Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 156

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp.

Ho Ch Minh

KHAI NIEM C BAN VE


MANG
I. CAC KHAI NIEN C BAN.
- Mang may tnh la gi : Mang may tnh la 1 nhom cac may tnh,
thiet b ngoai vi c noi ket vi nhau thong qua cac phng tien truyen
truyen dan nh cap, song ien t, tia hong ngoai..giup cho cac thiet b
nay co the trao oi d lieu vi nhau 1 cach de dang.
- Cac thanh phan c ban cau thanh mang may tnh :
+ May tnh : May tnh s dung trong mang bao gom cac loai may
Mainframe, minicomputer, Laptop, Personal Computer..moi thanh phan
nay la 1 iem noi vat ly lien ket tren mang.
+ Cac thiet b giao tiep dung lien ket cac thanh phan mang : Card
mang ( NIC hay adapter ), HUB, SWITCH, ROUTER.
+ Moi trng truyen dan : hu tuyen ( cap ), vo tuyen ( song ien
t, tia hong ngoai )
+ Cac thiet b ngoai vi : May PRINTER, FAX, MODEM, SCANER
+ Cac giao thc ( TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBeui.)
+ Cac he ieu hanh mang : WinNT, Novell Netware, Unix.
- Cac thuat ng lien quan :
+ Server : La may phuc vu c cai at he ieu hanh va cac phan
mem chuyen dung lam cac chc nang quan ly va cung cap cac dch vu
cho cac may tnh khac. Tuy theo dch vu cung cap ma ngi ta chia ra lam
cac loai server sau: File server : dung cung cap cac dch vu ve file va
folder. Print Server : Cung cap cac dch vu ve in an.. Do cac may server
lam chc nang phuc vu nen cau hnh may server phai manh thng la cac
may chuyen dung cua cac hang nh Intel, IBM..
+ Client : La may s dung cac dch vu ma may server cung cap. Do
s ly cong viec khong ln nen thong thng cac may nay khong yeu cau
cau hnh manh.
+ Host : Host la 1 diem noi tren mang. Host co the la client hay
server.
+ Resource : La nhng tai nguyen tren mang gom : tap tin, th muc,
may in, may Fax..

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ Share data : la tap hp cac tap tin, th muc ma cac may tnh chia
se e cac may khac truy cap s dung chung thong qua mang.
+ User : la tai khoan ngi dung khi s dung may tram( client ) e
truy xuat en nhng tai nguyen mang. Thong thng 1 user se co 1
username va password do nha quan tr cung cap, he thong se da vao
username va password e nhan biet ban la ai va co quyen hay khong co
quyen vao mang, co quyen hay khong co quyen s dung tai nguyen tren
mang.
+ Administrator : La tai khoan quan tr he thong.
+ Phng thc gi d lieu tren he thong mang : D lieu c gi t iem
nay en iem khac trong mot bo phan nho goi la: goi, khung hoac o d
lieu (ATM).
Goi c xac nh bang ngon ng hoac giao thc c dung trong mang.
Header
Data
Footer
II. MO HNH MANG MAY TNH
Mang tap trung : Toan bo tien trnh x ly tai may tnh trung tam. Cac
may tnh tram cuoi ( terminal ) c noi mang vi may tnh trung tam
va hoat ongn nh nhng thiet b xuat nhap d lieu cho phep ngi
dung ch xem tren man hnh va nhap d lieu t ban phm. Mo hnh x
ly mang tren co the trien khai tren he thong phan cng hoac phan
mem c cai tren server
u iem : D lieu c bao mat an toan, de dang backup va diet
virus, chi ph cho cac theit b thiet lap mang thap.
Nhc iem : Kho ap ng cac yeu cau cua nhieu ng dung khac
nhau, toc o truy xuat cham.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Mang phan tan : Cac may tnh co kha nang hoat ong oc lap, cac
cong viec c tach nho va giao cho nhieu loai may tnh khac nhau x
ly thay v x ly tai may tnh trung tam. Tuy d lieu c x ly va lu tr
tai cac ,may cuc bo nhng chung c noi mang vi nhau nen chung co
the trao oi d lieu va dch vu.
u iem : Truy xuat nhanh, phan ln khong gii han cac ng dung
Nhc iem : D lieu lu tr ri rac kho ong bo, backup va rat de
nhiem virus.

Mang cong tac : Gom nhieu may tnh co the tng tac vi nhau e thc
hien 1 cong viec. 1 may tnh co the mn nang lc cua may khac bang
cach chay chng trnh tren may khac nam trong mang.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

u iem : Rat nhanh va manh, co the chay cac ng dung co cac


phep toan ln.
Nhc iem : Cac d lieu lu tr tren cac v tr khac nhau nen rat
kho ong bo va backup, kha nang nhiem virus rat cao.
III. CAC LOAI MANG MAY TNH.
Mang cuc bo LAN ( Local Area Network )
Mang LAN c xay dng tren c s gom 1 nhom cac may tnh va
thiet b truyen thong c noi vi nhau trong 1 pham vi nho. ( trng
hoc, nha cao oc.)
Mang LAN thng co cac ac iem sau:
+ Bang thong ln, Truyen tai d lieu vi toc o cao.
+ Ton tai trong 1 pham vi hep, kch thc b gii han.
+ Chi ph cho cac thiet b ket noi mang LAN tng oi re.
+ Cong viec quan tr mang n gian, de dang.
Mand dien rong WAN ( Wide Area Network )

Mang WAN c xay dng tren c s nh 1 mang c bao phu 1 vung


a ly rong ln co the la 1 quoc gia, 1 chau luc hay toan cau. Mang
WAN thng c cac cong ty a quoc gia xay dng. Do pham vi mang
rong ln nen thong thng WAN la tap hp bi nhng mang LAN noi
lai vi nhau thong qua cac thiet b truyen thong : ve tinh, song viba,
cap quang, cap ien thoai..
Mang WAN thng co ac iem sau :
+ Bang thong nho, truyen tai d lieu vi toc o thap. De b mat ket
noi thng ch phu hp vi cac ng dung nh Email, Web, ftp.
+ Ton tai trong pham vi rong, kch thc khong b gii han.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ Chi ph cho viec xay dng Wan rat at tien.


+ Do ket noi nhieu LAN nen mang rat phc tap va co tnh toan cau
nen phai co to chc quoc te ng ra qui ng va quan tr.
Internet : internet la mang may tnh ln nhat the gii hoac chnh xac
hn la mang cua cac mang tc la bao gom rat nhieu .nhieu nhng
may tnh noi lai vi nhau. No cho phep bat ky 1 may tnh nao trong
mang co the ket noi vi bat ky may nao khac tren mang va trao oi
thong tin vi nhau. 1 khi ket noi vao internet may tnh cua ban se la 1
trong hang chuc trieu thanh vien cua mang khong lo nay.

IV. MO HNH QUAN TR MANG


+ Workgroup : Trong mo hnh nay cac may tnh co quyen han
ngang nhau va khong co cac may chuyen dung lam nhiemvu cung cap dch
vu hay quan ly dch vu. Cac may tnh lam viec che o workgroup t bao
mat va quan ly tai nguyen cua rieng mnh ong thi no cung chng thc
cho ngi dung cuc bo
+ Domain : trong mo hnh nay trong he thong co cac may tnh
chuyen dung lam nhiem vu cung cap cac dch vu, quan ly va chng thc
ngi dung, quan ly cac may tram. Cac tai nguyen cung c quan ly va
cap quyen han cho ngi tng ngi dung.
V. CAC KIEU NOI MANG :

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ Peer to Peer ( Mang ngang hang )


- Mang ngang hang bao gom 1 nhom cac may tnh c ket noi vi nhau,
lam viec cung vi nhau.
- Tat ca cac may trong mang eu co quyen nh nhau, khong co bat ky 1
may tnh nao ong vai tro phuc vu. Ngi dung tren tng may chu trach
nhiem ieu hanh, quan ly va chia se cac tai nguyen cua chnh may tnh
mnh s dung.
- Lam viec tot vi cau hnh mang t hn 10 may.
u iem : n gian, de dang cai at, to chc va quan tr, chi ph
thiet b dung thiet lap mang thap
Khuyet iem : khong quan ly tap trung nen d lieu phan tan. Kha
nang bao ve rat thap, rat de b xam nhap.
+ Client / Server ( Mang khach / chu )
- Mang Client / Server bao gom 1 nhom may phuc vu cung cap cac tai
nguyen va dch vu cho ca he thong mang s dung goi la he thong may chu
(server). Mot he thong gom nhieu may tnh s dung cac tai nguyen va dch
vu do he thong may chu cung cap goi la may khach (Client).
- Tai khoan ngi dung (USER) do may chu cung cap va c quan ly bi
may chu. Ch may chu mi co quyen giai quyet cac yeu cau cua USER.
- Cac may server thng co cau hnh manh ( toc o x ly nhanh, khong
gian lu tr ln) thng s dung cac may tnh chuyen dung.
- Da vao chc nang ta co the chia he thong SERVER ra thanh cac loai
server nh sau :
+ File server : Cung cap dch vu phuc vu cac yeu cau ve file trong
mang
+ Print server : Cung cap cac dch vu ve in an
+ Application server : Cung cap cac dch vu cho phep cac ng dung
chay tr6en server va tra ket qua ve cho client.
+ Mail server : Cung cap cac dch vu ve gi va nhan MAIL
+ Web server : Cung cap cac dch vu ve WEB
+ Database server : Cung cap cac dch vu ve lu tr, tm kiem thong
tin
+ Communication server : Quan ly cac ket noi t xa.
u iem : D lieu c lu tr tap trung, de dang backup va ong bo
vi nhau. Tai nguyen va dch vu tap trung nen de chia se quan ly va phuc
vu cho nhieu ngi dung. Kha nang bao mat d lieu cao, theo nhieu lp.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Khuyet iem : Cac server chuyen dung at tien va phai co oi ngu


quan tr he thong mang.
VI. CAC DCH VU MANG
Dich vu mang la ly do tai sao chung ta s dung he thong mang. phan
nay mo ta cac hau het cac dch vu trong he thong mang.
+ C s e lien ket cac dch vu mang : Tat ca cac PC trong mang
phai c cai at he ieu hanh va he thong phan mem chuyen dung cho
phep chung lam viec c vi nhau trong moi trng mang.
+ Redirector service : redirector la 1 chng trnh chay tren may
tram lam viec kiem soat nhng yeu cau lien quan en mang. Chang han 1
ngi dung tren tram lam viec yeu cau cac tap tin noi bo th Redirector se
chuyen nhng yeu cau o en HH noi bo. Neu yeu cau o nham vao
nhng tap tin may tnh khac tren mang th Redirector se kiem tra cac
yeu cau va sau o gi cac yeu cau chuyen tiep qua mang e en ch
thong qua 1 ng truyen nh san.
- Yeu cau c at trong 1 goi tin co a ch tram dch vu.
- Phan mem Redirector c cai at rieng moi tram lam viec cung vi
phan mem ieu khien crad mang.
+ Server service : May tnh server phai co nhng thanh phan tiep nhan
nhng yeu cau t cac client trong mang va thc hien nh tuyen hoi ap
nhng yeu cau thong qua he thong mang ti cac client.
file service :
+ file service cho phep cac may tnh mang chia se file, thao tac tren
cac tap tin nay nh : lu tr, tm kiem, di chuyen..
+ file service cho phep user : oc, viet, quan ly file va data.
+ file service rat quan trong oi vi mang kieu noi mang client/server va
peer to peer.
+ May tnh cung cap cac dch vu ve file goi la file server. Co 2 kieu file
server : Chuyen dung va khong chuyen dung.
- File server chuyen dung thng dung trong mang kieu client/server
va ch lam 1 nhiem vu duy nhat ap ng tat ca cac yeu cau t client
trong mang.
- File server khong chuyen dung thng s dung trong mang kieu
peer to peer no lam 1 luc 2 nhiem vu. Cho phep may tnh va ong vai
tro la file server ap ng tat ca cac yeu cau t cac may tnh khac trong
mang va ong vai tro la user yeu cau s dung file t file server khac.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

File transfer service :


+ Dch vu truyen tai tap tin : Cho phep truyen tai file, data t ni nay
sang ni khac nhanh chong de dang.
Gia s co 1 tap tin hay tai lieu muon di chuyen t v tr nay sang v tr
khac th ta co cac giai phap thc hien la :
- Dung o a di dong e sao chep, di chuyen d lieu.( Kho khan khi
di chuyen d lieu en nhng ni xa.
- S dung ket noi dial up e ket noi 2 may tnh lai va sao chep, di
chuyen d lieu gia chung( toc o ng truyen qua cham, sao chep
va di chuyen d lieu lau).
- Trong ca 2 giai phap tren th eu co nhng nhc iem rat ln. Do
vay neu co mang va s dung dch vu truyen tai file se cho chung ta kha
nang truyen tai d lieu de dang vi toc o cao.
+ Hau het cac he thong mang eu co 1 vai trung tam lu tr file e lu
tr nhng file quan trong trong nhieu nam. File, data thng c lu tr
theo cac cach sau :
- Lu tr trc tuyen (online storage) : D lieu c lu tr trong a
cng nen truy xuat de dang nhanh chong bat ke thi gian. Nhng
phng phap nay co 1 nhc iem la chung khong the thao ri e trao
oi hoac lu tr tach ri ong thi chi ph cho 1 MB d lieu online tng
o cao.
- Lu tr ngoai tuyen (offline storage) : Thng ap dung cho nhng
d lieu t khi can truy xuat. Cac thiet b pho bien dun cho phng phap
nay la Bang t va a quang. Phng phap nay khi truy xuat kha cham.
- Lu tr can tuyen (Near-line storage): Thng dung thiet b jukebox
e t ong quan ly cac bang t, a quang. Cho toc o truy xuat nhanh
hn lu tr ngoai tuyen nhng chi ph khong cao.
+ Chuyen di d lieu (data migration) : La cong nghe t ong di cac
d lieu t dung t kho lu tr trc tuyen sang kho lu tr can tuyen hay
ngoai tuyen. Noi cach khac la qua trnh chuyen cac file, data t dang lu
tr nay sang dang lu tr khac.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ Sao lu d phong (File archive) : La qua trnh sao chep va lu tr 1


ban sao d lieu t thet b lu tr chnh. Khi thet b lu tr chnh co s
co th chung ta dung dung ban sao d phong e phuc hoi lai d lieu.
+ ong bo hoa viec cap nhat d lieu (File-update Synchronization) :
Theo doi cac thay oi khac nhau len cung 1 tap tin, e am bao rang
tat ca moi ngi dung eu co ban sao mi nhat cua tap tin va tap tin
khong b hong.
Printer service :
Dch vu in an la 1 ng dung mang ieu khien va quan ly viec s dung
cac may in trong mang. Cac li ch cua dch vu in an :
- Nhieu ngi cung s dung chung may PRINTER lam giam chi
ph.
- May in co the at tai bat ky ni au trong he thong mang.
- Dung c che hang i in cho phep an nh mc o u tien cua cac
tai lieu can in.

Application service :

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Dch vu nay cho phep cac ng dung co the huy ong nang lc cua cac
may tnh chuyen dung khac tren mang. VD : Khi may client thc hien 1
phep toan can kha nang x ly manh. No s dung nang lc cua may
chuyen dung khac tren mang x ly phep toan cho no roi tra ket qua ve
lai cho client.

Database service :
Dch vu c s d lieu cho phep cac ng dung c thiet ke chay ng
dung tai client va c s d lieu c lu tr, quan ly bi server.
Dch vu c s d lieu thc hien cac chc nang sau :
- Bao mat c s d lieu.
- Toi u hoa tien trnh thc hien cac tac vu c s d lieu.
- Xac nh v tr tot nhat e lu tr d lieu (khong bat buoc client
phai biet vi tr cua d lieu).
- Phuc vu so lng ngi dung ln, truy cap nhanh vao c s d lieu.
- Phan phoi d lieu qua nhieu he phuc vu c s d lieu.
+ Cac phng phap cap nhat d lieu sao lu d phong
- Master-driven updates : May phuc vu chnh nhan tat ca nhng
thong tin cap nhat va khi he thong m no cap nhat tat ca nhng
thong tin mi len ban lu tr d phong trc o.
- Locally driven updates : Bat ky v tr may phuc vu nao nhan c
ban cap nhat mi nhat va no chu trach nhiem phan phoi s thay
oi en nhng ban lu tr d phong trc o.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

10

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Message / Communication service :


La dch vu cho phep gi va nhan thong tin t ni nay sang ni khac.
Thong thng bao gom 3 dang sau : Mail, Voicemail, Fax
Mail : La he thong th ien t cho phep gi va nhan trong LAN hay
nhan thong qua internet.
- 1 so he thong Email phc tap co ho tr them ve sound, graphics
va videoe2
- 1 vai loai Email server chyen nghiep : Microsoft Exchange Server,
Novells Group Wise, Lotus Notes.
Voice mail : Cho phep ket noi may tnh en he thong ien thoai va
nha cung cap cac dch vu ve truyen cac ban tin nhan dang tieng thong
qua may tnh. No ket hp he thong truyen tieng noi tren may tnh vi
tieng noi tao ra voice mail truyen en may tnh khac thong qua mang.
Fax service : Cho phep gi nhan FAX thong qua he thong mang. Thong
thng may FAX trong he thong mang c quan ly bi fax serve[r.
Diectory service : Dch vu nay cho phep tch hp moi thong tin ve cac
oi tng tren mang thanh 1 cau truc dang th muc dung chung nh o
ma qua trnh quan ly va chia se tai nguyen tr nen hieu qua hn.
Sercurity service : Bao mat la 1 van e het sc quan trong trong he
thong mang. Thong thng viec bao mat tai nguyen va d lieu cho toan
he thong mang co the do ngi quan tr mang hay chnh ngi chu cua
d lieu quan ly bang cach ap chnh sach truy xuat cho tng ngi dung
hoac tng nhom ngi dung tren mang.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

11

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

V du : Khi ban chia xe tai nguyen hay d lieu tren he thong mang ban
co quyen ieu khien hoac ch nh nhng ai co quyen truy xuat en tai
nguyen o va lam c cai g vi no.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

12

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

MO HNH THAM CHIEU OSI


I. CAC TO CHC NH CHUAN VA ISO
+ ITU ( International Telecommunication Union ) : Hiep hoi vien thong quoc te
+ IEEE ( Institute of Electronic and Electronic Engeneers ) : Vien cac ky s ien
ien t
+ ISO ( International Standard Organization ) : To chc tieu cuan quoc te, tru s tai
Genever, Thuy S. Vao nam 1977, ISO c giao nhiem vu thiet ke 1 chuan truyen
thong da tren ly tuyet ve kien truc he thong m lam c s e thiet ke mang
may tnh. Mo hnh nay co ten OSI ( Open System Interconnection : Tng ket cac
he thong m )
II. QUI LUAT VA QUA TRNH THONG TIN :
Truyen thong tren mang rat giong thong tin gia con ngi vi nhau phai co
nhng qui luat e ngi nay co the noi chuyen vi ngi khac.
Mang may tnh that s co rat nhieu qui luat e trao oi thong tin. 1 vai qui trnh
c quan ly bi nhng tieu chuan cua mang la :
+ Nhng qui trnh dung e thiet lap va ket thuc qua trnh thong tin.
+ Nhng tn hieu dung mieu ta d lieu trong moi trng truyen thong.
+ Nhng kieu cua tn hieu s dung.
+ Nhng phng phap truyen tn hieu thong qua moi trng truyen thong.
+ Nhng phng phap s dung e nh hng ban tin en ch nh trc.
+ Nhng qui trnh dung ieu khien toc o cua dong chay d lieu.
+ Nhng phng phap cho phep cac loai may tnh khac nhau thong tin vi
nhau.
+ Nhng ng i e bao am ban tin a c nhan la chnh xac.
III. MO HNH THAM CHIEU OSI
Vao nam 1978 ISO ban hanh tap hp ac iem ky thuat mo ta kien truc
mang danh cho viec ket noi nhng thiet b mang khong cung chung loai.
Nam 1984 ISO phat hanh ban sa oi mo hnh nay va goi la mo hnh
tham chieu OSI. Ban sa oi nam 1884 tr thanh tieu chuan quoc te va c dung
nh hng dan mang.
Mo hnh OSI la hng dan thong dung va noi tieng trong viec mo ta moi
trng mang, no mo ta phng thc hoat ong cua phan cng va phan mem da

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

13

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

tren kien truc phan tang va cung cap khung tham chieu mo ta cac thanh phan
mang hoat ong ra sao.
MO HNH THAM CHIEU OSI NH NGHA CAC QUI TAC CHUAN SAU :
+ Cach thc cac thiet b giao tiep va truyen thong c vi nhau.
+ Cac phng phap e cac theit b tren mang khi nao c truyen va khi
nao khong c truyen d lieu.
+ Cac phng phap e am bao truyen ung d lieu va ung en ch.
+ Cach thc van tai, truyen, sap xep va ket noi d lieu vi nhau.
+ Cach thc am bao cac thiet b mang duy tr toc o truyen d lieu thch
hp.
+ Cach thc bieu dien 1 bit tren thiet b truyen dan.
CAU TRUC MO HNH OSI :
Mo hnh OSI co 7 lp moi lp mo ta 1 phan chc nang oc lap. S tach
lp em lai nhng li ch sau.
+ Chia hoat ong thong tin mang thanh nhng thanh phan nho hn, n
gian hn giup chhung ta de dang khao sat va tm hieu.
+ Chuan hoa cac thanh phan mang e cho phep phat trien mang t nieu
nha cung cap san pham.
+ Ngan chan c tnh trang thay oi 1 lp lam anh hng en cac lp
khac nh vay giup cho moi lp phat trien oc lap hn.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

14

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

NGUYEN TAC HOAT ONG TONG QUAT OSI

Gia s co 2 may tnh ket noi vi nhau. Ban truyen d lieu t may nay sang
may kia. Muon truyen d lieu gia 2 may th phai am bao 2 may phai co cung
giao thc, Ngha la chung phai hieu nhau trc khi viec thc hien truyen d lieu
gia chung. Qua trnh truyen d lieu tong quat thc hien theo nguyen tac sau
+ Tai may truyen d lieu : D lieu se c truyen thong qua 7 lp ( lan lt
t lp 7 en lp 1 )trong mo hnh OSI. Tai moi lp trong mo hnh OSI no se them
vao nhng thong tin ac trng cua lp o vao au va cuoi cua d lieu.
+ Tai may nhan d lieu : D lieu nhan c cung c truyen thong qua 7
lp ( t lp 1 en lp 7 ) trong mo hnh OSI. Tai moi lp trong mo hnh OSI no
se g bo i nhng thong tin ac trng tai tng lp au va cuoi cua d lieu, tai
tao lai d lieu ban au.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

15

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

CHC NANG CUA CAC LP TRONG MO HNH THAM CHIEU OSI


+ Application Layer ( Lp ng dung )
La giao dien gia cac chng trnh ng dung cua ngi dung va mang. Lp
nay khong cung cap cac dch vu cho bat c lp nao trong mo hnh OSI. Lp
Application lien quan en viec cung cap cac dch vu ng dung trong he thong
mang bao gom : file services , Print services, Application services.
+ Presentation Layer ( Lp trnh bay )
Lp nay chu trach nhiem thng lng va xac lap dang d lieu c trao
oi. No am bao thong tin ma lp ng dung cua 1 he thong gi i th lp ng
dung cua he thong khac co the oc c.
Lp Presentation thong dch gia nhieu dang d lieu khac nhau thong qua 1
dang chung, ong thi no cung nen va giai nen d lieu, quan ly cac cap o nen
d lieu nham giam so bit can truyen.
Data formatting (nh dang d lieu):
Bit/byte-orther translation : Th t truyen bit/byte c qui c bi qui tac
gi va nhan.
Character code translation ( bang ma ky t ): moi loai he thong may tnh
se s dung 1 loai bang ma hoa ky t khac nhau . VD : e bieu dien ky t cua
tieng Anh th Minicomputer va Microcomputer s dung bang ma ASCII(American
Standard Code for Information Interchange) trong khi o may tnh Mainframes cua
IBM s dung bang ma EBCDIC(Exchange Binary Code Decimal Interchamge Code)
File syntax translation ( tap tin dang cu phap ): La nhng kieu nh dang
khac nhau gia cac loai may tnh khac nhau. VD : Tap tin thong ke trong may
kieu Macintosh s dung s lien ket gia 2 tap tin data fork va resource fork. Trong
khi may PC ch bao gom 1 tap tin.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

16

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Encryption ( Ma hoa d lieu ): Viec ma hoa d lieu tuy theo nhu cau can
bao mat ve thong tin ma ngi ta co cac cach ma hoa d lieu khac nhau nh sau
:
Public key ( Bang ma thong dung ): Phng phap ma hoa chung a
c nh theo chuan quoc te.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

17

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Private key ( Bang ma rieng ) : Phng phap ma hoa rieng khong


tuan theo chuan quoc te. No tuan theo qui tac ma ngi ma hoa lam ra.
+ Session Layer ( Lp phien )
Chu trach nhiem quan ly ve phng phap hoi thoai gia 2 may tnh bi cac
chc nang thiet lap, quan ly va nh gii han phien thong tin gia 2 thiet b
truyen va nhan, ieu chnh ben nao truyen va truyen trong bao lau va ngc lai.
Cac phng phap truyen thong tin thng c ap dung
Simplex dialogs ( n cong )
Hafl-duxplex dialogs ( Ban song cong )
Full-duxplex dialogs ( Song cong )

Session Player hoat ong t nhat thong qua 4 bc


Connection establishment ( Thiet lap ket noi)
Data Tranfer ( Truyen d lieu )
Connection release ( Ngat ket noi )
Error Correction ( Kiem tra loi )

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

18

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Giai oan thiet lap ket noi se thiet lap thong so cho phien thong tin. Thc te qua
trnh thiet lap ket noi se lam 1 vai nhng nhiem vu sau :
+ Ch ro nhng dch vu c yeu cau e s dung.
+ Tham nh quyen ang nhap va nhng thu tuc bao mat khac.
+ Thoa thuan gia cac bo giao thc va nhng thong so giao thc.
+ Thong bao ket noi IDs
+ Thiet lap ieu khien hoi thoai, nh bao nhan tin va thu tuc truyen lai
Sau khi thiet lap ket noi, Thiet b lien quan co the khi chay hoi thoai va bat au
giai oan truyen d lieu. Lp phien co the cung ket hp chat che vi nhng giao
thc e phuc hoi lai nhng thong tin b h hong. Kiem tra viec ket noi co b mat
hay khong. Sau khi d lieu c truyen het se ngat ket d lieu va ngat ket noi
gia nhng thiet b.
+ Transport Layer ( Lp van chuyen )
Phan oan d lieu tai he thong may truyen va tai thiet lap d lieu tai he
thong may nhan, am bao viec ban giao cac thong iep chnh xac.Lp nay bao
gom cac hoat ong sau
Repackaging ( Xep th t cac phan oan ) : Khi 1 thong iep ln
c tach thanh nhieu phan oan nho e truyen. Khi nhan cac phan oan nho lp
van chuyen se sap xep th t cac phan oan trc khi rap noi thanh thong iep
ban au.
Error Control ( Kiem soat loi ) : khi co phan oan trong qua trnh
truyen b that bai, sai hoac trung lap no se yeu cau truyen lai.
End to End Flow control ( Kiem soat luong chay d lieu ) : Lp van
chuyen s dung tn hieu bao nhan e xac nhan a nhan c cho ben gi. Ben
gi se khong truyen tiep cac phan oan d lieu neu nh ben nhan cha gi i tn
hieu bao a nhan c phan oan d lieu trc o ay u.
Cac phng thc truyen goi d lieu:
Circuit switching :
Thiet lap ng dan va gi ng dan trong suot qua trnh truyen. D lieu i theo
1 ng truyen nhat nh a c nh san.
Mat nhieu thi gian thiet lap ket noi gia thiet b truyen va nhan, Nhng lu thong
khac tren mang khong the chia se moi trng truyen thong do bang thong con lai
hep.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

19

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Message switching :
Thiet lap ket noi truyen d lieu theo nhieu hng khac nhau e i en ung
ni can en ( Dang nay ch thiet lap ng dan va gi ng dan trong tng oan
d lieu truyen qua )

Packet switching :
D lieu c chia thanh nhieu goi nho moi goi nho c truyen i theo
nhieu hng khac nhau tren he thong mang. Thiet lap ket noi va gi ket noi trong

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

20

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

thi gian rat ngan. Do truyen dang goi nen qua trnh truyen van co the chia se
c moi trng truyen.

Virtual Circuit Packet Switching :


Chuyen mach ao hoat ong thiet lap ket noi gia 2 thiet b thong. Khi thiet
b bat au phien lam viec no thiet lap cac thong so cho thong tin, Chang han nh
kch thc toi a cho 1 ban tin chuyen i, ca so truyen thong va nhng ng
dan mang. Khi hnh thanh virtual circuit xac nh ro ng dan thong qua s
tng tac gia nhng thiet b truyen thong. Mach ao nay la gi nguyen tnh trang
cho en khi thiet b ket thuc thong tin.
Packet switching co nhng thuan li sau :
Packet switching toi u hoa viec s dung bang thong bi v no cho phep nhieu
thiet b nh tuyen nhng goi d lieu thong qua nhng kenh mang. Tai bat ky 1
thi iem nao chuyen mach co the nh tuyen nhng goi d lieu en vai thiet b
ch khac nhau. ieu chnh tuyen ng i cho cac goi d lieu e at c hieu
qua cao nhat. Bi v toan bo ban tin kkong lu tr tai chuyen mach trc khi
truyen tiep, S truyen tre t hn nhng so vi message switching.
+ Network Layer ( Lp mang )
Chu trach nhiem thiet lap cac thong iep, dien dch a ch va ten logic
thanh a ch vat ly ong thi no cung chu trach nhiem gi cac packet t nguon
en ch.
Lp nay ng i t may tnh nguon en may tnh ch. No quyet nh d
lieu se truyen theo ng nao da vao tnh trang u tien dch vu va cac yeu to
khac.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

21

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

No quan ly lu lng tren mang, chuyen oi goi tin, nh tuyen va kiem


soat s tac nghen d lieu. Neu thch ng mang tren bo nh tuyen khong the
truyen u nguyen oan d lieu ma may tnh nguon gi i th lp network tren bo
nh tuyen se chia d lieu thanh nhng n v nho hn. au nhan lp network
rap noi lai d lieu ( packet hay datagram )

+ Data link Layer ( Lp lien ket d lieu ) : Gi cac khung d lieu t tang
network en tang physical. au nhan no ong goi d lieu dang tho t tang
physical thanh cac khung d lieu.
Cung cap kha nang truyen d lieu xuyen qua 1 lien ket vat ly. Tai ay cac
bit en t lp physical c lien ket thanh cac frame. Lp nay lien quan en
- a ch vat ly
- Mo hnh mang
- C che truy cap ng truyen
- Thong bao loi
- Th t phan phoi frame
- ieu khien dong.
Lp data link c phan lam 2 lp con LLC va MAC
MAC ( Media Access Control ) : ieu khien khi nhieu tram cung truy
cap chia se 1 kenh truyen thong e truyen thong e truyen thong tin. Lp MAC
co the cung cap thong tin ve a ch cho viec thong tin gia cac thiet b mang.
LLC ( Logical Link Control ) : lp LLC thiet lap va duy tr lien ket
gia nhng thiet b thong tin
+ Physical Layer ( Lp vat ly ) : tang nay truyen cac luong bit d lieu
thong qua lien ket vat ly( cap mang). nh ngha cac qui cach ve ien, thu tuc va
cac ac ta chc nang dung e kch hoat, duy tr va ngat lien ket vat ly gia cac
thiet b au cuoi.
1 so ac iem trong lp vat ly nay bao gom :
- Mc ien the
- Khoang thi gian thay oi ien the
- Toc o d lieu vat ly
- Khoang ng truyen toi a
- Cac au noi vat ly

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

22

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

IV. CAC BC CHI TIET TRONG VIEC VAN CHUYEN GOI D LIEU :
Sinh ven da vao qua trnh phan tch 7 lp tren e xay dng qua trnh
chi tiet van chuyen d lieu gia 2 may tinh thong qua moi trng mang.
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
V. MO HNH TCP/IP
Mo hnh tham chieu TCP/IP tng t nh mo hnh tham chieu OSI. Tai moi phan
lp no co 1 so tnh chat sau :
APPLICATION
TRANSPORT
INTERNET
NETWORK INTERFACE
Lp Application : Bao gom cac ng dung nh FTP, HTTP, SMTP..
Lp Transport : Bao gom 2 ghi thc TCP va UDP
Lp Internet : Nghi thc IP
Lp Network layer : Co tnh chat tng t nh 2 lp data link va physical
cua mo hnh OSI
Cac bc ong goi d lieu trong mo hnh TCP/IP
DATA
TCP/ DATA
TCP / DATA / IP
LD/ TCP / DATA / IP / LD
Sinh ven da vao 7 lp OSI va TCP/IP e so sanh 2 mo hnh.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

23

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

VI. HO IEEE 802


IEEE (institute of Eletronic Engineers = vien cac ky s ien t )la mot to
chcchuyen nghiep ln nhat the gii vaco anh hng rat quan trong oi v viec
xay dng cac chuan. Uy ban 802 cua IEEE d9a phat trien mot loat cac chuan cho
LAN, MAN, va WAN. Cac chuan nay c tha nhan va c ISO tai cong bo di
dang chuan ISO 802.
Mi hai tieu ban a xem xet chuan 802 (mot tieu ban th mi ba a c e
ngh e phat trien chuan 100BASEX). Hnh 1.6 mihn hoa v tr cua moi chuan
trong mo hnh tham khao OSI.
IEEE 802.2
chuan IEEE802.2dnh ngha mot tang con LLC c cac giao thc tang
pha di khac s dung. Do cac giao thc tang pha di s dung ch mot tang
giao thc LLC n le, nen cac giao thc tang mang co the c thiet ke oc lap
vi tang vat ly cua mang va cac thc thi tang con MAC.
LLC chap vao cac goi tin mot phan au nh danh cac giao thc tang pha tren,
ket hp vi khung. Phan au cung khsi bao cac tien trnh la nguong va ch cua
moi goi tin.
I2EEE 802.3
Chuan IEEE 802.3 nh ngha la mot mang phai, sinh t mang ethernet,
thoat au c phat trien bi cac hang digital, intel,xerox. Chuan nay nh ngha
cac ac tnh lien quan en tang con MAC cua tang noi ket d lieu va tang vat ly
OSI. Ngoai mot chi tiet khac biet nho kieu khung, cac chc nang IEEE 802.3
Ethernet giong y het DIX Ethernet v.2. tham ch hai chuan co the cung ton tai

