(rl
applicablefor particularsoiltype.However,
grarrularity,
thal rnakespecificstabilizersmore effeclivebaseldtln soil
a varir*yof
witlr
tie
used
can
forexample
plastbity,ortexture.Portlandcement
intinrately
nrrxed
be
the
cement
that
sinceil is imperative
soiltypes;ho,wever,
plastiic
nrattrrials
mcre
with the Jines;fraction(lessthan0.075mm size),the
pollsess
ti^ral
well-gradedgranularmalerials
shouldbe avoidetj.Generally,
rni:rlure)
sulticient{inesto producea floatingaggregatematrix(h,cmogen':,us
Limewillreacl,withsoilsof mediurnto
arebestsuitedforcemenfstabilization.
reduced
increasocl',vorlr:abrlity,
plasticity,
highplasricityto producedecreased
rof
matilrials
variety
a
swelland increasedstrength.Limeis usedto stabilize
thenrintoil "workingtah"e"or
weak subgradesoils,transforming
inclurling
''61t1t'
granularbasematerials,i'e', clay'gravelrs'
suFtrase;and wirhrnaroinal
gravt:ls,to {orm a strong,highqualitybase course.Fly'otn is a po:zzr::rlanic
is,
material,i.e-it react$withlimein powderedformin prcsnceof ruaiera:rrrd
or
lillJe
ltave
tiral
soils
wilhlimein
in combination
use.d
alrnostalways
therefore,
of
arnottnt
no plasticfines. lt has oftenbeenfounddesirableto us;r:a s;rnall
lron
Portlnndcementwithlimeand{lyashfor addedslrent3thThiscorttbirra of
in suhrbasocr:)urse
Ash (LcF)hasbeenusedsuccesslfully
Lime-cernerrt-Fly
slabiization.
b)

3.1.1

followingare generalguidelineswhenconsirJering
GeneralGuidetines.The
withdifferentadditives.
stabilization

Lime stabihization
erlluvial
Clay,ey
soilsincludingheavyclays,moorumandotherso ls metvvithin
a soil
stabili:lation,
For
effectiver
wilh
lime.
treated
plainscan be effectively
and
|
5
:han
lerss
not
;len-rerrt
muSl,havea fractionpassing425 micronSieve
'10percent.
Plasticitylndex(Pl)shouldbeal least
it b desirablethatthe percentageretainedcttl425
For effectivestabilization,
rtol.lesr;than5'
coeflir:ienl
micr,lnsievetshquldbe wellgradedwithuniforrnity
11

IRC:SP:89-2O10

3.12

"

Organicmatterin thesoilselecledfoi'src,ilstirbilization
shouldnotbe morethan
percent
2
andsulphatecontent shoulcl
notexceed0.2 percent.

"

pH valueol 10 or 11is desireclior po:zolanic,


reaclionto take placebetween
claymineralsand limefortfrel'ormation
oJcenrentitiouscompounds.

Soils havingorganicmalterand s;oh.rble


contenlsin
carbonate/sr.rlphate
excessof 2.0 percentand 0.2 percenlrespecltively
requirespecialstudies.

"

Somematerials
containamorphous
wihichalthoughhaslowplasticitybut
r;ilir:,a
(:iemr3nilation
reactswithlimeto lorm thernecesszriry
productsand shouldthus
be consideredfor stabilization
withlinre,.

Materials
containing
highKaclrnite
al;the lba*;ic
clay mirreralusuallyhave a
fairlylourPl with a high liqrridlinritand ir such cas;eslirneshould be
considered
for stabilization.

In case of highlyplasticsoils,h,voslagestabiiizationis adopted.In this case


soilis firsttrealedwitha sm;rllqlantityof linre.Lateron lhr:soilmay be treated
withremainingquantityof limeorwilhcem()ntto achievothe desiredstrengih
andstabitity.

Cetmentstabilization
c

3.1.3

Generallygranularsoils freerof frighconct:nlralionof organicmatter or


deleterioussalts are suitablefor r;t:nrentstabilizaliorr.
For checkingthe
suilabilityof soils,it would be ;ldvanlageouslo keep the followingcrilerion
inview:
a)

PlasticityProduct(PF'r,exprr.ssedas product of Pl of soil and


percentage
fractionp,as,siing
7tinnicrr:nsieveshouldnot exceed60.

b)

Uniformitycoefficienlof soil shr:uldbetgreaterth;an5 and prelerabty


grealerlhan10.

c)

Highlymicaceous
soilsarenotsuitatlle
for cementstabilization.

d)

Soilsthat are havingor$anic<:onlerrt


lrigherthan 2 percenland also
thosesoilshavingsulphateanJ r:arbonaleconcerrtralion
greaterthan
0.2percentare nol suitat,lefor cermentr:;tabilization.

e)

Siltyor fine sandymarterials


may exhibit a high liquidlimitbecauseof
the high surfacearea ol'the partrcles.-l'hisrnaterialgenerallywill not
reactwith lime becauseof lar:h:
of cleryparticlesarrdcan be stabilized
wilh cement.However,crmenl
s;tabiliiz:rtion
with hi,3hdosesof cement
maytendto makestabilization
uneconon'ical.

umelly ash (LF)and lime-cement-lty,ash


(LC'F)sta',ricilization

Stabilization
o1'coarse-grained
soilshavinglittlecr no lirrers
ciln oftenbe accomplished
by the
use of i-F or LCF combinations.
Fly ash,alsotennedr:oailas,h,is a mineralresidual{romthe

IRC:SP:89-20.10

combustionofpulverisetlcoal.ltcontainsreactivesi|icaancalurriniunr<lrrmpoundsthat,w
m i x e d w i t h l i m e a n c j w a r e r , f o r m a h a r d e n e d c e can
m e n t i t i c r t t s m ; ] | ; S c l p a t bin| e o f o b t a i n i n g h
andfty ashin combination cflen belt,**6 sucrlesslully
,rrung,n".'t-ime
cornpres;sive
wfrichthe lirnecanreact'
tn. fly ashactsas an aiQfit"ryith
granulart"i"ti"it
stabilizing
"in..
forbaseandsub-basecoursenuterials'
oftenappropriate
is
ThusLF or LCFstabilization
3.2DesirablePropertiesofLime,Cementand|F|yAstr|orStab|lization
3 . 2 ( a ) u m e : L i m e l s i ; b r o a d t e r m w h i c h i s u s e d t oan'J
d ecalcium
scribre
{ l a l c r i uCaCot
r 0 o x i-d e ( c a o ) - Q u i c
carbonate
- tr"k"o or hydratedline
6"'to*1,
rrydroxidJ
catciunr
rime;
by the
n6tweentheset'hreetyp,esof lirneciln be represented
of lime.rne retation
carbontrte
equations:
following
1)

CaCO.r- heat

CaO + CO,

2)

CaO'r-H.O

Ca (oH). + heat

3)

* QO,
Ca (tlP11,

= CaCO.+ HrO

The|iffitreactionwhichisreversibledoesnotoccurmucl.tbelcr',r,5009C)andisthebasis|orlhe
as a resuttof the
HyCmtedlim': is prrc'duced
manufactureof quicklintefrom chalkor limestone.
(by tl'rereversal of equation1) anc
reactionol quicklimewfth water (equation2). Quicklimer
cai'bonattlwhicl'ris nol usecllorstabilizahydratodlinre(byequation3) willbothrevertto calciunr
tc ;adjus;t
i:H.
tion' atthoughit is usedin agricultureas a soil additir];e
These types ol limescar
ln dolc,miticlime,some of the calciumis substitutedby ntagnes;iurn'
lrom impure
Hydrauliclimealso l<nownas gre/ lim,ei:rproducecl
also br; usedfor stabilization.
'availablelime'
less
conl.ain
thereJc're,
Tfrey,
clay.
formsof calciumcarbonatewhi*r abo contain
for this, they contair
to con'penrsat'e
i" i^iti.t* rtf*15 on ftasticity and strengith.Howev'sr,
Thus, whilsttheir
cerment'
rn
Porlletnd
found
silicalesand aluminatessimilarto those
reactir,re
maydevelog
they
term
lhe
lonp
in
lirnes
highcalciurn
immediateeffectmay be lessthanthat <-ri
suitirble'
ctlnsidet'ed
higherstrengths.Generally,useof dolomiticlimeis nr:t
rcfers 1:othe additionof calcitit
Consequenlyin the contextol lhis guidelines,limeslabilization
rlellveredat sile in suitablt
lirne
pre-:slaked
stareoat site,or
available,
Jry linre,commercially
limecomesin theformof a fiinedry powder
pa&inSi.Hydrated/Slaked
o
vir:lentlywith 32.p^ercent
It rc:t,tcls
prrwclereuicklimersavailableeitherin granularformor as a
10s
Joule:
x
17
r-rfheat (i:rpprox
its own weight of water to prJduceconsiderablean'lotlnts
released).
per kglofquicklimeare
butthey mayalsobt
limeandquicklimearebothusuallyaddedb scil in the":olitllrrrffI'l
Hydrarted
o{the threr
and dir:;advantagr:s
walerand addedto thesoilas sluny.The adveintar;es;
mixeclwitrr
below:
aresummarised
methodsof applicatiolt

lime
Dryltydrated
a)

.h
slurryandir
tirne:iitasterlhan
to
thrr:,rr
two
be
applied
Advantages:Can
indrYing
outsoils;.
veryeffective
IJ

IRC:SP:89-2010
b)

it undesirablefor
producesa dustproblenrlhat make{,;
Disadvantages-.
lime requiresan
use in urban areasand the tast dryingactionof tl"rer
excessamountof waterduringhot,dryweather

Quicklime
a)Advantages..Moreeconomica|than|ryc|ratec||inreastcontirins
action
approximalely25 percent-moreavailatrlelime' Fir:;lerdrying
' thanhydratedlimeon wetsuils'
b)Disadvantages:Fie|dhydralionis|esseffer:tive,prt:ducirrrJacoarser
requiresnrore
in soilnus;s,quir:klime
with poorerdistribution
rnateria.l
presentel
may
v'rhiich
waterthan doeshydratedlime for stabilization,
of sit': persorrnelto skirr
problemin dry areaand greatervulnerabilily
andeye bums.

