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TheEffectivenessofTotalQualityManagementPrinciples

inthePrintingIndustry By
PaigeCornelison

GraphicCommunicationDepartment

CollegeofLiberalArts
CaliforniaPolytechnicStateUniversity
2013

Abstract
TheEffectivenessofTotalQ
ualityManagementPrinciplesIn
thePrinting Industry
PaigeCornelison
GraphicCommunicationDepartment,Jun
e2013
Advisor:KevinCooper
Thepurposeofthisstudywastodeterminethehistoryandimplications
ofthe
to
termTotalQualityManagem definethecoreprinciplesoftheconcept
ent,
,and
to
testtheirprevalenceandeffectivenesswithintheprintingin
dustry.
Theresearchconsistedof
anin
depthsurvey,whichwas distributedto
employeesofprintingcompaniesacrosst untry. Thes urveyaim
heco
edtocollect
datathatwaspredominatelyqualitativein
.It inquireduponthe
nature
utilizationof
,
qualitymanagementsystems
thecoreobjectiv
withintheparticipantscompanies
es
anddirecteffectsofthesesyst s,aswellasupontheknowledge
em
andu
sageof
TotalQualityManagementprinciplesinthosecomp Thec
anies.
ollecteddatawas
thenanalyzed
usingcontentanalysis,andcasestudiesweredeveloped
byt he
informationthatwasgathere
d.
Resultsfromtheresearchshowedthatthecoreprincip
lesof
TotalQuality
Managementwerewidelyimplementedinprintingcompanies.Itwasalsose
enthat,
despitethis,notmanye
mployeesofthesecompanieshad
aclearideaofwhatTQM
is,andthatthemoresuccessfulcompanie edtohaveamoresolidknowledg
stend
e
andusageoftheTQMprincipl Thesecompaniesmaybenefitbytakingtimet
es.
o
fullyunderstandTQManduseittoitsfullestpotential.

Cornelison 1
TableofConten
ts
Chapte
r
I.

II.

................
Introduction
......6
a. StatementoftheProblem....................... 6
.....................
b. SignificanceofResearch....................
........
.................
7
c. InterestintheProblem..........................
.................... 8
LiteratureReview ...............................
.....................

...9

a. TQManditsParameters ........................
.....................
9
b. TheHistoryofTQM ........................... 12
.....................
c.
HowTQMisImplemen
14
ted..........................................
i. DefiningYourApproach ....................
14
.................
ii. DevelopingYourApproach ..........
...........16
.............
AnalyzingTQMinthePrintingIndustry ............
18
d.
.................
Summary....................................
......................

24

III.

Methodology...................................
......................

.25

IV.

Results........................................
.......................

.28

V.

a. SurveyOverview ...............................
....................28
b. Set1:Demographics ......................... 29
......................
c. Set2:Quality anagementSystems..............
M
................
d. CompanyProfilesandCaseStudies ...........
...................
i. PremierPress ..................
...........
ii. SmythCompanies,LLC ...................
...................
iii. TheFleshCompany ......................

e.

..31
...37
.............
.....

37
40
43

...................
Conclusions... ......................................
................
References.....................................
.......................
Appendices.....................................
.......................
A.
ListofContacts..................................
..................
B.
EmailtoContacts................................
..................

C.
SurveyQuestionnaire............................
..................
Cornelison 2

..46
50
53
.. 53
.. 58

. 59

ListofTabl es
Table
1. Question21:Inyouropinion,inwhatwaysisthisQualityManagement
Systemeffective?............................
...................
........ ... 34
Question22:Inyouropinion,inwhatw isthisQualityManageme
2. ays
nt
Systemflawed.................................
........
.................
. . 34

Question
3. 24:HowwouldyoudescribeTotalQualityManagement

Cornelison 3

?....

.. ...
35

Figur
e

ListofFi gures

1. Age
............
29
Gender.................................
2. ............
.......... ............
.29
PositionType ..............................
....... ..
3. ....................
.
. 30
ImplementedQualityManagementSystems ........... ......
4. .....
..
..... .. 31
MainObjectivesofQualityManagementSystems ....
.....
.
5. ...............
.
32
Haveyouhe
6. ardofTotalQualityManagement......................
........ 35
ApproachesthatBe
......
7. stDescribeQualityManagementSystems
...
..... 36

WouldTotalQualityManagem BeBeneficial............
8. ent
.........

Cornelison 4

.......

37

ListofIllustrations
Illustration

1. PremierPress..................
SmythCompanies,LLC......................
2. ....................

......................
.........

.......................
3. TheFleshCompany ............
..........

Cornelison 5

....... .. ... 37
........

.. 40

........

.. 43

Chapter1
Introduction
StatementoftheProblem
Qualityisanabstractconceptthatcanbeappliedtoeveryaspecto
flife. Ourworldasitexiststodayrelieso
nthecontinuousreachforahigherlevelof
excellence.Thisiscertainlywhytheideaofqualitymanagementisoftenr
egarded
asatoppriorityforanytypeofcompanythatwantstoprovesuccessful.Esp
ecially sinceWorldWarIIandtheneedforaccel
eratedrevival,theworldeconomyhas
thrivedoncontinuousimprovement.Thisresultedintherapiddevelopme
ntsof
varioustheoriesandphilosophiesonqualityandqualitymanagement.Th
eorists suchasW.EdwardsDeming,JosephJuran,AramandFeigenbauma
ndPhilipCrosby
havemadegreatstridesinthisvastareaofstudy.SystemssuchasLean
manufacturing,ISO(InternationalOrganizationforStandardization),SixS
igma,the
MalcolmBaldrigeNationalQualityAward,theDemingPrize,etc.havebeen
implementedinvariousinstitutionsinwaysthathaveproliferatedtheirlev
elsof
success.Theproblemthathasensuedfromthesevaryingphilosophiesisth

e
increasingdifficultyofapplyingtheoptimalqualitymanagementphilosop
hytoa particulartypeoforgan ization.
Notunlikethedevelopmentofqualitytheoriesthemselves,theprint
and
graphiccommunicationsindustryischangingatanextraordinarilyfastp
ace.No longerarethesecompaniesconsideredtraditionalfamily
ownedprintshops;they arenowinco
rporatingmarketingplans,webandsocialmedia,variabledata,and
Cornelison 6