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

24

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

tren cung mot he cap, tuy cac thiet b dung chuan nay khong the trryen thong
tin trc tiep vi cac thiet b dung chuan kia.
Tang con MAC dung dang truy cap tranh chap co ten CSMA/CP. K thuat nay
giam bt tnh trang va cham bang cach e moi thiet b lang ch mang e xac
nh no a yen hay cha( cam ng tan so tai); mot thiet b ch gang truyen khi
mang yen lang. ieu nay giup giam bt song khong loai han cac s co va cham
bi cac tn hieu phai mat mot thi gian nhat nh e loan tryen qua mang. Khi
cac thiet b truyen chung tiep tuc lang ch, do o chung co the phat hien ra mot
va cham neu no xay ra. Khi mot va cham xay ra, tat ca cac thiet b ngng tryen
va gi mot tn hieu ang ket e thong bao cho tat ca cac tram ve s co va
cham. Sau o moi thiet b i mot thi lng ngau nhien trc khi gang tryen lai.
To hp bao ve nay lam giam bt ang ke cac s co va cham tren tat ca ngoai tr
cac mang ban ron nhat.
Phan nh ngha tang vat ly mo ta phng phap phat tn hieu( ca day tan c s
lan dai tan rong ieu san co), cac toc o d lieu, van tai, va cac topo. Vai bien
the tang vat ly cung c nh ngha. Moi bien the c at ten theo mot qui c
qui nh toc o phat tn hieu(1 hay 10) Mbps, che o giai tan c s( BASE) hoac
giai tang( BROAD), va mot ch nh cac ac tnh van tai.
Ghi chu:
Nganh cong nghiep a khong nhat tr trong viec dung ung an ten Ethernet.
Xerox a a ten Ethernet vao lnh vc cong, co ngha la khong ai co the xac
nhan tham quyen tren no. Nhng ngoi theo chu ngha thuan tuy thng hay cho
rang ethernet ch co ngha la chuan digitalintelxerox ban au. Tuy nhen, ngi ta
lai thng dung thuat ng e ch bat k mang nao da tren phng phap ieu
khien ttruy cap CSMA/CD.
Thong thung ta phai cu the ve chuan ap dung cho mot cau hnh mang nhat nh.
Chuan ban au co ten la ethernetversion 2( version1 van thnh thoang c dung)
hoac Ethernet 2 chuan IEEE c phan biet bi ten uy ban cua no 802.3
S phan biet ay la quang trong bi ethernet version 2 va ethernet 802.3 s
dung cac kieu khung khong tng thch. cac thiet b ch mot kieu khung se khong
the truyen thong vi cac thiet b dung kieu khung kia.
IEEE802.4
Chuan 802.4 mo ta mot mang co topo buyt vat ly ieu khien viec truy cap
van tai theo c che the bai. Chuan a c thiet ke e thoa cac nhu ccau cua cac
he thong t ong hoa ve cong nghiep nhng lai t c pho dung. Ca hai cap
hnh giai tan c s lan day tan rong( dung cap ong truc 75 ohm) ieu co san.
IEEE802.5

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

25

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Chuan IEEE 802.5 xuat hpat t mang tokenring cua IBM, s dung topo
logic vongkhau va c che ieu khien trruy cap van tai goc the bai. Toc o d lieu
1, 4, va 16 Mbps a c nh ngha. Chuan IEEE 802.5 khong mo ta mot he
au cap. Hau het cac thc thi ieu da tren he cap IBM, s dung cap xoan cap
oc au day theo hnh sao vat ly.
IEEE802.6
Chuan IEEE802.6 mo ta mot chuan MAN ten DQDP( distributed queue dual
bus= buyt oi co hang i phan phoi). Khong ch la mot cong nghe mang d lieu,
DQDP rat thch hp vi cac phien truyen d lieu, tieng, va video. Manh da tren
cap quang theo cau hnh topo buyt oi. Lng lu thong tren moi buyt la mot
chieu. Khi hoat ong theo tng cap, hai buyt cung cap mot cau hnh dung loi.
Bang thong c phan bo bang cac khe thi gian, va cac che o ong bo va b
bo ieu c ho tr.
IEEE802.9
Chuan IEEE 802.9 ho tr mot kenh d bo 10 Mbps, cung vi 96 kenh 64
KBPS( tong bang thong 6 Mbps) co the chuyen trach cac luon d lieu cu the.
Tong bang thong la 16 mbps. Chuan nay co ten la Ethernet ang thi(IsoEnet) va
c thiet ke cho cac c s co lg lu thong gian oan va quan trong ve thi
gian.
IEEE802.11
IEEE802.11 la mot chuan cho cac lan vo tuyen, hien dang phat trien. Mot
phng phap CSMA/CD a c cchng nhan, nhng chuan chung cuoc van ang
ch giai quyet.
IEEE 802.13
Chuan IEEE 802.13 5a tren mot e ngh 100 Mbps cua cac hang AT&T,
IBM va hewlettpackard. c goi la 100 VGAnyLAN, mang nay da tren mot topo
au day hnh sao va mot phng phap truy cap goc tranh chap qua o cac thiet
b cho o cai au day ve mot nhu cau truyen d lieu. Cac thiet b ch co the truyen
khi uc o cai giao giay phep. Chu trng cua chuan nay la cung cap mot mang
cao cap co the hoat ong trong cac moi trng hon hp ethernet va tokenRing
bang cach ho tr ca hai kieu khung

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

26

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

MOI TRNG TRUYEN THONG


Tren mot mang bat ky, cac iem noi tren mang phai truyen thong vi nhau
c thong qua mot dang truyen tai nao o. Con ngi co the truyen thong tin vi
nhau qua ng day ien thoai hoac song am thanh trong khong kh. May tnh co
the truyen thong thong qua day cap, anh sang va song radio. Ky thuat truyen tai
cho phep may tnh gi va nhan cac thong iep.
Chng nay mo ta loai vat tai truyen pho dung nhat tren mang. Ta se tm
hieu cac noi dung sau :

I. CAC TAN SO TRUYEN

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

27

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Vat truyen tai giup truyen cac tn hieu ien t t may tnh nay sang may
tnh khac. Cac tn hieu ien t nay bieu at cac gia tr d lieu theo dang so nh
phan (bat/tat). Cac tn hieu nay c truyen thong qua mang bang mot to hp cac
thiet b ien t (cac board mach, hub, ) va vat truyen tai (day cap, song vo
tuyen, ) cho en khi chung en c may tnh ch. o, chung lai c chuyen
oi thanh cac tn hieu thanh cac d lieu ben trong may tnh nhan.
Tat ca cac tn hieu truyen gia cac may tnh eu bao gom mot dang song
ien t (electromagnetic - EM) nao o, t cac tan so radio en viba va tia hong
ngoai. Cac vat tai khac nhau c dung e truyen cac tn hieu tuy theo tan so cua
dang song EM.
Cac song tan so radio thng c dung e phat tn hieu LAN. Cac tan so
radio co the c dung vi cap ien (xoan cap hay ong truc) hoac thong qua
viec truyen phu song radio.
Cac ky thuat truyen viba c dung e truyen thong gia cac tram at va
cac ve tinh hay dung e truyen iem-iem tren mat at. Cac song viba cung co
the c dung theo cac dang cong suat thap e phu rong cac tn hieu t mot
tram phat en nhieu tram thu. Cac mang ien thoai te bao la nhng v du ve cac
he thong dung cac tn hieu viba cong suat thap e phu rong cac tn hieu.
Tia hong ngoai co the c truyen tren cac khoang cach tng oi ngan va
co the c phat song gia hai iem hoac t mot iem phu song cho nhieu tram
thu. Co the truyen tia hong ngoai va cac tan so anh sang cao hn thong qua cap
quang.
ac tnh cua vat tai truyen :
Moi loai vat truyen tai eu co cac tnh nang ac biet thch hp vi mot kieu dch
vu cu the vi cac ac tnh sau ay :Gia thanh, Cac yeu cau cai at, Bang thong,
Suy hao, Mien nhieu ien t.
Ba ac tnh sau se c giai thch ky hn.
BANG THONG :
Trong lnh vc mang may tnh, thuat ng bang thong (bandwidth) co ngha
la so o cong suat cua mot vat tai e truyen d lieu. Mot vat tai co cong suat
han che se co bang thong thap.
Co the v bang thong nh cac voi nc. Neu mot voi nc ng knh na inch
co the tai luong nc t nho giot len en bang thong 2 gallon/phut th co the
xem voi o co mot bang thong 2 gallon/phut.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

28

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Cac toc o truyen d lieu thng c phat bieu di dang cac bit co the
truyen moi giay. Tren ly thuyet, mot LAN Ethernet co the truyen 10 trieu
bit/giay va co mot bang thong 10 megabit/giay (Mbps).
Bang thong cua mot cap phan nao c xac nh bi chieu dai cap. Mot oan
cap ngan thng co bang thong ln hn mot oan cap dai va la mot ly do ma
moi thiet ke cap ch nh cac chieu dai toi a e chay cap. Neu vt qua cac
gii han nay, cac tn hieu tan so cao nhat co the b hong va co the bat au
xay ra loi trong cac tn hieu d lieu.
Ghi chu :
Thuat ng bang thong cung co mot ngha khac. Trong lnh vc ien t bang
thong co ngha la mien cac tan so san co gia tan so gii han thap va tan so
gii han cao. Cac tan so c o bang Hertz (Hz) hoac so chu ky/giay. Bang
thong mot tuyen thoai la 400-4,000Hz, ngha la tuyen nay co the truyen cac
tn hieu theo cac tan so t 400 en 4,000 chu ky/ giay.
SUY HAO :
Suy hao la so o mc suy yeu cua mot tn hieu khi no di chuyen qua mot
vat tai. ay ta khong e cap hien tng suy hao theo ngha chnh quy ma
ch xet en tac ong cua no oi vi kha nang van hanh.
Suy hao la ly do th hai ma cac thiet ke cap phai ch nh cac gii han ve
chieu dai chay cap. Khi cng o tn hieu tut xuong di mot so gii han nhat
nh, cac thiet b ien t ang nhan tn hieu se kho long co lap tn hieu ban
au vi am nhieu hien dien trong moi phien truyen ien t. Hieu ng nay
giong het nh ang gang bat song cac tn hieu radio t xa. Cho du co the thu
c tn hieu tren ai radio, song noi chung am thanh van cha nhieu am
nhieu.
NHIEU IEN T :
Nhieu ien t (electromagnetic interference EMI) bao gom cac am nhieu
ien t ben ngoai lam bien dang tn hieu trong mot vat tai. Khi nghe mot ai
phat thanh AM, ta thng nghe am nhieu do cac ong c hay tia chp gay ra.

II. MOI TRNG TRUYEN HU TUYEN


1. Cap dung cho mang ien thoai : La loai day thng dung trong lam
day ien thoai dan tn hieu t tram tong ai ien thoai en tram ien tong ai
ien thoai hay t tram ien tong ai ien thoai en ni s dung. Chung ta
thng s dung ket noi vi internet thong qua ng day nay.
+ T tong ai ni s dung : thng la 1 oi day va chung c phan
lam 2 loai goi la cap inside va cap outside.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

29

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ T tong ai tong ai : Thong thng loai day nay thng c cau


thanh tng oi va bo lai vi nhau thanh tng bo. Tuy theo cau truc ma no c
bo thanh tng bo : 5 oi, 10 oi, 25 oi, 50 oi.. va no co qui nh mau
sac e nhan dang thong thng nh sau (TC USA)
5 mau chnh
5 mau phu
Trang
Dng
o
Cam
en
Luc
Vang
Nau
Tm
Xam
Truyen tn hieu tng t co tan so len en 250 KHz vi c ly len en 5Km
6Km.
Truyen tn hieu so toc o toi a 100Kb/s vi tram lap 2 Km - 3 Km. Neu muon
truyen xa hn phai co mach K tang tn hieu va phai chu y en kha nang b
meo xuyen am neu vo boc chong nhieu khong tot.
2. Cap ong truc (coaxial cable) :
La loai cap au tien s dung cho he thong mang LAN. Goi la cap ong
truc v co hai day dan dung chung mot truc, ng cap thng c xem la
ong truc.

+ Cau tao cap ong truc :


- Mot day dan trung tam, thng la day ong ac
- Mot day dan pha ngoai tao thanh mot ng ong bao quanh day dan
trung tam. Day dan nay co the dung cac si day kim loai dang li, la kim
loai, hoac ca hai. Do day dan nay cung bao ve day dan pha trong khoi b
EMI, nen con c goi la mang chan.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

30

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

- Mot tang cach ien e gi day dan pha ngoai cach eu vi day dan pha
trong.
- Mot vo bao bang nha e bao ve cap khong b dap.
+ Phan loai cap ong truc :
Thin net
ng knh : 0.25 inch
Kha nang truyen MAX = 185 m
Tong tr : 50 ohm
Gia thanh : Re
Dung lng : 2.5 Mbps ( ARCnet)
10 Mbps ( Ethernet)
EMI : De b bc xa tn hieu

Thick net
ng knh : 0.50 inch
Kha nang truyen MAX = 500 m
Tong tr : 50 ohm
Gia thanh : at
Dung lng : 2.5 Mbps ( ARCnet)
10 Mbps ( Ethernet)
EMI : De b bc xa tn hieu

+ Cach au noi :
Cap ong truc thng c cai at theo 2 cau hnh : mac noi tiep t
thiet b nay sang thiet b khac (Ethernet) va hnh sao (ARCnet).

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

31

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

3. Cap xoan oi :
Cap xoan oi gom 2 day ong xoan lai vi nhau. Ky thuat xoan lam giam
bc xa gay nhieu en nhng ng cap lan can.

+ Cap STP ( Shield Twisted Pair ) : Gom 4 oi day, 4 oi day lai


c boc trong loi li kim loai. Co kha nang chong nhieu ien gia cac oi
day ben trong cap va nhieu ben ngoai cap tham nhap vao. Tr khang
thng 150 Ohm, Toc o va thong lung t 10 Mbps en 100 Mbps. Chieu
dai cap Max khi s dung trong mang may tnh = 100 met. Loai nay at
tien va kho khan khi lap at nen t c s dung nhieu.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

32

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ Cap UTP ( Unshield Twisted Pair ) : Gom 4 oi day c boc 1


lp cach ien va moi oi day c xoan lai vi nhau, 4 oi day c boc
trong 1 ong nha. Tr khang thng 100 Ohm, Toc o va thong lung t
16 Mbps en 500 Mbps. Chieu dai Max cap khi s dung trong mang may
tnh = 100 met. Loai nay gia thanh re, nho gon, de dang lap at.
Qui nh ve mau day cap UTP
White Green
Green
White Orange
Orange
White Blue
Blue
White Brown
Brown
So th t day
1

Chun A
White Green

Chun B
White Orange

2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Green
White Orange
Blue
White Blue
Orange
White Brown
Brown

Orange
White Green
Blue
White Blue
Green
White Brown
Brown

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

33

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Nguyen tac au noi cap UTP, STP


Node to Node, hub to hub

Node to Hub, hob to node

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

34

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

4. Cap quang : Si quang cau tao gom lp ruot ben trong lam bang thuy
tinh silic cc thuan va co chiet suat cao hn lp vo bao boc ben ngoai lam
bang nha deo chong am t, mai mon, va cham va cac nguy c h hong
khac. Tuy nhien loai nay gia thanh rat cao va kho che tao. Sau nay ngi
ta che tao loai si quang gom thuy tinh nhieu thanh phan. Loai nay gia
thanh thap hn nhng van ap ng c nhu cau s dung.

Si quang thong thng co ng knh t 2 um - 125 um. Truyen tia


sang co tan so 10KHz en 10 GHz. Toc o truyen 100Mbps co the at ti
2Gbps. Chieu dai Max cap khi s dung trong mang may tnh co the len
en vai Km.
e truyen tn hieu trong si quang : Tn hieu dang tng t phai
chuyen oi sang dang tn hieu so roi s dung diode phat quang chuyen oi
sang dang anh sang ri rac truyen i trong si quang va tai au thu ta s
dung diode thu quang e thu lai anh sang ri rac sau o chuyen oi ve
trang thai ban au.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

35

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Tn hieu
tng t

Tn hieu
dang so

Phat anh
sang ri rac

Si quang

Tn hieu
tng t

Tn hieu
dang so

Thu anh
sang ri rac

Tuy theo kch thc si quang ma ta co cac cach truyen tn hieu anh
sang trong si quang sau.
Neu ng knh si ln, chiet xuat ruot ong eu cao hn lp vo boc,
goc ti cua tia sang nho khi en au si cap tia sang se c phan chieu
toan phan nhieu lan trong qua anh sang trnh truyen doc theo si cap. Ta
co the truyen 1 luc nhieu tn hieu tren cung 1 si cap nhng do anh hng
cua phan xa toan phan nhieu lan trong qua trnh anh sang lu thong trong
si cap dan en tn hieu tai au thu co the khong ong pha nhau va dan
en toc o truyen bi han che.

Neu ng knh si that nho chiet suat si ong eu th ch 1 tia tn


hieu c truyen qua si quang.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

36

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Neu chiet xuat si khong ong eu, chiet xuat cao nhat tai tam si
quang va giam dan khi ra ngoai vo th tia sang khong c phan xa toan
phan tai mat tiep giap gia ruot va vo luc o no se phan xa toan phan
ngay trong si quang.

5. Bang thong ke thong so cac loai cap :


Kieu cap
Lap at
Thong lng
Coaxial thinnet
De dang lap at
10Mbps
Coaxial thcknet
De dang lap at
10Mbps
STP ( Shielded
De dang lap at
16Mbps en
twisted pair )
500Mbps
UTP ( Unshieded
Mac tien, De dang lap
10Mbps en
twist pair )
at
100Mbps
Fiber-optic
Mac tien, kho lap at
100Mbps

Pham vi
185 met
500 met
100 met
100 met
Vai kilomet

MOI TRNG TRUYEN VO TUYEN


KHONG GIAN
NI PHAT
TN HIEU

???????????

NI THU TN
HIEU

MOI TRNG VO TUYEN


Infrared ( hong ngoai)
Laser
Narrow-band radio ( Song radio bang thong hep )
Spread-spectrum radio ( Song radio bang thong rong )
Microwave ( song cc ngan )
Kh quyen qua at va khong gian la moi trng truyen vo tuyen. Tn hieu
truyen c trong moi trng vo tuyen phai lan truyen di dang song ien t.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

37

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Nh chung ta biet tn hieu am tan co tan so : 20 Hz 20 KHz ay chnh la


tan so ma tai ngi cam nhan c va tan so nay qua thap khong co kha nang
lan truyen i xa trong khong gian. e tn hieu am tan co kha nang truyen xa trong
khong gian ta s dung ky thuat ieu che e gi song am tan tren 1 song cao tan
roi sau o cho no bc xa ra ngoai khong gian di dang song ien t.
Ky thuat gi song am tan tren 1 song cao tan goi la ky thuat ieu che va
c thc hien theo nguyen tac sau :
Tn hieu am
tan (AF)

ieu che
( MIX)

Dao ong cao tan


( OSC RF ). Song mang
tin
Truyen song trc tiep : truyen thang t tram phat an tram thu theo ng
nhn thay
ng nhn thay

Tram phat

Trai at

Tram thu

Truyen thong qua tram tiep song hay tram lap : Tram lap co the at tren cao, hay
dung ve tinh a tnh.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

38

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

39

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

40

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

CAC KIEN TRUC VA CONG


NGHE MANG LAN
I. GII THIEU :
Mang c tao nen bi cau truc phan cng, giao thc, thiet b
truyen, cau hnh mang. Mot cau hnh mang(topo) la 1 s o cac mat noi se
c ket noi nh the nao, cac thiet b tai mat noi co chc nang nh the
nao trong viec ket noi vi cac vi cac thiet b khac. Yeu to hnh thanh len
topo mang chnh la s chon la phng phap truy xuat moi trng. Phng
phap truy xuat la tap hp nhng nguyen tac ve viec phan chia mc o
phien truyen.
Chng nay se gii thieu ve :
- Phng phap truy xuat moi : CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA, token passing
- Cac cau hnh mang s dung cac phng phap truy xuat moi trng
tren.
II. CAC PHNG PHAP TRUY CAP NG TRUYEN
La tap hp cac qui luat quan tr cac nut mang cung chia se moi trng
truyen dan.
1. Tranh chap ( Contention ) :
Tranh chap phng tien truyen dan en trc phuc vu trc.
* CSMA / CD
+ CS (Carier Sensor) : Cam bien song mang. Cac tram lam thc hien
viec quan sat cng o lu thong tren mang e nhan biet ng truyen co
trong hay khong.
+ MA (Multiple Accesse) : a truy cap. Cho phep nhieu tram cung truy
cap 1 ng truyen trong tai cung 1 thi iem.
+ CD (Cosllision Detect) : Phat hien xung ot
Vi CSMA/CD moi iem tram lam viec tren mang eu co quyen bnh ang
trong viec tham nhap vao kenh truyen. Neu ca 2 tram lam viec cung luc lang
nghe ng truyen nhan thay ng truyen ang ranh va ca 2 cung truyen d
lieu - Xay ra xung ot lam viec truyen cua 2 tram b gian oan. Ca 2 tiep tuc
quan sat mang va ch thi gian ngau nhien cho lan truyen ke tiep.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

41

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

* CSMA / CA
+ CA ( Coillision Avoidance ) Tranh xung ot
Da vao cac canh bao truyen thong lam giam s xung ot e tang cng
o lu thong tren mang.

2. Hoi vong (Polling)


Mot thiet b c xac nh e lam cong viec hoi vong se lan lc hoi cac
thiet b khac se xem chung co thong tin e truyen truyen hay e nhan d lieu
hay hay khong.
S hoi vong ato ra cong bang trong lu thong tren he thong mang.

3. Truyen the bai (Token Passing)


S dung 1 khung goi la the bai e thiet lap th t truyen d lieu. Cac may
tnh tren he thong mang nhan th t e chiem phng tien truyen dan. May
nao can truyen d lieu phai i en khi nhan c the bai mi co quyen truyen
d lieu.
Cac mang s dung phng phap nay :

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

42

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ Token Ring
+ IEEE Standards 802.4
+ FDDI ( Fiber distribued data interface )

4. Yeu cau u tien (Demand Priority) :


la phng phap s dung cho nhng loai mang co toc o mi 100 MBps
hay 100VG-AnyLAN standard. Trong phng phap nay nhng mat noi mang
c noi ti HUB vao1 co the c noi ti nhng HUB khac v vay s tranh
chap xay ra HUB. Demand Priority cung cap s van hanh cho nhng loai d
lieu vi quyen u tien. en trc phuc vu trc. Neu tranh chap xay ra th d
lieu nao co quyen u tien cao hn se c truyen trc.
III. CAC KIEN TRUC MANG (TOPOLOGY) :
1. Khai niem :
- Network topology la s o dung bieu dien cac kieu sap xep, bo tr vat ly
cua may tnh, day cap va nhng thanh phan khac tren mang theo phng
dien vat ly.
- Co hai kieu kien truc mang chnh la :
- Kien truc vat ly (physical topology) : mo ta cach bo tr ng truyen
thc s cua mang,
- Kien truc logic (logical topology) : mo ta con ng ma d lieu that s
di chuyen qua cac nut mang.
2. Cac kieu kien truc mang chnh :
* Mang Bus :

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

43

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Kien truc Bus la mot kien truc cho phep noi mang cac may tnh n gian
va pho bien nhat. No dung mot oan cap noi tat ca may tnh va cac thiet
b trong mang thanh mot hang. Khi mot may tnh tren mang gi d lieu
di dang tn hieu ien th tn hieu nay se c lan truyen tren oan cap ti
cac may tnh con lai, tuy nhien d lieu nay ch c may tnh co a ch so
khp vi a ch ma hoa trong d lieu chap nhan. Moi lan ch co mot may
co the gi d lieu len mang, v vay, so lng may tnh tren bus cang tang
th hieu suat thi hanh mang cang cham.
Hien tng doi tn hieu : la hien tng khi d lieu c gi len mang, d
lieu se i t au cap nay en au cap kia. Neu tn hieu tiep tuc khong
ngng, no se doi ti lui trong day cap va ngan khong cho may tnh khac
gi d lieu. e giai quyet tnh trang nay ngi ta dung mot thiet b
terminator (ien tr cuoi) at moi au cap e hap thu cac tn hieu ien t
do.
u iem : kien truc nay dung t cap, de lap at, gia thanh re. Khi m rong
mang tng oi n gian, neu khoang cach xa th co the dung repeater e
khuech ai tn hieu.
Khuyet iem : khi oan cap t oi hoac cac au noi b h ra th se co hai
au cap khong noi vi terminator nen tn hieu se doi ngc va lam cho
toan bo he thong mang ngng hoat ong. Nhng loi nh the rat kho phat
hien ra hong cho nao nen cogn tac quan tr rat kho khi mang ln (nhieu
may va kch thc ln).

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

44

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

* Mang Star :

Trong kien truc nay, cac may tnh c noi vao mot thiet b au noi trung
tam (Hub hoac Switch). Tn hieu nay c truyen t may tnh gi d lieu
qua hub, tn hieu c khuech ai va truyen en tat ca cac may tnh khac
tren mang.
u iem : kien truc star cung cap tai nguyen va che o quan ly tap trung.
Khi mot oan cap b hong th ch anh hng en may dung oan cap o,
mang van hoat ong bnh thng. Kien truc nay cho phep chung ta co he
m rong hoac thu hep mang mot cach de dang.
Khuyet iem : do moi may tnh eu phai noi vao mot trung tam iem nen
kien truc nay oi hoi nhieu cap va phai tnh toan v tr at thiet b trung
tam. Khi thiet b trung tam iem hong th toan bo he thong mang cung
ngng hoat ong.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

45

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

* Mang Ring :

Trong mang ring, cac may tnh va cac thiet b noi vi nhau thanh mot
vong khep kn, khong co au nao b h. Tn hieu c truyen i theo mot
chieu va qua nhieu may tnh. Kien truc nay dung phng phap chuyen the
bai (token passing) e chuyen d lieu quanh mang.
Phng phap chuyen the bai la phng phap dung the bai chuyen t may
tnh nay sang may tnh khac cho en khi ti may tnh muon gi d lieu.
May nay se gi the bai va bat au gi d lieu i quanh mang. D lieu
chuyen qua tng may tnh cho en khi tm c may tnh co a ch khp
vi a ch tren d lieu. May tnh au nhan se gi mot mot thong iep en
may tnh au gi cho biet d lieu a c nhan. Sau khi xac nhan, may
tnh au gi se tao the bai mi va tha len mang. Van toc cua the bai xap
x vi van toc anh sang.
* Mang Mesh :
Tng cap may tnh thiet lap cac tuyen ket noi lien iem, do o, so lng
tuyen ket noi nhanh chong gia tang khi so lng may tnh trong mang tang
len nen ngi ta t dung cho cac mang li ln.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

46

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

* Mang Cellular :
Cac mang te bao chia vung a ly ang c phuc vu thanh cac te bao,
moi te bao c mot tram trung tam phuc vu. Cac thiet b s dung ca tn
hieu radio e truyen thong vi tram trung tam va tram trung tam se nh
tuyen cac thong iep en cac thiet b. V du ien hnh cua mang te bao la
mang ien thoai di ong.

1. Cac kien truc mang ket hp :


* Mang Star bus :
- Star bus la mang ket hp gia mang star va mang bus. Trong kien truc
nay, mot vai mang co kien truc hnh star c noi vi truc cap chnh (bus).
Neu mot may tnh nao o b hong th no khong anh hng en phan con
lai cua mang. Neu mot hub b hong th toan bo cac may tnh tren hub o
se khong the giao tiep c.

* Mang Star ring :


Mang Star ring tng t nh mang Star bus. Cac hub trong kien truc Star
bus eu c noi vi nhau bang truc cap thang (bus) trong khi hub trong
cau hnh Star ring c noi theo dang hnh star vi mot hub chnh.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

47

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

IV. CAC CONG NGHE MANG LAN :


1. Ethernet :
- Ethernet chuan thng co cau hnh bus, truyen vi toc o 10 Mbps va da
vao CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access / Collision Detection) e ieu
chnh lu thong tren ng cap chnh. Tom lai, nhng ac iem c ban cua
Ethernet nh sau :
+ Cau hnh : bus hoac star.
+ Phng phap truy cap : CSMA/CD.
+ Quy cach ky thuat IEEE802.3.
+ Van toc truyen : 10 100 Mbps, 1Gbps.
+ Cap : cap ong truc manh, cap ong truc ln, cap UTP, cap xoan.
- Card mang Ethernet : hau het cac NIC cu eu c cau hnh bang cac
jump (cac chau cam chuyen) e an nh a ch va ngat. Cac NIC hien
hanh c cau hnh t ong hoac bang mot chng trnh chay tren may
cha card mang, no cho phep thay oi cac ngat va a ch bo nh lu tr
trong mot chip bo nh ac biet tren NIC.
- Qui luat 5-4-3 trong au noi mang : nguyen tac nay cho phep ket hp en
nam oan cap c noi bi 4 bo chuyen tiep, nhng ch co 3 oan la noi
tram. Theo hnh tren ta thay oan 3, 4 ch ton tai nham muc ch lam tang
tong chieu dai mang va cho phep may tnh tren oan 1,2,5 nam cung tren
mot mang.

10/100 : 10 hay 100 Mbps


2 : thin net cable
T : UTP cable
VG : Voice grade
- Cac loai Ethernet vi bang tan c s :
+ 10Base2
+10Base5
+ 10BaseT
+ 10BaseFL

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

Base : Base band


5 : thick net cabe
FL : Fiber optical cable
X : Multiple media type

48

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ 100BaseT
+ 100VG-AnyLAN

+ 100BaseX

a. Chuan 10Base2 :
- Cau hnh nay c xac nh theo tieu chuan IEEE 802.3 va bao am tuan
thu cac quy tac sau :
+ Khoang cach toi thieu gia hai may tram phai cach nhau 0.5m.
+ Dung cap thinnet (RG-58).
+ Toc o 10 Mbps.
+ Dung au noi ch T (T-connector).
+ Khong the vt qua phan oan mang toi a la 185m. Toan bo he thong
cap mang khong the vt qua 925m.
+ So nut toi a tren moi phan oan mang la 30.
+ Terminator (thiet b au cuoi) phai co tr khang 50 Ohm va c noi at.
+ Moi mang khong the co tren nam phan oan. Cac phan oan co the noi
toi a bon bo khuech ai va ch co ba torng so nam phan oan co the co
nut mang (tuan thu quy tac 5-4-3).
- u iem cua chuan 10Base2 : gia thanh re, n gian.

b. Chuan 10Base5 :
- Chuan nay tuan theo cac quy tac sau :
+ Khoang cach toi thieu gia hai nut la 2.5m.
+ Dung cap thicknet (cap ong day).
+ Bang tan c s 10 Mbps.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

49

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ Chieu dai phan oan mang toi a la 500m.


+ Toan bo chieu dai mang khong the vt qua 2500m.
+ Thiet b au cuoi (terminator) phai c noi at.
+ Cap thu phat (tranceiver cable) noi t may tnh en bo thu phat, co chieu
dai toi a 50m.
+ So nut toi a cho moi phan oan mang la 100 (bao gom may tnh va tat
ca cac repeater).
+ Tuan theo quy tac 5-4-3.
u iem : khac phuc c khuyet iem cua mang 10Base2, ho tr kch
thc mang ln hn.
Chu y : trong cac mang ln, ngi ta thng ket hp cap day va cap
manh. Cap day dung lam cap chnh rat tot, con cap manh dung oan
nhanh.

c. Chuan 10BaseT :
- Chuan mang nay tuan theo cac quy tac sau :
+ Dung cap UTP loai 3,4,5 hoac STP, co mc tr khang la 85-115 Ohm.
10 Mhz.
+ Dung quy cach ky thuat 802.3.
+ Dung thiet b au noi trung tam hub.
+ Toc o toi a 10 Mbps.
+ Dung au noi RJ-45.
+ So nut toi a la 512 va chung co the noi vao 3 phan oan bat ky vi
nam phan tuyen toi a co san.
+ Chieu dai toi a mot phan oan cap la 100m.
+ Dung mo hnh vat ly star.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

50

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ Co the noi cac phan oan mang 10BaseT bang cap ong truc hay cap
quang.
+ So lng may tnh toi a la 1024.
+ Khoang cach toi thieu gia hai may tnh la 2.5m.
+ Khoang cach cap toi thieu t mot hub en mot may tnh hoac mot hub
khac la 0.5m.
u iem : do trong mang 10BaseT dung thiet b au noi trung tam nen d
lieu truyen tin cay hn, de quan ly. ieu nay cung tao thuan li cho viec
nh v va sa cha cac phan oan cap b hong. Chuan nay cho phep ban
thiet ke va xay dng tren tng phan oan mot tren LAN va co the tang
dan khi mang can phat trien. 10BaseT cung tng oi re tien so vi cac
phng an au cap khac.

d. Chuan 10BaseFL :
- Cac ac iem cua 10BaseFL : toc o toi a : 10Mbps, truyen qua cap
quang.
- u iem :
+ Do dung cap quang noi cac repeater nen khoang cach toi a cho mot
oan cap la 2000m.
+ Khong s b nhieu ien t.
+ So nut toi a tren mot oan cap ln hn nhieu so vi 10Base2, 10Base5,
10BaseT.
e. Chuan 100VG AnyLAN :

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

51

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

100VG (Voice Grade) AnyLan la cong nghe mang ket hp cac thanh phan
cua Ethernet va Token Ring, dung quy cach ky thuat 802.12.
- Cac ac iem ky thuat :
+ Toc o truyen d lieu toi thieu la 100 Mbps.
+ S dung cap xoan oi gom 4 cap xoan (UTP loai 3,4,5 hoac STP) va cap
quang.
+ Kha nang ho tr sang loc tng khung co a ch tai hub nham tang
cng tnh nang bao mat.
+ Chap nhan ca khung Ethernet lan goi Token Ring.
+ nh ngha trong IEEE 802.12.
+ Mo hnh vat ly : cascaded star, moi may tnh c noi vi mot hub. Co
the m rong mang bang cach them hub con vao hub trung tam, hub con
ong vai tro nh may tnh oi vi hub me.
+ Chieu dai toi a cua oan chay cap noi hai hub la 250m.
f. Chuan 100BaseX :
- Tieu chuan 100BaseX Ethernet con goi la Fast Ethernet, la s m rong cua
tieu chuan Ethernet co san. Tieu chuan nay dung cap UTP Cat5 va phng
phap truy cap CSMA/CD trong cau hnh star bus vi moi oan cap noi vao
mot hub tng t 10BaseT. Toc o 100Mbps.
- Chuan 100BaseX co cac ac ta ng vi cac loai ng truyen khac nhau :
+ 100BaseT4 : dung cap UTP loai 3,4,5 co 4 cap xoan oi.
+ 100 BaseTX : dung cap UTP loai 5 co hai cap xoan oi hoac STP.
+ 100BaseFX : dung cap quang co hai day loi.