Slurrylime
a)Advantages;Dustfreeapp|icationis|norei{:,Sirahr|efronrart
isachk;vedwilh theslurry;
betterdistribution
standpoint;
environmental
spreadingand sprinklingoperationaLrecombined,thursredr;cinq

.processingcostsandduringhotandrJryweathers|urryappliciation
pre-wetsthe soilandminimizesdryingacilon'
b)

ralesaresbw'er.Highr:apacil'/pumprsare
Disadvantages;Application
is
requiredto achieveacceptableapplicatiorrates;extril equipmernt
requiredandcostisthereforehigher;e)tran.lanipu|ationmaybe
requiredfor dryingpurposesduringcool,wel, humi<jvieather;nc't
quiclilim':
practicalfor use wih very wet soils ai'rdif preparc! f;srrTl
are largely
of quicklirnrl
any benefitsarisingf romthe heatol.hyrlra,tion
lost-

llte effectivenessof lirnein


The purityof linreaffectsthe strengthof lime-soilstabilization.
compositioni'e''
reactionwilh its clay mineralsis dependentto a good extenlorrits chemicral
of
prr:tcentage
lhrl
a
s
is
exprressed
purity
lime
of
amountof calciumoxidepresentin thelime.The
for
lime
used
thirtthe
avatlable
calciurnoxide presentin the lime.lt is generallyrecomrn,snded
of lime shouldbe
addition
The
percent
or above.
should have purity of 50
soilstabilization
oxidecontent
pruri$'
Caiciurn
increasedwhoneverthefieldtestsshowa lesserr
coneSprondingly
in airtigltt
limesuprplied
in limeshouldbt;delemtinedas specifiedin lS 1514or lS 712.Slerked
wiliristoragelhe
bagsshouldnol be storedfor more thanthreemonths.Sincelimed{}teriorales
puritynrustbe checkedat site before use.
and the:degreeol nrixing
witfilime,unilormmixingis a pre-requis'te
Foreffective
stabilization
'nrilllcea quicliand
depencls
on the finenessof lime. Whenusingline powderedlime,there
14

' IFIC:SF:89-2010
stabilizittiorrshall
Limel.fc,r
toforrncementitious
compounds.
withglsryminerals
reaction
eftective
of classC hydratedlimeas specifiedin lS 1514 r:rlSi7:l2,
conformto the finenessrr:quirement
whichis as underrflable 2):
Table2 Requirementol Finenessfor Lime Stabilization
S.No

SieveSize (Micron)

PercentageP'assing

1)

850

100

2)

300

99 (Minintttm)

3)

212

(Mininrum)
95 (Mini

of
shouldcomplywith tfre requireme,nb
3.2 (b) Cement:Cementfor cement,slabilization
lS 269.455or 1489.
coalor ligniticcoal.Flyaslhto be trsedforLhe
FIya:;h:Flyashmaybe fromanthracitic
3.2 (c)
purpose.ofsoil-1lime-lly
ash stabilizalion
shouldconformto the requirement;givenin Terbtr::3
and 4.
Tlable3 Ghemical Requirements for Fly Ash as a Pozzoll;rna
Sl. No.

Requirernents lor
Fly Ash

Characteristics

Anthracitic
fly ash

Llgniric
flyas;h

I ttllethocl

I of Tr:st

1)

SiO.-r-AlrO.,f:erO.in percentby
mass,Min

IU

50

I l:S'1i2,

2l

SiO,in percenlby rnass,Min

35

25

| l:311'2-,7

e\

MgOin percerfby mass,Max

25

5.0

| t:3t;'z;t

4)

SO.in percentby mass,Max

2.75

3.5

| ilS17'27

5)

Availablealkaliesas NarO/KrO
in percentby mass,Max

1.5

I lts4cl3i1

6)

Total,chloridesi
in percentby mass,
Max

0.05

7)

Losson ignitionin percenlby nass,


Max

5.0

1.5

16

cr.0l5 .l
5.rl

ili1i'27

I lS 1i'27

IRC:SP:89-20'10
Table4 Physicat Recluirementfor Fly ltsh a$ a Pozzolona

Requirement
prernrei:rbilitY

250
40

, Max
Particlesretainedon 45 micronlS sieve:

3.5

Min
in NVrnm'z,
Ljme reaclivitY

3.3

in
Soundnessby autoclavetestexpansicrtol spr:cimern
percent,Max

0.8

Soundness by Lechateliermethod-elxpanslolin mrn, lVlax

10

Selection of Stabilizer .

:sizedistributionof the material


The selectionof thestabilizeris basedon plasticilyand piirlic,le
to thercriterionshown in
to be trealed.'rhe appropriatestabilizercan be selectr;cJacccrding
by lirnitingihe coetficientof uniformity
Table5. Some conlrotoverthe gradingcan be a:hievercl
ll the coefficiento{
to a minimumvalueof 5; however,it shouldpnrierablybe rnore than 10'
of cracksin the
willbe hrgfrandll^rernaintenarnce
lies below5, thecostol stabilization
uniforrnity
sutficientclay
usually
are
fiere
ir;
high
finishedroadwouldbe expensive.li the plasticitlof scil
with
intimately
mix
to
ditficult
is
more
mineralswhich canbe readilystabilizedwithlime,.Cerrent
approximately
with
soil
by pn;'treraling:the
plasticmaterialbuf this problemcan be alleviat,ed
2 percentlime.

Tabte5 Guideto the Typeof titahilizationlikelyto be Effective


SoiilProperrties
Type of
Slabilization

More lhan 25oloPassing tl"re


0.075 mm sieve

P t <1 0

1o <Pl<20

Fl>:20

Lel;s than 25!/opassing the

0-075mrn sieve
Pl<$,
pp < rcO

P l. : 1 0

Yes;
Yex;
Nln

3.4

Nb
Ygs;

UsingLime{ollorredby Cement
Two StageStabitization

-t1te
are thosethat
principalsx,3gptions
Cernentcan lre used to stabilizemostol thi3s;oils.
'cf
which are
soils
and
cament
1.he
lrydration
containort;anicmalter in a torm which retards
1a

lFlC:SP:89-2O10
withcement'ihe
In competri:*on
contertrt'
difficultto rnixwith cementon accountof theirhighclay
amotlntil gendrally
us'edin equrivalerlt
is morerestricled;
potentialuse{or limein soilstabilization
soils
is for ursewitlrcleryey
produceslowerslrenglhsthandoescementand its mainapplicatiorr
lime/cement
rlf
slager
lhe usr: a two
whicharerjifficultto stabilizewithcement.Forthesereasons
of externdingthe ran'geof soil
possibility
the
it
otfers
as
slabilizationprocessappearsattraclive
effeclilhelimr: and cementwould
To achievethe maxirrrurn
whichcan be effectivetyslabilized.
trrst beradded t'o modify the
not be blended but would be added ssparately.Lime w,culd
'cf
to hring out a longterm
centr:rnt
propertiesof soil and this;wouldbe followeclby the addition
1;s6rrtl
increaseirrstrength,when limetreatedsoil is slabilized*'15
3.5

Modification and Cementation

-l.here
impr'cvemenland
{or s'Libgracle
is a dislinctionbetweena stabilizedsoil "modifierJ''
,1:emented.(a cementerJsoil in this contextcan be ontl stiebilizedwith lime as the clay{ime
'ior
reactionproductscanbe regardedas a cement) use';ls a'srlb-baseor base'The
p,ozzolanic
to oerscribethe degreeandtype
are usedin speciticatitlns
and cernenlation
term"moditicaUon'.
of lrealmelnt.
plasticityand ermarginal
1-herapiclaction of lime on soil, which brings abouta rerjrlctiotrirr
are fttvourablefor the pozzolanic
increasein CBR is re{erredto as Modification.lf conditions;
strengths
rrt
soilwilldevelopsignifica conrPtessivr:and ternsile
,,"1ionto proceed,tirelimestabilized
and it is tlren regardedas a "cemented"material.
quantityof cementis addedlo a soil,thepropertieirnayalso be modifiedwithout
li a veryS;rnall
strength.ln suchcases
or lerttsilr
of significantcomprerssi'te
muchhadenilg or thedevelopment
be
can nelvertheless
trraleriar
of
a
propertie,s
poor,butthe
of r:ementalionis relatively
lhe degrre
the
in
as
modificalion
r:onsiderirblyimprovedin this way.This trealmenlis arlstlrefern:d to
specifications.
rdy'hen
strength,il is reganlecjas a cementedmatenal
a rnaterialhasdevelopedsufficienttensile
the lwo
and tl'leclivisionbeniveen
5utthereis no cleadydefinedboundarybetweenmodificatron
unconfined
day
thal
a7
is arbitrirry.However,it has been suggested(NAAtiR4 198;)
the two.
r;ompressive
strengthof 0.8 N/mmzcouldbe set asthe bourrdarybertweler

1'l

IRC:SP:B9-201(t

CHAPTER4
MATERIALS
ANDTESTBEQUIREMENTS
FOHSIAI]ILIZED
SPECIFICATIONS
4.1

GeneralRequirement

roadwillbe largelygovemedby ihe gradattion


and the
Tfrcpavementperrforntance
of a stiabilized
nraterialused for the purposeot stabilizalion.
1-hequalityof milterialto be
typeof s;oiligranular
shouldmeet the minimumstandardset out in specificatiorrs.
Stabilizedlayers
stabilizrd
construr:ted
from such malerial is likely to performsatisfactorilyr
even il', it is affected by
cafionalionduringits lifetime.Materialswhichdo notcomplywitlr
givenin the
lhrrequirements
speciliciltions
canbe stabilizedbut moreadditivewillbe required
ianrltheriskfrontcrackingand
cadronalion
willincrease.Thestrengthof slabilizedmaterials
in ma,nyways,ol
canlbeeryaluaterJ
(tj,3S)tr:slancltlreCalifornia
whichthemostpopulararelhe UnconfinedCompressive
Strength
BearingRatio(Cl3R)test.
4.2

Stabllizationwith Cement

4.2.1

RequircmantforsoilmodificatiordsuDgqadeimprovemerll

Cementstabilize(l
materialscan be usedfor soilmodification
or improven:ent
of subgradesoil.
from economicconsideration
It is recommenderd
rlf construclionbe
that mixin-placernethorJs
used{or subgracieimprovementand only granularmaterialsand s lty cofrrlsivrlrnaterialsbe
used.(Theassurnptionbeingthat moreclayeymalerialswouldbe rnoreeff,ectirrely
stabilized
withlimer).
The mainrequirementsfor cementmodilication
or stabilization
of subgrildesoil are
summarised
in Table6.
Table6 Soil Characteristicsfor CementModifiedSilliUlmprroved
Subgrade/CappingLayer

-S"*ifEJ

Properties
Liquid Limit (%)

Grtu;
--si--:---

_---

Plasticitylndex

<2tJ

Organric
conlent(/")

<2:

TotalSiO.
conlent
MinimumLaborratory
CBR at specifieddensity(%)

cement
Minimum
content(%)

0.2 % Ma:r
15

tz"

("/")
Degreeof pulverisation
for mixing
Ternperrature

>60
l\ilorethan1ffC

llme for completingcompaction

2 hrs lilax

In case bettat mohanical oquipment lor spreading ot cemenl, tor breakingotodsaod tfenclinr; is usod, the
mlnimumpercanlageolcenlent for $tabilization
couldbe 0.5 percenl.Howeverextensivolab tesling must be
doneto atriveat this minimumprercentage.
Sampleat site of blendedloosesol be collectedarrdr"emoulded
in
lab to contirmlhal lhe desiredCBR can be achieved.