otherservice
basedsolutionsfortheircustomers.Thesuccessoforganizationsin
thisindustryisnowrelyingonanabilitytoembraceconstantchange.B
ecauseof thiscontinuousprogres
sion,itisafarmorecomplicatedprocessforthe
managementteamofoneofthesecompaniestochooseaqualityman
agement systemthatcanbeeffectiveonthecompanyasawhole.
ThisstudywillfocusonthetheoryofTotalQualityManagementandit
s
effectivenessonthemodernbusinesseswithintheprintindustry.Usinghi
storical
casestudiesandsurveyresearch,theresearchintendstodeterminewhet
herornot
TQManditscoreprincipleshaveprovenfunctionalforoverallpositivegro
wthand
significantimprovementofproficiencyforcompaniesthatfallwithinthisc
ategory. Whileitwillnotaimtocreateaside by
sidecomparisonofdifferentquality
managementphilosophies,itintendstoprovideacomprehensiveviewon
theability torationalizead
ependencyonTQM.Thestudyhopestoderivealevelof
expectationagraphiccommunicationscompany(particularlyprint
based companies)shouldhaveforaTQMsystemssuccessorfailure
whetherornota businessshouldbeinclinedtoputTotalQualityM

anagementintopractice.Inturn,
managersandemployeesalikecanmakeabetter
informeddecisionforthegoodof thecompany.
SignificanceofResearch
Eachqualitymanagementsystemthathassignificantpresencei
nbusinesses

todayhasitsownmerits;

and,naturally,itsowndeficiencies.Thesamecanbesaid
abouteachindividualbusinesswithintheprintingindustry,whichiswhy
theyare
Cornelison 7

allstrivingforcontinuousimprovement.Intodaysbusinessworld,where
failure

canhappensuddenlyandeasily,
thereislittleroomfortrialanderrorwhenit
comestoimplementingawholenewapproachtorunningyourcompany.
Because
therearemoreandmorevariablesemerginginmoderndefinitionsofthep
rint
industry,itisimportantforcurrentandfutureman
agersoftheseorganizationsto
understandwhatqualitymanagementsystemwillbemostlikelytoleadth
eir
companytowardexcellence.

InterestintheProblem
Asagraphiccommunicationmanagementstudent,theideaofperf
ectinga process particularly aprint basedprocess
fromstarttofinishisafascinating
concept.Ihaveeasilylearnedtoappreciatetheimmenseamountsofrese
archand
dedicationittakestofindaneffectivewaytocontroltheavoidableinconsi
stencies andweaknessesthatexist
withinanentireorganizationmadeupofinterdependent
components.BecauseIaminterestedinacareerpathinqualitycontrol,Ib
elieve
thisstudywillserveasthelaunchingpointfordeterminingthedirectionm

yselfand otherswouldliketotaketoh
elpleadtheprintindustryinthecourseofacareer.A
fullunderstandingontheprosandconsofaTotalQualityManagementsys
temand
itsabilitytocreateastateofcohesivenesswithinagraphiccommunicatio
ns businesswillguidemanydecisionsstud
entslikemyselfwillmakeforthebenefitof thefutureoftheprintindustry.

Cornelison 8

Chapter2
LiteratureReview
TQManditsParameters
TotalQualityManagement(TQM)isaconceptthatisnownearlyac
entury oldthathasbeenappliedtoeverypossibleind
ustry.Itisabroadandadaptable
termthatisoftenspecificallyalteredtomeetthegoalsoftheorganizationt
hatis
implementingaTQMsystem.Differentorganizationsuseitinverydifferen
tways andconformtheconceptsinordertofittheirownpe
rsonalgoals,whichmakesit
difficulttoclearlydefineitsparametersandconfoundsanycoherentanaly
sis.In
ordertocometoaconclusionaboutthegenerallyacceptedaspectsofaTot
alQuality Managementsystem,wecanlookatvariousqualityorganiza
tionsandphilosophies
thatexist,andtheframeworkstheyhaveeachcreatedforthisconcept.We
canthen cross
examinethemtoresultinaclearandconciseillustrationofTQMthatcan
guidefutureresearch.
Onewidelyaccepteddefinitioncomesfromthe AmericanSocietyfor
Qualityswebsite.Itexplains,
(TQM)describesamanagementapproachtolong
termsuccessthroughcustomersatisfaction.InaTQMeffort,allmembersof

an
organizationparticipateinimprovingprocesses,products,services,andth
eculture
inwhichtheywork(TotalQualityManagement).TheASQexplainsTQMas
a systemthatisprimarilyfocusedoncustomer
focus.Thereareeightprinciplesthat
theylistastheconstraintsthatmustbepresentwithinaTQMsystem;custom
er focused,totalemployeeinvolvement,process
centered,anintegratedsystem,a
strategicandsystematicapproach,continualimprovement,fact
baseddecision
Cornelison 9

making,andcommunications.AccordingtotheASQ,whileeachoftheelem
entsare intendedtoworktogethe rtocreateanall
encompassingsystemthatwillconstantly
improveeveryareaofanorganization,theseeffortsaremeanttoultimately
leadto themaingoalofTQM:customer
focusandanimprovementincustomersatisfaction.
Oneveryimportantprinciple
thattheASQisdeterminedtokeepintheforefrontof
theTQMprocessisthatthecustomerdetermineswhethertheeffortsto
worthwhile
inotherwords,ifthecustomerisnthappy,youwastedyourtimeand
money.
AstudybyIoanMilosanin2011fromt
heTransilvaniaUniversityofBrasov,
RomaniaentitledStudiesabouttheTotalQualityManagementConcept
providesa
differentperspectiveontheimplicationsofaTotalQualityManagements
ystem.
Milosanexplains,TotalQualityManagementisanorganiz
ationalstrategyfounded
ontheideathatperformanceinachievingaqualityeducationisachievedonly
throughinvolvementwiththeperseveranceoftheentireorganizationinimpr
oving processespermanently.Theobjectiveistoincreasetheefficiencyand
effectiveness

insatisfyingcustomers(p.45).Lateroninherstudy,Milosanconcludes,TQ
M
referstoanintegratedapproachbymanagementtofocusallfunctionsandle
velsof
anorganizationonqualityandcontinuousimprovement(p.45).Milosansr
es earch
surmisedthattherearesixkeyelementstosuccessfullyimplementaTQMpro
cess:
confidence,training,teamwork,leadership,recognition,andcommunicati
on.By
focusingonthreedifferentqualitymanagementmodels,shecametothereal
ization
inthi
sstudythatTQMneedstofocusonusingallofthesekeyelementstocrea
tea
continuousflowofsmallandprogressiveimprovementsfromthever
ybottomof
Cornelison 10

theorganization,andworkitswayupthroughtherestofthehierarc
hy.Asan

overarchingstate

ment,sheconfinesasuccessfulTQMstrategyasalasting
commitmenttotheprocessofcontinuousimprovement(Milosan
45).