2. FDDI ( Fiber Distributed Data Interconnection) :

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

52

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Mot trong nhng bat li chnh cua cac mang vong tn bai la s nhay cam
cua chung vi bat trac. V moi may gan tren vong phai chuyen khung cho
may ke nen mot hong hoc tren may se lam cho toan mang ngng hoat
ong. Phan cng vong tn bai thng c thiet ke e tranh nhng h
hong nh the. Tuy nhien, hau het cac mang vong tn bai khong the vt
qua khi s ket noi b cat nh khi ng cap noi hai may bong nhien b t.
- Mot so cong nghe mang vong a c thiet ke e khac phuc c hong
hoc nghiem trong. V du FDDI la cong nghe mang vong tn bai co the
truyen d lieu toc o 100 trieu bit/giay, nhanh gap 8 lan mang vong tn
bai IBM va nhanh hn 10 lan mang Ethernet. e cung ng toc o d lieu
nhanh nh vay, FDDI dung si quang e noi cac may thay cho cap ong.
- FDDI dung tnh nang d phong e khac phuc s co. Mot mang FDDI gom
2 vong, mot dung e gi d lieu khi moi viec eu on va ch s dung vong
th hai khi vong mot hong. Ve mat vat ly, hai ng noi vi mot cap may
tnh la khong hoan toan cach biet. Moi si quang c boc trong mot vo
nha deo va co mot vo boc cap si bao ben ngoai tng t nh cac ng
day ien trong nha. V vay co the lap at hai vong cung mot luc.
ieu thu v la cac vong trong mang FDDI c goi la xoay ngc (counter
rotating) v d lieu chay trong vong th hai ngi lai vi hng d lieu vong th
nhat. e hieu tai sao lai dung cac vong xoay ngc, hay xet trng hp co s
co nghiem trong xay ra. Th nhat v cap si noi hai tram thng i tren cung
ng nen khi t mot si th thng la t luon si kia. Th hai, neu d lieu
luon luon i theo mot hng tren ca hai si, viec ngat mot tram ra khoi vong
(v du khi di chuyen may) se ngat truyen thong cac may khac. Tuy nhien, neu
d lieu chuyen theo hng ngc lai ng d tr, cac tram con lai co the
cau hnh mang e s dung ng d phong.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

53

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

BAI TAP : THIET LAP 1 MOI TRNG MANG LAN

XAY DNG VA THIET LAP HE


THONG MANG C BAN
CAC BC CHUAN B THIET LAP MANG :
- Trc khi thiet ke he thong mang ta can khao sat thong tin, muc ch va
yeu cau cua he thong o trc.
VD cac he thong mang thng gap : he thong mang dung e day
hoc, he thong mang dung e chi game, he thong mang dung e chia se
file, may in, internet.. Tuy theo moi trng hp ma ta co chon cac
loai cap mang s dung, bang thong cho he thong, he ieu hanh s dung,
giao thc va cac phan mem s dung cho phu hp.
Cac bc tien hanh :
- Khao sat s o cau truc vat ly cua ni d tru lap at he thong mang.
- Thiet lap s o cau truc mang( da theo chuan 802.3, IEEE).
- Lc chon thiet b mang ( NIC, SWITCH, CABLE )
- La chon s dung nhng loai server nao cho cac ng dung.
- La chon he ieu hanh cho cac may server mang.
- La chon he ieu hanh cho cac may client trong mang.
- Cai at cac chng trnh phan mem ng dung can thiet ( phu hp nhu cau
s dung )
- Cai at trnh ieu khien cho NIC
- La chon giao thc s dung trong he thong mang ( TCP/IP, IPX/SPX.)
- Thiet lap cac ng dung Mail server,
- Chia se tai nguyen tren he thong mang ( folder, printer, internet..)

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

54

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

CAC BO GIAO THC


Trong chng trc ban a hoc cau truc mang theo tng phan nho cua van
e. Mot bo giao thc thng la toan bo mo hnh OSI. Mo hnh OSI la tieu chuan,
mo ta cac hoat ong tng lp cua bo giao thc. Mo hnh OSI la 1 cong cu nh
ngha trong 1 lp giao thc . Chng nay mo ta chi tiet t lp mang ti lp ng
dung.
Chung ta nhn mot so giao thc truyen va cac bo giao thc khac nh
TCP/IP va IPX/SPX. Mat du 1 so giao thc e tng thch ung vi mo hnh tham
khao OSI , s hoan toan tng thch thng khong la chuan. Rat nhieu trong cac
bo giao thc nay ra i trc OSI v vay chung ch co the phu hp tng oi vi
mo hnh OIS 7 lp muc ch chnh cua mo hnh OSI la lam khung giup chung ta
hieu s giao tiep tren mang va so sanh cac bo giao thc vi nhau.
PACKETS AND PROTOCOLS
(cac goi tin va cac giao thc)
Trc khi xem cac giao thc va bo giao thc, chung ta danh chut thi gian on lai
1 so van e lien quan a trnh bay trong cac chngb trc.
Muc ch cua mang la trao oi thong tin gia cac may tnh, va cac giao thc la
nhng qui tac e may giao tiep vi nhau. May tinh cung nh con ngi e co the
trao oi thong tin c vi nhau viec gi va nhan eu tng thch nhau . Neu
khong may tnh se ri vao tnh huong boi roi nh khi ban oc 1 cuon sach tieng
Nga khi ban ch biet noi tieng Viet.
Ban co the phan loai cac nhiem vu ma c ban giao thc phai thc thi theo cac
bc i (moi bc ph gom 1 nhom cac nhiem vu phai xay ra trc khi d lieu
en kenh tryen. Cac bc nay la cac lp trong 1 bo giao thc nh trong chng
2. Thuat ng lp (layer ro la 1 v du. moi lp trong bo giao thc (nh lp ng
dung, trnh bay .. v..v ) cho them thong tin cua chnh lp o vao goi tin. Tai
may nhan lp tng ng se nhan va x ly goi tin va nhan.
Cac giao thc mo ta d lieu ong goi d lieu t au, roi truyen qua mang va sap
xep lai ch thanh tap tin. Viec chia nho d lieu thanh goi nho lam cho lng
thong tin tren mang lu thong de dang hn v no khong chiem het phng tien
truyen dan nh nhng kieu truyen d lieu co dung lng ln hn. Hn na la cac
goi tin nho do tm va sa cha loi de dang hn, tng goi tin c kiem tra va tm
loi va ch ro goi tin co loi hay khong (khong phai toan tap tin) e truyen lai.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

55

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Thanh phan cua1 goi tin phu thuoc vao giao thc ma ban dung. Thong thng cac
goi tin cha nhng phan sau:
+ Header (phan au): bao hieu bat au 1 goi tin va nhieu thong so quan
trong, nh a ch nguon,ch va thong tin thi gian/ ong bo.
+ Data (d lieu) : cha d lieu can truyen .
+ Trailer (dau vet): anh dau iem ket thuc cua goi tin va thng cha
thong tin sa loi (kiem tra o d vong - CRC Cyclic Redundancy check)
Khi d lieu truyen qua lp giao thc moi lp thc hien chc nang mac nh cua
chung, nh giao tiep vi 1 ng dung ng dang d lieu kiem tra loi (nh chng 2
a xem cac chc nang cua lp giao thc trong mo hnh OSI. Khi ban hoc chng
nay khong phai cac giao thc luon tng thch vi mo hnh OSI ( vi giao thc
trc mo hnh OSI th khai niem va thuat ng cua mo hnh OSI lai can thiet e ta
chc nang cua cac giao thc)
Khi goi tin c truyen, card mang cua may khac tren oan mang se xem
goi tin kiem tra a ch ch cua no. Neu a ch ch thch hp vi a ch may
th bo ieu hp mang se x ly va cac lp giao thc cua may PC nhan cung se x
ly goi tin

Rat nhieu cac nhiem vu c thc hien tai ay nh nh v, kiem tra loi,
yeu cau truyen lai va dch vu bao nhan tin. no hau nh c ket hp chung vi
mang tai lp Network va transport trong mo hnh OSI.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

56

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Chng nay mo ta bo giao thc thng gap va bo giao thc khac .Ngoai cac bo
giao thc con co phan trnh bay ve lp giao thc van chuyen mang:
Viec chon la giao thc truyen tai thong tin th tuy theo loai mang s dung
la tokenring hay inthernet ma ta s dung cac bo giao thc khac nhau. Hien nay
hau nh s dung cac kieu au mang theo chuan Inthernet. Cac giao thc chuan
bao gom DLC, appleTalk, IPX, TCP/IP, NFS, SMB ).
+ NWLink: phien ban giao thc IPX/SPX cua Microsoft m rong lop van
chuyen va lp mang
+ NetBEUI: thiet ke cho mang cua Microsoft. NetBEUI gom mang va van
chuyen no khong dan c nen khong dung het kha nang cua lp mang
+ ATP va NBT: la cac lp giao thc van chuyen cua AppleTalk.
+ Data link control (DLC): giao thc nay ket noi voi may chu IBM va may
in
- Noi them ve inthernet network : Ethernet network la nh c phan
cng va tieu chuan ghep noi mang cuc bo do hang Xerox Corporation a ra. No
co kha nang lien ket len en 1024 nut mang trong 1 mang bus, inthernet cho
phep truyen tai d lieu dang day vi toc o 10Mbs vi bang thong thc te t 2
3 Mbps. Ethernet s dung 1 ky thuat tham nhap cac iem noi = viec cam nhan
song mang co do xung ot e e phong truc trac cho mang khi co 2 thiet b cung
tham nhap mang
I. TCP/IP GIAO THC INTERNET
Bo giao thc TCP/IP ( giao thc chuan cua internet ) c phat trien bi bo
quoc phong My nham phuc vu cho 1 he thong mang ln c ket noi vi nhau bi
nhieu may tnh khac nhau. Muc nh nham cung co cho he thong phong thu tr
nen manh me, oc lap. Noi cach khac he giao thc TCP/IP c xem nh 1 chieu
thc phong thu mi cua bo quoc phong My.
Nhng nam gan ay internet tr nen pho bien va c dung rong rai.
TCP/IP tr nen la 1 chuan m rong pho bien e ket noi mang may tnh. ( Khong
nh cac chuan IPX/SPX, DNA, SNA hoac AppleTalk tat ca nhng giao thc tren
eu c quan ly bi nhng cong ty rieng) Ly do chnh la khong co 1 ai s hu
no do o no c ho tr bi nhieu hang khac may tnh ln. Hau het cac nhan hieu
may tnh ln eu ho tr giao thc TCP/IP.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

57

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Hnh ve cho ta biet moi quan he gia giao thc TCP/IP va mo hnh OSI. Lu
y la mo hnh nay chung ta khong thay cha giao thc cho lp Data link va lp
physical. Lp Data link va physical cua giao thc TCP/IP hoan toan tng thch vi
lp Data link va physical mo hnh tham chieu OSI. Do bo giao thc TCP/IP c
phat trien trc khi mo hnh OSI c nh ngha do o so vi mo hnh OSI ch1ng
ta ch thay no co 4 lp nhng no van thc ay u chc nang nh mo hnh OSI.
T mo hnh DoD nay chung ta co the thay c moi quan he gia cac lp
cua mo hnh DoD nh sau :
+ Lp Network Access phu hp vi 2 lp cuoi cua mo hnh OSI. S phu hp
nay cho phep DoD cung ton tai hien hanh vi cac chuan cho lp Data link va
physical.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

58

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ Lp Internet tng ng nh lp Network trong mo hnh OSI. Giao thc


lp nay cho phep di chuyen d lieu gia cac thiet b tren mang.
+ Lp Host to Host tung ng vi lp Transport trong mo hnh OSI. Giao
thc Host to Host cho phep cac may tram co the lien lac vi nhau tren mang
tng tac ( Vao thi iem ma giao thc TCP/IP ra i th cha co khai niem ve
may chu va may tram ket qua la tat ca cac may tnh noi mang eu c xem nh
la ngang hang nhau. Tat ca cac may tren mang eu la may chu )
+ Lp Process/ Application bao gom chc nang cua cac lp Session,
Presentation, Application trong mo hnh OSI. Giao thc tai lp nay phuc vu cho
cac dch vu mang.
1 so cac giao thc c ket hp s dung vi TCP/IP. Nhng giao thc nay
c nhom thanh cac nhom sau :
+ General TCP/IP Transport protocols
+ TCP/IP services
+ TCP/IP Routing
A CH TRONG TCP/IP
a/ Thanh phn cau hnh ca a ch IP
a ch IP ang c s dng hin ti (IPv4) 32 bit chia thanh 4 Octet (
mi Octet co 8 bit, tng ng 1 byte )cach m u t trai qua phi bt 1
cho n bt 32, moi Octet cach bit nhau bng du chm (.), bao gm co 3
thanh phn chnh.

Bit 1................................................................................... 32
Bit nhn dng lp ( Class bit )
a ch ca mng ( Net ID )
a ch ca may ch ( Host ID ).
+ a ch Internet biu hin dng bit nh phan :
x y x y x y x y. x y x y x y x y. x y x y x y x y. x y x y x y x y
x, y = 0 hoc 1.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

59

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

V d:

+ a ch Internet biu hin dng thp phan : xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx


x la s thp phan t 0 n 9
V d: 146. 123. 110. 224
e n gian trong viec anh so a ch IP ngi ta khong s dung cach
anh a ch IP bang cac so nh phan v cac so nay qua kho nh ma ngi ta s
dung cac so thap phan e the hien a ch IP, May se t ong chuyen oi t
dang thap phan sang dang nh phan.
b/ 1 so khai niem va thuat ng lien quan :
+ a ch host: La a ch IP dung e at cho cac giao dien cua cac host
(vd: at cho card mang) 2 host nam cung 1 mang se co cung network ID va khac
nhau ve host ID.
+ a ch mang ( Network address ): La a ch dung e at cho giao dien
cua cac host. Phan host ID la cac a ch 0. vd : 111.0.0.0
+ Mat na mang con ( subnet mask ): La 1 con so dai 32 bit, la phng tien
giup may tnh xac nh c a ch mang cua 1 a ch IP bang cach AND gia
a ch IP vi mat na mang con e phuc vu cho cong viec nh tuyen
c / Cac lp a ch IP
a ch IP chia ra 5 lp A,B,C, D, E. Hin ti ang s dung ht lp A,B va gn
ht lp C, con lp D va E T chc internet ang danh cho mc ch khac
nen khong phan, do o chung ta ch nghien cu 3 lp A, B, C.

Lp A bao gom 8 bit au tien la NetID, 24 bit tiep theo la HostID. e nhan
dien lp A bit au tien la bit 0.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

60

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Nh vay lp A co 8 bit lam NetID tr i 1 bit e nhan dang lp con lai 2


NetID = 128. Trong o 2 trng hp ac biet la a ch 0 khong s dung va a
ch 127 la a ch boardcast. Ket qua lp A ch con lai 126 a ch mang t
1.0.0.0 en 126.0.0.0 va co 2 HostID = 16777214

Lp B bao gom 16 bit au tien la NetID, 16 bit tiep theo la HostID. e


nhan dien lp B la 2 bit au tien la bit 10
Nh vay lp B co 16 bit lam NetID tr i 2 bit e nhan dang lp con lai 2
NetID = 16382. mang t 128.0.0.0 en 191.255.0.0 va co 2 HostID = 65534 (sau
khi tr i 2 trng hp ac biet)

Lp C bao gom 24 bit au tien la NetID, 8 bit tiep theo la HostID. e nhan
dien lp A la 2 bit au tien la bit 110.
Nh vay lp C co 24 bit lam NetID tr i 3 bit e nhan dang lp con lai 2
NetID = 2097150 mang t 192.0.0.0.0 en 223.255.255.0 va co 2 HostID = 254
(sau khi tr i 2 trng hp ac biet)

Lp D co 4 bit u tien nhn dng la 1110, lp E co 5 bt u tien


nhn dng la 11110. a ch nam trong khoang t 224 255. Cac lp nay

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

61

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

khong phuc vu cho viec anh a ch host ch phuc vu cho vec nghien cu va d
phong nen khong trnh bay trong tai lieu nay.
Bang thong so a ch IP cua cac lp
a
ch
lp

Vung a ch ly
thuyt

0.0.0.0 - 127.0.0.0

1 - 126

255.0.0.0

128.0.0.0 191.255.0.0
192.0.0.0 223.255.255.0
224.0.0.0 - 240.0.0.0
241.0.0.0 - 255.0.0.0

128 191

255.255.0.0

192 - 223

255.255.255. 2097150
0

C
D
E

Vung a
ch s
dng

V du :
Class
IP Address
Class A
102.44.7.100
Class B
131.107.4.6
255.255.0.0
Class C
200.9.88.250

Subnet mask

S
S host
mng
ti a
ti a
tren
s dng
tng
mng
126
167772
14
16382
65534
254

Bit
nhn
dng

0
10
110
1110
11110

Network ID
102.0.0.0
131.107.0.0

Host ID
X.44.7.10
X.X.4.6

Subnet mask
255.0.0.0

200.6.88.0

X.X.X.250

255.255.255.0

ieu cuoi cung e co kien thc khi thao luan a ch IP la d kien ma moi
thiet b mang o la moi may tnh, may in, bo nh tuyen hay bat c thiet b nao
khac co the c gan rieng can mot a ch IP duy nhat. Noi theo cach khac, moi
thiet b tr6en he thong mang can mot a ch IP va khong co hai a ch IP giong
nhau tren mot mang.
Internet Protocol (IP):
Giao thc Internet (IP) la mot giao thc ket noi ma no cung cap dch vu
gam d lieu va goi tin IP thng c xem la gam d lieu IP. IP la mot giao thc
Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

62

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

chuyen goi tin thc hien qua trnh chon a ch va nh tuyen ng i. Phan au
IP c gan vao goi tin no c truyen i theo dang giao thc cap thap. IP nh
tuyen cho cac goi tin qua mang tng tac bang cach s dung bang nh tuyen
tham chieu tai moi bc nhay. Viec xac nh tuyen ng bang cach tham khao
thong tin thiet b mang vat ly, logic va c cung cap bi giao thc phan giai a
ch Address Resolution Protocol (ARP).
IP thc hien phan oan va rap lai cac goi tin theo gii han, kch c goi tin
c nh bi lp vat ly va lien ket d lieu thc hien. IP cung cho phep kiem tra
loi phan au d lieu bang tong kiem tra mac du lp d lieu cao hn khong c
kiem tra.
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) :
Giao thc ieu khien phien truyen (TCP) la mot giao thc nh hng ket
noi tng ng vi lp van chuyen (Transport) cua OSI. TCP cung cap dch vu ket
noi song cong, au cuoi cham nhau. Khi khong can s dung thong tin bao nhan
gia nhng au mut th giao thc gam d lieu ngui dung User Datagram Protocol
(UDP) co the c thay the cho TCP mc truyen tai host to host, TCP va UDP
hoat ong tren cung mot lp.
TCP tng ng vi SXP trong moi trng Netware (xem phan Netware
IPX/SPX).TCP duy tr hp ly ket noi gia he thong may gi va may nhan. Bao
am tnh toan ven cua d lieu truyen. TCP do tm nhanh bat c van e nao trong
viec chuyen giao va lam viec sa cha no. Ngc lai, TCP khong chay nhanh
bang UDP do viec xac nhan thong tin cac may a gi.
TCP cung cung cap va tha nhan thong iep phan manh va rap lai, no co
the chap nhan thong iep vi bat ky chieu dai nao t cac giao thc lp cao hn.
TCP phan oan dong thong iep c ieu khien bi IP. Qua trnh nay c ng
dung e chia d lieu ra thanh khoi nho hn. IP van co the phan oan cho goi tin
UDP va manh hn oi vi goi tin TCP. Khi dung IP, TCP cong them dch vu ket
noi nh hng va thc hien phan oan ong bo hoa, them cac so trnh t cac
mc byte.
Trong viec phan oan goi tin, TCP co the ket hp nhieu cuoc thoai vi cac
lp giao thc cao hn va co the cai thien lam cho bang thong nay tot hn bang
cach noi nhieu thong iep vao cung phan oan. Moi ket noi mach ao c gan
cho mot nhan dang ket noi goi la cong dung e nh danh viec ket hp gam d
lieu vi cac ket noi o.
User Datagram Protocol (UDP):

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

63

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Giao thc gam d lieu ngi dung la mot giao thc khong ket noi phien
truyen (lien may chu). UDP khong cung cap tin bao nhan thong iep, no n gian
hn la ch truyen tai d lieu, UDP s dung a ch e phan phoi gam d lieu. Tuy
nhien, a ch UDP c u tien hn TCP. Khi van hanh chung mang viec truyen
nhanh hay cham c quan tam hn la kha nang ban giao ang tin cay. Bi v
UDP khong can thiet lap, duy tr va ong cac ket noi, ieu khien luong d lieu nen
kha nang truyen tai nhanh hn TCP. iem yeu cua UDP la no thc hien khong tin
cay nh la TCP khi truyen d lieu, do o UDP thng c dung khi truyen d lieu
vi lng nho.
UDP la giao thc tang transport c dung vi SNMP(Simple network
managerment protocol) chuan giao thc quan ly mang nay c dung vi mang
TCP/IP, UDP cho phep SNMP cung cap s quan ly mang mc toi thieu.
Address Resolution Protocol (ARP): Giao thc phan giai a ch
Co ba loai a ch c dung tren mang TCP/IP:
a ch vat ly: c dung bi tang vat ly va tang lien ket d lieu.
a ch IP: cung cap mang logic va ID cua may. a ch IP nay gom bon so
bieu dien dang thap phan co cham.
Ten logic: xac nh va nhan dien may theo ten may, no giup cho ngi
dung de oc hn la ten a ch IP. V du ve ten logic nh MAYCCS
Khi cho mot a ch IP, giao thc phan giai a ch ARP co the xac nh a
ch vat ly c s dung bi thiet b co a ch IP o. ARP duy tr bang d lieu
phan giai a ch va phat tan goi tin e kham pha cac a ch trong phan oan
mang hay s dung bo nh em trc o. a ch vat ly c kham pha bi ARP
co the cung cap cho giao thc lp lien ket d lieu (data link). Tat ca cac a ch
trong bang ARP ch la a ch cuc bo. Nhng a ch nao khong phai a ch cuc
bo trong tuyen th khong co kha nang try xuat en nhng a ch cuc bo
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP):
Giao thc tao thong iep ieu khien ket noi mang (ICMP) tang cng ieu
khien loi do IP cung cap. Giao thc khong ket noi nh IP, khong do tm loi tren
mang tng tac nh tat nghen hay ng dan khong thch hp. ICMP co the tm
loi card mang, thong bao cho IP va giao thc lp cao hn. Mot card mang ma no
co loi thng truyen thong iep ti cac card mang khac thong qua mot goi tin
ICMP.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

64

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

TCP/IP SERVICES:
oan nay tap trung vao mot so dch vu TCP/IP ton tai trong he giao thc
TCP/IP. Nhng dch vu nay ch la mot vai trong so nhng dch vu pho bien khi
ban giao tiep vi mang Microsoft.
Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP):
Giao thc cau hnh IP ong
Khi phan a ch IP co the gan a ch IP va mat na mang con mot cach
thu cong ti moi may tnh tren mang. Giao thc DHCP cho phep t ong ch nh
a ch IP. ieu nay thng c thc hien bi mot hoac nhieu may tnh (may chu
DHCP) cung cap viec gan a ch IP va mat na mang con cho cac may tnh khac
tren 1 oan mang. Moi lan khi chay e lam viec vi mang, may tnh se c
may cung cap DHCP cap cho 1 a ch IP va subnet mask mi.
Hau het thiet b nh tuyen eu c cau hnh khong cho phat tan ban tin
i qua thiet b. Do o can co mot may chu DHCP e cap IP ong cho moi phan
oan. Mot trong nhng kha nang e co the thay may chu DHCP trong moi phan
oan bang cach tren moi phan oan co mot tram chuyen tiep DHCP e no
chuyen yeu cau phat tin xin a ch IP cua may khach ve may chu DHCP tren mot
phan oan khac.
Domain Name System (DNS):
Giao thc he thong ten mien (DNS) cung cap ten may va giai ma a ch
IP nh mot dch vu ng dung may khach. May chu DNS cho phep ngi s dung
dung cac ten logic cua may ( ten ay u ) e truy xuat tai nguyen mang. Ten
may co the dai ti 260 ky t.
Windows Internet Naming Services (WINS):
Dch vu at ten mang theo Windows (WINS) cung cap chc nang tng t
nh cua DNS. No cung cap ten NetBIOS e phan giai a ch IP. ieu nay quan
trong bi v tat ca cac mang cua Microsoft yeu cau kha nang tham chieu ten
NetBIOS. Thong thng ten NetBIOS co c cung vi viec phat tin nhng v
Router thng khong cho phep phat tin qua no. Mot WINS sever la mot giai phap
e co the dung e thay the a ch IP e ap ng cac yeu cau ten NetBIOS.
File Transfer Potocol (FPT):
Giao thc thc truyen tai tap tin (FPT) la mot giao thc cho phep truyen tai
tap tin gia cac may noi mang. FPT cho phep ngi ang nhap vao may t xa.
Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

65

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Ngi dung ang nhap co the kiem tra th muc, van dung cac tap tin, thi hanh
lenh va thc hien lenh khac tren may.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol(SMTP)
Giao thc chuye th n gian la mot giao thc cho dan ng th tn tren
mang.SMTP s dung cac giao thc TCP vaIP. SMTP khong cung cap giao dien
th tn cho ngi dung, s sang tao ,quan ly va phan phoi cac thong iep en
ngi dung cuoi c thc hien bang cac ng dung ve th tn.
Remote Terminal Emulation(TELNET)
TELNET la mot giao thc mo phong thiet b cuoi .TELNET cho phep may
tnh ca nhan va tram may hoat ong nh mot tram cuoi trong phien lam viec vi
may chu tren mang .Viec thc hien TELNET san co nen tang may s dung lam
tram cuoi.Ke ca UNIX,DOS,Windows va he ieu hanh Macintosh OS.
Network File System(NFS)
(He thong tap tin mang )
He thong tap tin mang (NFS),c phat trien bi Sun Microsystems la mot ho
giao thc truy cap tap tin, co nhieu tien bo ang ke so vi FTP va TELNET. Bi v
SUN lam cho cac chc nang NFS dung chung c va NFS a at c mc pho
bien cao.NFS bao gom co 2 giao thc:
eXternal Data Representation (XDR) : Ho tr viec ma hoa d lieu theo mot
nh dang oc lap vi phan cng. Chng trnh C dung thu tuc th vien XDR e
mo ta cac cau truc d lieu gia cac moi trng may ca nhan.
Remote Procedure call (RPC Goi thu tuc t xa): Cac chc nang nh nh
hng lai yeu cau dch vu, xac inh mot li goi ham thoa man mc cuc bo hay
phai nh hng lai vi mot may chu xa . Cac li goi ti may xa c ong
goi e van chuyen qua mang va truyen ti cac may RPC, thong thng co kha
nang phuc vu nhieu yeu cau phuc vu xa .May RPC gi yeu cau dch vu va tao ra
cac goi tin tra li c tra ve ni a yeu cau dch vu.
TCP/IP Routing Protocols
(Giao thc dan ng TCP/IP)
Phan ke tiep se trnh bay hai loai giao thc dan ng pho bien nhat c TCP/IP
s dung
Routing Information Protocol(RIP)
Giao thc thong tin dan ng(RIP) trong bo giao thc giong TCP/IP khong
phai la giao thc giong RIP trong bo giao thc NetWare,mac du ca hai ieu phuc
Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

66

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

vu nhng chc nang tng t. Internet RIP tm ng dan bang mot phng phap
c ly vector, tnh toan so chang ng phai i qua e dan ng cho mot goi tin.
Mac du no lam viec tot trong cac mang cuc bo nhng RIP the hien nhieu
yeu iem lam gii han kha nang s dung cua no tren cac mang dien rong .Chan
han nh phng phap tm ng qua c ly vector cua RIP oi nhieu thong bao hn
va v vay tao ra nhieu giao thong tren mang hn mot so phng phap khac. toan
ban lo trnh cung c gi i kem theo thong bao tao ra lng lu thong ln khi
bang lo trnh ln len. Giao thc OSPF, s dung phng phap tm ng qua trang
thai ket noi,ang dan thay the cho RIP
Open Shorest Path First (OSPF) (M ng dan ngan nhat trc)
Giao thc OSPF la mot giao thc tm ng qua trang thai ket noi c
thiet ke e khac phuc s gii han cua RIP.Trong cac mang ln OSPF co the xac
nh c cau truc lien ket mang va cai thien hieu nang can bang tai va dan
ng theo phan loai dch vu.
II. NETWARE IPX/SPX
Cac giao thc dung vi mang NetWare c tong ket trong hnh 7.4.Cac
giao thc NetWare c thiet ke mo un cao.Kha nang ieu hp nay khien cho
cac giao thc NetWare phu hp vi nhieu phan cng khac nhau va n gian hoa
nhiem vu ket hp vi cac iao thc khac nhau trong bo giao thc.Windows NT
khong s dung bo IPX/SPX e giao tiep vi nhng tai nguyen cua IPX/SPX goi la
NWLink-truyen tng thch vi IPX/SPX,no thn nho gon va nhanh hn TCP/IP va
cung giong nh TCP/IP,no cung dan ng c.Tuy nhien no hoat ong yeu hn
lp lien ket d lieu trong mo hnh OSI,do o no oc lap ve thiet b phan cng
hn so vi giao thc TCP/IP.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

67

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

General IPX/SPX Transport Protocols


(Cac giao thc truyen IPX/SPX thong dung)
Cac phan tiep theo se noi en cac giao thc trong bo giao thc trong bo giao thc
IPX/SPX. Lien qua en cac lp mang va van chuyen cua mo hnh OSI .
Addressing in IPX (anh a ch theo IPX)
Viec anh a ch trong IPX/SPX(NWLink) th n gian hn han so vi
TCP/IP. IPX/SPX cung co hai loai a ch phan biet: mot a ch may va mot a
ch mang.
a ch host trong IPX/SPX da tren a ch phan cng cua card mang. Cac
a ch nay ve ban chat la cac he thap luc phan, Cac a ch s dung bi card
mang c IEE phan phoi. Thong thng hai so au tien trong ba bo so e ch
nha san xuat card ieu hp mang o.Sau ay la hai v du ve cac loai a ch nay:
44-45-53-54-00-00
07-00-4d-55-64-3e
oi vi cac a ch mang, a ch logic nay c nh bi nha quan tr.
Thong thng khi mot sever hay route c cai at, a ch mang do nha quan tr
mang nh ra.a ch mang logic nay co 8 ch so thap luc phan.Sau ay la mot
vai v du:
903E0467
BEEF0000
E8012000.
Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

68

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Tong quat cac a ch trong IPX/SPX thng c bieu dien di dang a ch


may chu:a ch mang,nh sau:
Vd : 55-66-00-e4-7a:E8022000
a ch nay ai dien cho may chu 55-66-00-e4-7a tren mang E8022000.
IPX(Internetwork Packet Exchange Protocol)
Giao thc trao oi goi tin mang (IPX)la mot giao thc lp mang(network)
cung cap cac dch vu gram d lieu (datagram).(IPX c phat trien t giao thc
XNS do hang Xero tao ra). IPX chu trach nhiem dan ng qua mang va duy tr
cac a ch logic mang. Viec dan ng dung giao thc RIP(se c noi en trong
phan sau nay)e la chon ng i.IPX co cac chc nang tng t nh nhng g
UDP thc hien trong bo giao thc TCP/IP.
IPX da vao a ch vat ly cua phan cng thay cac lp thap hn ,e cung
cap a ch cua cac thiet b mang. IPX cung dung cac sockets hay cac a ch
dch vu lp cao hn e chuyen giao cac goi tin en mot ch duy nhat.
Ve pha client, IPX a ho tr cac thanh phan DOS Sehll cu va NetWare
hien thi. IPX cung cap cac chc nang tng t nh UDP trong bo giao thc
TCP/IP.
SPX(Sequenced Packet Exchange)
SPX la mot giao thc lp van chuyen giup m rong IPX e cung cap cac
dch vu co nh hng vi viec chuyen giao co s tin cay bang cach bao am viec
truyen lai cac goi tin neu co loi xay ra.
SPX thiet lap cac mang ao goi la connections.
SPX c s dung trong cac trng hp ma can co s tin cay khi truyen
d lieu. Viec that lac cac goi tin hay cac goi tin khong en theo th t chung a
c truyen, se c phat hien kp thi. Hn na, SPX con ket noi phc hp, c
s dung moi trng in an. V du nhieu chng trnh tnh toan da vao cac dch vu
cua IPX e am bao d lieu c truyen i mot cach chnh xac. Ve pha client,
IPX a ho tr cac thanh phan DOS Sehll cu va NetWare hien thi. SPX cung cap
cac chc nang tng t nh TCP trong bo giao thc TCP/IP.
La mot nha quan tr mang, ban thng khong phai chon dung IPX hoac
SPX ma chnh cac ng dung c lap trnh san se s dung giao thc nao. Chang
han trong cac mang Novell, tat ca viec truyen tap tin eu thc hien bang con
ng IPX. Trong trng hp in an, SPX la giao thc c s dung.
Frame Type

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

69

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Khi lam viec vi bo giao thc IPX/SPX, kieu frame la mot van e quan
trong.Kieu frame lien quan en van e la d lieu c oc bi card mang nh the
nao ?
Nh ban a thay trong cac chng trc ay, d lieu c truyen theo nh
dang so gia cac may tnh vi nhau va card mang chuyen cac thong tin so nay
thanh tn hieu. Tn hieu khong ch cha d lieu ang oc truyen ma con co phan
header cha thong tin ang s dung bi tat ca cac giao thc trong bay lp cua
mo hnh OSI. Khi d lieu c truyen ti ch no lai c chuyen t cac tn hieu
thanh nh dang ma may tnh co the hieu c.
Kieu frame phai lam viec vi cac bit d lieu khi chung en ni. Nh ban
se thay trong nam phan tiep theo, moi kieu trong so nam kieu frame se sap xep
thong tin trong phan d lieu, khac vi cac frame khac. Hai may tnh ma khong
cung chay mot kieu frame, se khong giao tiep vi nhau c.
Khi cai at giao thc IPX/SPX (hay NWLink cua Microsoft) tren mot he
thong, kieu frame se c phat hien t ong hoac phai ch th thu cong. Hau het
cac may tnh hien ai eu co the chay cac kieu frame hon hp ngay lap tc.
Cac kieu frame se c ban en gom co :
802.2
Ethernet II
Token-ring-SNAP
802.3
Token-ring
802.2
Kieu frame 802.2 la kieu mac nh dung tren cac mang Ethernet bi cac
phien ban cua NetWare t 3.12 tr i. ieu nay co ngha ay la kieu frame ma
cac san pham mang dung mac nh. Hnh cho thay cac thanh phan bat au cua
mot goi tin 802.2

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

70

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Mot goi tin kieu frame 802.2


802.3
ay la kieu frame mac nh dung cho cac san pham Novell NetWare t
phien ban 3.11 va trc o. Hnh cho thay cac thanh phan cua mot goi tin
802.3. Goi tin 802.3 cung giong nh goi tin 802.2, ngoai tr cho goi tin 802.3
khong cha iem truy cap dch vu ch (Destination Service Access Point), iem
truy cap dch vu nguon (Source Service Access Point ) hoac cac bit ieu khien
(Control bits)

Mot goi tin kieu 802.3


Ethernet II
Kieu frame ethernet II cung giong nh kieu frame 802.3, ngoai tr no co
mot trng ve kieu so vi trng ve chieu dai. Kieu frame nay con co the dung
c vi TCP/IP va Apple Talk.