18

L
!

lF;0:SP:89-20'10
4.22

for bound sub-baseVbases


Re,guireme,nt

Granularmaterials,gravel,sand, lateriticsoils,sandysilty material,crushedsllag'crrushed


or
with eithercementor linre-flyztsh-cr3rtent
concrete,brir:kmetaland kankar,etc. stabilized
and
s,ub-lcase
as
weak
subgrade,
lime-flyash,etc.maybe allowedfor useas cappinglayerover
layetsol a
of stabilizedlayersfcr differerrrt
base layerof pavenrent.The main requirements
grtrdations
indiThe
and
Il.
in
TableT
pavementstructureas indicatedaboveare sumnrarised
fof cernentbound
Gradarticrn
cated in TatrleI arr: inlendedas tentativespecilications.
i:hickness
ol different
can alsobe adopted.Flowever,
materialsas per MoFtTHspecifications
of a padiculargradingarrdstrengthrequirements
for acJoption
slabilizedlayers,seler:tion/choice
of
of lheselayersareto lbedecidedon thebasisof pavementdesignandwilflspecificaSprtcval
theEngineer-in-Char1;e.
Table7 MatcrialCharacteristicsfor CementModifiedGr:rnularMatelrials
SpecilieclValue
sr"n:i"*:-]_:.--]

<4,5

._-_ -l
3i -_-:-l
<i!
<i!

rt--_--__--

TotalSO"content("1')
of ':oarseaggregates
Waterabsc'rption

4% (X the is vaiue is >296the


soundnesste:;tslrallt:'tr
carriedoul r)nthe materials

1"*"*59i:ryi::'::L-J
> 50ldl

finesvaluewhentestedas
10 percent
per8S812(lll)

t
___--J

4-3

Stabilizationwith Lime

4.3-1

Requirementforsoilmfiification/subgradeimprovement

I
I
I

The properliesof soil-limemixes is usuallyassessedon the basis;of strengthtestr;made


on the materialsal'terthe stabilizerhas been allowedsutficienttime to har,len.The
strengthof stabilizedsoils can be evaluatedin many ways, o, which the most popularis
is generally
CalifomiaBearingFlatio(CBR) lest for lime stabilizedsoils. Limestalrilization
in nalure. l.irne is
to irnprovethe subgradesoils which are cohersiv,
recornmentJed
for such soils becauseol rts beneficialeffectson plarsticity',
workabilityand
recommended
in
improvedsubgrirCe
are sLrrnrnarised
strengthgain.Themrainrequirernents
forlimestabilized
the Table919

IRC:SP:89-2010

Materialsfor

Bsund
for Cemernt
Table B GradationRequirernenl
LaYer
Base/SuFbas's'/Capping
lll
GradingI Gradiingll Grading
Sieve size
100
75.0mm
100
tlrl-l00
100
53.0mm
s5-100
,{.5.0mm
37.5mm
l'0-100
s5-90
26.5mm
2.4 mm
400
1 1 . 2m m
3{i-65
9.5mm
4G65
25"55
254Cr
4.75 mnt
30-50
2t::t-40
15-3(l

GradinglV
100

95-100

55-75

ry49

3tg

10-30

2.36 mnl
0.600P
0.4251t

B-22

0300u

0.075Y
7 days lJnconfinedComPressive
Strength(MPa)lor cementbound
materialsor 28 days strengthfor lime-fly
ash & lirnecment-tly ash bound materials

.. fi"ffi;:1[il1f":,xtilffi:mbe

0-8 "
12'16

1*25

1r:)-35

-3-10,.-,.
7",14.5"

.&10..
J-l I,3

Q:..10-.
1.5'/0.75"

strensth
compressive
lvrheunconfined
Grirctins
F,c,r
rhebarch
wilhirr

alt'anatives
areequallyacceptable
andCBRrequirernent

Soils
lor li-inne/Moditied
Table 9 Material Characte'ristic-q'
Value

1m%
Passinq26.5 mm sieve -

15- 100%

210
< 204

< 0.2o/"

c,onlirntthat the desired CBFI can be achieved'

,n

lllC:SP:89-2010
ol linreshall be the sameas givenin Section3'i2'
Therquality
4,4

Slabitizationwith Llme Fly Ash (LF)

pulverisedf uelash (pFA)or fly ash has been recognisedfor rnanyyeausas iavaluablernalerial
of collrse grainedsoils;having
tor modifyinganclenhancinglhe propertiesof soils.Stabili::aiion
F:lyash alsotermec
Combinartion.
LF
or
LCI:
of
liltlgor no finescan be accomplishedby the use
coal' lt contains
of thelprulverris;ed
as r:oalashis a mineralresdual oblainedfromthe cr:mbusliorr
silir:onand aluminiumcompoundwhich,aftermixingwith lirre and water lorms a hardenec
strenglhs-Lime and fly' ash ir
mass capableof obtaininghigh compressiiv(;
cementitious
granttlarmaterialssincethe ily asl'
irrstabilizing
can oftenbe usedsuccesslully
cornbination
providesan agent with which the lime can react.Thus LF or l-CF stabilizationis ofter
ilr3eitherfromanthraciticcoa
appropriateforbaseandsrrb-basecoursematerials.Ftyas;hfti'r
shall confomrto the
asfr
stabiliz:ation
tly
in
or ligniticcoal. Fly ash to be used lime and
given in Table 3 and 4. Lime shall conforntto ttto requirementas given ir
re<;uirements
Section3.2.

withlimeo
:stabili:zation
llng:flyglh 9!?9!!i199
-PS,qi.g-n-9f
Ti* i" somew_hat
lifetenljSm
c,ffaCtbir
li-nuintiei
(aggregaie,lty
riSfraiiit
lim,a)
givencombination
ofmalerials
Fc,r.a
cement.
canbe varir:din themixdesignprocesssuchas percentageof lime-flyash, rnoisturecontentan(
suchas strengll
cfiara,cterislics
thatenginerering
th<lratjool lime-tlyash.lt is generallyrecognised
-fhe
and durabilityare directlyrelatedto the qualityol the matri:xnr,aterial. m,atrixrnaterialis tha
higherstrengtl
part,whichconsistsof flyash,limeandpassing10 mm aggrqgitesfirres.Bztsioally,
is achieved,whenthe matrixmalerialisableto f ill the coarsea$gregat(
and improvedclurability
particles.Foreachcoarseaggregatematerial,thereis a quanlityof rnatrixrequiredto ellectivel'
frlrmalimum dry densityolthetote
filltheavailablevoidspaces'The quantityof matrixrequire'c
that'tht
mixtureis rcferredto as the optimum{inescontent.In LF mi}lure{iit is rracommended
At tht
percenl
the
fines
conteni:.
above
optintum
oi matrix be approximalely2
- qr"rantity
alsc'influr:ncrld
by the ratioof ilmeto fI'
finescontent,thestrenghdevelopment's
reoommended
of sttengthand clurabilit'
as;h.Adjustmentof the lime{ly ash ratiowill yieldditferernt'ralues;
properties.The mix designprocessis describedbelow:
' 'fhe lirst step is
to determinelhe optimumfinesccntentthat will give the rnaximun
tests using rlifferen
This is done by conductinga series of moirsture-density
dernsity.
perrcentaEes
ot tly ash and dplerminingthe mixlevelthatyieldsmaxinnunrdensity.The initialfl'
tha
as;hconterrtshouldbe about10 percentbasedon dryweightof the rrrix.lt is recommerrded
20
mm
fraclion
rninus
test
conducl:ed
on
tlre.
the
20
and
larger
than
mm
be
removed
material
uptoa'tot;alr:f about20 percenl
Tersts
are rr:nat increasingincrementsof ily ash,e.g.2 peir,ce,rt,
Moisturerlensitytests should be conductedfollouringpnlceduresirndicatedin lS 2720

Step 1:

21

IBC:SP:8$'2010

2 percental:rrvelhat yielding
part 7 or flart B. Tne designfly ash contenlis then 3electedat
maximumdensitY.
fly ashthat lvil|yieldhighestslrengttrandj,,^:l']L.y.
Step 2: Determinethe ratioof lirneto
watercontentdeterntinedin step 1' prepare
Usingthe designfly aslrcontentand theoptinum
LFratiosof 1:3'1:4and 1:5'll desired
slpecimenatlrrreedifferentlimeflyashratio'Llse
triplicate
addedat thistime'
aboul1 per cenl ol Portlandcemenlmaybe
unconlined
alsperASTMD 559andcompare|hetesultt;o| the
Step 3: Conductdurab,ilitytest
i8'
lowestLF
Tlhe
irr
Tablie
shorun
strent3thanddlrability testswiththe requiremenls
r:ornpress1ve
urrconfined
required
the
rneets
contentwhich
ratiocont,enl,i.e., ratio with the lo.westlime
is tlre rlesiEnLF
the requirecldurability'
demonslrates
and
requirement
compressivesverrgth
it is
butnotthestft)ngthrequirement5'
requirements
contenl.ll the mixliuremeetthe Ourafiitity
teslleddo nol meet boththe
o{ the specimens
consideredto be il modifiedsoil. lf the results
LF contenlma'ytn selertledrcradditional
strengthand durerbilitv,"qrit"."nts, a dilferent
to ascertainstrength arnddurability
porilandr:ement ne used ano steps 2 to 4 repeated
as per stipulatedspecilicalions'
requirements
'trase:srnaybe as
for stabilizedsulr-bas'e
Gradatio.Requirementsfor LF or LCFstabilization
in Table8.
indicated
4-5

Stabili::ationwith Linre, Cementand Fly Ash

lf
strengtlrandclurability'
withLFlor improverJ
portlandoemenrnrayatsobe usedin combination
LF
design
for
in'JiCnted
cementintothemixture,thesamepro@durers
lo incorporale
it is desirerd
be
include'd'Generally'
cement:;h:rll
the
2,
step
at
beginning
shouldbe followedexceptlhar,
to lime'
may be usedin placr:of ttt ;n 26llJilirln
about1 to 2 perc,entcementis used.cement
be
must
lesls
Strengthand durability
however,the totalfines contentshouldbe maintained'
best
gives
lhat
to delerminethe r:ombinatiorr
conductedon sampl; at various LCF ratios
should
sub-base/ba:ses
{orstabilizeij
stabilization
LcF
for LF or
results.G radationrequirernents
be as indicatedin TableB'
4.6

Cement StabilizedFIYAsh

courseof tly ash as treated


base/basrl
Thiswork shallconsistof layingandcompactinga subwith requirementsof the
in accordancei
with cement on preparedsubgrade/sub-base,
po<r
subgradeak;o'Fly Ash
of
This technique o" adopted{or improvement
specificalions.
".n
i3
shallconformto Table and 4 Pondilsft or bottom
to be usedlor cernenlfly ash stabilization
of Table3 and 4 canalsobe use'l for cenrentstabilizaash,whichdo notmeett"herequirernents
ash/pondash mixshould
lryash/bottorn
tionwork.However,in all casesthe cemehtstabilized
slrength'
developzrdequater
havingthe re'
is to providea pavemr:nt'nraterrial
Theobjectivesof the mixdesignprocedures,
proportionsof lly ashand cemenlto meetthefollowingrequirerrnetrls:
quireO
1)

and durability
Provrdeadequatestrengrth
zz.