SixSigmaisastatisticallybasedqualitysystemthatisoftenimplem
entedin companiesasanothermethodofcontinuousimproveme
nt.iSixSigma.comdefines SixSigmaas adisciplined,data
drivenapproachandmethodologyforeliminating
defects(drivingtowardsixstandarddeviationsbetweenthemeanandthe
nearest specificationlimit)inanyprocess(WhatIsiSixSigma?).Thisq
ualitysystemis
usedinvirtuallyeverytypeofbusiness,frommanufacturingtocustomer
based services.
TQMisoftenintroducedasafacetoftheSixSigmaapproach,and
iSixSigma.comfeaturesseveralarticlesontheoriginationandimplemen
tationof
TotalQualityManagement.ThefeatureddefinitionofTQMontheirsiterea
ds:TQM
isamanagementphilosophythatseekstointegrateallorganizationalfun
ctionsto
focusonmeetingcustomerneedsandorganizationalobjectives(Hashm
i2010). They,too,have

alistofprinciplestheyseeasbeingarequirementtobeconsidereda
TQMsystem;thesearemanagementcommitment,employeeempower
ment,fact baseddecision
making,continuousimprovement,andcustomerfocus.Theyseethe
mainobjectiveofTQMistodo therightthings,right
thefirsttime,everytime.It
seesthesystemasmostconcernedwithcontinuousimprovement;mores
pecifically,
continuouslyimprovingresultsineveryaspectofanorganization.iSixSig
ma believesthatthemainwaytodothisis
notnecessarilybyimplementingnew
systemsorprocedures,butbypreventingmistakesinthecurrentones.Th
ey
Cornelison 11

emphasizethatTQMisverypurposedriven,andthatthewholeorganiz
ationhasto
befocusedontheultimategoalfortheplantobesuccessful .
TakingeachoftheseTQMsynopsesintoaccount,andfindingtheoverla
psin
eachofthedefinitions,wecanrelativelyeasilynarrowdownthekeycompone
ntsof
TotalQualityManagement.Whileeachsourceemphasizeddifferentaspec
tsofthe system,wecan
seeaclearrelationshipthatsectorsTQMintothreemaincategories:
totalemployeeinvolvement,continuousimprovement,andcustomerfoc
us.
CommunicationisalsoanunderlyingfactorineveryaspectoftheTQMmeth
odsthat werementionedineachofthes
ethreesources,whetheritisimproved
communicationbetweenindividualswithintheorganization,orbetweent
he
organizationitselfanditscustomers.Thesethreefactors,alongwithanov
erarching goalofbettercommunication,willbethebasisuponwh
ichthisstudywillbe implemented.

TheHistoryofTQM
ThetermTotalQualityManagementwasoriginallycoinedinthe1980
sby
theNavalAirSystemsCommandtodescribeitsJapanese
stylemanagement

approachtoqualityimprovement(HistoryofTotalQu
alityManagement).Butthe
AmericanSocietyforQualitycontendsthatitstartedtogainmomentummuc
h
earlierduringthedepressionera,especiallywhenastrongoppositiontounio
ns
aroseinthecontextofworkersnotbeingabletodirectlyimpactworki
ngconditions.

Itthenprogressedintothe1930s,whenWalterShewartbeganthefirstmetho
dsfor
statisticalprocesscontrol,andlaunchedatrueinterestintheideaofquality
Cornelison 12

managementandprocessimprovement.ManagementphilosophersW.Ed
wards

Deming,AramandFeigenbaum,JosephM.Juran,andPhilipB.Crosbymade
ahuge
impactontheTQMtheoriesinthe1950s;Demingtaughtstatisticalanalysis
and
qualitycontrolintheJapanesebusinessmarket,Feigenbaumwroteabo
okentitled TotalQualityControl
,Juranledqualityimprovementthroughmanagement,and
Crosbydevelopedtheideaofthezerodefectsapproachtoquality.Kao
ruIshikawa
isalsoarenownedqualitymanagementleaderfromthe1960s,knownf
orthe Ishikawa(alsocalledfishbone)diagra ms.
AccordingtoapaperentitledTotalQualityManagement:Originsand
EvolutionoftheTerm,writtenin1998byprofessorsAngelR.Martinez
Lorentaof
theUniversityofMurciaSpain,aswellasFrankDewhurstandBarrieG.Daleof
the
ManchesterInst
ituteofScienceandTechnology,FeigenbaumandIshikawawerethe
twoqualityphilosophersthatmadethegreatestcontributionstothetermT
QM.
Juran,Deming,andCrosbyareseenasgreatdevelopersofTQMconcepts,bu
titis revealedthatnoneofthet
hreeeveractuallyusedtheexacttermTotalQuality
Management.Thepaperlistsseveraleventsthroughoutthecenturythatle

dupto
thecurrentdefinitionoftheterm,includingthefirsttrueusageoftheterminth
e JapaneseNavalAirSystemscommand
,asmentionedpreviously.Associatively,the
authorscametotheconclusionthatmosttheoreticaldevelopmentsinthe
advancementoftheconcepthavebeenmadeintheUSAwhereasJapanhash
eldthe initiativeintermsofapplication(p.12).Overall,it
ismadeobviousthatthe
abstractionsoftheTQMconcepttookafewdecadestothoroughlydevelop,a
ndthat
therehavebeenmanydifferencesinboththedefinitionandapplicationofTQ
Mover

Cornelison 13

theyearsandamongstthedifferentqualitygurusandtheirt
heoriessinceits

origins.
Today,severalcompaniesimplementTQMasabroadandsystemi
c
approachtomanagingorganizationalquality(TotalQualityManagem
ent).It
umbrellasoverseveralspecificqualityprogramssuchasISO9000,theM
alcolm
BaldrigeNationalqualityAward,SixSigma,theDemingPrize,LEANmana
gement,
andsoon.Althoughtosomeitmayseemlikeabuzzwordthathasgonein
andout
ofpopularitywithinthelastseveraldecades,itsconceptsandprinciplesa
re
constantlybeingimple
mentedacrossallindustryandbusinesstypes.Theprocessof
actuallyimplementingaTotalQualityManagementsystemisthenextste
pin
identifyingtheframeworkofthisqualitysystem.

HowTQMisImplemented
Definingyourapproach.
Asmentionedpreviou
sly,thereareseveraldifferentdirectionsthatcanbe
takenwhenitcomestodefiningthescopeofaTQMprocess.Thesamecan
besaid
fortheimplementationofTQM.Wecanonceagainanalyzethevaryingap
proaches
takenbydifferentqualityorganization sandphilosophies.

The
CertifiedManagerofQuality/OrganizationalExcellenceHandboo
k
(Westcott2005,p.306
307)fromtheAmericanSocietyforQualityidentifies5
differentpossiblestrategiesforimplementingaTotalQualityManageme
ntsystem.
Theya reasfollows:

Cornelison 14

TheTQMelementapproach.
Thisapproachincludeskeybusinessprocesses
oftheparticularbusinessandusesthemaintoolsofTQMtostimulate
improvements.ThiswidelyincludedputtingTQMelementsintoprac
ticeas theyarelearnedmoreext ensivelythroughouttheprocess.