Mot goi tin kieu frame Ethernet II


Ethernet _SNAP
Ethernet_SNAP co the dung cho cac giao thc truyen cua TCP/IP va Apple
Talk Phase II, cung nh IPX/SPX (xem hnh 7.8)

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

71

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Mot goi tin kieu frame cua Ethernet_SNAP


Token-ring
Cac frame cua Token ring co hai loai. Mot loai dung e mang thong tin
quan ly con loai kia dung e truyen d lieu. Cac frame Token ring dung tren cac
mang Token ring V2 cac mang khong phai la Ethernet.
Token-ring_SNAP
Co mot bien the cua Token ring la token-ring_SNAP. Token-ring_SNAP
cung cap mot chc nang tng t nh kieu frame ethernet_SNAP, nhng dung
cho mang token-ring.
IPX/SPX SERVICES
Cac dch vu IPX/SPX tng t nh cac dch vu c s dung bi TCP/IP
cho chung con cung cap cac dch vu cho ngi dung hn ch la quan tam en
van e van chuyen. Cac dch vu nay thng cho thay yeu cau s dung IPX hoac
SPX lam c cau van chuyen cua chung, mac du gan ay kha nang mang cac
dch vu nay sang TCP/IP a c gop vao. Co hai dch vu se c ban ngan
gon muc sau la SAP va NCP.
Service Advertising Protocol (SAP Giao thc quang ba dch vu)
Vi SAP, mot thie b cung cap cac thong tin ve v tr bang cach ch ra cac
dch vu ma no ang cung cap. Cac thiet b co the thay c nhau tren mang
bang cach liet ke cac SAP ma moi server cung cap. Trong trng hp NetWare
theo mac nh mot SAP se c truyen i moi phut mot lan, giup cho cac may
tnh tren mang biet c servser nay ang cung cap dch vu g, cung nh la
server nay ang toa lac tai nut nao tren mang nao.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

72

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

NetWare Core Protocol (NCP Giao thc loi NetWare)


NCP cung cap nhieu lenh goi ham ho tr cac dch vu mang, chang han
dch vu ve tap tin, in an , quan l ten , khoa tap tin va ong bo hoa. Phan mem
may tnh khach cua NetWare giao tiep vi NCP e truy cap cac dch vu NetWare.
NCP oi vi NetWare cung giong nh SMB oi vi mang cua Microsof.
NCP la mot giao thc cap cao c xay dng trong loi cua he ieu hanh
NetWare. NCP bao gom cac kha canh cac lp Session, Presentation va
Application trong mo hnh tham khao OSI va co rieng mot ngon ng nho gon
ma cac lap trnh vien s dung khi phai viet cac ng dung trong moi trng
NetWare. Cac lenh NCP hieu c ket hp vi viec truy cap cac tap tin va th
muc tren mot file server.
IPX/SPX routing
Phan nay se xem xet mot vai trong so cac giao thc dan ng pho bien
co the s dung cho mot mang co chay IPX/SPX.
Router Information Protocol
(RIP Giao thc thong tin bo nh tuyen)
RIP dung phng phap tm ng thong qua c ly vector e xac nh cac
chang en cac thiet b khac . Giong nh IPX, RIP c phat trien t mot giao
thc tng t trong bo giao thc XNS. RIP thc thi dch vu lp cao hn va c
gan cho mot socket (a ch dch vu). RIP la c s ma IPX da tren o thc
hien cac chc nang cua lp mang.
NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP)
(Giao thc lien ket cac dch vu cua Netware)
NetWare Link Services Protocol (NLSP) la giao thc nh tuyen trang thai
ket noi s dung bi nhng thiet b nh tuyen (router) e thong bao vi mang khi
bang a ch thay oi. (NetWare servers vi 2 hay nhieu card mang co the hoat
ong nh router)
IV. NetBEUI
NetBEUI la giao thc van chuyen phuc vu nh phan m rong cua
Microsofts Network Basic Input/Output System (NetBIOS). Bi v NetBEUI a phat
trien sm hn vi DOSbased PCs, no nho gon, de dang thc thi va nhanh. Thc
te no la giao thc van chuyen nhanh nhat cua dong Windows NT bi v no no
c xay dung nho, rieng cho LAN tuy nhien NetBEUI khong co bang nh tuyen
Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

73

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

lam cho no tr nen loi thi so vi nhng giao thc khac co kha nang ket hp va
tng tac tot trong moi trng mang NetBEUI cung phat i cac ban tin c s tren
he thong mang va cung co the gay tac nghen trong cac mang ln . May man
thay NDIS standard cho phep NetBEUI cung ton tai vi nhng giao thc co bang
nh tuyen khac. Cho v du : Ban s dung NetBEUI e co hieu qua truyen thong
nhanh trong oan mang LAN va s dung TCP/IP e truyen nhng yeu cau nh
tuyen.
V. APPLETALK

Appletalk la mot kien truc ien toan c hang Apple Computer phat trien
cho ho may tnh ca nhan Macintosh. Tuy ban au AppleTalk ch ho tr cho he cap
t hu LocalTalk cua Apple, song bonay a c m rong e ket hp cac tang vat
ly Ethernet va Token Ring.
Thoat tien, AppleTalk ho tr cac mang co hoat vi han che. Tuy nhien nh
chuan AppleTalk Phase 2 phat hanh nam 1989 a m rong hoat vi cua AppleTalk
cung ton tai tren cac mang co bo giao thc khac.
Tom tat nhng iem khac nhau gia AppleTalk Phase 1 va 2
ac tnh
Cac vung toi a tren 1 phan
mang
Cac iem noi toi a tren moi
mang
nh ia ch ong da tren cac
giao thc truy cap noi ket

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

Phase 1
1

Phase 2
255

254

Khoang 16 trieu

Node ID

Network + Node ID

Local talk
Ethernet

Local talk
IEEE 802.2
IEEE 802.5

74

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

nh tuyen
Khong
Co
Cac giao thc Apple talk P1 khong ho tr cac lien mang bi viec nh a
ch c han che theo 1 node ID duy nhat( goi mang khong n rong nonextended
network). P2 ho tr cac mang m rong qua o tnh nang nh ia ch c xax
nh bi 1 to hp mang va node ID va co the ng dung chay trong moi trng
Erthernet, token Ring
CAC GIAO THC TRUY CAP NOI KET : Localtalk(LLAP), ethertalk(ELAP), tokentalk
(TLAP)
Cac giao thc truy cap ket noi nay tnh hp cac tang giao thc pha tren
cua appletalk vi cac moi trng localtalk,erthernet,tokenring.
LLAP : la 1 giao thc phat trien dung vi he cap localtalk, 1 he cap xoan
cap co mang chan. Localtalk chu yeu thch hp vi cac mang nho co kha nang
van hanh thap.Toc o d lieu toi a la 230.4 Kbps( tng ng khoang 10Mbps
cua Ethernet) Chieu dai toi a cua cap la 300 met va noi toi a 32 thiet b. Giao
thc nay rat thch hp vi nguyen ly cua may tnh loai macintosh.
AppleTalk Address Resolution(AARP) : Giao thc phan giai a ch
Appletalk. No phan giai cac a ch cua appletalk theo cac a ch vat ly ethernet
va tokenring cho phep tang pha tren cua cua appletalk giao tiep vi cac tang vat
ly ethernet va tokenring.
Datagram Delivery Protocal (DDP) : Giao thc ban giao gam d lieu. No
co nhiem vu nh tuyen mang va tham khao cac bang nh tuyen do RTMP cung
cap e xac nh tien trnh nh tuyen.
Routing Table Maintaince Protocol (RTMP) : Giao thc bao tr bang nh
tuyen cung cap DDP vi thong tin nh tuyen da tren phng phap tng t nh
RIP.
Zone Information Protocol : Giao thc thong tin vung no to chc cac he
cung cap dch vu thanh cac vung va giai quyet cac ten mang va ten vung.
Name binding Protocol :(NBP) Giao thc ket gan ten cho phep 1 ng dung
so khp ten logic vi 1 a ch ket hp cua no.
Appletalk Tranaction Protocol (ATP) : Giao thc giao dch Appletalk chu
trach nhiem ve viec phan oan va tai lap rap cac goi tin. No cung kiem soat cac
Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

75

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

tn hieu bao nhan goi tin va yeu cau truyen lai cac goi tin b hong trong qua trnh
truyen.
Appletalk Session Protocol (ASP) : Giao thc nh phien lam viec no thiet
lap , duy tr va ket thuc phien lam viec gia he yeu cau va he cung cap dch vu.
No lam viec vi ATP e cung cap 1 dch vu truyen tai hoan chnh.
Cac thong iep ATP c han che mc 8 goi tin, moi goi tin kch c toi
a 578 byte.
Printer Access Protocol : Giao thc truy cap may in
Appletalk Data Stream Protocol (ADSP): giao thc luong d lieu Appletalk
la 1 giao thc truyen tai no thc hien cac dch vu ket hp vi tang mang.
Appletalk Filing Protocol (AFP) : Giao thc tap tin appletalk cung cap cac
dch vu tap tin va chiu trach nhiem ve bao mat, xac minh, ma hoa, giai ma cac
ten ang nhap va mat hieu trong khi i xac lap tuyen giao ket.
Appleshare (ASP) : cung cap 3 dch vu sau :
+ AppleShare file server : s dung AFP e cho phep ngi dung lu tr va
truy cap cac tap tin tren mang.
+ Apple Print Server : Thc hien tien trnh tr in va quan ly tien trnh in
tren cac may in mang. S dung NBP va PAP e ho tr cac chc nang in mang.
NBP cung cap thong tin va a ch e PAP noi vi cac may in mang.
+ Aplle Share PC : Cho phep cac PC chay MSDOS e truy cap cac tap tin
mang thong qua no.
Data Link Control (DLC)
Giao thc Data Link Control (DLC) khong cung cap ay u tnh nang
protocol stack. Trong he thong Windows NT, DLC c s dung chnh e truy xuat
en cac may in mang Hewlett-Packard JetDirect. DLC cung cung cap 1 vai ket
noi vi may tnh IBM mainframes va dch vu boot t xa cua Windows NT s dung
a mem. DLC la giao thc khong the s dung e ket noi nhng may tnh s dung
Windows NT or 95 lai vi nhau.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

76

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Bai Tap
1. Thiet Lap Nhng Giao thc Mang Trong Windows NT
Yeu Cau: Tr nen quen thuoc vi cach thc cai at va thao bo nhng giao thc
mang trong Windows NT
Thi Gian Qui nh : 15 phut
1. Ban co the cai at ,g bo va quan ly nhng giao thc mang bang cach dung
ng dung Network trong Control Panel cua Windows NT .Click vao menu
Start va chon Settings/Control Panel .Sau o nhap up vao bieu tng ng
dung Network .
Mot cach khac e ti ng dung Network la nhap phai vao bieu tng
Network Neighborhood va chon Properties .
2. Trong ng dung Network ,chon tab Protocols.Hop Network Protocols hien th
nhng giao thc thng uc thiet lap trong may tnh .
3. Neu TCP/IP c thiet lap trong may tnh cua ban, chon TCP/IP Protocols e
goi len hop thoai Microsoft TCP/IP Properties. Lu y nhieu tab se cung cap
nhng tuy chon cau hnh khac nhau. ong hop thoai Microsoft TCP/IP
Properties va chon giao thc NetBEUI (neu no c cai at) trong hop thoai
Protocols cua ng dung Network. L y rang nut Properties uc to mau xam.
Th nhap up bieu tng NetBEUI trong danh sach giao thc .mot tin nhan
noi rang khong the nh cau hnh linh kien .
Neu TIP/IP va NetBEUI khong c cai at trong may tnh cua ban ,ban co
the cai at chung bang cach s dung cach thc c mo ta trong bc 4
va 5 cua bai tap nay va sau o xoa chung .
4. e them mot giao thc ,nhap vao nut Add trong tab Protocols cua ng dung
Network. Chon giao thc t danh sach giao thc trong hop thoai Select
Network Protocol.Nhap vao OK e cai at giao thc .Co le Windows NT se
nhac nh ban v tr a cai at Windows NT .Go v tr hoac o a cua tap tin
cai at va nhan OK .Neu ban ang cai at mot giao thc ma oi hoi vai cau
hnh (nh TCP/IP hoac NW Link), Windows NT se oi hoi ban nhng thong
tin can thiet .
5. Windows NT se yeu cau ban khi ong lai may tnh .Tat may va khi ong
lai. Tr lai tab Protocols cua ng dung Network va xem lieu giao thc c
cai at co hoan hao cha.
6. e g bo mot giao thc ,chon giao thc t danh sach Network Protocols va
nhap vao nut Remove .
2
Nhng Lien Ket Mang
Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

77

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Yeu Cau: Tr nen quen thuoc vi qua trnh cho phep va ngat nhng lien ket
mang va viec thay oi th t truy cap mang .
Thi Gian Qui nh :10 phut
Trong chng 2,ban a hoc ve NDIS va khai niem cua nhng lien ket mang. Mot
lien ket mang la mot lien ket gia nhng lp giao thc ma cho phep nhng lp o
c x nh mot ngan xep mang. Bang cach lien ket mot giao thc van chuyen nh
TCP/IP (ma hoat ong tai nhng giao thc Transport va Network) en mot bo ieu
hp mang (ma hoat ong tai nhng lp Data Link va Physical) ban cung cap mot
ng dan cho nhng goi giao thc en mang va nh vay la ban a cho phep
chia se nhng lien ket mang. NDIS cho phep ban ket noi nhng thanh phan giao
thc en mot bo ieu hp n hoac nhng bo ieu hp a en mot giao thc n.
1. Nhap vao nut Start va chon Settings, Control Panel.Trong Control Panel cua
Windows NT, Nhap up vao bieu tng ng dung Netword va chon tab
Bindings
2. Nhap vao mui ten xuong Show Bindings e truy cap danh sach xo xuong.
Lu y rang ban co the hien th nhng lien ket cho nhng dch vu, giao thc
hoac nhng bo ieu hp.
3. Nhap vao dau cong ke dchvu Workstation. Dch vu Workstation la Windows
NT la cong cu tai ieu hanh cua Windows NT (e cap chng
1:Networking Terms and Concepts), ma gi lai nhng yeu cau t may tnh
noi bo en mang. Nhng giao thc thng xuyen lien ket vi dch vu
Workstation xuat hie trong danh sach ben di bieu tng Workstation. Nhap
vao dau cong ke mot trong nhng giao thc.Bay gi nhng bo ieu hp
mang a lien ket vi giao thc xuat hien trong cay
4. Nhng giao thc va nhng bo ieu hp c lien ket cua chung se thay the
nhng ng dan an cho dch vu Workstation e truy cap mang. Windows
NT u tien cho nhng ng dan cua chung tuy theo th t ma chung xuat
hien trong tab Bindings.V du e cau hnh c trnh bay trong hnh
7.16.Windows NT co gang s dung giao thc NetBEUI vi dch vu
Workstation trc khi co gang dung NWLink. Nut Move Up va Move Down
cho phep ban thay oi th t truy cap. La chon mot giao thc di dch vu
Workstation. Th nut Move Up va Move Down e thay oi v tr giao thc
trong th t truy cap. (ng quen phuc hoi giao thc en v tr goc cua no
trc khi thoat tab Bindings).
5. Nh nut Enable va Disable ban co the cho phep hoac khong cho phep mot
giao thc cho mot dch vu c cung cap, bi v ban khong muon nhieu
ngi s dung mot giao thc ac biet cho mot dch vu nhat nh nao o.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

78

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Khong cho phep mot giao thc (v du: Net BEUI) cho dch vu
Workstation,bay gi nhap vao dau cong ke dch vu Server. Chu y rang giao
thc khong c phep cho dch vu Workstation, no van c phep cho dch
vu Server. Cho phep lai giao thc ben di cho dch vu Workstation va ong
ng dung Network.
3
Anh xa mot o a mang
Yeu Cau: S dung ng dan UNC c xay dng t NetBIOS e anh xa mot ky
t o a en mot phan mang
Thi Gian Quy nh:10 phut
1. Nhap up vao ng dung Network Neighborhood cua Windows NT. nh v
mot may tnh khac ma nhng phan t cua mang a c nh ngha.
Mot thanh cong cu hu dung khac cho viec tm kiem nhng thanh phan
cua mang la ng dung Server Manager trong nhom Administrative Tools
cua Windows NT Server. e s dung thanh cong cu nay, nhap vao menu
Start va chon Program, Administrative Tools, Server Manager.
2. Nhap vao menu Start va en dau nhac lenh cua Windows NT (chon
Programs, Command Prompt).
3. Nhap vao lenh di ay:
net view
4. Lenh xem mang se lap danh sach nhng ten NetBIOS cua nhng may tnh
trong mien cua ban. Tm kiem may tnh ma ban a nh v bang cach s
dung Network Neighborhood trong bc 1.
5. Nhap vao lenh sau:
net view \\computername
computername la ten Net BIOS cua may tnh ma ban a nh v trong bc
1. Lenh nay lap danh sach nhng thanh phan mang co san trong may tnh.
6. nh v mot thanh phan th muc trong danh sach nhng phan t. Sau o
go vao lenh sau:
net use * \\ computername\sharename
computername la ten Net BIOS cua may tnh ma ban a nh v trong bc
1, va sharename la ten thanh phan ma ban a nh v trong bc trc o.
Dau hoa th anh xa ky t o a co san ke thanh phan o. Ban cung co the
trnh bay ro mot ky t o a mot cach rieng biet (c theo sau mot dau
hai cham) hn la s dung mot dau hoa th. Mot tin nhan xuat hien tren
man hnh cua ban cho ban ky t o a ma Windows NT s dung cho viec
ket noi va ch ro lieu lenh nay co ung khong .
Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

79

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

7. Bay gi nhap vao lenh di ay:


net view \\computername
computername la ten cua may tnh ma ban a chon trong bc 1. Ky t o
a ban a anh xa en phan t se xuat hien ben canh ten phan t, va kieu
phan t trong cot nen c at nh Used.
8. Nhap vao ky t o a a c an nh bc 6 tai dau nhac lenh, theo sau
bi dau hai cham. V du: nhap vao
Nhng ac quyen Ban phai conhng ac
quyen can thiet e truy cap th muc c
chia se. Kiem travi ngi quan tr cua ban e
biet them chi tiet.

9. Go vao lenh Dir va nhan Enter.Mot danh sach th muc cua th muc c
chia se se xuat hien tren man hnh. Bay gi ban a truy cap c nhng
th muc c chia se thong qua ky t o a c anh xa.
10. e xoa viec anh xa ky t mang, nhap vao lenh di ay:
net use drive_letter:/delete
drive_letter la ky t o a a c an nh trong bc 6
Ban cung co the anh xa nhng ky t o a thong qua Windows NT Explorer. e
lam nh vay, keo menu Tools xuong va chon Map Network Drive.Trong hop ac
tnh Drive chon ky t o a ma ban muon s dung. Trong hop Path, go vao
\\Computer_name\Share_Name, Computer_name la ten NetBIOS cua may tnh ma
ban ang ket noi, va Share_Name la ten cua th muc c chia se trong may tnh
khac
CAU HOI ON TAP
1. Ten ba giao thc van chuyen ma co the c s dung e chuyen oi
SMBs va ch giao thc van chuyen nao ma co thechuyen oi nhng
goi NCP
2. Nhom giao thc nao khong the c s dung cho s truyen thong PC
en PC khi he ieu hanh cua Microsoft ang chay tren ca hai may tnh?
3. Co bao nhieu ky t ma ban co the co trong NetBIOS?

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

80

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

CAC THIET B LIEN KET


MANG
1. Card mang (NIC hay Adapter) :
- Card mang la thiet b ket noi gia may tnh va cap mang. Chung thng
giao tiep vi may tnh qua cac khe cam nh : ISA, PCI hay USP, Phan
giao tiep vi cap mang thong thng theo cac chuan nh : AUI, BNC, UTP
- Cac chc nang chnh :
+ Chuan b d lieu a len mang : trc khi a len mang d lieu phai c
chuyen t dang byte, bit sang tn hieu ien e co the truyen tren cap.
+ Gi d lieu en may tnh khac.
+ Kiem soat luong d lieu gia may tnh va he thong cap.
- a ch MAC (Media Access Control) : moi card mang co 1 a ch rieng
dung e phan biet card mang nay vi card mang khac tren mang. a ch
nay do IEEE Vien Cong Nghe ien va ien T cap cho cac nha san xuat
card mang. T o, cac nha san xuat gan co nh a ch nay vao chip cua
moi card mang. a ch nay gom 6 byte (48 bit), co dang
XXXXXX.XXXXXX, 3 byte au la ma so cua nha san xuat, 3 byte sau la so
serial cua cac card mang do hang o san xuat ra. a ch nay c ghi
chet vao ROM nen con goi la a ch vat ly. V du a ch vat ly cua 1 card
Intel co dang nh sau : 00A0C90C4B3F.
- Hnh ve di ay la card mang RE100TX theo chuan Eternet IEEE 802.3 va
IEEE 802.3u. no ho tr ca hai bang thong 10 va 100Mbps theo chuan
10Base-T va 100Base-TX. Ngoai ra, card nay con cung cap cac tnh nang
nh Wake On LAN, Port Trunking, ho tr c che truyen full duplex. Card nay
cung ho tr hai c che boot rom 16 bit (RPL) va 32 bit (PXE).

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

81

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Hnh ve di la card FL1000T 10/100/1000Mbps Gigabit Adapter. La card


mang theo chuan Gigabit dung au noi RJ45 truyen tren moi trng cap
UTP cat 5. Card nay cung cap ng truyen vi bang thong ln va tng
thch vi card PCI 64 va 32 bit, ong thi no cung ho tr ca hai c che
truyen full/ half duplex tren ca ba loai bang thong 10/100/1000 Mbps.

Hnh ve di la card mang khong day WL11A 11Mbps Wireless PCMCIA


LAN Card, card nay giao tiep vi may theo chuan PCMCIA nen khi s dung
cho PC chung ta phai dung them card chuyen oi t PCI sang PCMCIA.
Card c thiet ke theo chuan IEEE 802.11b day tan 2.4GHz ISM, dung
c che CSMA/CA e x ly ung o, bang thong cua card la 11 Mbps, co
the ma hoa 64 va 128 bit. ac biet card nay ho tr ca hai kien truc ket noi
mang la Infrastructure va AdHoc.

2. Card mang dung cap ien thoai :


- Card HP10 10Mbps Phoneline Network Adapter la mot card mang ac biet
v no khong dung cap ong truc cung khong dung cap UTP ma dung cap
ien thoai. Mot ac tnh quan trong cua card nay la truyen so lieu song
song vi truyen am thanh tren day ien thoai. Card nay dung au ket noi
RJ11 va bang thong 10Mbps, chieu dai cap co the dai en gan 300m.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

82

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

3. Modem :

La thiet b dung voi hai may tnh hay hai thiet b xa thong qua mang ien
thoai. Modem thng co hai loai : internal (la loai c gan ben trong may
tnh giao tiep qua khe cam ISA hoac PCI), external (la loai thiet b at ben
ngoai CPU giao tiep CPU qua cong COM theo chuan RS-232). Ca hai loai
tren eu co cong giao tiep RJ11 e noi vi day ien thoai.
- Chc nang cua Modem la chuyen oi tn hieu so (digital) thanh tn hieu
tng t (analog) e truyen d lieu tren day ien thoai. Tai au nhan,
modem chuyen d lieu ngc lai, t dang tn hieu tng t sang tn hieu so
e truyen vao may tnh. Thiet b nay gia tng oi thap nhng mang lai
hieu qua rat ln. No giup noi cac mang LAN xa vi nhau thanh cac mang
WAN, giup ngi dung co the hoa vao mang noi bo cua cong ty mot cach
de dang du ngi o ni nao.
- Modems chuan thng s dung 1 trong 2 png phap truyen tn hieu
+ Truyen ong bo.
+ Truyen bat ong bo.
Tn hieu truyen ong bo th s dung bit ong bo e ong bo thiet bi cho
moi frame truyen. Cau truc frame nh sau :

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

83

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Truyen tn hieu ong can co start bits va stop bits c ong bo bi xung
ong bo c thiet ke trong thiet bi truyen va nhan. Co 2 phng phap e
thc hien viec truyen ong bo.
+ PP1 : Truyen tn hieu ong bo chung vi d lieu.
+ PP2 : Tach ri tn hieu ong bo ra 1 kenh truyen rieng.
Ca hai cach truyen ong bo tren eu bat au bang cach truyen tuan t cac
tn hieu. Cac tn hieu c nhan la cac khung mau. Cac tn hieu c tong hp
thanh cac bit e en ung ni can gi, va lam cho cac tn hieu rieng re e de
dang sap xep khi nhan. e m rong k t truyen i cac k t truyen ong bo th
c nhan oi len hay keo dai cac bt noi thanh cac khung mau noi tiep. Khi cac
khung dai ra no phai thch hp e khong gay ra loi, neu loi xay ra nhieu file
giong nhau b anh hng va may se bao loi. e tranh loi xay ra va mat thi gian
kiem tra tren nhng may nay ngi ta dung thuat toan e tnh viec kiem tra theo
chu ky va tong hp nguyen ven cac bit. Cac bit nay sau o c ong thanh cac
khung. e nhan ngi nhan phai dung thuat toan tng t, ngha la phai giai ma
va so sanh cac khung gia tr nhan c. Neu ket qua phu hp , tat ca cac khung
c nhan dang th se khong gay ra loi. S truyen ong bo th thuan li hn
truyen bat ong bo , cac bit tren cung c hnh thanh bi cac phan nho hn
cua khung d lieu. Truyen ong bo th cai thien dc loi va cho phep cac thiet b
hoat ong toc o cao. Cai khong thuan li cua truyen khong ong bo la tong
hp qua nhieu he thong mach ien khong can thiet va at tien.
- Cau truc data ket hp vi tn hieu ong bo.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

84

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Remote Access Services (RAS) : la mot dch vu mem tren mot may tnh
hoac la mot dch vu tren thiet b phan cng. No cho phep dung modem e
noi ket hai mang Lan vi nhau hoac mot may tnh vao mang noi bo.

4. Repeater :

La thiet b dung e khuech ai tn hieu tren cac oan cap dai. Khi truyen
d lieu tren cac oan cap dai, tn hieu ien se yeu i, neu chung ta muon
m rong kch thc mang th chung ta dung thiet b nay e khuech ai tn
hieu va truyen i tiep. Nhung chung ta chu y rang, neu c tiep tuc dung
nhieu Repeater e khuech ai va m rong kch thc mang th d lieu se
sai lech, v moi lan khuech ai cac tn hieu ien yeu se b sai lech. Thiet b
nay hoat ong lp vat ly trong mo hnh OSI nen ch hieu tn hieu ien, do
o khong loc c d lieu bat ky dang nao.

5. Hub :

La thiet b giong nh Repeater nhng nhieu port hn, cho phep nhieu may
tnh noi tap trung ve thiet b nay. Cac chc nang giong nh Repeater dung
e khuech ai tn hieu ien va truyen en tat ca cac port con lai ong thi
khong loc c d lieu. Thong thng Hub hoat ong lp 1 (lp vat ly).
Hub gom 3 loai :

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

85

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ Passive Hub : la thiet b au noi cap dung e chuyen tiep tn hieu t


oan cap nay en oan cap khac, khong co linh kien ien t va nguon
rieng nen khong khuech ai va x ly tn hieu.
+ Active Hub : la thiet b au noi cap dung e chuyen tiep tn hieu t oan
cap nay en oan cap khac vi chat lng cao hn. Thiet b nay co linh
kien ien t va nguon ien rieng nen hoat ong nh mot Repeater co nhieu
cong (port).
+ Intelligent Hub : la mot Active hub co them cac chc nang vt troi nh
cho phep quan ly t cac may tnh, chuyen mach (switching), cho phep t1n
hieu ien chuyen en ung port can nhan, khong chuyen en cac port lien
quan.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

86

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

6. Bridge (Cau noi) :


- La thiet b cho phep noi ket hai nhanh mang, co chc nang chuyen co
chon loc cac goi tin en nhanh mang cha may nhan goi tin. e loc c
cac goi tin va biet c goi tin nao thuoc nhanh mang nao th bridge phai
cha bang a ch MAC, ng vi tng tram bang nay cho biet nhanh mang
ma may o trc thuoc. Bang a ch nay co the c khi tao t ong hoac
phai cau hnh bang tay. Do bridge hieu c a ch MAC nen bridge hoat
ong lp 2 (lp data link) trong mo hnh OSI.
- u iem cua bridge la : cho phep m rong cung mot mang logic vi nhieu
kieu cap khac nhau. Chia mang thanh nhieu phan oan khac nhau nham
giam lu lng tren mang.
- Khuyet iem : cham hn Repeater v phai x ly cac goi tin, cha tm c
ng i toi u trong trng hp co nhieu ng i.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

87

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

7. Switch :
- La thiet b giong nh bridge nhng nhieu port hn, cho phep noi nhieu
oan mang vi nhau. Switch cung da vao bang a ch MAC e quyet nh
goi tin nao i ra port nao nham tranh tnh trang giam bang thong khi so
may tram trong mang tang len. Do hieu c a ch MAC nen thiet b nay
cung hoat ong lp 2 trong mo hnh OSI.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

88

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Ngoai tnh nang c s, Switch con cac tnh nang m rong nh sau :
+ Store and Forward : la tnh nang lu d lieu trong bo em trc khi
truyen sang cac port khac e tranh ung o (collision), thong thng toc
o truyen khoang 148.800 pps. Vi ky thuat nay, toan bo goi tin phai c
nhan u trc khi Switch truyen frame nay i, do o o tre (latency) le
thuoc vao chieu dai cua frame.
+ Cut Through (con goi la fragment free) : th Switch se truyen goi tin ngay
lap tc mot khi no biet uc a ch ch cua goi tin. Ky thuat nay se co o
tre thap hn so vi ky thuat Store and Forward va o tre luon la con so xac
nh, bat chap chieu dai cua goi tin.
+ Trunking (MAC Base) : tnh nang nay giup tang toc o truyen gia hai
Switch, nhng chu y la 2 switch phai cung loai.
+ VLAN : tao cac mang ao, nham bao am tnh bao mat khi m rong
mang bang cach noi cac switch vi nhau. Khi chia cac mang ao giup ta
phan vung mien broadcast nham cai tien toc o va hieu qua cua he thong.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

89

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

+ Spanning Tree : tao ng d phong, bnh thng d lieu c truyen


tren mot cong mang so th t thap. Khi mat lien lac, thiet b t chuyen
sang cong khac nham bao am mang hoat ong lien tuc.
Hnh di la Switch Compex SRX2216 c thiet ke theo chuan IEEE
802.3, IEEE 802.3u, switch nay thng dung trong cac giai phap mang va
va nho. Thiet b nay ho tr 16 port RJ45 toc o 10/100Mbps, 12 K MAC
Address, 2K bo em (buffer). Ngoai ra, thiet b nay con co nhng tnh
nang nh : Store and Forward, Spanning Tree, Port Trunking, Virtual LAN
giup chung ta m rong mang ma khong s xay ra ung o (collision).