IFC:{l[':89-2010
2\

Be easilvPlacedanclcornpacted

3)

Be economical

to propermixingartdlrenr;enot
amenable
notgerierally
Amountof cementlessthan2 percenlis
r e c o m m e n d e d . A f t e r d e r c i d i n g c e m e n t a n d f l y " ' n " o n(Part-7
t u t ' t f oor
r t tl)'
r i aTht:
l n l i xunconfined
rnoistur'edr:nsity
witfrlS 27?-0
has to ne dr:terminedin accordance
relationship
all'Coptirnum
at nraximumdrl'derrsity
strengthtes,tis cloneon sarnplescompacied
compressive
moisturecontent'Themixproportionshou|dbedesignec|toobtainminimurrrurrconfined
compressivestrengthoflT'5kg/cmzafterTdaysmoistcuringinahumidi\'chrrnberf<lrsamp|es
witha|engrhtodiame|r:rratioof2:l.Curingmaybecanied
o uash
t i n anrJ
l | r e'}0ment'
t r - ' m p ebul
raturerange
ol, fly
tneproportions
mixshouldnotonlyinOicaie
The rJesigrt
30eCto 3BeC.
to
densit'/hat is;sequired
specifiedcompacted
alsomentionquantityoi warerrobe mixedanda
ied strength.
satistysPecif
can be used' Portlandpozzobrac:enlenl
cement:cementcon{ormingto ts 269 or ls 8112
shouldnotbeusedforstabi|ization,whenf|yashisusedasarrinetredienl.
for stabilizedmixesshallbe cleanarxlfrerel'rom
waten water usedficrmixing and curing
as lls 456'
reqr'tiremc:nt
. injuriousamountsof oits,sattand acidetc.lt shallmeetthe
r'vorks'
The
for stabilizatron
to be acceptable
Potablewateris generallyconsidered
permissib|e|imitsforso|idsinwatershou|dbeasgiveninTalr|er10.
Tablel0Permissib|eLimitforSolidinWaterforSoi|Stabllizauort
PermissibleLimit (Maxirnum)
200 mg/litre
3000mgllitre
400 mg/litre

Sulphales (as SO)

2000mg/litre,
2000 mgilitrer

Suspendedmaller

4.7

TestRequirements

4.7.1

lJnconfinedcompressivestrengthtesl

the soilat il prepreparedby mr>ling


Thistestis carriedoul on cylindricalor cubicalspecimens
into a
the nrixedmatenial
noisture contentand stabilizerconientandcompacting
determined
of
a given cornpactiveefforl"l-he choice
rhouldat either a pre-determineddensityor al
keep
to
desinilcte
clearly
gradingof tne soit;it is
specimensize and shapedependson lhe
of lhe
pariclessizeto the snrallgstdinternsion
nraximum
the
of
the ratio
as smallasp,ossible
group of matL'riiilare r8lsrnmended
mould.The lfollowingsizes of Specimenfor diflerenl
fiable 11].
a.)

lFlC:SP:89-2010
Tabltt11 Suggested Size of Mouldlsfot Ca:stingMaterials Samples
Finegrainedmaterial

100mm frighqnd50 mm'diameter'


speci;ntens
CyfinCti""r

Mediumgrainedmaleria

100mm highand50 mm diameter'


Cylindricalspr:cinten3

Coarsegrainedmaterial

1t;0mm cubicsPr=cimeru;

or 150mmcubicrspecimens
or 150mmcubic;sPecimcrns

testson cubicalspecimens
frcnrstrrgngth
Oompressivestrengthresultson identicalmaterials
and cylindricalspecimenswith
specrimens;
wr:uldbe higfrerthanthoseobtainedfromcylindrir;al
specirnenswith a heighU
cylincJrica.l
than
ratio of 2'.1;have lowerstiength
a FreighVdiarneter
be miadeforthiewherrcomparingresults
diameterratio of 1:'1.Allowancethereforef,aslt
low Strengthsencorlnteredin
relatil'el1t
obtainedwith specimensof differentshapes.For the
by the
may be multipliect
srzedlesl'spr-'cimens
soils the resullson differerrt
cement-stabilized
strengthof a
conectionfactors given in Table 12 to calculiatelhe approximatelequirralent
of lhe
of
sppcimens
lhrsstrengths
betw,3en
150 mm cube.However,lhere is no uniquerela'tion
:;trengthof the material'
two shapesas the ratiodependsprimarilyon the levelof
Specimens
Correction Factors for Varlor:sSia: snd Shape of Ter;t

150mm'cube
100 mm cube

200mmx 100mmdiameter
rylirnd'ar
'115.5mm x 105mm diamelercylincler

127mmx 152rnmdiametercYlind'er
4.72

Durability of stabi\zed materials

the followingtwo methods


forsub'batse/base,
In ordertocheckthedurabilityof theslabilizeclni:x
and climatic
temperature
for nrocJerate
are recommended.Method 1 is recommraflced,
variation
large
regioitswheretl^ereis
l,orthoser
method2 is recommenced
*"j'i.^r,il;;
the adoplionof a particularmelhod
in ternperatureand climaticcondi[ons.The decisionreganlingt
shouldbeas directedby the Engineer-in-Charget'
of tJCs specimenwhich
Mefrlod 1: Preparetwoidenticalset (contiining3 specimenseach)
contentforT days.Atthe end of
arecuredin a normalmannera1c\-)tritantmoisture
rvhilelhe othersrtis continuedto cure
in waterr
7 daysperiodone set is immersecl
ihey are tesledfor
at constantmoisturecontent.lVhen boths'etsarr-'14 daysolcJ
in urlter as a percentageof the strengthot
ucs. The strengthoJthe set imrnr:rsed
I

24

IRC:SP:89-2010
the
T'hisindex
isa measureof
s|tcuredatconstantmoisturecontentiscalculated.
tfthisvalueis lovver
thanB0percerlit
resistance
to theeffectof wateron strenglh.
beincreasr:d.
is cpnsidered
thatlhestabilizer
contentis lowanditsvalueshourld
Method2:

as
Tlristestis doneas perASTMsbndardNo.ASTMD 559,lt is;generallyrknown
soilmixes,wtrich
ol stabili:zed
durability
WettingandDryingtestfor dete'rmining
changes(swelland
anclvolurne
changes
determines
theweightlosses,moisture
soil
stabilized
produced
strrinkage)
by repeatedwettinganddryinr;of l'rardened
The otheris a freezingandthawingtest wtrichfollows:a sirrrilar
specimens.
of lreezingand
procedure
exceptthatwettingand dryingis replacedby cy'cles
thawing.

of wettingirnd
lo 111r;ycles
aresubjected
In thewettingand dryingtest,thetest specimens
drying,consistirrgofimmersioninwaterfor5hoursfollowedbyrJry'ingatl''l0Cfor42hours'After
brush(18screttch
vritha tryine
manner
arebrushedin a standardised
eachcyclelhe s;pecimens
of ttrobrushedspecimelns,
20strokes
onthesidesand4 strokesat eachend).Thelossinweir;ht
In a parallelteslthevolumeilnd moisturtlchangesof the
aftereachcyck;are determined.
aftereachcycleis recorded.
specimens
testis similarto thewettinganddryingtestbutlttr:testcrlclesconsistof
Thefreezing
an,dthawing
to freezingconditions
the i;pecimens
at -234Cfor 124froursfollowedby thawingat
subjecting
test,aftereach
asinthew,etting
andclryirrg
hours.
The
specimens
arebrushed,
21eCfor23/24
prevailing
under
arrd
welting dryingwould
in India,durabilily
thawing
conditions
ryde.F:orclimatic
notgenerally
conditircn
cloers
anddurability
underfreezelthavrr
haveto betakenintoconsideration
apply.
afler12 cy,3ls3
setbylhe PCAis thatthelossin weight,oflttespecimens
Theprincipal
criterion
on
dependinl;
limrits,
& thawing
andwetlinganddryingshouldnotexcesJcerterin
of bothfreezing
to loseupto 14 percontof theirorigiinal
soiltype.Granularsoilsol lowplasticity
arepermitted
claysoilsarepermitledto loseonly7 percentol theiroriginalmass.The
massandcohersive
abrademorelreadilylha,ncr:hrxivesoilsand
isthalgranular
materials
reasonof thedifference
to thatlooserred
by lhealtematecyclesof
somematerial
irraddition
thewirebrushingrernoves
as pers,rmeothbrshtdies,theabove
andwettinganddryirrg.However,
freez-ing
andthiawing
valueshaveber:rn
relcommended:
werefoundlo betoostringent
andlollowing
requirements
Base:Lessthan20 percenl
Less;than30 percent
Sub-base:
Lessthan30percent
Shoulder:

25

IRC:SP:89-2010

CHAPTER5
OPEHATIOI{S
CONSTRUCTION
5.1

Frrocedure of Stabilization

layersfollowthe-fsiameL'asicprocedureswhether
Theconstruciionof stabilizedroadpavement
in
be divi'Ced
agent is cernenl,limeorotherhydouti. binder. :lepr''x'6urescan
the sfabilizirng
to twomaingroups:
1)

slabilization
$Iix-in-Place

2)