Theguruapproach. Thisself
explainedapproachusesoneormoreofthe
qualityphilosophersmethodstodeterminewherethe
business/organizationhasroomforimprovement,anddirectlyparal
lelsthe solutionstothatofth echosenguru.

Theorganizationmodelapproach.
Thisinvolvescompanieschoosinga successfulTQM
basedcompanyonwhichtomodeltheirownquality
improvementplan.Theycombinethemodelsideaswiththeirow
ninorder
tobetterapplyittotheirspec

ificneeds.

TheJapanesetotalqualityapproach .
Thisapproachismodeledoffofthe
DemingPrize.Companiesusingthisapproachdevelopalong
rangemaster planforin
houseuseandoftenuseittoactuallycompetefortheDeming
Prize.

Theawardcrite riaapproach.
Thisapproachisageneralsystemthat

choosesanyofthequalityawardcriteria
MalcolmBaldrige,DemingPrize,
EuropeanQualityAward,orotherwise
inordertoimplementatotalquality system.
Manyorganizationsspecificallychooseone
oftheseapproachestoimplementatotal
qualitymanagementsystem;othersmaycombinefacetsofmorethanonet
ocreate
theirowncustomplan.
Cornelison 15

Thesedifferentapproachesarecertainlyagoodwaytobeginthepla
nning processforimplementingTQM.Butt
herearecertainthingsthatmustbedoneatthe
startoftheprocesstogetaclearvisionofexactlywheretheorganizationne
edsto gowiththechosenapproach.AnotheriSixSigmaarticle(
Introductionand ImplementationofTotalQualityManagement) outl
inestheimplementationprocess
ofaTQMsystem,andrecognizesthatacrucialfirststepistoassessthe
organizationscurrentreality.Thisessentiallymeansdoawidespreadan
d
thoroughauditofthecompany,andparticularlyitsmanagement,todete
rmine
wheretheorganizationisfunctionwellandwhereitmayneedasignificanta
mount
ofwork.Thearticlepointsoutthatacompanygenerallyneedstobealready
healthy
inordertosuccessfullyimplementTQM;ifthecompanyhassomesignifica
nt
problemsinthefirstplace,thesewouldneedtoberesolvedbeforeevencon
sidering aTQMapproach.
Developingyourapproach.
OnceyouhavedecidedwhereyourcompanyisgoingtofocusitsTQM
efforts,aclearandconciseplanneedstomadeforhowtogetto
thosegoals.The

sameiSixSigmaarticlegivessomestepsformanagingthetransitionintoaT
QM
system;identifyingtaskstobedone,creatingnecessarymanagementstr
uctures,
developingstrategiesforbuildingcommitmentdesigningmechanismsto
communicatechange,andassigningresources(Hashmi,iSixSigma.com
).Carefully
andthoroughlycarryingouteachofthesestepstothebestoftheorganizatio
ns
abilitywillbeadifficultandongoingprocess,andthearticleemphasizesthat
getting ideasandcon
tributionfromdifferentstakeholdersinyourcompanyandmaking

Cornelison 16

sureyouremployeesareinvolvedasmuchaspossiblearebothcrucialtothe

process.
Afterconsideringmanycasestudiesofcompaniesthatimplemented
total
qualitymanagement,JohnSherwo
odandSherwood,theauthorsofTheTotal
QualityParadox:PartTwo HowtoMakeTotalQualityWorkfrom
TheJournalfor
QualityandParticipation
,concludedwith7principlesthatguidesuccessfulquality
improvement.Theyareasfollows:
1. Thewayanen
terpriseisorganizeddetermineshowwellcustomersare
served
2.

Substantialimprovementscomefromsystemicchanges

3.

Thechangeprocessiscollaborativeindesignandimplementation

4.

Employeesshouldbegivenavoiceinhowtheirworkisdone
5. Thebuildingblo ckoforganizationalchangeistheunitofwork
theteam

6.

Thechangeprocessitselfiscompetentlymanaged

7.

Thevisionstretchesexpectationsofwhatispossible
Thiscomprehensivestudydrawsattentiontotheimportanceofcontin
uous improvement,resultin
ginincreasedcustomersatisfaction,aswellasreductionin
cycletimeandthereforeunitcostandwasteaswell.Theyalsoexplaine
dthatthese
processeswillreducetheamountofemployeeabsenteeismandturno

ver;this wouldbeasaresultofincreased customersatisfaction.


AlastpositiononthemethodsforimplementingTotalQualityMa
nagement
comesfromanarticleentitledItTakesMoreThanStatisticsbySidCha
dwickfrom
the AmericanPrinter
(1992).Chadwickexplains,inresponsetoelevatedem
phasis
Cornelison 17

onstatisticalqualitycontrol,thatinordertoeffectivelyimproveyourlevel
of

qualityyoufirstneedtofocusonyourcustomerneedsandexpectations.Y
oucannot
focusondatawhenyoudontfirsthavecustomerstoproduceyourdata.H
epoints
outthatifyouimplementaTQMsystem,andyoudonthavecustomerfoc
ustokeep
yourcompanygrowing,TQMismerelyafadthatwillfadeawaywithti
me.Healso
explainedthatperformancetrainingforemployeesisalsoanecessit
yinorderto actuallyme etthatcustomersatisfaction.
EachoftheseapproachestoTotalQualitymanagementonceagain
seemsto
emphasizecustomerfocus,employeeinvolvementandcontinuousimpr
ovement,
andwenowhavemorespecificstepsthatshowushowtogettoourTQMgo
als .
Althougheachdiscussedapproachhassomedifferentiation,therearece
rtainly
manyoverlapsthatcangiveusareliableblueprintforasolidapplicationof
Total
QualityManagement.Wecannowspecificallyapplytheseprinciplestoth
eprinting
industryitself,andanalyzethesimilaritiesaswellasthevariationsinaTQ

M
processthatmustexistinordertobesuccessfullyimplementedintothiss
pecific field
thereforecreatingtheframeworkforfurtherresearchinthisstudy.
AnalyzingTQMinthe PrintingIndustry
Intherecentpast,ithasbecomemorecommonforprintcompanies
tostart
totaketheinitiativetoimplementsomeformofTotalQualityManageme
nt.
Althougheachcompanyisuniqueinsomewaywhenitcomestothepara
metersit setsto
implementthesystem,thethreebasicaspectsthathavealreadybeen
discussedarepresentinbothexamplesthatwillbefeaturedinthisanalys
is.These