8. Router :
- La thiet b dung noi ket cac mang logic vi nhau, kiem soat va loc cac goi
tin nen han che c lu lng tren cac mang logic. Cac Router dung bang
nh tuyen (routing table) e lu tr thong tin ve mang dung trong trng
hp tm ng i toi u cho cac goi tin. Bang nh tuyen cha cac thong tin
ve ng i, thong tin ve c lng thi gian, khoang cach Bang nay co
the cau hnh tnh hay t ong. Router hieu c a ch logic IP nen thong
thng router hoat ong lp mang (network) hoac cao hn.
- Bo nh tuyen c xem la mot cau lien ket thong minh .No khong ch tao
bang v tr mang ,ma con s dung thuat toan xac nh hau het cac ng
truyen cac dng dan gi en cac goi tin bi bat c mang nao ac biet la
mang khong co th muc trong bo nh tuyen .Bo nh tuyen c biet la
cach tot nhat e gi cac goi tin en cac thiet b tren mang
Router co hai loai tong quat :
+ Static routerddaay la nhng router khong xac ng dan e thay the bang
ng truyen .
+ Dynamic routerdaay la nhng router xac nh ng truyen (do tm
nhng ieu kien tot nhat trong ng tai thng .Da vao thong tin cua goi tin va
thong tin at c t cac router khac

Van e nh hng lo trnh:


Thiet b dan ng bao s co mat cua no tren mang en thiet b dan ng khac.
Mot cach nh k . Cac thiet b dan ng khac co the s dung thong tin t bang ng truyen.

nh hng lo trnh co hieu qua trong viec giai quyet thuat toan chung nhng no
co the khong an toan. Bi v khi thay oi co the lam sai lech gay ra loi va pha v
lien ket gia thiet dan ng nay vi thiet b dan ng khac. No co the sa cha
e mang co the hieu het tat ca thiet b dan ng.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

90

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Van e nh tuyen trang thai ket noi


nh tuyen trang thai ket noi lam giam bt yeu cau cap nhat d lieu tren
mang. cac thiet b dan ng tren mang co the yeu cau ng thong tin t thiet
b dan ng gan nhat. Sau o cac thiet b dan ng trao oi thong tin tren
mang.

Tom tat ve brigde va router:

Cong

Bridges th re hn routers.
Beidges thng khong yeu cau thao tac bang thu cong.
Bridges th khong xac nh c ma so cua thiet b
Bridges khong co phng phap xac nh v tr thiet b tren mot oan
cap.
Bridges c s dung ten mang ETHERNET nguon truyen cua bridges
c s dung trong mang token-rings.
dung cua routers :
Routers th co ga thanh cao hn bridges .
Routers thng yeu cau thao tac thu cong .
Routers se ket noi mot oan mang lan khac cung giao thc cho phep
mot mang phat trien trong gii han cua s tuyen thong tin.
Routers co the s dung cac a ch logic cua cac thiet b tren mang .
Routers co the s dung trong mang ETHERNET va mang Token-rings.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

91

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

9. Gateway (Proxy) :
- La thiet b trung gian dung ket noi mang noi bo ben trong va mang ben
ngoai. No co chc nang kiem soat tat ca cac luong d lieu i ra va vao
mang nham ngan chan c hacker tan cong. ong thi thiet b nay cung
ho tr chung ta chia se mot so dch vu (nh chia se Internet).

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

92

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

10. Wireless Access Point :

La thiet b ket noi mang khong day, c thiet ke theo chuan IEEE802.11b,
cho phep noi LAN to LAN, dung c che CSMA/CA e giai quyet tranh chap,
dung ca hai kien truc ket noi mang la Infrastructure va AdHoc, ma hoa theo
64/128 Bit. No con ho tr toc o truyen khong day len 11Mbps tren bang
tan 2,4GHz ISM dung cong nghe radio DSSS (Direct Sequence Spread
Spectrum).

11. Thiet b truy cap Internet ADSL


- ng dung : nhieu may tnh (LAN) truy cap Internet chung mot account qua
modem.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

93

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Thiet b nay cau hnh rat n gian dung Web browser, Telnet, Console. Co
hai cong modem cho phep dial out hoac dial in, tch hp san dch vu NAT,
Default Gateway, DHCP dung cap phat IP ong cho cac may tram. Ho tr
ca hai nghi thc tham nh quyen truy cap PAP/CHAP, ho tr Filter (cho
hoac cam ngi dung Internet).

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

94

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

CAC DCH VU KET NOI


Giao tiep phai xay ra gia hai diem trong khong gian ,nhng mot vai to chc co the
can bang gia ca e yeu cau xay dng WAN ca nhan .Nhng iem mi nay ,tat ca nhng
chng a tap chung can ban trc ay a ra chung co quan he vi LAN. c xac nh
sm hn trong chng 1,mot mang LAN co ac iem bang thong rong va thc te la cac
ieu khien chung va s duy tr tat ca nhng thiet b ket noi giong nh la moi trng truyen
thong.Chng nay se thao luan mot vai ket ni ch ra rang mot cong ty co the a ra cac
a ch.
Chng 3:Moi Trng truyen thong a thao luan mot vai moi trng truyen thong co
the thc hen ma cong ty co the thc hien e thiet lap ket noi WAN .Nhng ieu nay bao
gom k thuat phat pho trai rong ,hong ngoai ,va giao tiep ve tinh .mot kha nang khac la cap
si quang ,nhng thng mot cong ty khong xem xet en kha nang nay e giam mot vai
dang cua moi trng vat l.Tat ca nhng ieu nay th at e chap nhan.
May man thay mot s a dang cua tuy chon thng mai la san co, cho phep cac to
chc thanh toan cho mc o dch vu yeu cau.Nhng tuy chon thng mai nay tao ra nhng
iem thuan li cua viec ng dung cac c s ha tang ang ton tai bi cac cong ty ien
thoai,cac cong ty cap,nha cung cap dch vu Internet.Chng nay se thoa luan cac tuy chon
dch vu mang dien rong(WAN) .Ban se c hoc ve dch vu truyen thong so chuyen dung.
Chng nay mo ta mot vai loai truyen thong san co va mot vai chuan cho dch vu ket noi
WAN.
MANG IEN THOAI CONG CONG
Mot van e c a ra oi vi ket noi mang la mc o ban mong muon tan dung
tai tat ca cac iem cua truyen thong.V du:neu ban ang yeu cau mot ket noi chuyen
dung gia Moscow,Russsia,va Santiago,Chile,phai co cung cap dch vu gia hai iem truy
xuat .Mot dch vu ket noi WAN ma no ton tren hau het dien rong la he thong ien thoai
cong cong.
Mac du gan ay cac cong ty cap TV a bat au cung cap dch vu ket noi WAN ,hau
nh moi hang truyen thong cong cong eu phuc vu iem nay c cung cap bi cac cong
ty ien thoai .Nh vay trong chng nay, hau nh tat ca nhng ky thuat thao luan la a ch
cua he thong ien thoai cong cong
Mang ie thoai cong cong cung cap hai loai dch vu pho bien sau:
Cac dch vu thue bao chuyen dung :khach hang uc bao am truy cap
rieng .
Dch vu quay so :khach hang tra tren c s hang thang s dung
Chuyen mach phuc vu hoat ong mang ien thoai chuyen mach cong cong (PSTN)
,cai ma ban biet la he thong ien thoai.Nhng dch vu () a giai quyet en cac cap cao

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

95

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

hn cua s tinh te va co the c sa lai cho hp e cung cap nhieu dch vu d lieu v ca
thet b nh la Modem.Nhng tuy chon chuyen mach mi hn cung cap cac cap cao cua hn
dch vu trong khi van duy tr nhng thuan li cua truy xuat chuyen mach .
Vi dch vu ket noi so ,ngi ang k khong the truy rieng en mot ng d lieu ac
biet .PSTN bao ham nhng con so ln cua cac ng dan nhng khong u gan e phuc vu
tat ca cac khach hang cung mot luc.Th du minh hoa ro rang nhat cua van e nay la khi
ban th s dung ien thoai va mot mau tin nhan noi rang :tat ca cac ng eu ban .Khi
mot khach hang yeu cau dch vu ,mot ng dan chuyen dung c chuyen vao dch vu e
ap ng yeu cau cua khach hang .Khi khach hang gac may ,ong dan b huy bo ,va mach
san sang c s dung cho mot khach hang khac .Trong nhng trng hp khac ma o
khach hang khong can nhieu thi gian truy cap mang chuyen mach mang lai li nhuan rat
ln.
Gia ca cho dch vu nay co the hoac c tra mot thang mot lan hoac thi gian s
dung / khoang cach .Nhng gia nay thay oi ang ke phu thuoc vao ni ban tren the gii.
S hoat ong cua mang dien thoai cong cong c thay trong hnh 8.1
Ve c ban bat k ien thoai hay modem nao nao s dung mot Jack ket noi ien thoai
vao tng .T tng ,cac ng (trong phan ln ng cap UTP) chay ti mot n v noi(----------)
Cac ng mach noi bo thong thng la UTP lp cao hay day cap quang c duy tr
bi cong ty ien thoai .Cac ng chuyen mach noi bo nay ket noi cac toa nha vi van
phong trung tam .Van phong trung tam la v tr tram ien thoai ma cac chuyen mach goi t
mot mach noi bo en mot cai khac ,en mot ng chnh hay en mot ni khoang cach
dai.Nhg ng day chnh (ung day lien tnh)ket noi cac van phong trung tam lai vi
nhau.Nhng ng chuyen mach nay co bang thong cao hn nhng ng day ang chay
trong tng .Nhng ng day chnh co bang thong cao hn cac ng chuyen mach.
No la chuyen mach oi ma he thong ien thoai yeu cau nh la mang ien thoai
chuyen mach cong cong . Tuy nhien ban phai nh rang ket noi ng ien thoai la ky thuat
chuyen mach .ieu o la mot ng co nh a c thiet lap san gia hai thiet b tren
mang
Khi ban s dung mot modem qua he thong ien thoai ,modem se chuyen tn hieu so
cua may tnh thanh tn hieu tng t .Sau o tn hieu tng t nay c a qua mot ng
nho thiet lap san en thiet b iem ket thuc .Ban b tnh cc truyen d lieu ,neu quay so
khoang cach dai du cho d lieu co ang c truyen hay khong .ieu nay la bi v ban
ang thue truy xuat ng ien thoai co nh .
NG THUE BAO
Khi khach hang yeu cau tron thang truy xuat en mot ng truyen thong mot cach
chuyen dung ,ng thue bao phuc vu nh la mot tuy chon .Cac cap khac nhau cua ng

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

96

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

truyen ky thuat so la co kha nang .Cac ng truyen ky thuat so th tot hn cac ng


truyen tng t bi v chung giam s suy hao.Sau ay la cac v du cho nhng dch vu ng
truyen so:
T1 va T3
Dch vu d lieu so
Chuyen mach 56
T1 va T3
Mot ng truyen so rat pho bien la ng thue bao T1.ng thue bao nay cung
cap cac ket noi iem ti iem va truyen tong cong 24 kenh t au nay qua au kia
vi hai cap day-mot e gi va mot e nhan-cho t le truyen en 1.544Mbps.Mot T1
c biet en nh la mot ng E 1 Chau Au. Rat t cac mang t nhan yeu cau
dung lng cua ng truyen T1 .Cac kenh cua ng truyen T1 thng c thue ra
tren mot phan kenh c ban Moi kenh T1 co the truyen ti 64Kbps d lieu.Ca 24
kenh truyen cung luc bang 1.544Mbps .Cac phan kenh T1 thng c bao am
toc o 56 Kbps vi 8 Kbps tr ra cho muc ch quan l.
T3 ( chau au) th tng t T1 ,nhng T3 co cong suat ln hn .trong thc te mot
ng truyen T3 co the truyen ti 45 Mbps .ieu ny la bi v ng truyen T3 c
che tao gom 672 64 Kbps kenh.
Mot dch vu kenh n tren mot T1 c goi la DS-0(Tin hiu s lin quan n tc va dang
cua mach truyn thng s ).
Dch vu DS-1 la mot ng T1 ay u.DS-1C la hai ng T1,DS-2 la 4 ng ,va DS3 lamot ng T3 ay u(tng ng 28 ng T1).Mot cap dch vu goi la T4 th bang en
128 ng T1.
DIGITAL DATA SERVICE(DCH VU D LIEU SO )
DDS la mot dang c ban cua dch vu so .DDS truen t iem en iem tai 2.4.4.8.9.6
hoac 56 Kbps .Trong phan ln cac dang c ban cua no ,DDS cung cap mot ng chuyen
dung.
Chuyen mach 56
Mot dch vu ac biet co lien quan en DDS .Chuyen mach 56 cung cap mot phien
ban quay so 56Kbps DDS.Vi chuyen mach 56 ,ngi s dung co the quay so cac so khac
cua chuyen mach 56 chay cho thi gian chnh xac.
Dch vu inh tuyen goi
Nhieu to chc phai lien lac gia mot vai iem .Viec thue bao mot ng gia cac day
cua cac iem co the qua at.Nhieu dch vu bay gi co the dung c ,chung nh tuyen cac
goi tin gia cac cho khac nhau .Mot vai dch vu nh tuyen goi tin c thao luan trong
chng nay la:
ISDN

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

97

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

X.25
BO TIEP SONG KHUNG
ATM
SONET
SMDS
ADSL
Cap modem
Moi dch vu co nhng ac iem thch hp vi cach s dung ac biet tat ca cac dch
vu nay th san co tren mot thue bao c s t nha cung cap dch vu ,va nhng dch vu nay
khong phai la san co moi ni .Mot to chc phai giao tiep ni .Mot to chc phai giao tiep
ni .
Phan d lieu cua cac dch vu mang cong cong co the so sanh vi cac LAN pho bien
nh la ethernet (10-100Mbps) va ToKenRing (4-16Mbps) cho ban mot y tng toc o dch
vu cong cong co anh hng en s thi hanh giao tiep mang nh the nao.
Trc khi vao bai dch vu ket noi WAN ben di can tom tat lai cac khai niem nh
tuyen goi la bao am .Trong chng 2 ban a c trnh bay ve chuyen mach goi va cac
ky thuat nh tuyen lien quan khac c s dung e gi d lieu qua ket noi WAN .Cac
mang chuyen mach goi thng s dung cac mach ao e nh tuyen ng truyen d lieu
t nguon en ch .Mot mach ao la mot ng ac biet ngang qua mang e tai t nguon
ti ch .Cac mach ao cho phep mang quyet nh kiem tra loi va ieu khir63n mang tot
hn
Hai dang chnh cua cac mach ao c trnh bay ben di :
Mot chuyen mach ao c tao cho mot lan giao tiep va no bien mat ngay sau
o .Trong lan giao tiep ti gia cac may tnh mot mach ao khac lai c s
dung
Mach ao co nh (PVC) la mot nh tuyen co nh qua mang ,no luon san
sang cho khach hang
ISDN va B-ISD N
Mang so cac dch vu tch hp (ISDN )va nhom lien hp vien thong quoc te a
thiet ke cung cap giong noi ,video ,va dch vu truyen d lieu tren mang ien
thoai so .ISDn s dung a kenh ho tr cho nhieu kenh tren mach bang thong cao
.Moi quan he gia giao thc ISDN va mo hnh OSI c trnh bay trong hnh 8.3
ISDN ngan cach bang thong trong cac kenh .Tren c s nhng kenh nay u7c
s dung .ISDN co the ngan cach hai lp ben trong dch vu

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

98

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

BRI (toc o c ban )c s dung cho 32 kenh ,hai kenh mang tn hieu so
64 Kbps,kenh th 3 cung cap ng dan va thong tin tn hieu 16 Kbps .V
the toc o c ban c phu hp vi 2B+D
PRI (toc o s cap )ho tr 23.64Kbps kenh B va 64 Kbps kenh D .kenh D
c s dung cho tn hieu va quan l ,nhng ni ma kenh B cung cap d lieu qua
no
Cac loai kenh ISDN
Mot s a dang cua kenh ISDN c xac nh .Nhng loai kenh nay thng goi
la k hieu ong dan bit ,cung cap cac loai va dch vu khac nhau .Di ay la danh
sach nhng kenh khac nhau
Kenh A;cung cap 4Khz dch vu ien thoai tng t
Kenh B ;Ho tr 64 Kbps d lieu so
Kenh C :Ho tr 8-16 kbps d lieu so
Kenh D:ho tr 16-64 Kbps d lieu so

Bo tiep song khung c thiet ke cho muc ch dai tan rong ISDN ,no a c thao
luan trong muc trc .ac iem k thuat cho a ch bo tiep song khung la mot vai s gii
han cua X.25.Vi X.25 bo tiep song khung la mot dch vu mang chuyen mach goi .nhng
bo tiep song khung c thiet ke cho cac mang si quang mi hn nhanh hn.
Khong giong X.25,bo tiep song khung tha nhan mot mang co the tin cay hn .ieu
nay cho phep bo tiep song khung loai ra nhieu tn hieu vt ra khoi bau tri c yeu cau
e cung cap cho dch vu tin cay tren mang mang t tin cay hn .Bo tiep song khung da
tren cac tang giao thc cap cao hn e cung cap ieu khien loi va dong chay d lieu
Bo tiep song khung la mot loai thi hanh ien hnh nh mang d lieu cong cong va v
the c xem nh mot giao thc WAN .Moi quan he cua bo tiep song khung vi mo hnh
OIS c trnh bay trong hnh 8.6.e y rang pham vi cua bo tiep song khung b gii han
en tang Physical va tang Data ink
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
Data Link
Physical

Frame relay

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

99

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Bo tiep song khung thng xuyen cung cap cac mach ao ma thay the cac ng ao
cho nhng ket noi WAN.Cac dch vu bo tiep song khung la loai thi hanh toc o t
56Kbps en 1.544Mbps
Cac khach hang ac biet tra gia truy xuat en mot bang thong cu the tren mot
dch vu bo tiep song khung .Bang thong nay c goi la toc o thong tin c cam ket
(CIR) ,mot toc o d lieu ma khach hang c bap am e truy xuat ,va no co the gia
tang en 64Kbps.Cac khach hang co the c cho phep truy cap en cac toc o d lieu
cao hn tren mot pay-per-use ,tam thi c ban.
e s dung bo tiep song khung ,ban phai co cac thiet b ket noi ac biet tng thch
bo tiep song khung (nh la cac chuen mach tng thch bo tiep song khung va cac cua
noi)
che o truyen khong ong bo(ATM)
ATM la k thuat chuyen mach bang thong rong c phat trien bi lien hp vien
thong quoc te (ITU) .Mot to chc c goi la dien an ATM th chu trach nhiem cho vec
bo sung cac ac iem ATM.ATM co the la mot lp tren cac k thuat tang vat l khac ,nh
la FDDI va SONET (mang ong bo s dung cap quang).Moi quan he gia cac giao thc
nay vi mo hnh OSI c trnh bay trong hnh sau:
Application
Presentation
Session
Transport
Network
ATM
Data link
SONET/SHD,FDDI,ect
Physical
Vai ac iem ch ra s khac nhau gia ATM vi cac ky thuat chuyen mach khac .ATM la
c c cho cac chieu dai co nh ,53 o byte,trong khi cac ky thuat khac chiem giu he thong
bien oi trong chieu dai lng d lieu khac nhau .Bi v cac khoi ATM th ong bo trong
suot chieu dai ,ky thuat chuyen mach co the thc hien vi mot mc o hieu qua cao.Ket
qua cao nay la do bi viec truyen d lieu toc o cao.Mot vai he thong ATM co the thc
hien mot toc o khong the tin c en 622Mbps ,mot loai toc o lam viec cho ATM th
xoay quanh 155Mbps.
n v truyen cho ATM th c goi la mot khoi .Tat ca cac khoi lachieu dai 53
bytes va bao gom 48 bytes d lieu .Kch thc 53 bytes d lieu th c chon bi cac uy
ban chuan nh la mot s thoa hiep cho thch hp vi ca hai am thanh va cac nhu cau
truyen d lieu .Trong trng hp thong tin am thanh phai c phan ph at vi mot goc
tre nho(tr hoan )e duy tr mot am thanh thap phang .V the cac k s am thanh u tien

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

100

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

mot khoi nho en noi cac khoi nho nay luon san sang khi can thiet .Tuy nhien ,vi d lieu
,cac khoi ln lam nho i qua mot au yeu cau e truyen cac thong tin byte
S phan phat khong ong bo la mot iem ac biet khac cua ATM .Khong ong bo
co lien quan en cac ac iem cua ATM cho viec thi gian truyen qua cac khe cam
khong xay ra theo chu ky nhng c khuech ai tai mot khoang cach khong eu .ATM s
dung mot ky thuat goi la don kenh ,no nh v thi gian qua cac khe theo yeu cau .S
chuyen ong nay la vong thi gian ,nh la giong noi hay la video co the c quyen u
tien qua viec truyen d lieu .Cac kenh c xac nh bi cac khoi nhan ,khong phai bi
cac time slots.V the no co the yeu cau i cho en khi khoi 53 byte hien hanh c
truyen .
Don theo phan chia thi gian
Mot cong cu ky thuat a kenh khac la don theo phan chia thi gian e nh v bang thong
en cac kenh V du ,mot ng T1 co the don kenh e cung cap 24 kenh giong noi .Vi
ky thuat nay moi kenh c thiet ke mot khe truyen ac biet trong viec lap bieu o
truyen .iem thuan li cua ky thuat nay la khong tan dung nhng kenh trong
Cac thiet b giao tiep tren mang ATM thiet lap mot ung ao ,ng nay c nhan
dang bi mot ng nhan dang ao (VPI).Trong ng ao nay cac mach ao co the c
thiet lap ,no c ket hp quay ve vi cac VCI .VPI va VCI cung tao ra 3 byte trong bao
gom ca cac au khoi
ATM la mot ky thuat mi ,ch mot nha vai ng dung cung cap thiet b thiet yeu e
ho tr no (chuyen mach ATM phai s dung cac chuyen mach ,cac router va cac thiet b
ket noi khac tng thch)
Cac mang khac nh la nh tuyen ethernet ,yeu cau 6 byte a ch vat l giong nh
a ch mang e thiet lap duy nhat moi thiet b tren kmang tng tac .Mot ATM co the
chuyen khoi vi thiet lap 3 byte bi v VPI va VCI ng dung ch cho ng thiet b en
thiet b .Moi ATM co the thiet ke VPI va VCI khac nhau cho moi ng truyen va en 16
trieu mach co the c to chc cho bat ky ng truyen t thiet b en thiet b nao
Mac du ATM c phat trien au tien la mot ky thuat mang WAN ,nhng no co
nhieu ac iem cua s thc thi cao cua LAN .Mot mat thuan li hap dan cua ATM la ATM
tao ra mot kha nang hp l e s dung ky thuat giong nhau cho ca hai LAN va WAN . Tuy
nhien mot vai iem khong thuan li cua no bao gom gia ca a gii han kha nang dung
thiet b
SONET(mang ong bo s dung cap quang )
Truyen thong Bell nghien cu va phat trien mang ong bo s dung cap quang ,c ong
y bi chuan ANSI .la mot optical trong cai ten ngu y SONET la mot chuan giao tiep qua
mang cap quang .Toc o d lieu cho SONET c to chc trong mot he amg cap c ban
tren toc o OC (truyen tai bang cap quang)va hoat ong hoi ap (STS).To c d lieu OC

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

101

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

va STS c ban la 51.84 Mbps ,nhng cac toc o cao hn c cung cap trong viec don
kenh c ban .V the OC 48 la 48*51.84 hay 2488.32 Mbps
SMDS (dch vu d lieu chuyen mach multimegabit)
Phat trien bi vien nghien cu Bell vao nam 1991.Ky thuat SMDS co lien quan en ATM
trong viec truyen d lieu 53 khoi .SMDS la mot ket noi dch vu tang Data link ho tr
chuyen mach khoi tai toc o 1.544 en 45Mbps d lieu .IEEE 802.6 la tang vat ly s cap
chuan lam viec vi SMDS mac du cac chuan tang vat l khac c ho tr
ADSL(mang thue bao so khong ong bo )
Mot loai bang tan ket noi WAN c kiem tra bi cac cong ty ien thoai la ASDL ,ch
c s dung vao nam 1997,ASDL la mot tang vat l chuan e gi d lieu thong qua
ng day ien thoai ang ton tai .Bang cach s dung cac thiet b ac biet ngi s dung
co the nhan d lieu 8Mbps va truyen en 640 Kbps .ieu nay hoan thanh qua viec s
dung multiplexing theo tan so thong quang day ien thoai ton tai Co nhng ho tr e
tr giup cho ATM va giao thc IP
CAP MODEM
Mot lnh vc mi trong m rong dch vu ket noi WAN la cap modem .Thiet b nay cho
phep cac mang noi lien vi nhau thong qua ng day cap TV .Mot vai vung cung cap
dch vu nay co phien ban truyen song cong ma no co kha nang truyen du lieu tai 4-10
Mbps .Mot vai vung khac co cac chuan cap cho phep cap TV ong truc ch nhan d lieu
,viec tra li nh vao quay so ket noi e s dung gi d lieu .ay la mot lnh vc ky thuat
ro rang khac nen c xem xet qua mot vai nam ti .

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

102

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

KHAC PHUC THAM HOA


(DISASTER RECOVERY)
Mot trong nhng cong viec chnh cua nha quan tr mang la phai cai thien
he thong tot hn va thi gian truy cap nhanh hn. Hai cong viec chnh cua nha
quan tr mang la canh giac nhng hiem hoa t may chu o la:
+ Bao ve d lieu
+ Giam thi gian truy cap
Trong chng nay se thao luan ca hai van e tren va lam the nao e kiem
tra nhng loi tren o a va quan ly viec sao lu e lam giam nguy c mat d lieu
va thi gian
I. BAO VE D LIEU:
Tham hoa t nhien, s h hong thiet b, ot bien nguon ien va nhng
hanh ong co y pha hoai co the la nguyen nhan lam mat cac d lieu quan trong
tren mang. Bao ve d lieu la trach nhiem chnh cua ngi quan tr mang. Van e
quan trong hang au cua Microsoft lake hoach ngan nga viec mat d lieu:
+ Sao lu d lieu
+ S dung nguon lu ien (UPS)
Ca hai ke hoach tren a ra trong nhng phan sau:
Sao lu
Qua trnh sao lu d lieu la phan cot yeu cua viec bao ve d lieu. Ban se
thiet ke mot he thong sao lu thch hp cho cong viec va d lieu tren mang cua
ban. Mot so phng phap khac co the dung e sao lu files. Cach n gian nhat
la chep files sang o a khac. Tuy nhien trong he ieu hanh co nhng chc nang
ac biet e co the giup ban lap lch bieu duy tr viec sao lu d lieu co he thong.
Hau het cac chc nang sao lu co anh dau ngay gi sao lu nh la ban co the
biet files ban a chep vao luc nao. ay la muc ch cua thuoc tnh lu tr cua he
thong FAT. Thuoc tnh nay co ton tai hay khong co the kiem tra thuoc tnh cua bat
ky files nao tren he thong FAT. Neu thuoc tnh lu tr cho phep, th cac files se
thay oi ke t lan sao lu cuoi cung. Trong chng nay, ban se tham khao mot vai
phng phap sao lu e phuc vu cho viec lu tr. Trong cac phng phap th
khong lam c. Mac dau viec sao lu co the hoan thanh bi viec gi cac files
en cac o a khac. Co mot vai phng phap thc hien tieu bieu. Pho bien nhat
c goi la DAT drives,nhng thiet b nay co kha nang lu tr en vai gigabytes

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

103

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

thong tin mot cach nhanh chong va kinh te. Ngoai ra, bang thong nho, di ong
va re hn viec dung mot a cng. Mot bc quan trong trong qua trnh backup la
viec quyet nh ni lu tr tape backup. Nhieu cong ty chon viec lam hai ban copy
cho moi tape backup va lu mot trong cac ban copy ni khac, v s tham hoa
xay ra nh hoa hoan. e bo sung vao hai kieu lenh copy. Microsoft a ra cac
kieu backup :
+ Full backup :
+ Incremental backup.
+ Differential backup.
+ Daily Copy.
Li ch cua Backup:
Mot so hang cung a a ra phan mem backup - nh Arcadias
BackupExec hay cheyennes ArcServe bo sung nhng net ac trng, trong nhieu
trng hp , o la s au t khon ngoan.e kiem tra,du sao i na cung nen nh
rang ch co tien ch Backup cua Microsoft c bao ve.
Ban co the gan mot bang t th cap (tape drive) ngay lap tc cho mot
may n, hoac ban co the Backup vai may trong mang may mot may.
Backup tren mot mang thuan tien cho ngi quan tr, nhng chung co the tao ra
mot lng lu thong ln trong mang.Ban co the giam mot cach hieu qua lng lu
thong o neu may tnh gan bang t oc lap vi mang va ket noi trc tiep ng
day gia hai card mang.
Viec cuoi cung la ban muon gi phan lu tr d lieu cua ban bao lau trong
phng tien lu tr. No khong co o dai thi gian chnh xac. Mot vai cong ty ghi
e len phan bang t cu tren c s hang tuan, trong khi so khac lai gi bang lu
tr khong gii han. o dai thi gian chnh xac c quyet nh bi tam quan
trong cua d lieu cu t hang cua ban. Cau tra li khong n gian cho van e nay.
Nguon cap ien lien tuc(UPS)
UPS (Uninter ruptible Power Supply) la mot bo ac qui (hoac may phat
ien) cung cap ien nang cho cac thiet b ien khi b mat ien li.UPS thng
c s dung trong mang may tnh e nga tat may hon loan bang cach canh
bao ngi s dung thoat ra ngoai. Sauk hi d oan thi gian i, phan mem ieu
khien UPS tat may theo th t trong may. Nhieu UPS cung ieu chnh s phan
phoi nguon ien va ap ng cho viec chong lai ot bien nguon ien. Chu y rang
hau het cac trng hp may phat UPS khong cung cap cho chc nang mang tiep
tuc lau hn vai phut. UPS khong c nh san cho may chay xuyen suot trong
thi gian cup ien, nhng phan nao gi cho may lam nhng viec can thiet trc
khi tat may. No co the ngan can d lieu mat i va he thong khong b loi t mot

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

104

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

vai lan tat may bat ng. Mot vai mang cung ket noi UPS vi Hub va rounter, gi
cho ngi quan tr co the tham nhap vao may tnh t xa e thc hien cong viec
tat may trong s kien cup ien.
Khi mua UPS cho may, chu y rang chung co nhieu gia tr. Chu y au tien,
UPS thc s la mot nguon d tr. Giong nh ac qui xe hi, no manh hn va no
mac hn. Gia ca co the t 100 ti vai ngan USD. Trc khi mua , can biet bao
nhieu may cua ban se tat bang UPS va tat may an toan trong bao lau. Mot hang
UPS pho bien nhat laAPC (American Power Conversion), cong ty nay a ra hop
nguon ay u cac ng nguon va cac san pham UPS.
Tom lai, UPS cho phep tat may an toan. No tat trong thi gian cho phep e
cac tap tin c lu lai, va nhng sai sot d lieu c gi mc thap nhat. Lu
tr chu yeu cung cap giai phap nhanh chong nhat cho viec khac phuc tham hoa.
No phu thuoc chieu dai va s x ly khoi phuc cham chap co the oi hoi cong ty
cua ban tra gia at cho viec mat li tc va nang suat. oan tiep theo v the kiem
tra vai phng phap nho nhat hoac ngay ca viec ngan can thi gian chet trong s
kien loi o cng.

A large UPS can service numerous components at once.


II. PHUC HOI LAI T HE THONG B LOI
Phan ke tiep la d lieu an toan cho mang lam viec chnh xac la cong viec
thong thng quan trong nhat cua ngi quan tr. S mat o cng, neu khong phai

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

105

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

la tham hoa ,co the phien toai ln en t ngi s dung mang va co the oi hoi
cong ty cua ban mat thi gian va tien bac. Thu tuc e bo i hoac ngan nga thi
gian chet t loi mat phan cng co the c bo sung. Cau hnh cua a cho phep
sap xep s bao ve c goi la kha nang chu ng sai sot cua cau hnh. Chu y
rang kha nang chu ng sai sot cua cau hnh khong c thiet ke e at lai cho
cu cho he thong bang t d tr.
Thiet ke kha nang chu ng sai sot
Ket noi mang hp thanh t kha nang chu ng sai sot cua cau hnh bao
am loi phan phan cng khong lam mang tam ngng.Ban co the chu ong cho
mang cokha nang chu ng sai sot bang cach cung cap ng dan d lieu d,
hub d , va nhng th ac khac. Noi chung, d lieu cua chnh may tnh-neu la o
cng-la yeu to quyet nh.
S dung he thong a d phong(RAID)
Cong cu song con bao ve d lieu mang la s dung he thong a d phong
(RAID).S dung RAID cho phep ban cai at day a thiet ke tot nhat e bao ve
he thong a cua ban.He thong RAID ket noi 2 hay nhieu a e tao cau truc a
thc te rong nham cho phep ban lu tr phan d lieu them vao may. Trong day
a, o ket hp t nhng mc khac nhau cua RAID, la card ieu khien phan phoi
d lieu .
RAID s dung nh dang phan oi d lieu cac o thanh dang byte, bit,
hoac nhng khoi. Gii han cua phan oi d lieu e cap en nang lc cua d lieu
sap at th t trong 2 o a .