Plant-mixstabilization

5.2

lJlix-in-PlaceStabilizltion

it is
procedureis its relatives,irnplicit/and henc;eThe rnainadvantage of the mix-in-place
difflcr:lt'
particularly
suitablelorworkin remoteareaswhereptantrnixirrgcouldprrovelogistically
stabilizer,
the
ol
good
distrfbution
i.e.
mixing
efficient
are nol obtaining
Its disadvarntages
thicknessesol morethan200mm andol poorlevr:ls.
constructing
in-siluwhichrequirestne slabilizingagentto be spread
In thisprocessthe materialis stabilized
Tltis isigenerallyr:anied
andmixingof the soilan,Cst.abilizer.
beforeor duringthe pulverisation
agricultural
out witha purpose made machlnealthougtifor smallscalework in rcmc'teareas
lhe
inrrohres following
-r;,:nerzlll'7
machinerycan be adaptedfor use. In-situslabilization
operations:
InitialPreparation
nrateriaj
excavatingctownto thein-situmaterialtobe slabilizedor placingimported
Thisinvolvrrs
lhe
approximately
gracled
to
lre
to
has
on the forrnation.The materialto be stabilizedthen
two
or
one
material'
the
looserl
to
plougth
1o
requiredlevels.After whichil is usuallynecessary
passesis rormallYsufficient.
Spreadingthe Stabilizer
Spreadingrhe stabilizingagentat the requireddosagerale can be ci;rniedout manuallyor by
they
machine.lVhen manualrnethodsareusedbagsof slabilizerrrespotl,edirt atsel spacang,
possible.
Where
rrnnly;s
unif
as
the
surfatxl
raked
acres
the
stabilizer
arethenbr,lkenopen and
to prorcctlheroperators'Thisis
needto be trakr:n
quicklimeirsbeing used,necessaryprecaution
rvhenthe stabilizeris beingspreadby manualrxethod.
especially,lrue
lherefore,to achievea rnor
Limehasa muChlowerbulkdensitythancementandit is p'Cs;rble,
uniformityofthelayerof
arespreadmanually.Tho
uniformdislributionwithlimewhenstabilizers
ol the
theuniformiiy
delernrines
slabiizerspreadoverthesurface,beforethemixingoperaliiorr,
mixedmat,3rial
OrOduced.
26

lR0:SP:B9-it0l0
to belspreadon
amountof stabi|i:zer
monitorthe required
llutomaticai|y
spreaders
crverthe
Mechanica|
rrt
in a muchrnoreuniformspread stabilizer before
results
,,"
rn"i,
soi|'
the
o|
the surface
lo tre calilrralecl
n-ono,pr"uuin!. rne eqrinlelt nged
surfacelhancan o" u"'.,,"iui[i
checfredat rer,ular
subsequentlv
and
oiipitto is alhieved
,,i,
,;;;;;i
the
that
ensure
to
use
remainswithinspecifiedtoleranc;es'
intervalstoensuretnu,in"iuiu of spread
Additionof Water

valuethiscaneitherbe
moisture\$ntentto the requirecl
the
bring
waterio
add
t'
it
is
necessary
lf
priorto theaddition
tF malerialhasbeenpreparecl
doneas partof rhemixingoperation.orStlg,r J'the addedwater'if is;prerferabkl
to a'cdwaler
to ensrrEairrorougnoistriolriln
a
oflhe stabiliz"r.
the mixinqprocessr;houldb9 through
as partof the rnixingoperation".Walglid::,J"ing,;'unnu,,oveiithe requiredar:zr
and rnixecl
ln u{orm
spraysystemzucfrtni it is add^ed 1
uniformlytolnerequ|reddepth.Wheretremixingplanldoesnrlienable\vatertObeaddedor
the prepared
orriii*i"ing it sl,':rrldbr: acldedto
to add enough
whereit is not pgssibt,a
are;a'The
wfnle
r:vt."
the
""6rthe;oint to bi cotrtrolled
enables
lhe
materialusinga spraysystemthat
erlsLrre
to
s'tabilizer
ol the
shourdrhenbe mixed;;;;i;il;diti,in
be stabirize,d
mareriarto
layer'
Oi"tinutionof lhtl waterrthroughoulthe
Mixing Soil, Water and Stabifizer

RobustmixingequipnlentO{suilab|epowertorthe|ayerbeingp,rocessedis;requirtx!topulverlse
available
anO*at"r. ine tnostliticienlol tlr'amachines
the soiland blendit vriinttre stabilizer
nrinimislng
and
quickly
un"pu*, enanfingth; layerto be compaclexJ pass rnachirres
are
carryouttheoperarion-in
uv unv o"ruvin compaction'Mu'fti
the losso{ densityarrdslrenglhcaused
'and
ear:h
excessive
not
is
prrrvidedthe length of p"u"rnrit u"[ig pr*"ssed
satislactory,
time'
acceplable
an
within
pricessed
;;;"t
;;vemenl can be
the soilwith
factorin theabilityof mixingplantto rnix
Theplasticilyof the rnaterialis overriding
r:ement
with
satisfact.dlymixed
A revieworwoi* snowedthattll pruJi"*ir "outO'ne of the soil multipliedby the
stabilizer.
orinn plasticityindex
usingthe plant.For conesiuesoilsa tu"to,.
dramelermay Lle
+2'5micronirrp;article
of thefrar:tionof the soilwrricnwal tinetttun
percentage
are l]ivenIn
whrch
ifpes of mixingplanlavarilatrle'
usedto suggesttne vatuesforthe ditferent
Table13.
DifferentTypes of.l'lant
(mm)
draPth
imrunr
rnaxi
PlasticitYInder x Percentag Nonnal
I
ot beinE
Processed
capabll'
ol fraction finer than
layer
one
in
425 micron
r 20-1e'0
Lesshan 1000

Using
Table13 Soil PlasticitY Limits for Srabilization
Type of Plant'

AgriculturalDisc harrows'
DiscPloughs'rolavators

(< 100hP) Lesslhan2000


rotiavatons
f-ighiOrtY
Lessthan3500
dutYrotavat()rs
Hearry
(> 100hp)

150
on soil
de
200-3$ (, deperrCiryl
of mixer)
horsernwetr
hot
and
fpel

o{ the Engineer-irr-charge'
leltlo tre decisiorr
selectionof the apt)roprhreplanl shoutdbe

27

IBC:SP:89-2010

br.rtthey are inefficientfor pulverising


rmerlerial
Graders have been use<Jto mix stabilized
a largenumberof passesare neededbe{ore
cohesivesoil andevenwilh granularmalerials
is not
thes;ereasons,thruse o| gradr:rfor mixing
the qua|ity of mixingis acceptaote.For
suggested.
ComPaction
Compaclionis carriedoul in two stages:
dt

b)

followedby a final
An initialrollingand trimmingrvhichmay be carriedout
mixingpassof the rotovalor.
material,must
Finalcompactionandlevellingin theca:seof cementstabilized
are less
s;labitization
be completedwithintwo hoursof mixirrg.Delayin lime
even be beneiitsin completingthe
therer'{nay
criticaland for soilmodiiicaliort
one and sevendaysafterthe
bretvl'een
final mixing,levellingandcompraction
the limeand clay
inilialmixing.Thistrmegapallows{or th'ereactionsbetween
However' for lime
to take plac.eand lhus providea nlore workable soil'
be to complete
should
llne aim
stabilizationas distinctlrom rnodification,
is particularly
This
withinthreehoursafterrnixinglimewith soil.
compaction
are more
true in hotclimateswhereproblernsof evapotalionand carbonation
|ike|ytooccur'|ncaseolcenrentstabi|iz:ation,thistinreperiodshoul
reducedto hlrohours.

Curing
Propercuringisveryimportantfor threereasons:
a)
-

b)
c)

in the layer :;o that the hydration


lt ensuresthat sufficienlwateris rcrtrlinecl
reactionsbetweenthestabi|izelr,wallrai"|clthesoi|cancontinue
- ll reducesshrinkage,and
fronrlhetop layer'
11reducesthe riskof carbonation

carried out by sealingthe


ln temperateclirnatecuring presenisfew prob'lems'll is usually
period(usuallyseven days)
compactedsurfaceto prevenlescapeof wetterdurirrgthe r:udng
material'Beforespraying
duringwh'rchtimeail constructiontra{ficmustberkeptollthe stabilized
areasshouldbe free
is starledthe surtaceshouldbe sweptfreeoi loosematerialraniJanydamp
ol standingwater.The followingmethodsolcuringaresuggesled:

a)coveringwithanimpermeab,|eshe)tingvuithjointsoverlappingalIe
'c{tvatelr'
300 mm and sel to preventinr3ress
b)

sealingcontpound'
sprayingwitha bituminous

2ttl

tllC:SP:89-2010
c ) s p r a y i n g w i t h a r e s i n b a s e d a l u m i n o u E c u r i n g c o m p o u n d s i m i l a r t o the
thoseused
whtlreit ir;<lesirableto reduce
torconJrete.This has particularapplication
lvhich'wouldresultfrorn
underlhes'urfdcer
increasein temperatureimmediately
seal'
ttreuse ot a black(bituminous)
mostimportantbuttheprevenlionof moistureloss
ln a hotdryclirrate,ths ngs{ for goodcuringis
sprayedand keptdarnpday ancl night the moisture
is very diflicult.lf the surfaceis bnstanily
is |ike|yto leach
brut|he o1:.arrati<ln
remain
contentin the main po,-,io,.o| the layer will
"136tg
stabilizerlromthetoppo,tionofttretayer.l.fthespmyingoperirlionisintr:tmittenltandthesurface
I tnis metrgd is r'sed) the curing lvill be
dries frgm tinneto time (a common occurrence
crmpletelYinrrffective.
zl0mm
moreetficientif a riayerof sarrd 30 mm lo
Curirrglhroughsprayingwater can be much
Qlsprayingcycles per daycan be
on top o{ the layer.ln this case,ills nurnberr
thickis firstsp,rearJ
used.
savingin the amoui.io| wa.ielr
le:;sandthereis a considerab|e
verymurch
Whenthesrabi|izedlayerisrobecoveredbyotherpavement|ayrlrsthr:cons;tn:ctionolthetupper
work
carehasto brtltaken10ensure that this
sectlonswill rprovidea very goodcuringseal but
the
to
prior
time
layer.Duringthe perrod of
doe:snot damage the lop of the stabilized
critical
mct
tl-risis thg
of thB next layersomesystemof curingis requinecl.becau:;{9,
coru;truction
peri,rdin terrnsof shrinkagein the layer'
resultshaveshownllhata prime coatbreaks
Primercan a.lSoServeas a curingmembranebut,
downwhenitpenetralesintothesurface'andcompletelylorse:sanyab'ititytosealit-Aportionof
lo achieve'arr effectir/e:;eill if the top of the
any curing rnemDranemust sit on the Surface
an applicationof 'a viscous t;utback
la,yeris sprayed lightlywith water followedby
statliliz.ed
layer
reducedto zero'similarlytre top of the stabiliT]:d
bitumen,the lossof moistureis effectively
ajltraffa
ihat
the sameresurt.r*s esse.ti*r, however,
can be spnayedwith an emursionto achieve
lriturnencan be absorbed
daysat whichtinre)xcess
is keptoffthe curingmentbranefor several
by the sudace.
5.3