Cornelison 18

twocasestudiesfocusontwodifferentapproachestoanalysisofTQMeffe

ctiveness: thefirstbeingm

oreofastatisticalapproach,whereasthesecondisaphilosophical

andpsychologicalapproach.Bothproceduresaresuccessfulinanalyzin
gthemeans
ofTQMimplementationinprintingcompanies,anditisimportanttounder
stand
howeachcanbeutilizedi
nordertomeasurethecompaniessuccess.
ThefirstcasestudywasfeaturedontheiSixSigmawebsitei
nanarticle
entitledNewspaperAimstoImprovePrinting:ATQMCaseStudy(Goyal
2010).
Thisthree partseriesfollowedanewspaperprintingplantin

Indiaduringtheir

processtoconverttoaTotalQualityManagementsystem.Thecompa
nyowneda6 unit,web
fedpresswhoseinkstationshadtobesetmanually.Theirmaingoalwa
s
tomaketurnaroundfasterwhilealsoimprovingthequalityofthephysical
print

jobs.
ThecompanystartedbyformingaTQMgroupconsistingofthegen
eral
manager,twoprinters,thequalitymanager,andtheprintfloorshopman
ager.They
attendedatwo

dayTQMawarenessprogramtobegintheprocess.Theythensat
downandclear
lydefinedwhatproblemshadtoaddress,includingblurredborders
onimagesandthehuesoftheimagesnotbeingcorrect.Theteamthenper
formed
theFiveWhyorWhy
Whyanalysis(constantlyaskingwhytoeveryanswerthat
isgivenwhenaskedwhyapr
oblemexists).Togiveanideaofhowthismethod
works,theystartedwiththequestionWhyisthepictureblurred?anden
dedup
realizingthatthereweretwodifferentplatemakingmachineswhosenotc
hes
influencedtheplatestobesuperimposedfromdif
ferentsides.Thisledtoshifting

Cornelison 19
therollerononeoftheunits,whichendedupsolvingtheproblem
ofblurred
images.
Thenextproblemtheyaddressedwasthecoloraccuracyissue.They
first
usedstatisticalanalysistodeterminehowclosetheiri wandregistrationw
nkflo
as
totheirdesiredranges,andfoundthat99.7%ofthedotswereb
etween+/
3sigma
(90%ofthedotswereoutofthedesiredrange).Thearticleexplainedth
attheTQM
teamthoughtreachingthedesiredrangewasgoingtobenearly ssible,soth
impo
ey
initiallydecidedtoaimforonlya45%inaccuracy.Theydidmorestatisticalqu
ality
analysistomeasureinkflowmeasurementsandperformedmo whyanalys
rewhy
es

anddeterminedthattheyneededtoconsistentlyandaccuratelymeasuret
he
amountofinkflowacrosseachpageofthenewspaper.Theywerehesitantto
the
changeatfirst,buttheyinstalledlevelcontrollersonalloftheinkunits
andfound
themtobeacceptable.Theteamcarefullydocumentedmeasurementsan
d
improvementsovert
heprocess,andendedupreducingthesigmabyanother5o%

whichwasbeyondtheiroriginalgoal.Fromthatpointon,theimplementeda
daily
controlchart,dailymanagerialreviewsandteamreviewsforseveralaspect
softhe
company
uality(customerservice,employeecollabo
beyondjustprintq
ration,
etc).AftertheirTQMprocess,thecompanydecided,ifyoudonotimprove,y
ou
deteriorate.Theyalsofoundthatthisimprovementsignificantlydecrease
dtheir
amountofpaperwaste,sincelesspape usedonpageswhosecol
rwas
oror
registrationwasunaccept
able.
Overall,thisnewspapercompanyusedseveraldifferentTQMtacti
csinorder
toimprovetwospecificproblemswithintheirprocess,andendedupwitha
Cornelison 20

completelydifferentsystemthatwasimprovin
gqualitywithineveryaspectoftheir
business.ThisexamplefindsTotalQualityManagementtruetoitsname(if
implementedcorrectly)inthatitcompletelyaffectseveryaspectofthebu
sinessina waythatensuresimprovementinthelongrun.

Thesecon
dexamplecomesfromadissertationforaDoctorateofPhilosophy
byJohnD.MillerattheUniversityofWisconsin
Madisonin1995.Thedissertation
wasentitledACaseStudyoftheEffectsofImplementingTotalQualityManag
ement atPerryPrintingCorp
orationandImplicationsforAdultLearning.Millersmain
goalwastounderstandtheviewsthatwereheldaboutTQMprinciplesby
employeesofacompanyinordertodeterminewhethertheprocessisactually
effective.Heconductedinterviewsandobservat
ionforresearch,askingseparate
setsofquestionstothemachineoperatorsandtothemanagerialrolesofthe
company.TheorganizationhadbeencommittedtoaTQMphilosophyforfivey
ears priorandhadconsistentlyachievedpositiveresultsinworking
withTQM,andhad
continuousTQMtrainingforemployees,whichiswhythisparticularlycompa
ny
waschosen.PerryPrintingwasinvolvedwithheatsetweboffset,mailing,bind
ing,

polybagging,andothersimilarprocesses.TheircustomersincludedTimeMa
ga zine,
InStyle,andSportsIllustrated,aswellasotherpublicationsandnewspapers.
Therewerefivemainresearchobjectivesinthiscasestudy:thefirsttofi
nd
employeespersonalinvolvementintheTQMprogram,thesecondtofin
dwhich toolsandtechn
iquesthatweretypicallypartofTQMwereactuallybeingputinto
practice,thethirdtofindifemployeeshadfeltanyrealchangesincethe
implementationoftheTQMsystem,thefourthtofindifanysignificantles
sonshad

Cornelison 21

beenlearnedbytheemployees
throughtheTQMsystem,andthefifthwhetheror
nottheDemingqualityphilosophieswereunderstoodbytheemployeesa
fterthe
implementation,andinwhatway.Thirtyinterviewswereconductedtodet
ermine thechangesorganizationalbehaviorofPerryPri
ntingasaresultoftheTQM process.