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

106

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Data striping arranges data in different sequences across drives.


RAID 0
RAID 0 dung s thao g d lieu va xen ke khoi, x ly no bao gom phan
phoi cac khoi d lieu bang cac khoi t a nay sang a kia trong day a ung
nh v tr t a nay sang a kia cua moi a. D lieu co the oc hoac ghi ung
cac sector (cung t)cua moi a, sau o nhap thong tin. RAID 0 phu thuoc t nhat
2 a, va phan danh rieng cho no phai ung kch c. Chu y rang phan d cua d
lieu khong cung cap trong RAID 0, co ngha la loi t mot o a trong day a co
the mang xuong toan bo he thong va ket qua la mat tat ca d lieu cha trong day.
RAID 0 c ho tr bi Windows NT Server, Windows NT Workstation, nhng
khong c ho tr trong Windows 95. RAID 0 khong cung cap kha nang chu
ng sai sot, lay thong tin o cng nhanh hn.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

107

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

In disk mirroring, two hard drives use the same disk channel.
RAID 1
Trong RAID 1, a phai cung loai: moi byte thong tin c ghi len 2 a
giongnhau. a nhan ban xac nh la 2 a cng- 1 chnh, 1 phu- dung nh la cac
kenh cua a ( crad ieu khien va day noi) a nhan ban la cau hnh pho bien
nhat bang cach dung o a cha trong may.
a nhan ban c goi la a song cong khi chng trnh ieu khien ngan
cach c them vao moi a .
Nhan ban d lieu khong cung cap li ch bang RAID 0 cung cap.Ban co the
dung a nhan ban, tuy nhien, e tao 2 a nhan ban d lieu va he ieu hanh cua
may, mot trong 2 phai boot va chay tren may.Neu 1 trong 2 a loi, a con lai co
the tiep tuc ieu hanh.a nhan ban co the mac, do no oi hoi 2 Gb a cha 1
Gb d lieu ban muon nhan ban. Ban cung phai chac chan rang nguon cua ban u
cong suat e ieu khien cac thiet b them vao.Nhan ban d lieu phu thuoc vao 2 o
a, va phan trong tren a dung cho nhan ban phai ung kch c. Windows NT
Server ho tr nhan ban, con Windows NT Workstation va Windows 95 th khong .
Nh rang nhan ban d lieu danh cho kha nang chu ng sai sot.Chu y
rang ,cac may Windows NT chay nhan ban se chay vi toc o bnh thng.No co
the to ra giam sutneu ch co 1 card ieu khien chia se cho 2 o a.Phan ieu
khien phai ghi 2 lan, moi lan cho 1 o.
RAID mc 5 s o pho bien nhat

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

108

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Cac mc RAID c ho tr trong Windows NT RAID 2,3,4 va 5 la tat ca


cac phien ban thiet ke e thao g kha nang chu ng sai sot giong nhau.
Misrosoft ch ho tr RAID 5trong Windows NT Server. No la con so gi cho ta
thay rang no la phien ban mi nhat va la s o chu ng sai sot pho bien nhat
ngay nay. Mc 5 t phu thuoc vao khong gian a hn nhan ban d lieu, va no li
hn cac phng phap thao g khac. Giong nh nhan ban d lieu, mc 5 khong co
gia tr trong Windows NT Workstation va Windows 95.
RAID 5
RAID 5 dung thao g vi viec ghi thong tin ngang bang gia nhieu o a
nham cho phep kha nang chu ng sai sot cua khong gian a mc nho nhat.
Thao g ngang bang la nguyen tac c ban e tat ca cac d lieu c ghi
len o cng theo ma Binary( 1 va 0 ). Raid 5 phu thuoc vao t nhat 3 o v phien
ban nay ghi d lieu 2 o va tao khoi ngang bang trong o th 3. D lieu ghi va bit
ngang bang noi ti tat ca cac o a c dung. Neu byte au tien la 00111000 va
byte tiep theo la 10101001,sau o he thong tnh toan byte th 3 bang cach cong
cac k t theo he thong: 1+1 = 0 nh 1
0+0 = 0
0+1 = 1+0 = 1
Tong cua 00111000 va 10101001 la 10010001, no c ghi len a so 3.
Viec x ly tiep tuc cho bit ngang bang ke tiep ghi len o au tien,va d lieu ghi len
o th 2 va th 3.Vong ghi th 3, bit ngang bang ghi o th 2, d lieu ghi o au
tien va o th 3.Sau o vong quay c lap lai.
Neu a b loi, qua trnh x ly se b ao ngc va a co the khoi phuc lai
t d lieu va bit ngang bang trong 2 o con lai.Viec khac phuc bao gom thay the o
h va sau o phuc hoi ay u d lieu nh ngi quan tr a. Toi a co 32 a cho
1 day a RAID 5 chay tren Windows NT.
Chon mc RAID
Khi tao s o a, ban co vai cach la chon e tnh. au tien,ban quyet
nh co quan tam en RAID 0 hay khong, thng s dung c s d lieu ch oc
tai t CD-ROM, hoac d lieu d (RAID 1 hoac 5) thng phu thuoc vao he thong,
can thi gian truy cap hu dung e lien tuc thay oi d lieu, v du nh lap bieu he
thong. Nhan ban d lieu (RAID 1) cho phep khac phuc nhanh nhat nhng ket qua
la mat 50 %o cng.Cung nh vay, s thao g ngang bang (RAID 5) tiet kiem hn
nhng no phu thuoc vao t nhat 3 o a vat ly va v the no ch ra nhieu loi phan
cng con tiem an.RAID 0 co y ngha khi d lieu thay oi nho hoac khong thay oi
va co gia tr t CD-ROM hay cac kieu khac cua viec lu tr phan backup. Trong

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

109

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Windows NT, tat ca cac mc cua RAID eu c ho tr bang phan mem bo sung
cua RAID, nhng ban co the bo sung phien ban mi hn.
Hau het nhng ngi quan tr mang thch chon RAID 5 hn, t may qui mo
nhat vi nhieu gian cha.Bi v mc o ket hp gia RAID 0 va RAID 1, no cho
phep toc o ln hn va nhieu phan d hn. Nhan ban d lieu a ra li the lam
viec tot hn vi phan cng non-SCSI, bi v moat so may cu ch co 2 o IDE, va
no pho bien tuy chon kha nang chu ng sai sot nho hn may khong chuyen
dung.Thao g khong ngang bang danh rieng cho may cong tac va may chu, ma
s can nhac toc o la quan trong nhat va co the ton tai thi gian chet la rui ro
cho phep.

If disk 2 fails, the system is able to reconstruct


the information on it by using the parity data

In this example, if Disk 2 fails, the system can reconstruct


the information on it using the parity data.
a song cong

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

110

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Different RAID levels offer their own unique capabilities.


Trong s kien loi kenh cua a (bi card ieu khien hoac day noi) ,truy cap
tat ca d lieu tren kenh b ngat, va hien thong iep noi them d lieu vao may len
man hnh(neu user cua ban khong ngan can ban biet au tien).Mac du o co the
nhan ban tat ca cac a hoat ong vao o nhan ban neu o nhan ban noi vao phan
ieu khien a.
a song cong thc hien chc nang ghi d lieu ong thi len a nh v
cac kenh khac nhau.a song cong a ra cach cai at tin cay hn nhan ban d
lieu v loi nguon cua a cng khong vo hieu hoa may chu.Thay vao o, may chu
tiep tuc lam viec vi he thong da vao phan nguon con lai.
Lam viec bang kenh analog (tng t) giong nh chi bong chay khi ch co
mot cong tren san c m.Ban co the vao hoac thoat ra xuyen qua ch mot cong
(kenh) san (may dch vu tap tin), va am ong cau thu (d lieu) co the tap
trung vao ca hai mat trc.Neu co hn mot cong (kenh khac) c m, am ong
cau thu (d lieu) khong tap trung ca hai mat trc cua hang rao( may dch vu tap
tin hoac may la viec). o la ly do tai sao co a song cong, dung mach ngan
cach giao tiep cho moi a, giup oc va ghi nhanh hn nhan ban d lieu
Song cong bao ve thong tin tai mc cua phan cng vi kenh nhan
ban( card ieu khien va day noi) va a cng nhan ban.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

111

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Nhan ban d lieu dung mot card ieu khien va 2 a cng.V tr cua loi cho
viec cai at card ieu khien chnh hoac day ket noi gia o va card ieu khien.a
song cong dung 2 card ieu khienva t nhat mot o cho moi card ieu khien.V tr
cua loi c lam nho i vi phan cng nhan ban.

Disk duplexing simultaneously writes data to two disks


located on different controller cards.
Tuy chon third-party
Mot so ai ly may tnh khac cung cung cap RAID bao ve mc phan cng
cho cac san pham may chu cua ho. S bao ve nay khong phu thuoc he ieu
hanh,v the neu ban thc s cam thay RAID 5 trong Windows 95 Workstation la
can thiet th phien ban phan mem phai co cach giai quyet cho ban.
oan tren kiem tra so a co cau hnh khac nhau.Chng trnh chnh e
quan ly a lu tr tai nguyen la Disk Administrator (quan ly a), cong cu nay ch
thch hp cho viec dung tong quat bi thanh vien ban quan tr hoac nhom thanh
vien may chu.
Cac may chu ng sai sot cho phep khac
Co 2 dang cua kha nang chu ng sai sot khac ton tai tren th trng hien
nay.Mot la nhan ban d lieu may chu (server miroring) trong cai con lai la giai
phap phan cng, may chu cao cap(super server)

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

112

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Nhan ban d lieu may chu thch hp cho may chu nhan ban tron ven tat
ca cac dang e co them mot may chu na.ieu nay co ngha la neu may chu A b
tat v bat ky ly do nao,nh la loi phan cng,loi card manh, hoac tham hoa t
mach chu (mainboard), may chu nhan ban B gi nhiem vu cua may chu A. Dang
cua kha nang chu ng sai sot nay c a ra bi Microsoft trong san pham
Microsoft Cluster Server (Cum may chu Microsoft )
Tuy chon th 2 cua kha nang chu ng sai sot la may chu cao cap.May
chu cao cap la giai phap phan cng c a ra bi vai hang san xuat phan cng
khac.Y kien ang sau may chu cao cap la tat ca cac bo phan cua thiet b co the
thay oi trong may chu cao cap ma khong phai tat may.Co ngha la may chu cao
cap co the trao oi nong cau hnh nh o cng, CPU, va RAM.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

113

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

CHIA SE TAI NGUYEN


Trong chng trc a gii thieu cach thc e ket noi vat ly gia cac may
tnh tren mot mang, cai at driver va cac dch vu can thiet. cho ti viec kiem tra
hoat ong truyen thong cua mot mang. vi bc au tien la viec can nhac ng
truyen ra ngoai. bc tiep theo la bat au to chc cach ieu hanh va pham vi s
dung cua mot mang. chng nay se giai quyet viec thi hanh chia se tai nguyen
vi iem noi bat cua nha quan tr mang Microsoft.
Viec thc hien chia se tai nguyen hien se c trnh bay ben di: au
tien la khai quat chung cua mot so tai nguyen chnh, t vien canh nay se co mot
vai mo hnh quan tr khac va oi nghch nhau. Ban se tap trung vao mo hnh quan
tr bi Window 95 va Window NT. Sau o tren nen tang nay la cac files c bao
mat va cac may in, se c khai thac t ca hai Window 95 va Window NT. Cuoi
cung la ban ve mot vai nha quan tr se thc thi tren mot mang.
C s chia se tai nguyen
Microsoft s dung nhng khai niem rieng e ch cac nhan to cau truc cua
mot mang, va hieu ro nhng khai niem nay la mot ieu can thiet. 5 khai niem ma
ban can phai nam la: Resources (tai nguyen), sharing (chia se), users (ngi s
dung), workgroups (nhom lam viec), security (bao mat).
I. TAI NGUYEN.
Khai niem au tien can tm hieu la tai nguyen. mot tai nguyen la 1 yeu to
can thiet ma ban phai s dung tren mot mang, ay co the la mot file n le, mot
may in cuc bo trong mot toa nha, hay tham ch la mot cong viec nao o san co
cua mot chng trnh. Tai nguyen chnh th hai cu the trong chng nay la files
d lieu va may in, nhng tren ly thuyet mot tai nguyen co the la bat ky mot thong
tin nao hay la cac thiet b tren mot mang. Mang khong ch e truy cap en cac
thiet b vat ly va tai nguyen tren may o, ieu nay co ngha la ban ch co the truy
cap en cac files va cac may in cuc bo. S tao thanh ket cau cua mot mang cho
phep ban co kha nang s dung 1 may chu chia se tai nguyen ti cac may con
khac.
Chia se

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

114

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Khai niem quan trong th hai la chia se, ch co nhng ngi c cho phep
truy cap mi co the truy cap vao 1 tai nguyen, no co the la 1 th muc, mot o CD
ROM hoac la mot may in, ban co the lam tai nguyen nay cho cac thiet b va
may tnh xa. Mot tai nguyen c chia se n gian ch la mot tai nguyen ma
ngi chu s hu cua no tao ra va co the cho nhng ngi khac s dung. Mot vai
tai nguyen khong c chia se ngoai tr ngi quan tr mang chia se no ra ngoai.
Mot vai v du cua cac tai nguyen o la cac files va cac may in, mot vai tai
nguyen khac se t ong chia se ra ngoai khi c cai at v du nh nhn thay mot
may tnh khi trnh duyet qua mang.
Ngi s dung
Mot User la bat ky mot ai yeu cau tai nguyen mang. Trong nhieu trng hp
ban at mot Username va password ti moi ca nhan tren mang. Cac Users vay co
the tao tren mot he ieu hanh. Bao gom Window NT, NetWare va UNIX. Cac
Users khong the tao tren Window 95 hoac Window for Workgroup, bi v cac he
ieu hanh nay khong co kha nang thiet lap d lieu cac Users. Ca hai Window 95
va Window for Workgroups eu cho phep tao thanh viec ca nhan hoa, ban se gap
lai trong chng nay sau. Ho buoc phai s dung c s d lieu cua mot may khac
e xac lap ung cac User, nh la Window NT.
Groups: (cac nhom)
Groups la nhng n v quan tr bao gom 1 hoac nhieu cac users vi nhng yeu
cau tng t nhau ve tai nguyen mang. Thong thng nhieu Users tao thanh mot
Groups, va s truy cap vao tai nguyen c quan ly tren mot nhom,hay noi cach
khac la phan oi viec ca nhan hoa cac Users. That la de dang quan ly 5 nhom
hn la 5000 Users. Co 2 kieu Group ton tai tren Window NT la: local(cuc bo ),
global (taon cuc). Nhng nhom nay no anh hng chu yeu ti tnh bao mat trong
mo hnh cua Micrsoft.
Bao mat
Bao mat la nhng iem chnh cua chng nay, bao mat la mot qua trnh
gi quyen hoac s cho phep ti cac group hoac cac users, v du nh viec cho
phep hay khong cho phep truy cap vao tai nguyen mang. Nhng he ieu hanh
khac nhau s dung cac thuat ng khac nhau e mo ta van e bao mat. Window
NT tao ra s khac biet gia Right va Permissions. S khac biet gia Right
va Permissions se c chi tiet hn trong chng nay.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

115

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

II. TONG QUAN VE MO HNH QUAN TR MANG


Chon mot ke hoach quan tr can co nhng chu nh can thiet bao gom: quan ly s
thc thi, quan ly account va bao mat. Co nhieu mo hnh quan tr mang va thc
hien viec bao mat la mang tnh quyet nh. Nhieu he ieu hanh mang ch bao
gom mot mo hnh quan tr, con mot so he ieu hanh khac cho phep cho phep
ban la chon nhieu mo hnh khac nhau. Phan nay se thao luan 4 cach thong
thng s dung mo hnh bao mat mang ma no c s dung trong he thong
mang ngay nay, o la:
Workgroups
Bindery based
Domain
Derectory sevices
Bon loai mo hnh tren la thong dung nhng khong co ngha la ch ton tai 4
loai nay. Tuy nhien chung ai dien cho a so mo hnh bao mat mang c dung
hien nay. Khi so sanh nhng mo hnh nay th ac biet chu y ti cac mo hnh
Workgroup va Domain, o la 2 mo hnh hien nay c Microsoft s dung.
Mo hnh Workgroup
Mot mo hnh bao mat thong thng s dung tren mot mang nho la mo
hnh Workgroup. Mo hnh quan tr nay c xay dng tren he ieu hanh mang
Window 95, Window for workgroup va Window NT.
Trong mo hnh workgroup th c s d lieu tren mot may chu ma no lu tr
thong tin accout cua cac User. ay la mo hnh bao mat co tren cac mang ong
ang. Trong mo hnh Workgroup co mot hoac nhieu may ma cac tai nguyen c
chia se. tai nguyen nay la th muc cha cac file. e nhng may tnh khac co the
truy cap en nhng files nay th may tnh cha nhng files o phai ang chay va
cho phep chia se tai nguyen.
Mot Workgroup chnh xac la mot cai ten ket hp mot nhom nhng cai may
tnh. Bat ky mot may tnh khi c cai at, co the tr thanh mot phan cua bat ky
Workgroup nao. Neu khong co Workgroup nao ton tai ban co the cai at mot may
tnh tr thanh mot phan cua mot Workgroup mi. Ten cua mot Workgroup ch la
mot cai ten ai dien cho muc ch mot c quan (hay la mot to chc).Nh la khi
mot ngi nao o s dung trnh duyet mang, nhng may tnh la nhng thanh
phan cua mot Workgroup se c nhom cung lai vi nhau. Thong thng ten cua
mot Workgroup se c at nh la ENGINEERING or ACCOUNTING..

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

116

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

WINDOW NT
Window NT workstation va window server. Ca hai he ieu hanh nay co kha
nang cai at c trong mot workgroup. S la chon nay th c chon trong suot
qua trnh cai at.
Mo hnh workgroup cua Window NT moi may tnh Window NT cha mot c
s d lieu cuc bo cua user accounts. e truy cap vao cac may tnh Window NT
cuc bo, ban can nhap vao may tnh s dung mot user va mot password c thc
thi trong c s d lieu user account cuc bo. Noi dung c s d lieu user account
cuc bo se khong c s dung vi bat k may tnh khac.
Mo hnh Workgroup trong Window NT co kha nang tham chieu cac user
tren nen tang User-by-User. Khi gan s bao mat ti viec chia se tai nguyen. e
co mot mo hnh bao mat ban can phai tao ra tat ca cac user tren mang cua ban
trong moi c s d lieu cuc bo cua Window NT. Neu mang cua ban co 10 user va
10 may tnh s dung Window NT. Neu them mot may mi th ban phai tao lai 10
user cua ban trong c s d lieu user cua may mi.
Tng t nh vay neu mot user ni c them vao mang, ten cua chung
phai c them vao c s d lieu cuc bo tren may tnh Window NT a ton tai.
Cung tng t nh vay, Neu mot user thay oi moi may tnh Window NT can phai
cap nhat password mi cua user.
Mo hnh mang kieu workgroup th khong co o tap trung cao, va can phai
co mot ngi quan tr mang thc hien nhieu thao tac lap i lap lai nh la them
vao cac user account hoac cac user tao ra nhieu phan dung chung khac nhau va
gan password cho nhng phan dung chung nay. Mo hnh workgroup cho window
NT no c dung cho nhng mang nho.
Mo hnh bindery- Based.
Mo hnh bindery-based la mot mo hnh ma no c s dung bi Novell
netware t phien ban netware 3.2 (Tat ca cac may chu Novell phai s dung
directory service phien ban 4 hoac cao hn). He thong mang Bindery-based la
tiep theo cua mo hnh mang client- server. May chu Novell Bindery-based van con
ton tai nhieu trong he thong mang ngay nay.
Trong mot mo hnh Bindery-based co mot may chu va nhieu may con. May
chu cha mot ngan c s d lieu User account. Mot ngan c s d lieu User
account la ni ma no cha ten cua cac User trong mot danh sach t A -> Z ma
ngi o c phep log vao he thong. Ngoai ra c s d lieu User account c
dung e gan cac quyen s dung cac nguon tai nguyen khac nhau tren mang.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

117

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

May chu con co nhiem vu cha tat ca cac dch vu tren mang. ieu nay cho
phep quan ly mang tap trung hn.
Mot may con tren he thong mang nay c ca at trc tiep len no. No se
c ket noi vi trung tam cua may chu, va co gang xac nhap lai c s d lieu
User accout cua may chu, th ten ngi s dung se ton tai trong c s d lieu User
account (ten e login) va password e ket noi.
Neu ten va password ton tai trong c s d lieu User account cua may chu,
user nay oc cong nhan e s dung he thong mang, va cac user lan lt gi cac
khoa xac nhan cua may chu. Cac khoa nay tng t nh la dau hieu bao mat ma
ban phai co. Khoa la yeu to xac nhan ban la ca nhan thuoc nhom nao. Da tren
nhng khoa nay ban se c cong nhan hoac t choi viec truy cap vao cac tai
nguyen. S cong nhan cac khoa nay th rat ro rang vi cac User, ho se nhn thay
hoac khong nhn thay cac tai nguyen tren mang.
Trong mo hnh Bindery, co mot li ch o la c s d lieu c tap trung.
ieu nay th thch hp cho viec quan ly cac tai nguyen trong cac mang ln. No co
li ch khac na la truy cap vao cac tai nguyen dung chung tren nen tang User-byUser hoac Workgruop-by-Workgroup cung nh la van e bao mat co the thc
hien de dang hn. Ngoai ra cac User khong phai nh nhieu Password khi truy
cap vao cac tai nguyen khac nhau. Nhng thay vao o se c truy cap vao tai
nguyen mot cach lien mach hoac la t choi cac tai nguyen ma ho muon.
Mot van e oi vi mo hnh Bindery khi cac ban co nhieu Servers tren
mang. Mo hnh Bindery khong cho phep chia se danh sach c s d lieu cac
User. Moi may chu cha c s d lieu cac User account rieng cua no. Bi v ieu
nay tng t nh them vao nhieu may chu tren mang. Moi luc mot User account
mi c tao ra, no se them vao c s d lieu cac User account tren moi may
chu, ma cac may chu nay cha cac tai nguyen c chia se ra ngoai cho cac
User. V vay khi phat trien he thong mang mot ngi quan tr mang can phai thc
hien cong viec lap i lap lai e co the duy tr tnh bao mat cua he thong mang.
ieu th 2 c a ra trong mo hnh Bindery-Base o la mo hnh quan tr
mang nay s dung nhng tien ch khac nhau e thc hien nhng chc nang khac
nhau. V vay mot tien ch dung e quan ly cac files he thong, mot tien ch khac
dung e quan ly cac User va tham ch mot cai khac e quan ly may in.
MO HNH DOMAIN
Mo hnh domain la mot mo hnh Clien / Server khac ma no c s dung
trong Window NT server va mang OS/2, no tng t nh mo hnh bao mat

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

118

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Bindery. Trong mang nay no tap trung quan tr cac User account va ngan danh
sach cac User account.
Mo hnh domain la mot mo hnh bao mat ma no s dung mot ngan c s
d lieu cac User account tng t nh la mo hnh Bindery. ieu khac biet chnh la
c s d lieu c lu tr trong mot hay nhieu may tnh.
Khi mot may chu Window NT c cai at, mot trong nhng tham so c
ch ra o la quyen nao ma server c tha nhan co 3 kha nang.
Bindery Domain Controller (PBC)
Backup Domain Controller (PBC)
Menber Server
Primary and Backup domain controller thc hien cac chc nang giong nhau,
chc nang nay co vai tro la tr c s d lieu user account. S khac nhau o la
PDC lu tr ban copy chnh cua c s d lieu nay. Cac ban copy nay co the thay
oi c. Neu mot User c them vao th c s d lieu se b thay oi. C s d
lieu cua Backup domain controller se tao ban sao t PDC.
Ch co the ton tai mot PDC trong mot domain, tuy nhien ban co the chon
nhieu BDC neu ban muon. Tai bat ky mot thi iem nao BDC co the a len
thanh PDC, va theo cach o th mot PDC giam thanh mot BDC.
Vai tro cua mot Server la la cha tai nguyen nh la cac files, may in va
cac ng dung ma User co the truy cap tren mang. Trong ban than cua cac Server
khong cha d lieu User account chnh. Thay v truy cap len c s d lieu e cac
User can c vao danh sach cac User account tren Domain controller,cac server
thanh vien cung khong lien quan en viec x ly yeu cau cho cac may Client, ma
ay la mot chc nang duy nhat c thc hien bi cac domain controller.
Bang cach at cac tai nguyen chung cua mang tren cac server thanh vien.
Ban ang at nhng nguon tai nguyen tren nhng may tnh ma khong cap cho he
thong tai nguyen cua chung nh la RAM, CPU va khong gian a e x ly va cha
c c d lieu User account va cac yeu to can cua cac User.
Mot vai s bat li trong mo hnh domain o la s phan chia li ch e thc
hien cac chc nang quan tr khac nhau. Tng t nh mo hnh Bindery co mot
vai ten ch tao ra cac User va mot vai cai khac e quan ly cac may in. V du ban
cai mot may Fax server, se tao ra mot tien ch mi e quan ly may Fax. Mot vai
ieu quan trong khac cua mo hnh Domain la mot Domain thiet ke khong qua
4000 account. Mot account ang ky cho mot User, mot nhom, mot may tnh trong
pham vi 1 domain. V vay trong cac mang may tnh ln can nhieu Domain.
Derectory Services Model

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

119

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Chuan dung cho dch vu th muc la X500 ung yeu cau bao mat
mang.nhng chuan c s dung bi Banyan Vines mang netware 4.x cua Novel
c ieu hanh bi Windows NT .5
Dch vu th muc phai co ay u tnh bao mat cho mot mang .nhng chuan
c s dung phai tng xng vi mang nho nhat hay la mang ln
Dch vu th muc la yeu to thiet yeu phan chia ang cap d lieu t model .Model
quan l tat ca cac tai nguyen mot cach hu dung va gii han cac mc sai sot
trong he thong
He thong bao ve th muc xac nh quyen cua cac tang d lieu .Sau nhng
van e nay la mot he thong nhng tap tin nh nhau .Khong mot th muc nao
cha tat ca nhng tap tin chh co tren thiet b ieu khien .e mot tap tin vao mot
th muc th nhng tap tin o phai i cung mot luc hoac lien quan en mott
nhhom quan l chung nao o e de dang kiem soat,o co the la dch vu th muc
d lieu ten user that ra th nhieu th muc dch vu d lieu can dc quan l tap
trung .
Quan l tai nguyen khong gii han user hay nhom trong mot dch vu thu
muc d lieu can thiet co tren mang .Nh vay khi mot may in c thanh lap no la
ni vao d leu tot nhat ,quan l may in giong nh quan l cac th muc d lieu
phuc vu.Chc nang nay cho phep ngi quang tr mang lam viet mot cach hieu
qua nhat s thuan li cua dch vu th muc cho phep phan chia d lieu ,phaan
chia toan bo d lieu cung cap cho cac may chu khac giong nh mot user log
angeles c them vao may chu London ma khong can phai update .nhng
thong tin nay co the thay mang dien rong nh wan Trong mot domain tat ca
cac user c sao lai a en BDC va bat c luc nao mot user mi cung c
them vao .Tom lai mo hnh dch vu th muc la tieu chuan phat trien mot cach he
thong ,no ong vai tro quan trong viec quan tr mang .
Nhom lam viec bang he ieu hanh windws nt th cac user c phan
quyen .
+ Bindery- base system dung chung cho cac ten cua user .D lieu cua cac
user nay khong chia se cho cac may chu khac .
+ Domain base system giong nh bindery base system nhng no co chia se
vi cac may chu khac
+ Diretory services cho phep phan chia ang cap viec chia se d lieu bi
tac ca cac user t cac tai nguyen c quan l.
III. MANAGING USER ACCOUNT AND GROUPS USING WINDOWS NT.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

120

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Windows nt bao mat cao hn windows 95 s dung c bat c mang


Microsoft nao .mot cau hnh chac chan khong chac se cung cap ay u yeu cau
bao mat nhng hau het cac to chc co ay u cac thong tin hoac d lieu ngan
chan cac ca nhan khong hp phap di ay la phng phap quan l domain va
bao mat.
User account
Mot user account c tao ra t mot ca nhan tren mang thong qua s quan l cua
domain mot user thng co ba thuot tnh: mot user name ,password ch la duy
nhat cho mot thanh vien trong he bao mat, nhom la bo phan cac user ,nhom o
xac inh dung user va cho phep lu hanh tren mang.
Ten mat inh trong windows nt.
Khi he windows mi thanh lap co 2 user c tao ra .mot la administractor va
password c tao ra ngay cho no.th 2 la may khach ten nay khong co kha
nang mat nh .
Cac user va password c tao ra se cung cac user khac nam trong he bao mat
.cac user phai thng xuyen dung .Tren man hnh se bao neu password sai .Neu
ieu nay xay ra kho khan cua ban phai c kiem soat
Groups .
Nham muc ch quan l de dang hn moi nhom co mot nhiem vu at biet ,ta ch
quan l 5 nhom ma hn 500 user .Trong mang winddows co the bao gom hai
nhom tai nguyen at biet o la golbal va local moi nhom co chc nang at biet.
Golbal .
ch tao c cac user tren PDC cua domain ,chng trnh backup trong domain
ieu khien ban sao d lieu ,v the cac golbal c ket noi cung nhau no co chc
nang ket noi cac user va nhom nay c thiet ke chung cho moi ngi ,golbal
khong ket noi vi cac nhom khac trong cac domain dai lien ket cac ban sao
golbal tao thanh nhom golbal.
Local.
c tao ra tren nen windows nt server hoac tram lam viec va bao gom ca
ten user va nhom golbal .sau khi ban a ch dc sao lai cho chng trnh quan l
e cung cap chp server ma cac user tao ra mot nhom local cho chng trinh quan
l at biet ,a ch phuc vu co hai cach chia se ,mot nhi ieu khien la bonuses
va nhng cai khac la Corporate Policies .Ngi quan tr co the tao ra hai nhom
local. La Restricted va General.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

121

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Restricted :nhom nay ch ket noi duy nhat mot nhom golbal cua Sales
Manager accouting manager va human resource managers.nh cho quan l sau o
cho phep ang k Bonuses directory goi la restricted
General :ket noi c tat ca cac golbal hp thanh nhom kiem soat ieu
khien c(corporate policies ).
Tao Global va Local trong he ieu hanh Windows NT.
o Domain user: tat ca cac user tao ra c nam trong nhom nay .
o Domain admins: m cac ten cua domain.
o Administrator: cha nhng domain admins golbal groups .nhom nay quan l
tat ca cac tai nhuyen trong may
o User :cha nhng ten nhom golbal
o Guest : nhom lien ket noi cac ten may khach
o Account operator: ten thi hanh
o Tao user ,groups, golbal ,local .khong ieu khien dc nhom chu ,domain
admins group hoac nhom .
o Lenh phuc vu :nhom nay vh co trong domain control
o Backup operators:quan l s in an trong may inva ch co trong domain
control
o Server operators : phan chia va ngng viec chia se tai nguyen
o Replicator: Nhom nay s dung cac tai nguyen tren mang.thong thng th
s vang mat mot quyen hang nao o trong lien kiet tao nen cac nhom seb
vi pham trong viec co y bieu dien cau truc nh tai khoan administrator ,
quan l may chu ,quan l files backup ,quan l may in ,tai khoang ngi
dung , tat ca cac nhom nay dieu co trong winNT sever va dieu nay khong
rang buoc
Trong viec s dung ban co the tao ra nhng nhom hay nhng a ch ngi
dung tren no tai mot thi iem th mot nhom san sang cho phep trao oi tren
files nh cho phep oc va in tren may in
Trong winnt ch cho phep tao ra c 4 nhom ac biet trong s dung va
tiep can cac quyen hang .ban khong the xoa hay oi ten cua nhom ,ban khong
the them vao hay bo i user t nhng nhom bi v nhng nhom nay khong he
xuat hien trong domain ,ni ban lam ,hay nhng cai ban lam tren he thong se
lien ket vi mot trong nhng nhom o .ban co the chuyen oi hay t choi chuyen
oi cac nhom ac biet cho phep .trong danh sach di ay la chi tiet 4 nhom ac
biet.
o Vi tat ca ngi dung: Nhom dan ra toan quyen users tren mang.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

122

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

o Ca nhan: Neu mot user tao ra hay mot o a ca nhan ,anh ta phai danh oc
quyen chuyen oi nhom nay nh lahay cac o a ma no thng ch s dung
bi ca nhan anh ta
o Interactive: nhom nay hay thay oi mot user tr thanh mot bo phan khi ta
truy xuat tai nguyen cuc bo va khong tham gia khi ta truy xuat tai nguyen tren
he thong mang
o lp mang : nhom nay oi lap vi nhom interactive mot nhom khac thay oi
khi ta truy xuat tai nguyen tren he thong mang
_ s tao ra cac nhom va cac user d phong c ban tren cung vi viec bao mat
cua ban .va bay gi ban nen biet user la g va cac nhom interactive . ban ng
quan tam en s khac nhau, chc nang cua cac nhom , muc ch cua winnt trong
bai ti chung ta se khao sat t m ve user nham chuyen oi hoac la gii han truy
xuat he thong mang
Permission
s cho phep nay qui vao mot mc ac biet ma mot tai nguyen ca nhan c am
bao la c chia se tai nguyen o , co the cau truc cho phep kha te nh nay
khong c cau truc trong winnt ,win 95 neu mot tai nguyen oho bien c chia
se di dang oc hay di dang ay u cac chc nang ,ca winNT , win 95 eu
chia se tai nguyen di dang ay u cac chc nang ieu khen dieu nay co ngha
la cac chc nang khac khong the nhn thay trong tai nguyen cua ban nhng ta
co the them vao , sa oi hay xoa chung ,mot s thoa hiep tot cho phep oc hay
cho phep cac chc nang nhn thay file cua ban hoac la in tren may in nhng
khong chuyen oi file ,hay chuyen doi en cac may in khac
Right
S khac nhau gia quyen han va s cho phep la dng nh khong la van e g
nhng no khong bao quat .trong k thuat mang cua microsoft,quyen han la mot
thuoc tnh pho bien ma cac user hay mot nhom rieng biet co c quyen han bao
gom cac kha nang thao tac tren mang nap hay khong nap trnh ieu khien cua
cac thiet b ,quyen user hay ac biet hn la administrator quyen nay cao hn
useras cho phep qui vao mot mc ieu khien ac biet cua user va cac nhom co
tren tai nguyen . mot v du ieu khien mot tai nguyen ch cho phep oc mot file
hay motth muc,hay kha nang in va chia se may in
More all right