Plant-Mix Stabilization

Inthisprocerss'themateria|sareseparate|ybarchedandmixelrlatarnixingp:Iant.Theyllrelhen
pav'3rancl compacted'The
to the sile where they are laid by a bituminous
transportecl
of lhe materials' multi-layer
ol lhe processare the gooctconrroionproportiorring
ad,rarrtages;
disadvantages
levelsare readilyoblainrablel""lhe
work can bB sxecutedand goodcompacted
usuallybe
cannot
placeprocess,c'lhesivemar'lerials;
are that oUtputis towerfhan in the mix in
to the
clo:;e
the mixingplanthas to be relatively
mi;<edand rnthe case of cementstabilization,
two-hour
withinthe stipulated
mixing,layingand compactioncan all be completed
sitr:so that-l-he
p'rojerctsunless lhere is a
srnal;l-scale
to
processis nol' lherelore,applicable
tinre limit.
mixingPlartnearat hand'
of st'abilizer'mixingshouldbe
smallquantities
of the relatively
clislribution
To ensure(:omplete
freelall
granular rnaterials,
lor non-c;ol'resive
carriedout in a lorcedactionmixerand except

29

IRC:SP:89'2010
iitie a mii6r
ior miiing concrbtesf,ouldnotbe used.tt it is proposedtc'
mi*"_.of tn" ryp" r.rsecl
satisfactory
that
ensure
10
trialsshouldbemacle
otherthanonewitlra forcedactionpreliminary
mixingis achievecl.
and capacityto meet
be of sufficientnr':nrtrer
the mixed materialshor.rtd
Vehiclestransporling
standards
lnternational
operations'.
bolhtheouput ol thernixerand spreadingandcompaciion
by a
spread'
for plant mixed cementstabilizedmaterialrequireit to ie
and specificationr;,
lf gra'den;aie ustldfrlr spreading'
paverand spreadingby graderis not permitted.
biluminous
it is 6ilficuhto crrntrollevelsand
lost
as
is
muchoithe advantageof plant-.mixstabilization
of construclion'
thicknesses
5.4

ComP:rctlon

used
the rnellhods
formixingthesoilwithwaterandstahilizerrnaterial'
is ursed
whalevermethod
has
the.cemenl
onc'e
matedals,
arethrtsame.ln the caseof cementstabilized
ti
that
requir'ernent
hence'th'a
"orpu6ton
disturM;
begunt0 harden,it is;importantthat the matrixis not
The r:omper:tedrlerrsityol the
mixing'
o{
hours
two
wilhin
compactionmusl be completed
and fienceol its strenglh'The
of compaction
layeris a measureOfthe etfectiYeness
stabilized
irrtlvoways;'ln an erndproduct
degreeof mmpaclionto be achievedin lhe tieldcanbe specified
and.comparedwith a specified
the densityof lhe layer'inthe fieldis delermined
speciticatior-r,
lharnor etlualto tlnislimitthe
greater
is
targetdensity.Prr:vioedihatthe measuredfielddensity
o{ an erndproduct
is deemedto be satisfactoryThemaindisadvilntages
in therfietrj
compaction
ljre
nretlrodsin use
arelihata largeamountof sitetestingis requiredand nt;anyol
specification
in time to
This means that the resultsof the teslsmay rrotbe a'ailabl|a
are timeconSuming.
in compaction'
remedyanydeficiencies

30

lFlC:SP:8lt-2t110

CI-SAPTER6
OUAUTYASSURANCE

6.1

Gen,eral

to
processregularchecksare lo be made on the'stabilizerjrmaferiirl
Duringthe construction
carried
sh6rr;ks
o115e
arebeingmet' ManV
of the specificalion
ensurethalall therequiremr:nts
to ensur'stlnatlho corstruclion
supeMsion
continual
i.e.
out are merely'goodhousekeeping"
to Oeachievedin full'ln additionto tlristlrereareprorCuction
processallowsthedesignot4ectives
lh;rtlhe comect
oui'tonionitorthe workin progressto ensure,for examllle,
ceuried
control'tesls
Firnally
piodur:ed'
bei'ng
is
produci
thicknessof slabilizedlayeris beinglaidandtr"t ".on.istent
all the
it
nleets
that
productto demonstrale,
compliancete$tsareto ne carriedJut on rhe finished
of thespecification'
requirements
olt the
desbribesthe teststhat may needto be cani'adtlut tOu-hecl'l
This Chapter,theretorer,
of a
r:hoice
the
quality of the material.tt ;rlso discussesthe variousfactorsthat inlluence
contenl'
sucttzr:smoistilre
particulartest thal is usedto establishlhe valuesfor paramdterS
etc.,sel oulin the specification'
compacleddensity,strenglin,
6.2

PreliminaryTrial

decisionorr nroistureconlentand
As part of therqualityr;onlroland in orderto makea final
lo a[prerlirnrinary
testsshouldbetrerlated
gainedin thelaboratory
theinfomration
cont,ent,
stabilizer
laidusingthe
be
shor'ld
area
trial
a
fieldtrial.Al krast10 claysbeforetne mainworkbegins,
tr'l chreckthe
used,
planl
to
be
mixing,laying and compaction
materials,mix propol[ionsi,
of thernethoJs,ertc.
suitabilitY
6.3

SamplingerndTestingFrequency

trl<enfromthe
llhernoisturecontenl,strenqlh,etc'aremostconveniently
Sampleslor clhecking
tl:
pn{ect
the
of
size
the
Frequencyof tesingdependson
compa,ction.
laidmaterialhrefore
"n9
content;
moislure
llre
be madeon
facilitiesavailableon sitebut regularchecksshould,al least,
shouldbtl sp:ieadourlowr thesite
sampling
trequency,
the
strengthand in-situdensitywhatever
indicationoflhe qualityol the materialwithina givenarea' ln order
so as to givea representative
lhat sarnples
bases,it is suggestecl
to achievethe sp*ificltion for stabilizedsub-basesand road
k&en' For
may
tn
alonga diagonalthatbisectstheareato be leshld
locationb
at equallyspetced
ltis
controlmeasuresam 'Ssntial'
road,strictquality
soilstabilized
perlormancec,l
satisfactory
of lnaterials
to confirmthattf]lepropertie:s
testingdr:ringConstruclion
prudenttoconductperiodir:
'each
of
ctrrsignmenl
i:or
design'
the
during
beingusedarewithinthe rangeof valueanticipated
te:stsanrltheir
quality.Qualityc:onlrol
cement,limeandfly ash;tesilngshor:ldbe doneto check
rJuring
be
erCistf
should
area:i givenin Table14.Strictcontrol
frequerncy
minimumder:irable
31

tRrl:sP:89-2010
Tttiscanbe doneby
withfrequentchecl(son mixingefficiency'
thc!mlxinalaceoperations,
streaks
Unmixed
thecolourof themixture'
andinspet;ting
rnaterial
throughthein-place
ol
trenching
uniformity
until
beremixed
inthi a'eashoul'd
or layersindicatepoormixingandthematerial
colourisachieved.
Ash and
Table14 QualityControlTes'ts{or Cerment-Fly
Lime-flyAsh Iilabiliailion
Test Method

Test
OualitYof
(kntent
OualitYol lime

QualilYof l=lY
Ash

Degreeol
pulverisation

um Drx;iredFrequency
Mi;nirn
-----.-sourceof supply
the
ol
forapproval
Orrceinilially

As per relevant
cl the matedal
lS Specifications .^.t l,tto, r.rrr,r,ch consiqnmenl
f,orapprovalof the sourceof su;ply
Oncerinitially
ls 1514
and l;aterfol (lachconsignmentof the material
ot ttme
subitntto nrirtimum'cf1 test per 5 tonnes

r s3812

the sourceof supply


for selerction'of
Orce initiatly
kg
10,000
arrdhter{ort:acfrlot of

a.sconsiderednecessary
lSn20 (Part-4) Pr:riorJically

Moisturecontent

lS2720 (Part-2)

sq.m
OnetestPer1150

DensitYol
oompacledlayer

|s2720
or29)
{Part-28

Onelest Perli00 sq.rn

Deleterious
constituents

CBRor
unconfined
compressive
teston
strength
asetof3
'specimensi
'fhickness
of
layer
LimdCement
conlent
6.4

tS2720 (Part-Z7) A:srr:quired

ts2720

ciunrofmix
1 ter;lPer30(:10

(Part-16)

ls 4332
(Parl-5)

Fegr.lartY
c;hecks
procedural
througlr
Fegrrlarly

Storageand Handlingof the Statrilizer

the qualityo{ the


storedandusedin a freshcondition
and limeareproperly
cernent
Llnless
cemenlmurstlf,estoredin.asoundwater-tight
reduced.
be substantially
layer\^/.ill
pavgment
anlybeopened
sihould
windows
Doorsarnd
asposs;ible
astightly
andthebagsstacked
building
1oa
tirstshouldbe usr:dfirsl-According
whichis<Jelivered
Thecement
necessary.
il absolutely
3i2

;s
lflC:SP:89-2O10

storedtherfollowinglosser;in strengthwill
studyit wastc,undthatevenif cementis properly.
stilloccut:
Aget

After3months
After6months
Afterl year
After2 y,ears

PercentageBeduction
2A
30
40
50

Limeshouldb,estoredin sealedbags,liglrtlystackedand coveredwilh erwarterpro0f tarpaulin.


The nraterialvyhichhas been storedfor morethanlhree weerkishorild be lested for available
limecontentbeforeuse. Limewhichis olderlhan6 monthsshouldbe rjis;carde'd.
6.5

Control of the Moisture Content

abcrveits
work,the moisturecontentshouldtle merintrainelcl:slightly
stabilization
Thror-rghoutthe
is
necessary
in-sitr:
moisl.ure
content
of
the
means
that
rapid
determination
valur:.Tlris
speciriied
to all6wadjustmentsto be madeso as to bringthemoistureconllnl oi tlre stabilizedmaterialto
therequiredvalue.
use
to be of rnuchpractic,al
Thecefinitiveovendryingmethodis, in general,toolime-con:;urring
be
may
used,
Rapid
l";eertirrg
rnethods
in the lield and morerapid rneanshaveto be employedthe calciumcarbidemethodrnaybtl usedto give rapidresult.
bul whereth$e areinappropriate,
The rnethodrJependson the reactionbelweencalciumcarbiclean<i'waterin the stallilized
acr:ordingto tlheelqttation:
materialto produceacetyleneat the ambienttemperature
CaC.+ 2Hp = Q2 (OH),+ C.H,
the
lf the reactionis allowedto occur under standardisedconrjitionsin a closed containerr,
pressiure
ol the acetylenegeneratedin lhe containeris a measun]ol the moisturecontentof the
stabilizedmalerial
Nucleardensityelaugesfor the determinationof the in-situdensity ofcompacted materials
usuallyincludea liaciliq,for the in-situmoistureconlentat the siamelinre.T'hismelhod can be
startsanclalsc duringthe processing.
moislureconlentwhenconstruction
usedto delennine,
6.6

Contrcilof the Slabilizer Corrtent

Whalevermgthodof spreadingthe stabilizeris employed,it is inrporturrtthttt etuni{ormsrpread


ol theslabilizetlnialeria!.tf therslabilizeris prlaced
raleirsachievedar:thiswillaffectthe uniformity
by hand,theaccuracyof ihe spoltingof tlrebagsrrruslbe ,:heckedandthe
in bags andsprea.d
manualspreadingof the stabilizershouldbe visuallyassesisd.lf a mechanicalspreaderis
be placedat regularintr:rvals
used,metallraysor canvassheets,one melresquare,shoulcJ
to
roa,J
checkthe
rate.
application
alongthe