Thedissertationanalyzedtheinterviewresponsesandobservations
andsplit
themintocategories,addressingeachtopicindividually.Millertheninclude
da summaryofhismajorfindingsrelatedtotheobjectivesmen
tionedabove.In
relationtothefirstobjective,Millerfoundthatparticipationandinvolvement
from
allemployeeswasseenasnecessaryelementstothesuccessofTQM,andset
asa
knownrequirementwithinthecompany.Almostallemployeesreceivedqua
l ity
awarenesstrainingandwereexpectedtobeginthechangeimmediately.He
also
found,pertainingtothesecondobjective,thatvariousqualitytools(diagra
ms,

charts,etc.)neededtobeprovenandendorsedaseffectiveinordertoresona
tewith theemp
loyees.Thethirdobjectiveanalyzedmentalmodelsoftheemployees,and
Millerfoundthatthemajorityofemployeessawimprovedrelationshipsand
communicationwithinthecompany,especiallyinaccordancewithdiscussi
onof organizationalprocesses.Em
ployeesespeciallyfeltthattheiropinionswereheldat
higheresteem,whichthendirectlytranslatedtohighercustomersatisfactio
n.The
fourthobjectivefoundthatTQMtrainingprogramsneedtobeopentolearnin
g, smallinrelationtothewholelearni
ngprocess(mostofthelearningneedstobe doneinreal
time),thatemployeesneedtointeractthroughgroupsinorderto
spreadandadapttothenewmentalmodels,andthattheyneedtoberegul
arly

Cornelison 22

assessedbasedontherequirementsoftheprocess.T
hefinalobjectiverealizedthat
PerryPrintingsTQMmodelwasnotnecessarilytotallybasedonDeming
philosophiesbutthattheywereusedasaseedandinitialinspirationf
orthe
implementationofthechange.Millerdidfindthatthemoregenerala
ndmost
usefulofDemings14pointswereutilizedactivelyinPerryPrintingsTQ
Mprocess,
butwerestillusedmoreasguidelinesthatweretailoredtotheirownneed
s.Infact,
MillerhimselffeltthatDemingsprincipleshadnotcontributedmuchtoP
erry
Printingssuccessatall.Thefindingsforeachoftheseobjectivescomme
ntonthe
directimpacttheTQMprocesshadontheinternalcomponentsofthecom
pany itself.

AlthoughthespecificmeansofTQMwerenotactivelydiscussedi
nthiscase study,
severalimportanttopicswererevealedabouttheemployeeperceptio
nsofa
TQMchangewithinanorganization,andhowtheydirectlyimpactedthe

effectivenessofthatchange.Thisobjectiveapproachcanbejustastelli
ngasa statisticalandmoremethodic
alapproachcanbe,andcanbeveryhelpfulforfuture
suggestionsforimprovementstotheprocess.
BothexamplesofTQMintheprintingindustryshowedoverall
positive
resultswhenthebasicprincipleswerecarriedout.Andalthoughthet
wocase studies
hadverydifferentmethodstoanalyzingthesuccessoftheTQMsyste
ms,
eachgaveverysignificantinsightastowheretheprocesseshadroo
mfor
improvement.Thesetwomethodswillserveasabasisfordetermini
ngthe methodologyofresearchandanalysis
thatwillbeusedforthisspecificstudy.
Cornelison 23

Summary
Afterthoroughlydiscussingtheparameters,history,implementatio
n,and
methodsofanalysisofaTotalQualityManagementsystem,itcanbeconclud
edthat therearevariedmeanstodeterminingexactlyw
hatisincludedinTQM,whichcan
benarroweddowntosomefundamentalprinciples.Firstofall,itisclearthat
throughouthistoryTotalQualityManagementisseenasanall
encompassing
procedurethatisintendedtoimprovevirtuallyeveryareaofabus
iness.Secondly,it isalsoapparentthat,althougheachTQM
basedcompanymaychoosetouse
differentapproachestotheirTotalQualityManagementsystem,nearlyalle
xamples
utilizethesamebasicprinciples:customerfocus,employeeinvolvementan
d
continuousimprovement.Wecanalsoobservethattheremaybebothastati
stical
andpsychologicalapproachtoevaluatingtheeffectivenessofaTQMproces
s,and
thateachhasitsownindividualmeritsthatcanbeemployedintheanalysispr
ocess. Everybasic

principlethathasbeensurmisedthroughthisliteraturereviewcanbe
putintopracticethroughthemethodologyandresearchthatwillbedonetof
urther thestudyofTotalQualityManagementwithintheprintingindustry.

Cornelison 24

Chapter3
Methodology
Thisstud
yaimedtodeterminetheprevalenceandeffectivenessofthecore
principlesofTotalQualityManagementsystemswithintheprintingindu
stry.
Previouslygivenhistoricalresearchservedtodeterminewhichprincipl
esofTQM wouldbeconsideredthecore.
Theywerethentestedwithinmodernprint
businessestodeterminetheirlegitimacyintheindustry,andthepotenti
altheyhave
tocontinuetoprovesuccessfulamidsttheconstantchangesthataretak
ingplacein graphiccommunicationcompanies.
Theobject
ivesofthisresearchweretodetermineifTQMprinciplesare
currentlybeingusedintheprintingindustry,whichTQMprinciplesarepr
imarily
beingused(whichonesaregivenmoreorlessemphasis),anddetermin
eifthe usageoftheseTQMprincipleswere
orwerenotbeneficialtothesecompaniesand
why.Theresultsofthisstudywillbeusedtodeterminewhatfactorsinflue
ncethe
effectivenessofTotalQualityManagementimplementationoverall.
Thesamplepopulationconsistedofemployeesofprintingco

mpaniesaround
theUnitedStates,primarilyinCalifornia.Forthepurposeoftheresearch,thet
erm
printingcompaniesencompassedanybusinesswhoseprimaryservicean
d
generatorofincomeisaprintingoperation(whetheritbedigital,lithography,
flexography,gravure,screen,oranyotherprintprocess).Thestudyincluded
companieswhohavebeeninexistencelongenoughtohaveexperiencedvar
ious
changesintheirqualitycontrolprograms(ortohavemadeobservationsrega
rding thelackofanyquali
tycontrolprogram);theaimwastoinvolvecompaniesthat
Cornelison 25

havebeenestablishedforatleast5years.Itincludedmembersatvarious

hierarchicallevelsandareasofemployment,rangingfromthepress
mantothe salesmentotheCEOsofthevariouscompanie s.

Thetypeofdatathatwascollectedwaspredominantlyqualitativein
nature.
Therearetwomaintypesofdatathatweregathered.Descriptivedatawas
convenedthroughtheuseofonlinesurveys,overthephoneandface to
face interviews.Historicalres
earchwasaccumulatedthroughcasestudiesand
backgroundresearchonthecompaniesthatarebeinganalyzed.Thedescri
ptive
datacollectionincludedsurveyandinterviewquestions(listedintheAppe
ndix) thatintendedtoascertainbothdemographicdatao
ntheemployeesthemselvesand
theirrespectivecompanies,aswellastheemployeesperspectiveonTotal
Quality
Management.Also,thequalitymanagementsystemsandprinciplesimple
mentedin
theircompanies,andtheemployeessuggestionsforchangeand
improvement
withinthosesystemswererecorded.Historicaldatawasgatheredthrough
the
surveysandinterviews,aswellasresearchonthecompanythroughoutsid
e
sources.