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

123

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Neu quyen user va administrator cha ay u cac quyen han truy xuat en
mot th muc co the oc, thay oi hoac xoa cac tai nguyen neu nh mot th muc
phai ghi lai .tuy nhien ch co ngi ieu hanh mang ,cac user ,quan l file backup
mi co the thc hien c cong viec nay . ch co mot vai nhom co kha nang
phuc hoi cac file va cac th muc e thay s khac nhau ve quyen han co san trong
winnt mang ta chon menu trong user manger trong domain va sau o chon quyen
user ,chon kiem tra trong quyen han thap e thay quyen han them vao mi
Tat ca cac sc manh bao mat tren mang dng nh co mot chuc lam nan
long. Nhng no khong can thiet ,co le no de e ngh rang tat ca tai nguyen tren
may chu va may mang ch la mot vai th nhng o lai la ieu ma ban can quan
tam va bao ve
Cho mot v du ban tng tng rang ban co mot ngoi nha neu ban muon
ban co the gi ngoi nha cua chnh ban va khong cho mot ngi nao o vao ca
nh vay ban boa ve c tai san cua ban tuy nhien ban co the cho ngi o vao
nhng sau o ban phai gi tai san cua ban ,ke ca nhng ac tam ,hiem oc .o la
y kien hay thc hien ben phap phong nga oi vi v khach cua ngoi nha ban .va
l la tat nhien la phai phong nga v ban khong the nhn thay tat ca moi ngi
cung mot luc co kha nang la ban dung nhieu thi gian tren cac canh ca e tranh
tham hoa
Cong cu bao mat tren Window NT
So sanh mc o bao mat user trong viec cho phep tiep can phan cong
chia se th muc tren mot may chu
Trong phan trc ta a thao luan ve van e bao mat tren winnt mang
,trong phan nay ta se thao luan ve cs\ac cong cu bao mat tren winnt mang . tap
trung chnh la s dung cac cong cu bao mat va chia se th muc nh the nao .tren
phan khu ntfs va tren may von b chia se b winnt
Tao va phan cong cho phep chia se tren Window NT
Trong bai tap 10.3 ban a tao va chia se cac th muc dung chung . ch mot
nhom ngi cho phep oc cac th muc va mot nhom ngi cho phep toan quyen
nen nh la chia se c th muc va cac file nam trong no va cac
ben trong th muc vi cac th muc co san mac du xo chia se
_trong bai tap 10.3 gia s rang phan khu fat khong cha cac file ntfs c bao
mat hoac la phan khu ntfs khong c chon nh la ntfs la cac file he thong cua
windown va no cho phep them vao bao mat ma kha nang nay von co fat

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

124

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Nhng quy tac quan tr thong dung


Quyen va s cho phep ch co the chuyen oi en tai khoan user cua chnh ho
,nhng no khong c a ra ,no cung bao mat thong tin nhng no khac vi quan
tr va troubleshoot, neu ban co user va co tai nguyen rieng ma tai nguyen o khac
vi tai nguyen cua ngi khac tren mang ,de an nh chong lai s thuc duc ,n
gian la ban an nh mot user ma can cho phep ,hay la tao ra mot hay nhieu
nhom sau o cho phep quyen han can thiet tren mang ieu nay co ve nh d
tha va khong can thet nhng no co the hu ch sau nay ,ac biet neu ban ri
to chc cua ban va ngi lam viec sau nay lam viec vi mot user mi th th bay
gi ngi o can no bh la mot s cho phep . mot user mi n gian la co the
vao nhom can thiet va cac tai khoan cu co the bo i bi ho neu co gang ban
nen xoa het cac th muc trong to chc user va truy xuat cu va chen vao user mi
An nh cac File cho phep trong phan khu NTFS
Neu ban s dung chuan fat cho cac file he thong trong dos ,windown 95 ,trong
winnt cau truc bao mat se c hoan thien sau khi an nh cac mc chia se file
Trong bai tap 10.4 gia s rang phan khu c chia se c nh dang vi
NTFS trong trng hp nay ban khong the them vao cac quyen han chia se th
muc, file c ban .bao mat vi ntfs co hai mc :
bao mat NTFS a ra cho ngi quan tr m rong an nh quyen hang
en cac file va th muc
bao mat NTFS a ra mc bao mat tren mang , mot vai file quan l bang
phan khu fat giao tiep vi ngi dung khong b anh hng bi cac mc chia se
bao mat nhng anh hong bicac file ntfs
Trong chia se cac folder dung chung trong bai 10.3 ,ban thay rang co hai
mc cho phep chia se ton tai trong th muc nay
Vi tat ca moi ngi : ch oc
Ngi quan tr :toan quyen

Vi moi ngi :cho phep chuyen oi

Ban thng xuyen ngh lam cach nao e s chuyen oi nay khong lam anh
hng den s cho phep cua moi ngi va nhom ngi quan tr , trc jhi ban sa
lai cau truc cho phep . nh rang s cho phep oc s cho phep thi hanh (X) ,
trong khi chuyen oi cap cho s cho phep viet (W) va xoa(D) nh la ieu khien
ay u cho phep cong vi ownship (O) va chuyen oi quyen ve mc chia se ,mc

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

125

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

file , ca hai commulative vi chnh ho , mot ngi quan tr tren winnt trthanh
thanh vien cua ca hai administrator va tat ca ngi dung va co the la mot trong
nhng nhom khac
WARN! Canh bao:
Khong truy cap ,Nguyen tat quan l la khong truy cap thong tin ca nhan
neu no khong cho phep ,ngay lap tc se lam tat nghen tat ca cac quyen han ,bi
v trong trng hp nay ban nen s dung han che va phai rat than trong phan ln
no access tren mang thng la mot iem nho trong cong cu bao mat cau truc
mang neu ban khong muon cac user truy xuat tai nguyen , no u n gian e
khong a cho ho s cho phep quan l cac user mot cach pho bien va toan ven .
tuy nhien khong bao gi cam truy xuat cho tat ca moi ngi ,nhom , ngi quan
tr khong co ai co the lam mat tai nguyen khi cam truy xuat xoa tuy nhien ieu
nay thc hien c vi nhom co u quyen han.
IV. CHIA SE MAY IN VI WINDOWS NT
Thiet b quan trong th hai ma ban se mong i trong gia nh la may in. oi
vi cac nha quan tr mang th may in co mot so s co ni hang so ,va dng
nh no giam linh ong theo so tuoi cua mang, nguyen nhan la do cac may in nay.
Bi v oi khi cac thiet b nay la khong thch hp hoac do cau hnh may in b sa
oi. Ket noi can than va bao mat hieu qua co the giup nha quan tr mang nhat
quan c thi gian trong van e nay.
e ket noi mot mang may in, au tien ban can phai cai at va nh cau hnh
cua may in trong may chu. Bat ky mang may in nao, mot may in cuc bo c
chia se bi ngi chu s hu cua no.
Windows NT co kha nang cho phep ngi s dung tai t xa cac trnh ieu
khien chi tiet en bo nh he thong cua chung tai moi thi iem can in. ieu nay
giup de dang cap nhat va luon cho phep ngi s dung ket noi en mot may in
mi ma khong can cai at cac trnh ieu khien trong he thong cuc bo cua chung.
Kieu x ly nay goi la ket noi en mot may in.
Khi ban cai at va cho phep gan ghep en mot may in nh trong bai tap 10.7
, ban se thay nhieu bc x ly la rat giong nhau, ban can phai nam cach sang
tao, chia se, bao mat cac file va cac folder. Ban co the kheo leo ho tr cac nhom
ngi dung khi s dung chung may in, va cho phep s dung cac d lieu.

BAI TAP

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

126

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

CHIA SE MOT TH MUC S DUNG MC BAO MAT NGI DUNG


Thi gian anh gia : 15 phut
1.T menu Start chon Setting,Control Panel e hien th ca so Control Panel.
2.Click oi vao bieu tng Network e hien thi hop thoai Network.
3.Chon Access Controlo va chon mc ieu khien truy xuat User. Neu th muc chia se
da c cai at. Ban se c thng bao trong hop thoai rang moi th muc chia se
cua ban se b mat va no se hoi ban co muon chia se lai khong. Neu nh trong trng
hp nay chon OK.
4.Kieu ten cua ngi quan lva quyen s dung ten lam viec chnhvi Obtain.
5.Chon Configurationva chon File,Print Sharing e hien th File va hop thoai Print
Sharing.
6. .Chon ca hai I want to be able ti give other access to my file check box va I want
to be allow others to print to my printer.Sau o chon OK e t ong cai at File va
chia se may in cho mang Microsoft.Ban se c nhac v tr cua tai lieu goc. Neu
trong trng hp nay chon OK.
7. Chon OK va khi ong lai may tnh. Cho en khi ban a khi ong xong , cai mi
sa cha se khong co tac ong va ban se khong hoan thanh bai tap .
8. sau khi khi og lai Windows 95 . Click Start, Win dows Explorer. Them mot th
muc mi goi la User Levl va sau o them mot tai lieu trong folder ten User levl. Bay
gi chon th muc Observe folder password chia se.
9. Click phai vao th muc User levl e hien th menu tr giup theo canh .
10. Chon Sharing t muc tr giup theo canh e hien th sharing cua thuoc tnh ng
dung .
11. Chon kieu User levl cho ten chia se va a nhom local training ay u quyen truy
xuat bang cach chon full access , chon ok. Sau o chon OK mot lan na bieu tng
folder trong th muc chia se se c thay the bi mot bieu tng cua folder giup
bang mot ban tay .

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

127

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

12. Gia nhap vao mot may khac trong mang s dung Username cho phep ay u
quyen truy cap . V tr cua ten th muc chia se User Levl trong Explorer bang cach
duyet toan bo mang
13. Click oi vao ten th muc chia se User Levl e hien th muc tr giup.
14. Co gang chep mot tai lieu ti th muc chia se,tai lieu viet la tot

THEM MOT MAY IN VAO WINDOWS NT


Chu e: cai at mot may in trong windows nt
Thi gian kiem tra : 20 phut
1. Click Start, Setting . sau o chon Printer e hien th ca so may in .
2. Click oi vao Add Printer e hien th Add Printer Wizard. Chon My Computer
va Click Next.
3. qwizard hoi ban ch nh cong hoac cac cong cho may in mi se in . Chon
LPT1 va Click Next.
4. wizard bay gi se hoi ban ch nh kieu cua thiet b vat ly ban se in hoac thiet
b mo phong may in cua ban. Click HP trong pane trai sau o tm va chon HP,
Color Lasejet. Roi chon next.
5. bay gi ban c hoi ve ten cua may in mi. Chu y moi may phai co mot tin
rieng. Va ten cua chung se c mo ta theo chc nang. Type Color Printer va
Click Next.
6. bay gi ban c hoi co chia se may in hay khong , neu nh the he thong
hoat ong se truy xuat no. Click share, goi mot th muc chia se mi ten My
lase va chon Windows 95. Chu y nen tang moi s ho tr trong windows NT
phu thuoc vao s khac nhau cuatrnh ieu khien. Click Next.
7. wizard bay gi co ay u thong tin no can,ri khoitrang Print Test va chon
Finish. Ban se can tai lieu goc cho ca hai windows NT Server hoac workstation
va cho Windows 95. Ban se c nhac v ttr cua tai lieu goc va trnh ieu
khien c tai en.
8. Bieu tng may in cho may in mau se tang trong ca so may in. Chon chung
va mot hang se xuat hien. In mot tai lieu t may in mi va kiem tra lai.Tai lieu
se ch c in.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

128

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

BO SUNG MOT SO TNH NANG QUAN LY.


Ben canh s ieu chnh ve mang va chac chan rang ngi dung co the truy xuat
nhng g ho can ( khong c truy xuat nhng g ho khong the) ngi quan tr co
mot vai ieu chnh quan trong e thc hien ieu nay.
Phan con lai trong chng nay se gii thieu:
Auditng (Kiem nh)
Handing Data encryption (ma hoa d lieu)
Handing Virus protection ( chong virus)
Secring equipment (cong cu bao mat)

Auditing (Kiem nh)


Co mot so tuy chon lam cho ban giong kiem nh vien, ngi ma co the tao
mot c s d lieu e theo doi nhng s kien xay ra tren mang. Thong thng ban
co the quyet nh kiem nh ieu g t nhng thong tin ng dung dung e bao
mat no. Trong Window NT va Window 95 co nhng tien ch e thc hien viec
kiem nh, nhng cong cu nay goi la Event Viewer va Performance Monitor trong
Win NT.
Handing Data Encryption (ma hoa d lieu)
Thong thng, viec thao luan viec bao mat dung trong tai nguyen trc ay
nhieu nhng van cha u. Tuy nhien neu mang cua ban s dung nhieu d lieu ac
biet va ban muon no khong b anh cap, ban phai bo sung them cac cong cun
bao mat khac nh la ma hoa d lieu, ma hoa cac thong tin tren mang s dung
nhng thuat toan ac biet va giai , ma no ni ket thuc. Ky thuat nay c anh
gia co mc o an toan cao, c s rong , co chieu dai va o phc tap cua cac mat
ma dung e ma hoa d lieu. Vi s phat trien cua Internet , ky thuat ma hoa tr
nen quan trong hn va la cha khoa trong trong viec giai quyet s bao mat cho
nhieu cong ty lam viec tren mang toan cau.
Handling Virus Protection (chong virus)
Cung giong nh con ngi may tnh cung de b h hong do nhieu loai virus
pha hoai. Khong giong nh loai virus tan cong con ngi virus may tnh c tao

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

129

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

ra e pha hoai va thay oi may tnh cua ban. Virus co the lay qua nhieu con
ng va con ng chung la lay lan qua cac files thc thi . EXE. Mot chng
trnh quet virus hieu qua, khong phai cua MicroSoft, la mot cong cu can thiet cho
quan tr vien. Nhieu cong ty trung gian tao ra cac phan men quet virus: Norton va
MacAfee.
Trang b bao mat
Co le ban ngh neu ban ngh rang ban phai sao lu cac files d phong, tai nguyen
dung chung, quet virus, ma hoa d lieu la an toan. Tuy nhien, co mot cach lam
cho ban an tam hn. Neu co bat ky mot may nao xa khong c bao mat, neu
ngi ta lay no lam server, ban phai luon khoa server cua ban trong phong va ch
cho phep ngi nao o c truy xuat. Hau het cac cong ty eu co mot phong
server thng la mot phong ln noi vi cac phong nho-ni at tat ca cac may
server, mot ni khong nong cung khong lanh, thoang va ch mot ngi c dung
no.
Khi ban muon lam mot cai g o e thay oi mang cua ban th chac rang
phai co tai lieu hng dan ban lam ieu o. ieu nay khac phuc va duy tr mang
de dang va tiet kiem nhieu thi gian cho ban.
PHNG PHAP BAO MAT
Phan tch Window NT (Window NT Domain)
Mot li ch cua Window NT chay mot domain la bao mat tat ca cac tai
khoan User co the c quan ly tap trung bi 1 server. Chnh sach quan ly da
tren mat ma cua moi User, bat buoc moi User phai tuan theo va kieu Win NT
domain nay lam cho mang luon i theo hng tch cc. Bi v User c cong
nhan e truy xuat tren may User khac hoac tren mot nhom khac, mat ma cho tai
nguyen khong can thiet phai co, thay vao o la moi User ch can nh mat ma cua
chnh mnh e ang nhap he thong mang.
T khi Window NT cung cap cac tap tin bao mat, cac tap tin nhay cam
c e server, tranh c s truy xuat cua nhng ngi khong c truy cap en.
Tuy nhien nen tao mot phong bao ho ni at may server. Window NT cung cung
cap mot cong cu kiem nh va co mot chng trnh kiem nh ben trong he
thong. ieu nay lam cho s bao mat c am bao no cho phep quan tr vien co
the biet c ngi nao truy xuat tai lieu g.
e quan ly he thong ch can 1 hoac 2 ngi a c huan luyen khoa
quan tri vien he thong mang

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

130

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Bang so sanh 2 kieu mang.


Chi ph phan cng
Chi ph phan mem
So lng ngi e quan ly
Tap tin he thong c bao mat
Bao mat tap tin dung chung
Yeu cau mot can phong e bao ho
Cung cap s bao mat tot hn
Cung cap cong cu Auditing

Workgroup
Thap
Thap
Nhieu
Khong
Co
Khong
Khong
Khong

Domain
Cao
Cao
t
Co
Co
Co
Co
Co

Thong thng, ung hoac sai hoac tuy chon ay. Neu van phong nay
cam thay bao mat tai lieu la khong can thiet ho co the chon Workgrup va tiet
kiem oc nhieu tien bac..
Neu van phong nay xac nhan rang bao mat d lieu la quan trong ho nen
chon kieu Domain cung cap bi Window NT. Ho ch tra chi ph hi cao cho Domin
nay nhng bu lai d lieu cua ho c am bao hn.
TAO MOT USER ACCOUNT TRONG WINDOWS NT
Chu e: tao mi mot user account NT
c oan thi gian: 10 phut
1. Nhap start vao Programs.Trong Administrative Tools.Chon User
Manager(Windows NT Workstation) hoac User Manager for Domains(Windows NT
Server)
2. User Manager m(nhn hnh 10.6).Neu la mot cai at mi ch co hai ngi xuat
hien au cua window.Nh ban mong di . Administrator th mac nh viec quan
ly cho may va Guest th mac nh account bi users ma users khong co mot
username va password cua rieng mnh.Guest account c vo hieu hoa bi mac
nh va c phep ieu khien trc khi s dung .Neu IIS th c cai at tot ,mot
user account vi ten cua IUSER_<computername>(<computername> la ten NetBIOS
cua computer ban) th cung hien ra
3. Click Policies vao Account e hop thoai Account Policy xuat hien (xem hnh
10.7).Quan sat hnh bang cach xac nh mac nh passwords phai c thay oi
42 ngay.Khong gii han chieu dai passwords hoac duy nhat Account Lockout th
c tat. ay ban co the cai mot vai mac nh cho thong tin mang may tnh
cua ban .Neu ban a c ket noi ,ai o muon co gang ot nhap vao mang may

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

131

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

tnh cua ban bang viec an trom hoac c oan users password,viec cai at phai
dc cai at mot mc gii han.Ri khoi mac nh khi chung ta click Close de tr
lai User Manager
4. Click User vao New User.Hop thoai New User xuat hien (xem hnh 10.8)
5. Trong o au , anh vao mot username duy nhat (trong trng hp nay la Test
User)cho new account..Ten nay co t 1 en 20 k t va khong bao go m khoang
trong hoac bat k k t g theo sau nh:/ \ [ ] :; | = , + ? < >
6. Hai o cho phep ban xac nh tien ch ma account dc tao. O Full Namexac
nh ro users va o Description xac nh ro vai tro chung ta tm thay trong to chc
.Tm ca hai o gia tr Test User va Training Department Manager
7. Trong o password ban co the enter ket hp t 1 en 14 k t ma ban chon,vi
nh74ng ngoai le ma ng dung e tao user accounts.Enter PASSWORD trong ca
hai o password va Confirm Password.
8. Kiem tra hop check di o Confirm Password.Theo nh mac nh , o User Must
Change Password tai NextLogon th c kiem tra . au tien ghi mot new users ,
may th phai cung cap mot new password. ieu nay cho phep ban at mot k t
password nhng sau nay c s dung an toan qua user bang viec truy cap rieng
password .
9. Nhn chung chon User Cannot Change Password th c s dung ch cho guest
hoac multi-user account, bang cach ay khong cho guest thay oi password va
khoa tat ca guest khac.Ri khoi hop unchecked.
10. Chon Password Never Expires quyet nh he thong hoac guest account ma yeu
cau khong thay oi password.Nh ban nhn thay ,he thong policies co the c
thiet lap bang cach thng thoang yeu cau thay oi password bi network users.Ri
bo hop unchecked nay.
11. Chon Account Disabled cho phep ban vo hieu hoa mot account trong khi mot
user bo no hoac sau o khong cho phep truy en network.Nhn chung ,viec chon
nay th thch hp hn e xoa hoan toan account, toi thieu cho en khi no a xac
nh ma user quyet nh se khong s dung lai account .Ri khoi hop unchecked
nay.
12. Hang cua nut tai phan di cung cua window cha them phan chon cau
hnh.Ban s dung nut Ground trong bai tap ke tiep, nhng nhnh nut khac cha
quyen la chon vt pham vi cua cuon sach nay.ban co the s dung e kham pha
tat ca phm nhan va nhng nut san co, nhng khong thay oi bat c cai g tr phi
ban biet nhng g se xay ra.
13. Click nut Add.Thong bao ieu o mac du xoa tat ca cac o.Add User window
van m. ieu nay cho phep tao nhanh hn.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

132

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

14. Click Close e tr lai User Manager. Bay gi ban nhn vao mot third user ,
Test User account ma ban phai tao.
15. Click User.Exit

TAO GROUND TREN WINDOWS NT


Chu e:Tao groups mi toan cuc va cuc bo va gan tai khoang cho chung .Lab nay
co the ch c hoan thanh neu ban laa ngi ieu khien lnh vc window NT,va
lnh vc au tien c ieu khien la trc tuyen.
c oan thi gian: 10 phut
1. M User Manager cho Domains,quan sat group phan di ca so window.Vai
bien xo bieu tng toan cuc, nh la groups Domains Admins,khac na nh la bien
Administrator, co mot bieu tng may tnh ,ban co the nghi ngDomain Admins la
mot bien toan cuc trong khi Administrator la mot bien cuc bo.
2. Click vao chon menu User va chon New Global Group.Hop thoai New Global
Group xuat hien (nhn hnh 10.9)
3. anh Global training trong Group Name field.Trong Description field anh
training Department member.
4. Thong bao hai hop tai phan di cung cua man anh.Administrator,Guest va
Test User th c hien trong hop Not members.Chon Test Userva click nut
Add.Test Userchuyen sang hop members,neu khong co users c chon trong
cung thi iem,ban tao groups.Chung cung se c nh trong bien nay.
5. Nhap Close e tr lai User Manager cua Domain
6. Click User va chon New Local Group
7. Hop thoai New Local Group xuat hien(nhn hnh 10.10)
8. Enter Local Training trong Group Name field va ri o trong Description.
9. Quan sat nhng thanh vien trong hop danh sach ma no th trong .Click vao hop
thoai Add.
10. Add Users va Groups xuat hien.Chon Global Training groups va nhap Add.Ban
cung ao the vao trc tiep t Test User en bien.Trong Window NT.Tram mang ma
o khong co ho tr tao bien toan cuc group.Click Close e tr lai User Manager
cua Domains.Click OK e tr lai hop thoai New Local Group.Bay gi danh sach
thanh vien bao gom Glocal Training group.Click OK e tr lai User Manager cua
Domains.
11. Click Exit cua User.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

133

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

CHIA SE MOT TH MUC TREN WINDOWS NT FAT PARTITION.


Chu e : chia se mot th muc trong window NT va gan mc o chia se an toan
en ni can chia .
Gii han thi gian:15 phut
1. Click vao start roi vao programs.Sau o click vao bieu tng Window NT
Explore e a en Explore window, click double vao bieu tng ai dien cho o
a C cua ban .
2. Chon t muc goc cua o a C va sau o click chuot phai tren o e goi menu
context-sensitive.
3. Chon folder mi , folder xuat hien di o a C va ban c gi y e nhap ten
vao folder. anh Public va nhan Enter.
4. Click vao folder mi Public .Folder hien len va Right window th hien rong .
5. ClickRight trong Right window e menu context-sensitive xuat hien.Chon New
,Text Document .Ten tai lieu My Share Doc.Chon folder Public lan na .Click
File.Properties(hoac s dung menu quick va chon share t o), e goi hop thoai
Properties.
6. Click vao sharing .Chu y th muc hien hanh th khong c chia se .
7. Click vao chon Shared As.Hop Share Name viPublic.Ban co the oi hoac bo
ten au nay .Trong trong hp, thay oi share.Replace Publicvi My Share tao s
khac biet gia ten th muc va ten share.
8. Quan sat ch on Maximum Connections .Vi ec chon n ay cho phep ban chon
ieu khien con so to tai ma users truy cap en folder.Ri khoi mac nh ma no
khong gii han tonn tai ket noi e share.
9. Click vao nut Permission e goi hop thoai Access Trough Permission( nhn hnh
10.11).Quan sat ieu o bat c ai co Full Control e chia se tap tin mi .
10. Chon Everyone groups va click down arrow trong Type of Access box xuat
hien bon s la chon.
- No access:mot so thanh ven cua bat k nhom nao vi s cho phep nay
th
cam chia se tai nguyen .
- Read:nhng thanh vien co the doc va chay tap tin nhng co the khong
gan
va xoa chung .
- Change:nhng thanh vien co the oc,chay va xoa files,nhng khong the
change files hoac mang lai quyen s hu cua files.
- Full Control:member hoan toan ieu khien nguon tai nguyen.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

134

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

12. Click vao Read trong Type of Access Window.Quan sat mc do cho phep o
e moi ngi trong main window tng ng vi s thay oi .
13. Click vao Add de goi Add Users va Groups Window.Chon Local Training group
va click vao nut Add .Local Training group xuat hien trong window lower.Click vao
Type of Access tha xuong va chon Full Control.
14. Click vao nut OK va quan sat Local Training a c them vao danh sach cua
groups e chia se.
15. Click OK e ong window va sau o click OK tren ng dung Public Properties .
16. Trong vai giay , mot ban tay xuat hien di folder Public,cho biet folder a
c share.
17. Test share bang cach ket noi en no t mot Window 95 hoac mot Windows
may con NT.
CAI NTFS PERMISSIONS TREN MOT SHARED FOLDER.
Chu e: Them bao mat NTFS en Public share.
Gii han thi gian:15 phut
1. Click Start,Program.Chon Windows NT Explorere m Explorer windows.Chon
mot th muc tren mot NTFS partition.Neu ban khong co mot NTFS partition,ban
khong the hoan thanh lab nay.
2. Tao mot th muc e goi Test NTFS va sau o click tren no.Chon Properties
option t menu e m Test NTFS Propertieswindow.
3. Trong Test NTFS Properties window,click tren Security tab va sau o click nut
Prpperties de m hop thoai Directory Permission.
4. Quan sat con tro th muc se cho phep mac nh danh sach vi Everyone-full
control nh mot muc nhap.
5.Chon muc Everyone, click mui ten xuong e truy cap tai lieu va chon Read.
6.Chu y kiem tra hop thoai gan tren dnh cua ca so, ni nay cho phep kiem tra
ac tnh cua tai lieu. Neu ban co t ien phu va muon cho phep d lieu mi
vaotrong no, ban phai kiem tra cac hop nay v khong co t ien phu ton tai trong
trng hp nay.
7.Neu ban muon them mot nhom vao trong danh sach, ban co the s dung nut
Add. Click vao nut nay va quan sat ca so Add User va Group. Chon
Administrator, sau o click tiep vao Type of Access no se ri xuong danh sach va
ban quan sat vung c chon m rong. Co the c chia nho ra cu the hn va
truy xuat d lieu ac biet va th muc truy xuat ac biet se ap ng nhng ieu

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

135

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

ban can. Trong thc te ban t khi phai cap mot danh sach va cho phep ban xoa,
nhng ban co the neu muon, mot ngi co the ghi d lieu vao mot th muc,
nhng khong the xem oc hoac sa tai lieu trong th muc o.
8.Click vao OK e quay lai ca s th muc Directory. Sau o Click vao OK e at
th muc mi va quay lai Explorer.
9.Click File,Exit e ong Explorer.
Chia se th muc TestNTFS vi Everyone cho phep quyen ieu hien ay u va chia
se t may va quan sat co the cho phep ban gia nhap nh mot ngi quan ly
giong nh chong lai ngoi s dung Test. Ban co the sa, them va xoa tai lieu ,
chia se neu ban gia nhap nh mot ngi quan ly, nhng ban ch oc va thi hanh
neu ban gia nhap nh mot quyen Test User

CHIA SE MOT TH MUC S DUNG MC CHIA SE CO BAO MAT


Chu e : chia se mot th muc trong Windows 95 s dung che o co bao mat
Thi gian anh gia : 15 phut
1.T menu Start chon Setting, Control panel e hien th Control panel.
2. Click oi vao bieu tng Network e hien th hop thoai Network.
3. Chon the Access Control sau o chon chia se d lieu ieu khien.
4.Chon the configration va chon File Print Sharing e hien th tai lieu va hop thoai
chia se may tnh.
5.Chon ca hai I want to be able ti give other access to my file check box va I want
to be allow others to print to my printer. Sau o chon OK e t ong cai at tai
lieu va chia se may tnh trong mang Microsoft. Ban co the c nhac v tr cua
nguon tai lieu .Neu nh the anh dau vao v tr va chon OK.
6. Chon OK va khi ong lai may tnh.
7. Sau khi windows khi ong lai, click Start, Windows Explorer va lam mot folder
tren a C co ten Password. Con th muc Password va lam mot tai lieu kem thao goi
la Password Test.
8.Click phai vao th muc Password e hien th muc tr giup theo canh .

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

136

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

9.Chon Sharing t muc tr giup theo canhva m muc Sharing cua thuoc tnh ng
dung.
10. Chap nhan Password nh ten chiia se va chon kieu truy cap Read- only. Chap
nhan password cho kieu truy cap Read- only la read va chon Ok. Bieu tng ban tay
chia se nam di th muc c chia se.
11.Neu ban co may tnh khac tren mang, au tien duet may lan can e hien thi6
ten chia se. Ten th muc Password se c hien th va chap nhan ten cua may tnh.
12.Click oi vaoo th muc chia se ten Password. Ban se c nhac ve Password.
13.Chap nhan read tai dau nhac Password va chon OK e hien th th muc tr giup.
14.Chep tai lieu Test Password. T th muc chia se trong vung ieu hanh ,tai lieu oc
se ay u.
15.Sa tai lieu va co gang chep no lai. Sau o co gang xoa no trong th muc goc,ca
hai tai lieu viet se cho phep xoa.
CHIA SE MOT TH MUC S DUNG MC BAO MAT NGI DUNG
Thi gian anh gia : 15 phut
1.T menu Start chon Setting,Control Panel e hien th ca so Control Panel.
2.Click oi vao bieu tng Network e hien thi hop thoai Network.
3.Chon Access Controlo va chon mc ieu khien truy xuat User. Neu th muc chia se
da c cai at. Ban se c thng bao trong hop thoai rang moi th muc chia se
cua ban se b mat va no se hoi ban co muon chia se lai khong. Neu nh trong trng
hp nay chon OK.
4.Kieu ten cua ngi quan lva quyen s dung ten lam viec chnhvi Obtain.
5.Chon Configurationva chon File,Print Sharing e hien th File va hop thoai Print
Sharing.
6. .Chon ca hai I want to be able ti give other access to my file check box va I want
to be allow others to print to my printer.Sau o chon OK e t ong cai at File va
chia se may in cho mang Microsoft.Ban se c nhac v tr cua tai lieu goc. Neu
trong trng hp nay chon OK.
7. Chon OK va khi ong lai may tnh. Cho en khi ban a khi ong xong , cai mi
sa cha se khong co tac ong va ban se khong hoan thanh bai tap .
8. sau khi khi og lai Windows 95 . Click Start, Win dows Explorer. Them mot th
muc mi goi la User Levl va sau o them mot tai lieu trong folder ten User levl. Bay
gi chon th muc Observe folder password chia se.
9. Click phai vao th muc User levl e hien th menu tr giup theo canh .