33

IBC:SP:8!)-2010

easyhr perfotrnbut in practice


contenl'aflermixing'is in principle
o{thrasttbilizer
Detenninalion
rr;sultsare'to be 'rbtained'
be carriedoutwiti careif meaningfrrl
is 1mecorsumingand needsto
B d t h t h e m e t h o d s d e s c r i b e d i n l h e c o d e s B s : 1 9 2the
4 : P a r t 2 a and
n d ithe
n l r material
STMDS
6invo|vea
in0an
material' stabilizer
conlentsof lhe stabilized
n of thecalcit.tm
comparisc
in BS:1924
of c;tlc;ium
thedeterminaticn
condilion.However,the methodgivenfor
un_stabilized
un-:stabilized
lite
of
cont'3nt
Nehher methrrdis applicabreif the calcium
is to be preferrecl.
lnaterialsis highorvariable'
6-7

RoutinerStrength Delerminations

that the
of processedmateria|is requiredto ens;urr]
Continuottsmonitrrrinl;o| the strength
material
m'ixed
crl
fr"rlldeplh
samplesof the
specifiedstrengthis oe,ingachieved.Representative
the material'As stated
prior
to cornpacling
immediately
site
shouldlhrlreforeue tat<enfromthe
to thesizeof theprocessedaireaandits
thelrequerLf ol sanrplingshouldue rehred
previousl'6
stabilizedmaterials,preparationclf the test
structura imporrance.in lrre case of cement
withintwohoursof mixing'
.poi*"r,, shouHbe r:ompleted
ol the testspeclrrenswillclearllrbe thatof
preparation
The moistureconlenlrobe usedJorthe
themixe(Jmateria|andprecarrtionsshou|dbetakentoensurellia.lnodryingcrulo,ft|rematerial
ot'thetasl specirmens'
completingthe preparaticn
occursbetweentzrkinglhe samplesand
Thedensityaturhichtheteslspecimensaretobecompa
c t e.T,r.e
d d etest
p e :;pecimens
ntlL;onttredensity
and variousmethodswhichare irruse'
o| the specificatiorr
requirerr|enls
l.his hassome
in thelk:|,d.
materia|
lhe compacted
shouldbe preparr#u,.h" .u** densityas
to
r>'rn
be a'ttributed
in strength'which
thatthereshouldbe nodifferences
logicbecauseit mean:s
in
material
andthestrengtfro{ the
iest specimens
betweenlhe laboratory
of derrsity,
differences
can
is requiredandthis
den:sity
measureof thein-situ
islhataninrmediate
thefield.Thedi{ficulty
if nucleardensitygaugesareused'
onlybe erchieved

34

IRC:ll?:139-210l0

7
CHAPTEB
PRECAUNONSTOBETAKENWHILEU$INGSTASTUZEDMA:I'ERIALS;

7.1

General

layers
materialsin roaclpavenrr:n1
ol stabilizecl
use
the
wilh
arise
that
probtems
-fhe
Thetwo maior
whicfreilherol lheseis a
-tern durabili\rotthe material' extentto
longl
anclthe
cracking
are
pavementas a
of the stabilizedlayerin tlrertuld
puryose
the
to
ret,ated
problemis intirrrately
in this ()hapterthe
divorcethe two lactors.l{owever,
lo
c|ifiicull
rhere{ori,e,
is',
it
and
whole
problemsthatcan arisearerliscussed'
7.2

Cracking in StabitizedLaYers

pavementla)'erssome
andcrack-spacingof st:abilized
crackinq
to
the
ibute
contr
laclors
Many
of themare lisledbelow:
1)

-fensile
strengthof lhestabilizedmaterial;

2\

characteristics;
Shrlnl<ager

3)

or moisturevanaticrn$;
Voluntechangesresullinglromtemperalure

4)

The subgraderestraint;

5)

material'and
Stif(nessrandcreepof thestabilized

6)

by tra{fic'
Extemalloadingssuchas thosecaused

tirkestimeto
nraterials
strength'thetensilesirengttrof stabilized
As in thes356'ol comp'ressiive
deve|op.ontheotherhanc]l,stabi|izerJmateria|inaroadpavemenllayerwi|lbesubimtklvtl|ume
crack:ingin
listedaboveas soonas it is conrpacted'
lactors
the
of
oner
least
al
from
changes
contentcannot'therefori)'berarroided
due tc,changesin terrrpaatureor moisture
stabilizedlayerrs
lhe efftrt' rlrcrcking
stepscanbe takento reclucxr
and mustbe accepreclas inevitablealthough
an entirelysel)arate
tailuredue 1otratfickingand is
rnay also ocrluras a resull ol latigue
changesfromtherinitialcrackingdueto environmental
phenomenon,
lo causesignificant
unXit(ely
usedat cappingandsub'baselevelare
-ftttl
Cracksin stabilizedletyer:;
ol
lhe surfac:ing' existernce
through
rellected
be
rnay
cracks
oroblemsbultat baselev'lthe
aq

lR0:SP:89'2010

The
ner:d lor remedialaction'
be assumedto incjica'te
cracks in a road surface may
coil'rsequencesolnotdoingso,mayrangef'on,''no.otol:nlt-:lall.tolossofinterlockorto'
lrlocks'Cracksmay
fo unconnected
layerhasbee'rlreducerC
stabilized
lhe
when
eventualfailure
ak;opermitingresso|water|eadingtoweathelingofmaterialsatcrack|aces,de.bonding
liryersbeneath the
oJ moistttre-:3ul;ceptible
b,tweenpavementlayers, or deterioratiorn
stabilizedlaYer'
7.,3

Primary Cracking

and temperalure
materialsas a n::sultcrfshrinkage
Cracks appearin cernent-stabilized
o{ the materialand the
is deperdenlon the,earlystrength
pattern
ini'alcrack
The
fluctuations,
normallyalsocontaina higher
whichtravelow:;trength'
of themalerialused.Materials
properties
proportion
withlowerslrenglhand withhigh
rnateria'ls
proportionol plasticfines.The stabilized
but line cracks
crar:ks'whehr:rror nottheselrequent
oi plaslicfines havefrequentbul narrow

provetobeaproblemdependstoa|argeexlentonthemechanica|inlerkrckatthetaceo{

cracks.l'theinter|oc*isgoodthemateriaipr-'r|rrrmssatisfac;totyandthecracksaresuflicient
However,the lowetstrengths
the pavetlentleyerabo',re.
fine{orlhemnotto be reflectedthrough
layers
onlysuilablefor rJsein the lower
theyareelenerally
o,fthesestabilDedmaterialsmeanthat
a problemanywa)r'
c,fthe roadwherecrackingis lessof
have little'if any'
with hig;hstrefl{ilhr:riteriaand wltich
on the ofier hand,slabilizedmaterials
lor them 1obe
ttres': cracks;arelolitenwide enough
cracks.
wide
but
fewer
have
fines
prlastic
ol lateralrcflectivecracks'such
to reslrainthe propraryrtion
order
In
surface.
the
through
reflected
materialthan
with a l3reaterthicl(nessof construction
rnaledalstheretorehaveto be covered
lvouldotherwisebe required'

that is
plays:rpartin the typei:f crackpattern
ar whichthe materialis lairlalso
temperature
fewerand narrowercracksas lhere
IerL(lto deverlop
producod.Layersplacedin coolerweather
jslesslhermalshrinkage.Thestabilizedlayermaysubsequentlybeincompression'a
closedwilh go.d loadtransfer'Fewer
remafin
spells,so that{:rac;ks
perhapsfromprotongeJcotd
is
betweenday and nighlduringconstruction
r:racksdevelopwhenthe temperaturedilference
notlarge,as thermalwarpingis reduced'

-the

me
However'
I'orthesamereasons'
rd tocracking
arealsosubiectt
materials
Ljme-stabilized
lime in the,layerh^asbeen
occurbeforeunreacted
effectsare not so pronounced;if the cracks
pozzolanicreactionof
lhe continuing
reaclionsor by cerrbonatit:n'
usedup,eitherin pozzolanic
lrea|ing
) of thr:cracks.
the|imecanresultin se|f healing(autogen,cus
.to

IRC:SP:89-2010
io have low earlys'trength
Givernthat crackingis inevitable,the idealcOnditionis {or nral,errials
whir:h
merargoodmecl'lanical
strerrgtihs
term
whichleadto numerousfinecracksbul high longAs limeis slowerto reactthancernent,llris is anotherreason
inlerlockatilre faceof thec,nacks.
lime,providedit canachievehigh long-termstrenl3lhs'
forfravouring
is to usesecondaryaddillvesto modifytfreh ardeningactionoi the cernentto
Anotherpos:sibility
withoutaflectingits long-termstrength.
reduceitseerrlys,trength
7-4

Ttaffic Associated Cracks

cracks,cracksmay
and muchmore importantlythan the printall'lran:;vrgrse
Quitesepar,ately
spp,earin stabilizedbase:;of inadequatestrengthor inadsluate r:onstruclionthicknessin
'map" cracking
takesthe fornl of
to the tr;r{ficand thersub-gradestrenEh-Suchcrack.ing
rela.tion
which,in exlremecases,urusesthe stabilizedmaterialtocleleriorateinto snrallslabswith poor
loa,Jtransfer.Oncestarted,deteriorationis likelyto continueuntilthe :3tabilizedbaseb'3comes
tittlemoreelfectivethan granularsub-base.
When extensivecrackinghas developedas a resultof the combinerdacltiorrof lree waler and
f rom the underlying
tralfic,then it often resultsin the "pumping"to the surfaceof line merierietl
pavementhayercwhereit is depositedin the cracks'Thefinesdiscolourthe surfacealongthe
cracksmakinglhem clearl'/visiblecracksis not inevitable'ltshould
theappearanceof lraffic-associatsj
Unliketheprimarycracking,
notoccurif the roadpavententhas beenproperlydesignedlo isks accountol the lrafficlikelyto
be encounteredduringthedesignlifeof the road'
7.a;

Durability of Stabilized Materials

mirterialsby disinlegralionintoa |lorsemas;sis not common.lt is most


The failureof stiabilized
delit;ienc;yin the qualityol lhe
eitherin the amountof stabilizerr,
likelyto be due to deficaency
or curing.Theseproblemss;houldnot occur if a good:;tandard
compaction
or deificient
stbilizer,
of preliminarytr:stingfor suitabilityanc of qualitycontrolare nnaintainerd'
rs;tlrc pr:eling-oflof surfac
the mostcommontypeof lailureof stabiliz.ecl.layen;
It is repoded.th6t
This ir;usuallydueto failureof top c,fthe layersitselfralherthan
dressingsf ronrstabilizedliayers.
of the surfacedressing.The sudaceof therlayer terndsto disintegrate
any of the,sho1coming
of the
to b'eas a rt:sultof ,)verstressing
undertraffi,c,the mostlikelycauseof whichis considered
This
at the tim{l of construction.
mdt,srial
of the slabilized
surlacelay'erduringlhe compaction