Theanalysisofthedatacollectedwasperformedthroughcontenta
nalysis. Forexam
ple,thepracticeofthedifferentcoreTQMprincipleswasinsertedintoa
charttodeterminewhichprinc iplesareusedmostfrequently.
Thesurvey (particularlydemographic
based)questionswerealsogivenvisualrepresentation
throughchartsandgraphs,
anddirectlycomparedtotheresultsoftheinterview
questions.Forthepurposeofthestudy,thesuccessfactorsthatwereco
nsidered

Cornelison 26

wereprimarilycompanygrowthprofitability.ThecorrelationofTQM
factorsto

growthandprofitabilityservedasthe
keyindicatorofTQMeffectiveness.

Cornelison 27

Chapter4
Results
SurveyOverview
Inthisstudy,anextensivesurvey/interviewquestionnairewasdeve
loped.It
wasintendedforbothanonlinesurveyformat,formulatedwithanonlinesu
rvey creatingplatform,aswell
asforusethroughinpersonandphoneinterviews.There
were223contacts,collectedfromvarioussources,whichwereindividuals
knownto
workorhaveworkedintheprintingindustry.Thesecontactsweresentane
mail (seeAppendix),giventheoptionto
completethequestionnairethroughtheonline
format,ortocontactthesenderiftheyoptedtocompleteitinpersonoronth
e phoneasanalternative(noneofthecontactsrequestedanin
personorphone interview).Theywerealsoaskedtoforwardthee
mailtoanyotherstheyknewwere involvedintheprintingindustry.
Thequestionnaireconsistedof30questions(seeAppendix),rangin
gfrom
radiobutton(oneansweronly),checkbox,fillintheblank,andessayfor
mat questions.Thereweretwomaincate
goriesofquestions:thefirstsetwas
demographicinnature,whiletheremainingquestionsinquiredforsubj
ectiveand
descriptiveinformation/opinionsonQualityManagementSystems.T

hecontacts weregiventheoptiontoanswerasmany,orasfew,questio
nsastheywouldlike,
andtoremainanonymousiftheysochose.Theyweregiventwoweekst
ocomplete
thesurvey,andwereabletosavetheirprogressandreturntoitlaterifthe
yso
chose.

Cornelison 28

Set1:Demographics
Thesurveyyielded38responses;27compl
etedresponsesaswellas11
partiallycompletedresponses.Theyrepresented24differentcompanies
throughouttheUnitedStates.Therewerealso7responsesfromindividualst
hat
chosetolettheircompanyremainanonymous.Themosthighlyrepresente
d
companieswerePremierPressinPortland,Oregon(yielding3responses),S
myth
CompaniesLLCinMinneapolis,Minnesota(yielding4responses),andTheFl
esh
CompanyinSt.Louis,Missouri(yielding2responses).Becausethesecomp
anieshad
greaterresponsera
tes,theywillbegivenaheavierfocusinthedatareportand
analysisintheformofcasestudies.

Figure 1:Age

Figure
2:Gender

Ofallrespondents,themajority(40.7%)wereage 54,and81 .
s45
5%were
male.Inaddition,70.4%identifiedtheircurrentpositionasaManagementr
ole,

51.9%identifiedtheircurrentpositionasanOperationsrole,and
33.3%

Cornelison 29

identifie
d

theircurrentpositionasaQualityControlrole.

Figure 3:PositionType

Ofalloftheindividuals,37%hadbeenworkingattheircurrentcom

panyfor 1
5years,and22.2%hadbeenworkingattheircurrentcompanyfor20+ye
ars. Additionally,14.8%hadheldtheircurrentpositionfor1
5years,and11.1%had heldtheirpositionfor16
20years.Awidemajority(59.3%)hadbeenworking
withintheprintingindustryfor21+years.
Ofallthecompaniesdiscussedinthesurveys,40.7%hadbeenfoun
dedin 1950orearlier.Onlyonerespondentwasfromacompanythat
waslessthan5years
old(whichwasthetargetfortheminimumcompanyageforthisstudy).Als
o,51.9%
identifiedtheircompanyasacommercialprintingcompany,and48.2%i
dentified

theircompanyasOther.Theservicesthecompaniesofferedwerevery
widespread;themajorityofferedoffset(92.3%)and/ordigitalprinting(7
3.1%).

Cornelison 30

Set2:QualityManagementSystems
TheseriesofquestionsonQualityManagementthenfollowedthe
Demographicdata.WhenaskediftheircompanyhasaQualityManagement
Sys tem,
85.2%saidtheydo,and84%werecurrentlyusingthedesignatedQMS.Many
companieshadimplementedmorethanoneQMSinthepast;88%hadimple
mented
LEAN,44%hadimplementedSixSigma,40%hadimplementedtheISOserie
s,and 44%hadimplementedTot alQualityManagement. Of
allrespondents,32%hadbeen usingtheirQMSfor1
5years,and48%hadbeenusingitfor6 10years;only4%
hadusedtheircurrentQMSfor21+years.Themainobjectivesfortheircurren
t QualityManagementSystemwereeachver
yhighlyselected,butContinuous
Improvementwasthemostoccurringanswerwith96.2%.

Figure 4:ImplementedQualityManagementSystems

Cornelison 31

Figure 5:MainObjectivesofQualityManagementSystems

Thee

ssayportionsofthesurveyarelessquantifiableandneededtobe
analyzedbasedoncontent.WhenaskedinwhatwaysthecompanysQualit
y
ManagementSystemwaseffective,avarietyofanswersresulted,butthere
were alsowidespreadcommonalities.Thehi
ghestoccurringtopicwithinthe
answersdealtwithimprovingtheefficiencyofproduction;45.5%ofrespond
ents
mentionedthisimprovement.Thesecondhighestoccurringtopicwasempl
oyee involvement,with36.4%ofrespondentsincludingthisintheirres
ponse.Waste
reductionwasthethirdmostlistedimprovement,includedin27.3%ofansw
ers.
Othertopicsincludedsavingcost(4%),reducingdefects(13.6%),betteran
alysisof

statisticaldata(4%),improvedcustomerservice(9%),improvingsafety(9
%),a nd
overallimprovementofquality(18%).WhenaskedinwhatwaysistheirQMS
flawed,lesscommonalityarose.Themostfrequentlyoccurringtopicsseem
edtobe
flawsinthepeopleinsteadofthesystemitself,encompassing50%oftheres
ponses. Thesecomme
ntsincludedtheproblemthatpeopledonotexecute,thatitishardto
manageemployeesabilitytoperformthequalitysystem,andthatitisdiffic
ultto
Cornelison 32

keeppeopleexcitedandengagedinthesystem.Therewerealso9%ofre
spondents

thatmentionedthe
irsystemisoutofdate,and18%statedthatitwastoohardor
theysimplydonothaveenoughtimetoaccuratelyperformthesystem.
Otherissues
includednotbeingabletofocusonthedetails(4%),nothavingarootcau
seanalysis
andactionplan(4%),
movingtoofastthroughthesystem(4%),notbeingableto
integrateplantsatalllocationsthroughISOdocumentation(4%),havin
gthesystem
seenasaseparateentityfromthecoreofthebusiness(9%),andbeingco
rrective
insteadofpreventative(4%).
OnerespondentsawnoflawintheirQuality
ManagementSystem.
(Seetablesbelow)