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

137

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

10. Chon Sharing t muc tr giup theo canh e hien th sharing cua thuoc tnh ng
dung .
11. Chon kieu User levl cho ten chia se va a nhom local training ay u quyen truy
xuat bang cach chon full access , chon ok. Sau o chon OK mot lan na bieu tng
folder trong th muc chia se se c thay the bi mot bieu tng cua folder giup
bang mot ban tay .
12. Gia nhap vao mot may khac trong mang s dung Username cho phep ay u
quyen truy cap . V tr cua ten th muc chia se User Levl trong Explorer bang cach
duyet toan bo mang
13. Click oi vao ten th muc chia se User Levl e hien th muc tr giup.
14. Co gang chep mot tai lieu ti th muc chia se,tai lieu viet la tot

THEM MOT MAY IN VAO WINDOWS NT


Chu e: cai at mot may in trong windows nt
Thi gian kiem tra : 20 phut
9. Click Start, Setting . sau o chon Printer e hien th ca so may in .
10. Click oi vao Add Printer e hien th Add Printer Wizard. Chon My Computer
va Click Next.
11. qwizard hoi ban ch nh cong hoac cac cong cho may in mi se in . Chon
LPT1 va Click Next.
12. wizard bay gi se hoi ban ch nh kieu cua thiet b vat ly ban se in hoac thiet
b mo phong may in cua ban. Click HP trong pane trai sau o tm va chon HP,
Color Lasejet. Roi chon next.
13. bay gi ban c hoi ve ten cua may in mi. Chu y moi may phai co mot tin
rieng. Va ten cua chung se c mo ta theo chc nang. Type Color Printer va
Click Next.
14. bay gi ban c hoi co chia se may in hay khong , neu nh the he thong
hoat ong se truy xuat no. Click share, goi mot th muc chia se mi ten My
lase va chon Windows 95. Chu y nen tang moi s ho tr trong windows NT
phu thuoc vao s khac nhau cuatrnh ieu khien. Click Next.
15. wizard bay gi co ay u thong tin no can,ri khoitrang Print Test va chon
Finish. Ban se can tai lieu goc cho ca hai windows NT Server hoac workstation
va cho Windows 95. Ban se c nhac v ttr cua tai lieu goc va trnh ieu
khien c tai en.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

138

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

16. Bieu tng may in cho may in mau se tang trong ca so may in. Chon chung
va mot hang se xuat hien. In mot tai lieu t may in mi va kiem tra lai.Tai lieu
se ch c in.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

139

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

GIAM SAT MANG MAY TNH


Van e quan trong cua viec quan ly mang la viec giam sat c cac hoat
ong cua he thong mang.
Trong thc te khi giam sat hoat ong mang ban co the biet trc nhng
truc trac mot cach chnh xac trc khi chung co the gay ra h hong hay cac s
co lam hoat ong cua mang b ngng tre. Giam sat mang se cung cap cho ban
mot c s, mot mau chc nang cua mang trang thai lam viec tot. Khi thiet lap
mot mau chc nang c s tren he thong cua ban, ban co the quyet nh cach s
dung tai nguyen cua mang hien hanh hoac them tai nguyen neu can.
Chng nay noi ve mot phan cua cuon sach HIEU NG MANG trnh bay
ve cac chng trnh khac nhau hoac c cau co the dung e giam sat mang va lu
tr nhng mau thong tin ve he thong mang.
I. GIAM SAT HOAT ONG MANG:
Giam sat mang la chung ta ang theo doi hoat ong cua toan bo he thong
mang. 1 vai cong cu giam sat canh chng bao ve mang se noi chng khac.
Muc ch cua chng nay la mang nhng thanh cong cu giam sat e ban co the
s dung chung trong tng trng hp cu the phuc vu cho viec giam sat ieu khien
toan bo he thong mang. Di nay la danh sach chi tiet mot vai cong cu ban co
the dung cho giam sat hoat ong mang.
+ Ghi ho s lu
+ Thong ke hay dung cac cong cu giam sat van hanh chang han nh
Windows NTs Performance Monitor.
+ Chng trnh phan tch va thu tuc giam sat, chang han nh Windows
NTs Network Monitor hoac cac cong cu rat ac lc nh bo phan mem quan ly
giam sat (SMS- symtems management server) cua microsoft back office
+ Ghi nhat ky he thong, chang han nh loai nhat ky cua Window NT event
log ma chung ta co the truy nhap t ng dung cua WindowsNT event viewer.
Ghi nhat ky
Can ghi ro thay oi tren mang e sau nay truy tm s co hong hoc. Moi khi
xay ra s co trc tien ban phai biet tai sao no hong hoc nh thong tin co san

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

140

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Ho s mang can thiet c lap ngay t bc au, t kieu dang , thanh


phan thiet b, hp ong ky ket va so may ien thoai cua ni ho tr ky thuat e
khong mat thi gian tm kiem.
Danh sach nhng ho s lu tr chi tiet gom :
Mo ta toan bo phan cng ,ke ca phan lap at ,sa cha ,chi tiet cau hnh
( nh ngat a ch ) va gi lai ho s tng may dich vu
Ban o phan cng va chi tiet mang cap
Ho s mo ta ly do chon qui c lap mang e sau nay biet hng theo doi
File cau hnh tram lam viec hien hanh nh CONFIG.SYS va AUTOEXEC.BAT
cho he ieu hanh DOS va Window 3.1 hoac ban photo ang ky cho
Window 95 va NT
Giao c phuc vu va so ien thoai cua ni ban, giao keo va ni ho tr phan
mem
Giay phep s dung phan mem cua ban hp phap
Cac van e xay ra va cach giai quyet
Ghi chep ve mang dung vao nhieu viec mot cach phong phu va ca cho d nh
sau nay . Moi chi tiet trong viec ghi chep lai cac s viec xay ra o se ton thi
gian khi kiem tra toan bo he thong mang.
Thc thi giam sat
Giam sat mang quan trong va hieu qua nhat la thu nhap theo cach thong
ke ve s lam viec cua server, tram ,thiet b va thanh phan trong dch vu. Chung
ta co ba cach giam sat may moc van hanh nh: thu tuc ieu hanh mang n gian
simple network management protocol(SNMP), WINDOW NT Performance
+ Thu tuc ieu hanh mang n gian
Co nhieu loai phan mem va phan cng tren th trng giup chung ta thu
thap, thong ke tren mang. Mot giao thc quan trong dung trong bo giao thc
TCP/IP la SNMP(Simple network managerment protocol). SNMP la giao thc ho
tr cho phan cng va phan mem giup cho TCP/IP nham thu thap thong ke t
nhieu nguon tren mang, no cung ieu ong nhieu thiet b khac nham vao viec
nay. SNMP thu thap thong tin lu tr vao Management Infornation Base -MIB. MIB
la mot c s d lieu thong tin c oc t phan mem quan ly, c thiet ke e
lam viec vi SNMP. V du phan mem quan ly cua Open view cua hang IBM
Phan mem quan ly cung cap mot trong ba lenh chnh :
+ Lenh tap hp cac thong tin ben trong MIB (c s quan ly thong tin)
+ Lenh ke tiep tm ra mang nhng mang thong tin ke tiep trong MIB
+ Nhng thong tin ve ni at lenh trong MIB

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

141

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Nhng dch vu nay cho phep mot dch vu SNMP theo doi chung. Cung co
the tao ra nhng cai bay hoac he thong thong bao khi at c nhng thong so
nhat nh hoac cao hn.
+ Viec thc hien giam sat trong windows NT
Cong cu trong Windows NTs Performance Monitor e cho ta tien theo doi
nhng tham so quan trong cua may tnh trong thi gian thc te vao mang.
Performance Monitor co the quan sat c phan ln tham so cua he thong va
cung cap cac o th hoac thong tin cua he thong va cac xu hng mang.
Performance Monitor cung co the lu d lieu trong trong log file phuc vu cho viec
tham chieu sau nay. Ban co the s dung Performance Monitor vi ng dung
counter e kiem nh bat ky phan cng hoac phan mem nao.
Mot vai thc thi mang trong Performance Monitor
+ Network segment
+ Server
+ Server work queues
+ Workstation hay Redirectors
+ Protocol-related objects chang han nh TCP, UDP IP, NetBEUI,NWLink, va
NetBIOS
+ Service-related objects chang han nh Browser and Gateway Services
Cua NetWare

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

142

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Mot vai Performance Monitor lien quan en viec thc thi cac thanh phan hoac tai
nguyen trong may tnh nh :
+ Processor
+ Memory
+ PhysicalDisk
Phan mem thiet lap tren WINDOW NT trong mot vai trng hp co the tao
bo em trong Performance Monitor
Ban nen thc hien viec theo doi nay neu ban co kinh nghiem ve van e
nay ban cung nen s dung PERFORMANCE MONITOR nh la ban ghi cac hoat
ong mang khi moi th ang chay mot cach suon se.
ieu ac biet la ban ghi cac hoat ong mang sau khi mang hoat ong
hoac mot tai nguyen mi c them vao hoac chuyen s giup ban lap thanh
mot lu tr c ban no giup sau nay e ban co the so sanh.
II. GIAM SAT LU THONG MANG
Cong cu phan tch giao thc e kiem tra lu thong mang bang cach ngan
chan va giai ma cac frame. Cong cu phan mem c ban nh Windows NT
Servers Network Monitor, phan tch khung gi va nhan trong thi gian thc ma
may ang chay.

Man hnh giam sat trong Windows NT


Network monitor ghi lai con so thong ke bao gom: % s dung tien ch
mang va lng thong tin phat tan i trong moi giay. Ngoai ra bo kiem tra mang

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

143

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

con lap ban thong ke cac frame (cac khung gi va nhan) cho moi oan a ch
mang.
Mot phien ban nang cao cua chng trnh network monitor bao gom bo
SMS kiem tra lu thong mang nhieu hn lu thong gia may tnh cuc bo vi cac
may tnh khac. No kiem tra lu thong gia cac thiet b khac va trao oi gia cac
mang t xa, cung cap bo tac nhan kiem tra c cai at tren oan mang ieu
khien t xa.
oi vi nhng mang ln hoac nhng mang ma cau hnh lu thong phc
tap ban can s dung cong cu phan tch giao thc phan cng c s, mot may
phan tch giao thc phan cng c s la mot thiet b linh ong nho nh may tnh
ca nhan 1 gang tay hoac ln c 1 chiec va li. thuan li cua thiet b nay la ban co
the mang no en ni can thiet(nh mot nut mang hoac mot ng cap giao tuyen
rac roi) va kiem tra lu thong tai a iem o. Ngoai ra chung co the thu thap
nhng frame xau va co lap chung, xac nh nhng cho tac nghen, nhng van e
ve giao thc va nhng loi ket noi. Mot may phan tch giao thc phan cng c s
thng la mot s au t tot cho mot mang dien rong bi v no tap trung mot so
lng ang ke cua cong viec kiem tra va tm h hong bo phan n le va linh
ong
III. GHI NHAN S CO
Mot so he ieu hanh chang han nh la Windows NT co kha nang ghi nhan
cac s co khi ang hoat ong. No ghi lai cac loi xay ra, canh bao va nhng thong
iep loi khac t he thong. Hoc cach ghi nhan s co giup chung ta tm nhng loi
ang xay ra va kham pha ngay khi van e loi au tien xuat hien .Bo phan ghi
nhan s co cung c quet bang mot cong cu tuc trc e tm ra cac dau hieu s
co nguon ien.
ng dung cua Event Viewer trong Windows NT cung cap cho ban nhng ghi
nhan ve s co trc tiep .Ban co the dung Eent Viewer e kiem tra nhng s co
sau :
* s co he thong : canh bao thong iep loi va nhng chu y khac c mo
ta ay u trong s co he thong. V du ve mot loi he thong bao gom : trnh duyet
loi, cac dch vu loi hay loi ket noi mang
* s co ve bao mat : cac s co lien quan en bao mat cua Windows NT
* s co ve ng dung : Nhng thong iep t ng dung Win32. Neu ban gap
rac roi vi mot ng dung .Ban co the kiem tra ban ghi ng dung vi loi lien kiet
ng dung hoac thong iep canh bao ,
EV la mot phan trong nhom cong cu quan tr mang cua Windows NT
server

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

144

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

e khi ong EV click vao nut start va chon program chon administrative
tools.EV. (hnh man hnh chnh cua EV, click vao danh muc log chon system,
secunity hoac application)

man hnh giao dien event viewer.

mo ta chi tiet system event.


Neu ban nhap up vao mot ghi nhan nhap trong EV . Hop thoai chi tiet Event
xuat hien tren man hnh cua ban ,Chi tiet Event cung cap noi dung mo ta chi tiet
ve s co.
Tien ch EV trong Window NT bao gom 5 kieu s co sau :
Thong tin (information) : Thong tin ve nhng s co n gian xay ra.
Chang han nh qua trnh khi chay 1 giao thc.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

145

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Canh bao (warning) : canh bao 1 vai s kien quan trong xuat hien. Thng
la canh bao khi dch vu b dng ngang hoac 1 s co mi phat sinh.
Dng lai (stop) : nhng s co quan trong xay ra. Chang han nh mot s
co thiet hai xay ra, thng khi cac dch vu hay phan cng b loi may chu se phat
1 lenh dng lai.
Thanh cong (success) : lenh nay phat ra khi ghi nhan kiem tra s thanh
cong cua qua trnh khi ong 1 dch vu hay thiet b phan cng.
Loi (failure) : lenh nay phat ra ben trong khi ghi nhan kiem tra. Lenh
Failure phat ra khi mot oi tng ma c kiem tra co s co a xay ra, v du nh
s co cua ngi s dung m may.

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

146

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

S CO MANG MAY TNH


Viec tm loi la mot nghe thuat tm hieu nguyen nhan cua van e va loai tr
van e o bang cach quan ly va loai tr nguyen nhan .Vi nhng van e phc tap
nh mot may tnh chang hang nhng van e va nhng nguyen nhanco hte la mot
danh sach gan nh vo tan.Tuy nhien trong thc te ,mot so ln cac van e ve
mang ch ri vao mot vai lp xac nh . Ban phai y thc c au la van e
khong quan trong trong mang cua ban , mo hnh OSI phuc vu nh mot cong cu
tham khao tuyet vi e giup ban co lap nhng vung rac roi.
Tat nhien la khong quan trong viec ban giai quyet van e co hieu qua
nh the nao, ma tot hn het la tranh nhng van e xay ra hn la giai quyet chung
.Trong chng nay ,ac biet xem xet viec do loi k thuat e giai quyet nhng van
de lien quan en cap mang ,bo tiep hp mang ,nhng modem va cac thanh phan
ket noi quan trong khac.Ngoai ra,ban phai hoc mot vai nguyen tac do loi nhng
van e thc thi mang va c cung cap nhng nguon thong tin quan trying e tm
thay loi
I. BAT AU QUA TRNH TM H HONG
Microsoft gii thieu 5 cach tiep can e do loi tren mang sau nay:
1)
at nhng van e quyen u tien .
2)
Tap hp nhng thong tin e xac nh nhng trieu chng s co.
3)
Lap mot danh sach nguyen nhan gay ra loi .
4)
S th e co lap nguyen nhan .
5)
Nghien cu nhng ket qua cua viec th e xac nh mot giai phap.
Nam bc nay u e hng dan ban xuyen suot vo so nhng van e
mang.Nhng cach tiep can tng t xuat hien trong tai lieu cua nhng nha cung
cap mang khac.Kho khan cua viec do loi mang la xac nh lam sao ban co the ap
dung 5 bc tm h hong nay ti tnh trang cua chnh mnh.
S DUNG CONG CU DO LOI
Ngi ieu hanh mang co the s dung mot so cong cu e tm ta nhng
van e tren mang .Di ay liet ke chi tiet mot so cong cu .nhng cong cu
thng c s dung 5 pho bien la phan tch giao thc,von ke so,phan xa ke
mien thi gian (Time domain reflectometer) va s dung dao ong k (Osilloscope)

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

147

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

PHAN TCH CAU HNH


Phan tch cau hnh la san pham phan cng hoac phan men cai ma c
s dung e hien th s lu thong cua mang thc hien ng mang va phan tch
goi tin.Phan tch cau hnh co the nhan dang nhng nh tre,nhng van e cua
giao thc va truc trame cac thanh phan mang
VON KE SO (DVM)
Von ke so la cong cu o ien bang tay no cho phep ban kiem tra ien ap
nhng si cap mang va co the o ien tr cua cac thiet b au cuoi
Ban co the s dung DVM e tm ra nhng si cap b t hoac ngan trong mang
DVM la thiet b hoat ong bang pin khong at lam no co mot bo ch th so dung
e oc cac gia tr va hai cai kep bang kim loai bung e buoc DVM vi si day
khoang 1feet hoac co the dai hn. Bang cach cung cap mot nguon ien nho vao
si day va chay qua cai kep bang kim loai ien tr,ien ap cua au cuoi si day
c o
PHAN XA KE MIEN THI GIAN ( TIME-DOMAIN REFLECTOMETERS)
Mot phan xa ke mien thi gian (Time domain reflectometer) gi mot song
am thanh dai vao mot si cap e tm kiem s khiem khuyet cai ma gay ra dt va
ngan mach trong si day.Mot DVM tot htng cho phep phat hien ra loi tren si
cap trong vong mot vai feet
DAO ONG K (OSCILLOCOPE)
Mot Oscillocope o dao ong cua tn hieu ien ap va co the tm ra loi ,ton
that trong cap.Oscillocope thng th at cai ma dung e hien th dao ong cua tn
hieu
CAC CONG CU KHAC
Mot vai cong cu phan men chuan oan cung cap cac thong tin co thc cho
cac phan cng cua mang rat hieu qua. Motso lng ln cac phan men d oan
cho phep thay oi cac gia tr
Mot phan men cong cu chung phan phoi vi hau het cac card mang la gi
hoac nhan gi tin.Phan men nay cho phep hai may tnh vi card mang va cap ket
noi vi nhau. Cong cu nay khong dua vao he ieu hanh cua mang va khong dung
e gi d lieu .No n gian la gi mot goi tin t may tinh 1 nay sang may tnh
khac e thiet lap card mang va lam moi trng truyen thong c ban c ket noi
va co cau hnh phu hp

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

148

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

S CO TRONG MOI TRNG TRUYEN THONG VA TRONG CAC THANH PHAN


MANG KHAC
Xac nh cac loi thng gap khi lien ket vi cac thanh phan mang khac la
yeu cau cho viec giao tiep
Chuan oan va quyet nh nhng van de ket noi thng gap vi card,cap
va cac phan cng lien quan
Hau het cac van e hay gap phai tren mang xay ra moi trng truyen
thong hoac vi cac thanh phan cai ma gan vi cac thiet b trong moi trng
truyen thong .Tat ca cac thanh phan tren eu hoat ong trong lp vat ly,lien ket
d lieu va lp mang cua mo hnh tham chieu OSI. Cac thanh phan tren c noi
vi may PC va cho phep chung giao tiep de mat phai nhieu van e .Nhng phan
di ay noi chi tiet ve nhng ket noi quang trong va cac thanh phan trong trao
oi thong tin va mot so van e khi lien ket vi chung
Cap vabo noi (connetor)
Card mang
Modems
Hub va MSAU
Repeater,bridges,gateway,va router
S CO TRONG CAP VA CAC BO NOI
Hau het s co xay ra lp vat ly cua mo hnh OSI,va cap la mot trong hau
het cac nguyen nhan. Mot si cap co the ngan mach hoac t hoac co the b loi
khi buoc vao bo noi.Cac cong cu nh DVM va TDR co the giup chung ta tm ra
nhng van e cua cap
Nhng van e cua cap co the co 3 nguyen nhan chnh di ay
* Mot may tnh khong co kha nang truy xuat vao mang
* Mot nhom may tnh khong the truy xuat vao mang
* Khong may tnh nao truy xuat vao mang
Khi mang c cau hmh s dung mot cau hnh sao, mot si cap noi gia
may tnh va hud hoac MASU b t se la nguyen nhan cua cac may tnh khong
giao tiep c vi nhau va nghng mang .Loai nay cua cap se la nguyen nhan cua
cac van e cua cac may tnh tren mang
Mot vet t trong cap noi nhieu moi noi phc tap gia cac hub vi nhau se
gay ra nghng giao tiep gia cac may tnh vi mot si cap ben canh va gia may
tinh vi vi si cap b t .Trong hau het trng hp giao tiep gia may tnh ben
trong oan broken co the tiep tuc

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

149

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Trong trng hp cua MSAU ,neu mot si cap noi cac MSAU vi nhau la
broken. Th thng xay ra tat ca may tnh trong vong trong b loi bi v cai vong
khong khep kn.Mot s t quang trong bus cau hnh se la nguyen nhan cho tat
ca cac may tnh trong mang khong cho phep giao tiep vi bat k may tnh nao
tren mang .
Khi gap s co bat k mang nao th bat au ro rang vi lp vat ly.Bao am
rang tat ca cac bo noi c noi chac va noi phu hp .Phai noi at va ien tr cua
hai au day phai phu hp khi co yeu cau
Co gan kiem tra theo bang di nay khi cap mang co van e
Vi 10BASE T chac chan rang cap s dung ung so cua cap soan neu gap
loai co thong so ac biet
Kiem tra co nhieu ien cai co the gay ra bi cac loai cap mang vi hien th
va day nguon.en huynh quang ,mot va cac thiet b ien khac cung gay ra
nhieu neu chung at gan vi cap.Van e tren thong c giai quyet bang
cach at cap ra khoi cac thiet b o ,at cac may phat chong nhieu t hoac
cai tao cap thanh loai soan tot hn
Chac chan rang cac bo noi c gan phu hp va cac kha c gan chat
Neu vo bao ve cua cap ong truc b lo ra ngoai th chac chan rang no
khong c noi vi bo noi
Chac chan cap ong truc khong c quan lai vi nhau.No co the gay ra t
trng xung quanh si day,la nguyen nhan gay ra nhieu t
Trong mang Ethernet Lan s dung cap ong truc tm xem cac thong so ien
tr cua cac thiet b au cuoi co phu hp vi cac thong so yeu cau hay
khong
Tm xem co hong hoc nao trong may thu phat,bo tap ket hoac
Tconnector.Tat ca cac thanh phan co the c kiem tra bang cach thay the
cac thiet bi mo phong
Kiem tra s kien tuc cua si cap bang cach s dung cach thiet b kiem tra
vat ly khac hoac s dung phan mem kiem tra cap
Chac chan cac thanh phan cap trong mot phan oan c noi vi nhau. Mot
ngi s dung co the duy chuyen client cua mnh va g bo T connector
khong ung bi v nay la phan oan vong
Kiem tra ong kn cac bo noi cap hoac cac chan co b hong
Trong mot mang Token Ring kiem tra viec noi cap va cap cua bo ieu hp
Mot u iem cua mang Token Ring la no cai at cong suat cho no, mang
Token Ring cung cap cac thiet b dien t chong cac s co,khi co the ht no co the

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

150

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

sa chua.Khi mang Token Ringco the lam chung t sa cha,ht mot qua trnh goi
la qua trnh dan ng en cac phan chia nho cua cai vong ni ma cha van e
S CO CUA BO IEU HP CARD MANG
Van e cua mang thng la ket qua t hong hoc cua card mang.Qua trnh
s ly s co cua card mang cung giong bat k qua trnh s ly s co cua cac loai
khac .Bat au t n gian va theo danh sach nhng kha canh chi tiet sau ban co
the kiem tra neu ban ngh card mang cua ban b hong hoc
Chac chan rang cap c noi tch hp vi card
Khang nh rang ban co driver cua card mang ung va driver c cai phu
hp va chac chan card phu hp e lam viet giao thc transport
Chac chan card va driver phu hp vi he ieu hanh
Kiem tra s xung ot tai nguyen.Chac chan cac thiet b khac hong c gan
e s dung cac tai nguyen giong nhau.Neu ban ngh mot tai nguyen xung
ot co van e nhng ban khong the xac nh xung ot s dung Window NT
Diagnostics.Window95sDivice Mannager,hoac cac chng trnh d oan
khac,hay co gang rut ra tat cacard ngoai tr bo ieu hp mang sau o gan
lai tng cai mot
Chay cac phan men d oan card mang .No thng ch ra cac tai nguyen
cua card mang b loi
Kiem tra cac jumper va DIP cong tat at card vao.chac chan rang cac thong
so cua bo at vao c phu hp vi cau hnh cua bo at vao trong he ieu
hanh
Chac chan card c cam phu hp vao khe slot.Lay ra va at lai card
Rut card ra khi khe cam va lam sach chan cam vao khe cam
Thay the card bang mot cai khac ma ban biet .Neu s ket noi o lam viet
vi mot card khac th card ban co van e
S CO HUB VA MSAU
Neu ban co kinh nghiem vi nhnh van e ve hub cua mang LAN chan
han nh mot mang 10BASE T. Ban thng tach biet nhng van e bang cach
khong ket noi cac workstations trong mot khoang thi gian .Neu lay ra mot trong
nhng workstations co van e ht van e kho khan nay co nguyen nhan co the
la bi cac workstation hoac lien ket cap .Neu ban lay cac workstation ma khong
tm thay van e th loi co the la s sai lam cua hub.Kiem tra cac thanh phan c
ban au tien chan han nh port,switch va cac bo noi.Sau o ti mot hub kho hn

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

151

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

va tmvan e co ton ttai hay khong .Neu hub cua ban lam viet khong phu hp th
goi nha san xuat
Neu ban co mot mang Token Ring b s co th hay chac chan cap c noi
phu hp ti MSAU vi nhng cong h th noi vi cong kn e tao thanh mot vong
.Neu ban hoai nghi ve MSAU hay tach no rieng ra bagn cach chon nhng vong
kn va vong h e noi vong cac MSAU. Neu vong bay gi co the lam viec th gan
lai MSAU.Them trng hp ban phai tm neu mang cua ban co MSAU t hn mot
nha san xuat th no co the khong thch ng hoan toan .Tr khang va cac ac
trng ve ien t khac nhau gia cac nha san xuat la nguyen nhan gay ra van e
ben trong mang. Mot vai MSAU hoat ong va yeu cau nguon cung cap nho.
Nhng MSAU b loi neu chung b t cau ch va khi nguon cung cap toi .Van e
cua ban khong nhng la ket qua cua mot khong cau hnh cong MSAU.Cong MSAU
s dung bo noi lng cc ca e dc chay lai vi cai at cong cu
Loai bo cac si cap chap va ,cap adapter va MSAU no th n gian khi lam
viec neu nh ban co mot nguon logic thiet ke vat ly mang cua ban .Sau khi lam
n gian van e ban co the loai ra nhng van e tm tan nhng khu vc t nhng
cai loai bo o cua mang va s dung mot cap th e tm nhng van e thc

S CO MODEM
Mot modem co the trnh bay tat ca cac van e tm tan khi ban tm vi bat
k thiet b nao.Ban phai chac chan rang modem phai cai at thch hp ,driver
c cai ac phu hp va dat tai nguyen khong lam xung ot vi cac thiet b khac
,Modem khong nhng at trong nhng van e duy nhat bi v chung phai ket noi
trc tiep vi he thong ien thoai chung s dung k thuat tng t e giao tiep va
phai lam mot s ket noi iem en iem vi mot may ieu khien t xa
Mang trc tuyen ho tr nhng file cho tat ca window NTva window 95 bao
gom mot chu e goi la tm loi modem.Chng trnh nay ch ra cho ban vi tr cua
modem co van e bang cach ac ra nhng cau hoive cac dau hieu ,trieu chng
.V vay ban phai tra li nhng cau hoi o.Chng trnh tm loi modem se khong
hoi ngoai nhng cau hoi ac biet cho en khi no ch ra cho ban li giai
Mot vai loi pho bien la
* Van e quay so ien thoai:quay so ien thoai khong chnh xac
* Van e ket noi :ban khong the ket noi vi mot modem khac ma modem
o hoat ong khong cung van toc vi modem cua ban

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

152

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

* He thong ien thoai so :ban khong the cam mot modem vao mot
ng day ien thoai c thiet ke e s dung he thong ien thoai so
* Van e cau hnh :nhng thiet b truyen thong ang s dung khong phu
hp vi cau hnh . Kiem tra nhng thiet b co cau hnh chung hoac co cau hnh
tng thch vi nhau.Neu mot may tnh co mot ket noi PPP th may tnh khac can
s dung PPP
REPEATER , BRIDGE VA ROUTER
Repeater co nhiem vu phuc hoi tn hieu suy giam t cac phng tien truyen
tin . Nhng van e xay ra oi vi repeater la no khong lam viec hoac tn hieu
khong hoi phuc
Nhng van e xay ra oi vi bridge th hau nh giong vi repeater. Khi co
van e xay ra se dan ti t mot en toan bo may tnh tren mang khong hoat
ong . Chng trnh phong oan c cung cap bi nha san xuat bridge co the
giai quyet c van e nay
Van e au tien c tm thay la cac goi tin khong truyen i c,ieu nay
do router b h,van e nay la nhng bang nh tuyen ben trong router b h
hoac chay chng trnh khong ung . Van e nay lam cho nhng may tnh tren
nhng mang khac nhau khong giao tiep c vi nhau
HANDLING BROADCAST STORM
Mot broadcast ( cn loc truyen thong) o la s xuat hien ot ngot cua mot
thong iep truyen thong lam can tr moi trng truyen thong , s hoat ong s
dung 100% cua day ban thong . Broadcast Storm la nguyen nhan gay suy yeu va
trng hp xau hn, may tnh khong the truy xuat mang. Nguyen nhan cua
broadcast storm thng la do xung ot adapter mang,nhng mot broadcast storm
khong nhng co the c gay ra khi mot thiet b tren mang v l do nao o tiep
xuc vi cac thiet b khac do o chung khong ton tai hoac mot so nguye l chong
lai trong truyen thong
Neu thong iep truyen thong co the co cac goi tin,mot tram kiem soat
mang va cong cu phan tch cau hnh co the quyet nh nguon goc cua cn loc
(storm). Neu mot broadcast storm c gay ra bi adapter lam sai chc nang
khong oc c goi tin trong ng day va mot phan tch cau hnh co the tm ra
nguon goc,co gang loai ra PC bang cach lay ra may tnh t mang mot thi gian
cho en khi mang tr lai bnh thng
II. S CO CAU HNH

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

153

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Khi nhac ti nhng s co giao thc,co 3 giao thc ngan xep c noi ti la
NetBEUI, NWLink va TCP/IP .o la 3 giao thc ngan xep co the s dung bi
mang Microsofte giao tiep vi mang ngoai . Mot ieu quang trong la may tnh
muon giao tiep vi mot may tnh khac th phai chay tren mot giao thc van
chuyen giong nhau,hoac neu khong th qua trnh trao oi thong tin se khong xay
ra
NetBEUI
NetBEUI la mot giao thc lien he n gian e co s co.Hau het nhng ieu
quang trong can nh ve NetBEUI la mot giao thc khong nh tuyen va khong
truyen qua router ,mot ieu quang trong khac lien quang ti NetBEUI la moi may
tnh c a ch hoa bang tien BIOS cua chung ,v vay moi tren BIOS can phai la
duy nhat.No c phat hien gan ay bi he ieu hanh Microsof,khi mot may tnh
au tien khi chay tren mang .
NWLink (IPX/SPX)
NWLink (IPX/SPX) se co van e neu loai frame sai c chon. Hai may
tnh chay hai frame khac nhau se khong giao tiep c vi nhau. Mot may tnh co
the chay nhieu hn mot loai frame va nay thng la trng hp chay tren mot
mang Ethernet,khi mot mang Ethernet co s la chon ln nhat ve cac loai frame
He thong OdlerNovell co mot frame cua802.3.Tat ca he thong mi eu s
dung loai frame 802.2 ca hai he thong s dung hai loai frame khac nhau. Window
95 va Window NT se cai at loai frame 802.2 neu no c phat hien nhng khong
co 802.3. Neu mang cua ban chay ca hai loai tren th ban se phai can add bang
tay loai frame 802.3 vao Window 95 va Window NT cua may tunh cua ban
TCP\IP
TCP\IP la mot giao thc hoan chnh nhat cau hnh c ban cua giao thc
gom co thong tin a ch IP at trong may tnh neu ban muon giao tiep vi mang
th mot cong vao phu hp can c at
III. S CO THC HIEN MANG
Neu mang cua ban chay thap hn no s dung e chay van e ay la the
hien lu lng truyen tren mang vt qua mc ni ma mang hoat ong hieu qua .
Co the co mot so nguyen nhan gay ra giam lu lng truyen tren mang co phan
cng mi hoac phan mem mi .Mot may phat hoac mot may thiet b khac at
gan o la nguyen nhan gay ra s suy giam qua trnh thc hien mang. Mot trng

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

154

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

hp na la mot thiet b lam viec sai chc nang th se gay ra s suy giam trong
moi trng truyen thong. Hoi chnh ban cai g c chon lan cuoi cung khi luc o
mang con hoat ong hieu qua va bat au ba ieu vi co gang khac phuc s co
cua ban
Mot so k thuat c mieu ta trc o co the giup ban khac phuc s co
thc hien mang. Mot cong cu kiem tra viec thc hien mang chan hang nh
Window NT`s Pc, va co the giup ban tm ra s suy giam cai gay ra bat li cho
mang cua ban
Kiem tra va ghi lai qui trnh c noi en chng 11 khong nhng giup ban giai
quyet van e thc hien mang mien la ban vi ng day data c ban cai ma ban
s dung e o s dao ong tre
Mot trng hp na la suy giam s lu thong ket qua cua s suy giam cach
dung thong thng. Neu cach dung htong thng vt qua nang lc mang th ban
can phai m rong ra hoac tnh toan thiet ke lai mang cua ban. Ban can phai cung
cap mang vi nhng thong iep nho hn bang cach s dung router vabrigde e
giam s lu thong tren mang. Phan tch cau hnh co the giup ban o va kiem tra
s lu thong vai iem tren mang cua ban
IV. NHNG S CO MANG KHAC
Xung ot he ieu hanh : Nang cao he dieu hanh thnh thoang co the
nguyen nhan chng trnh cu bat au khong phu hp vi he ieu hanh cua no.
Chng trnh nay c ghep trong moi trng mang bi v trong suot s truyen
thong en he dieu hanh mi cua mang,mot so server chay c tren nay trong
mot khoang thi gian con mot so th khong chay c.Microsoft khyen ban kiem
tra va loai ra mhng thanh phan mang e chac chan cac phan cng va phan
men co chc nang phu hp khi nang cao he ieu hanh
Sercer crash : mot a server crash co the tr nen la mot tham hoa neu
ban khong chuan b tng ng cho no. Ban co the cung cap mot he thong cua cau
hnh backup hoac phu thuot vao d lieu t nhien cua ban , cac s tham do an
toan khac nh mot RAID tm loi sia so he thong
S dao ong cua nguon ien : mot s dao ong nho cua nguon ien cung
cap lam mang hoat ong khong ung . Neu mot nguon b mat trong mot thi gian
ngan trong mang cac may tnh se tat bi v ngi s dung ket thuc cong viec
cua ho ang tiep dien. S mat nguon ot ngot la nguyen nhan gay ra cac van e
vi cac file server. Cach khac phuc tot nhat la chuan b mot nguon d b trc khi
xay ra s co . Noi moi servser ti Uninterruptible Power Supply( UPS ) va khuen
khch thc hien lu d lieu khi ho lam viec

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

155

Trng ai Hoc Cong Nghiep Tp. Ho Ch Minh

Neu ban o tat ca nhng a e cap va ban van khong co kinh nghiem ve
van e o th nhng bc tiep theo cua ban co the tra khao trc khi bac au
nhng s co rieng cua ban ,ban muon hi y kien ve nhng thong tin quang trying
e hoc hi nhieu hn ve cac van e

Giao trnh Mang va Truyen d lieu.

156