37

IRC:SP:{}9'2010
inducesaseriesofsnatlowshearplanesinthesur|acelayerandr{}su|linasllraq>fa||ing.otf
wirhunirormry
is mrlstprevarlent
overstressing
surface.
of themateriattowarosthe upper
and il
density
if specialcareis talrenwilht"lecompaction
trc'anbe avokJed
,;;r.
non-cohesiv"
graded
usecl'
towedvibratingroller:;aie
ccnlirrnedth:rtthe mosl'
lack of durabilityol stabilizedlallersi
A surveyol l(nor,vn(lausesof
ancl
ol the primedlayerrduringconstruction
disintegration
surlace
was
problem
comflron
scabbingofthesea|inserviceduetoaninadequatebondwiththerstabi|iz:e.dmatr;ria|.Thesel
problemsarearesu|tofirradeq,ratecompaclionandcuringandaremorelike|y.|ooccurinhot'
nnayalsobt:
lonq{ermdurrability
problenrof surfacedisintegration'
dryclimrltes.Ap.rrttrom the
by carbonation'
bYthe effeclsof sulphatesarrd
impairerl
T.6ControlclfReflectiveCrackinginCementStabilizeclPaventr;nt:;
baso:is usedin a
vvhena cemenli-stabilized
crac{ting
the potental existslor reflection
Afthoueth
pavetnr:nlstructure,propercclnslructionanddesigntechniquesca.nrninirni:.lelhelrolentialthlat
to minimizedrying'
constructionprtctices
affected'Proper
the pavement'ruillbe adverserly
rnethodsthat'\^'ill
valid
all
{orstressrelie{are
soonafterconslructbn,anddasigning
pre-cracking
rgduceoreliminatelheformailono|re||ectioncracksincemc.nt-sti:biljzecll]as,s.
'rvhiDh
conttjbutetcrlho crackhtg
in thepreviouschaptel
Thereilre severalfitctorsas cli:scus-sed
thr:type o{ soil'
to materialcharacterisl'ics'
wilh r.egard
base/slrb-base'
in a cement-sterbilizr,'d
chang':s
and curing,and temperirtureanclmrlisl'ure
cemenlconlent,degree of cornpaction
shrirrkage'
direc$rinfluenoethe degreeo1
to minimize
thatcaltlrc r'rserd
andriesigncor'cept.;
measures
of prcventative
Therearea nurnDerr
basecracks
base'and to reoucethe potential'that
crackingin thecernent'stabilized
shrinkiage
cracki'g includeproper
rr:flex:tive
Methodsof controlling
willrellectthrorjgh{he asphaltsurface'
the use o{
base,reductionof cra'c|tsize thrrrugh
conslructionand curing of ttre stabilized
lhe
throug|rt|re use of |]exib|e|ayers in
.0recracking,,,anlJ reliefof lstressconcentralions
pavementslrutltur)'
asphaltsurfaces.Th'asbbilized belse
baseprovidesexcellentsupportfor
A cement_stabilized
base' Loads
morewaterresistantthanim un-stiabilizec
malerialis stronger,moreunilormand
are recluced'However'
and stressesin the $ubgretde
are distributedorrera iargerarea
cement-stabilizedbasescanlalsobethesourceofshrinkagercracl'lsittthr:stabilizedbasela'/er'
of a
Tftecracksthaldevelopare rlotthe result
th asphaltsurfacer'
whichcilrrreflectLnrough
38

lilO iiP:Bl)-2:010
oases"lhe:iurface
of cement-stabitiz:ecl
characteristic
but railrera natturat
deficiency,
structural
crackslendtofol|owtheSamepatt|rnasthecracksinthebase,anc|arerelerreljt.f,as
'rellection"crar;ks.
|nmostcases,ref|ectioncracksarenarrow(lessthan3mm)andwillrrotaclverse|ya|{ectthe
and
can resuliin a roughridirrgsurfacer
wder cracl<s
of fftepa!,emtrnt.l-lowever,
pertormance
and
ittfrltrallion
lvaier
for
The widecrackscreatean environment
of the pavemelrrt.
deterioration
pr'rmping
ollthe undedyingsubgrade'
subsequent
bas;ewhich
andcrackspacingin a cemenlslabiliz:ed
severalfaciorscontributelo the crack:ing
trafflcanclrestrainlitnposedcrnthe
procedures,
construction
includematerialchara,oteristics,
causec'fcrilckirrgis
the primaryl
characteristics
baseby the subgrade.with regardto material
'thrinkageis
stabilizedbase' The degreeof drying
due to dryingstuinknge()[ tlte ce-'nt,arlt
and
, ternperaturls
andcuring,(menlcontelrtt
affectedbythr;typeof soit,degreeof cornpaction
moislurechanges.
cementstabilizeld{rne'grainedsoilse:.g.claysexlribitgreaiershnnl':agetrtattc(''ntt}ttls;tal;ilizecl
tharrrlranularsoils'
slabilizedclerysoilsdevelophighertotalshrinkagrl
Althougtr
soils,.
granular
oftenol hairlinerrarietyspaced0'6 to
ttre cmcksare typicallyfiner and morecloselyspaced
r:racks
producelerssshrinkagebrrl develolclargrlr
3.0 m apart.The granulitrsoilsgenr:rally
typicallyspar;edat 3-01o6'0 nl apart'
ancltypicallyrequirehigher
soils hilve large:;urfaceareathirngranularsoils
Finegraingr;ained
moistureconlentforcompactionpuPoses.lnatiditiorr.cementcontentforfiner:rraine<istlilsare
to achievearlequatedurabilityand
generaily2 to 5 percentirigherthan granularsoiisin order
to highermoistureconientsfotslatlilizedfinergraiintdsoils
strength.Boththeselractorcontributr
higheroryingshrinkage'
andconsoquently
playsirtt
nratrrrial
ol cementste'bili;led
The effeclof compar:tiorlon shrilll(agecharaclerislics
potential'betaus;ethesoiV
shrinkagr:
redttcecl
role.Awellcornpactedmixtureexhibils
important
fraslreenrtlported
11
partctesare packedtightlytogetherresultingin red-cedvoicls;.
aggregates
shrinkaqesignificanlly
srrilat modifiedpr<rtoretfort,reduc'es
cementr;tabilizecl
thatcompacrtng
proctordensi\rTlre reasorrforlhesame
as cornparalt0 stabilizerlsoil compactedto standard
moislurecontenlsol rnodiliedproct')rcDmpaction
to llre ferctthattl're,rptimum
canbe attributed
least
shrinfiage'1he
whichhelpst0relcjtrce
le$sthanat sitandadproctorcompar:tion
aretypically
and lovrest
iS oblainedlor the stabilizedmaterialat thehighe'stdensity
amountOfS;hrinKag(|
contenl.
moisture

lR0:SP:89-2t110

, ,L ,^-^

'

-nc,reasing
I
cementhydrationcontributeslesstoshrinkagethancloesmanyotherfaclors'ln{act'forsoils
cementwill decre;rsetotal shrinkage'
cement,
without
chanl;e
tha.texhibit volume

However,exc}essiveamountsofcementcanexa'cerbatecrackirrgintwowirys:First,increase

cementcontentscausegreaterconsumptionofwaterduringlhvdration,thusincreasingdrying

shrinkage.Also,highercement|eve|scausehigherrigidityandexcessivestrength(bothtensil
and comPressive)'
fallirrtotl^retwocategories:
reflectivecrackingbasicrllly
controlling
of
Merthods
.

Pre-crercking
inter{ace
base-s'urfzrce'
Providinglor stressreliefat llrrl

Prxrackirlg;Minimizing,]rackwidthwithF,roperconstructionandcuringprocedures'as
Another
mur:|rrlf rhrepolentiallor wide cracks.
witle|iminat'a
'p/e-cracking"' where
discussedin lhe previousstlctions,
called
width is a relativelrlnew Srrocedure
method to reduce crac;k

hundredso{linymicro-cracksdeve|opinsteadot|singletrans;versecracks'Themethodhasb

st.rccessfuIlytriedonsevera|proiectsintheUnitedSates.Theplrocedureirrvolvessevera|p
compaclion'
ba;a one lo iwo daysatter{inal
wer the cement-sli$itized
of a largevibratoryroller
material'
intothe cement-slabilized
crercks;
croseryspacecrhrairrine
rTnisintroducesa nerw.rkof
and providesa crack
stressesin the earl'lstagesof curing'
which acts to relievethe shrinkage

p a t t e r n t h a t w i | | m i n i m i z e t h e d e v e | o p m e n t o ] , w..micro.
i d e s h r i n ' k a g e cwil|
r a cnot
k s .impact
l n a d d ithe
tion,sinc
cracking.
perlornredshortly after placo,nent,the
is
;>re'cracking

Pavemenl,sovera||structuralcapacityasthecrackswilIhealeindl|recentent-stabilizedmat
to gainstren$hwilh time'
'arillcontinue
cracking is to ielieve
of reducirrgthe pbtentialJclrreflection
method
Another
Betief!
slress
base' The
tesult {rorn cracks;in the cement-stabilized
that
concenlrations
the stress
rhatcause reflection
the srress;es
successfu*yusedtc,rercruce
been
have
method:;
rhree
forowing
cracks:

1)Abitr:minoussur|acetreatrnt(chipsr:a|)betweenl'hestabi|izedbasean

theaspha|tsurlace,Theadciitionalllexibi|ityofthesurt|acetreatment|ayerw
he|ptoreduceStresscorrcelntrations'Tl^ris.surfacetreatmenta|soprovid
excel|enltemporarysurfaceduringconstructionlortrafficcontro|'

40

IRC:SP:89-2010

2\

a\

.Ageotexhlebetweentnestabi|izedbaseandsiurface'orbelweentheasphalt
ln?atmenl,the gecrtexti|e
bindeiandwearingcourses'Simi|arto thesL|r'ace
urempasshrough
terttinlg
cracks'i'rdthoul
provides
flexibili$andrctstointercept
themaierial.
thestarbilized
bertween
materieil
gran'ular
A 50 mmto'!Oomm;ayerol unbound
'sandwich'
or'in'verted"
traselayerand the asiphallsurface.Thisus,aof il
andwillSrrevent
t,cthe[tav'ernenl,
pavemenidesignadd:;additjonalstructure
layr:r'
1othesurf;rce
ol crar:ksthrough
thepropaelation

41