Cornelison 33
Table 1

21.Inyouropinion,inwha
twaysisthis
QualityManagementSys
temeffective?
Increasedproductionefficiency
Employeeinvolvement
Wastereduction
Overallqualityimprovement
Reduceddefects
Improvedsafety
Improvedcustomerservice
Improveddatacontrol
Betterconsistency
Costreduction

Table 2

22.Inyouropinion,inwha
twaysisthis
QualityManagementSy
stemflawed?

Hardtomanagepeople;lackof

interest

50.0%

Toohard;notenoughtime

18.2%

Outofdate

9.0%

Notintegratedincorebusiness

9.0%

Needrootcauseanalysis

4.0%

Movingtoofast

4.0%

LackofISOdocumentcontrol

4.0%

Can'tfocusondetails
Correctiveinsteadof

4.0%

preventative

4.0%

Costreduction

4.0%

Cornelison 34
Theremainderofthesu

eywere

rvey

thenaskedhowtheywoulddescribe

questionsinquireduponthek

TQM.Ofallresponses,33%ofthe

nowledge andopinionso

definitionsincludedtheco nceptof

nthetopicofTotal

continuousimprovement,38%includ

QualityManagement.Asan

ed

introductoryquestion,those

customerfocus/meetingcustomer

surveyed

expectations,33%includedtheconce

wereaskediftheyhadheardo

pt

fTQM;

ofcompleteintegrationofallprocesse

92.6%repliedwithaYes.Th

s,

and23.8%includedcomplet
eemployee
involvement.Otheroccurrin
gtopics
consistedofthemainten
anceof
standardsandprocedures,t
hePDCA
(Plan,Do,Check,Act)Cycle,i

Figure
6:HaveYouHeardofTotalQualityManageme
nt

ncreasing
profitsandemployeewages,
andusing

24.HowwouldyoudescribeTot
alQuality
Management?

quantitativedatacollection .

Customerfocus,meeting

customerneeds
Completeintegrationo f

38.1%

processes

33.3%

Continuousimprovement

33.3%

Employeeinvolvement

23.8%

Focusonincreasedprofits

9.5%

Plan,Do,Check,Actcycle

4.8%

Table 3

Cornelison 35

Inthelastportionofthesurvey,therespondentsweregivenadescri
ptionof thethreeCorePrinciple
sofTotalQualityManagement,asgiveninChapter2.They
werethenaskedhowtheyimplementtheseprinciplesintheirowncompa
nies
(thesewillbecoveredinthecompanyprofilesandcasestudies).Theywer
ealso givenadescriptionoftheFiveApproach
estoTotalQualityManagement,andasked
whichbestdescribestheircompanysQualityManagementapproach.Th
emost
commonanswerwastheTQMElementApproach,with53.9%selected.T
he
OrganizationalModelapproachwasselectedby42.3%.TheGuruApproa
ch was
selectedby15.4%,theJapaneseTotalQualityApproachwasselectedby7
.7%,and
theAwardCriteriaapproachwasnotatallselected.Theywerethenaskedt
o
elaborateonwaystheyusetheseapproaches,whichwillalsobecoveredi
nthe companyprofil esandcasestudies.

Figure 7:ApproachesthatBestDescribeQualityManagementSystems

Assomefinalwrap

upquestions,companieswereaskediftheywould
considertheircompanytobeusingTotalQualityManagementafterlearn
ing the
giveninformation.Ofthe27respondents,64%repliedYes,22.2%repli
ed
Cornelison 36

Maybe,and14.8repliedNo.ThosethatansweredNoorMaybewe
reaskedif

theythoughtimplementingaTQMsystemwouldbebeneficialtotheircom
pany;
80%repliedYes ,10%repliedNo,and10%repliedIdontknow.

Figure 8:WouldTQMBeBeneficial

Thefinalquestionaskedforanyfinalthoughtsorcomments,whichmaybe
applicabletothefollowingcasestudies.

CompanyProfilesandCase Studies
PremierPress
PremierePressisprimarilya
commercialprinterlocatedinPortland,
Oregon.Thecompanyhasbeenfamily
ownedforover35years,andwas
foundedin1974byArnoldWheelerwho

Illustration 1:PremierPress

borrowedasmallpressfromafriendand$7,000fromh
isgrandmother.Histhree

Cornelison 37

daughtersnowownthebusiness.PremierPressprovidesoffset,digitalond
emand,

wideformat,andbindery/fulfillmentservicestotheircustomers.Theyals
ofeature letterpress,marketingservices,variabledata,mailingandfulf
illment,website development,graphicdesign,andweb to
printservices.Accordingtotheirwebsite,
theyareG7Certified,andhaveavarietyofSustainabilitycertifications.Th
eydonot
haveanythinginparticularaboutaqualitymanagementsystemoran
yquality assurancestatementontheirsite.
ThreeindividualscontributedtothesurveyfromPremierPress.T
hefirst wasScottGorman,amaleaged35
44,whoistheVicePresidentofManufacturing.
Scotthasbeenatthecompanyforover20years,hasbe
enworkingintheprinting
industryforevenlonger,andhasheldhiscurrentpositionfor6
10years.The
secondistheFulfillmentLead,whosenameisunknown.HehasbeenatPr
emierfor 11
15years,hasbeeninhiscurrentpositionlessthan5,andhas beeninthe
printingindustryfor16
20years.ThethirdisJodiKrohn,CEOandOwnerofthe
company.Shegrewupworkinginthebusinesswithherfamily.Sheisinvo
lvedinall
operationsofthebusiness,fromcustomerservicestoresearchanddevelo

pment to marketingandqualitycontrol.
WhilethecompanyhasworkedwithdifferentQualityManagement
Systems
inthepast,theydonotseemtohaveonespecificsystemsetinstone.They
have
beenincorporatingcomponentsofLean,SixSigma,andtheirownspec
ificquality
managementprocess,andhavebeendoingsoforlessthan5years.Them
ain objectivesoftheQualityManagementwasclearlydefinedasfollows:

Reducedefects

Cornelison 38

Improvecustomerservice

Continuousimprovement

Improveemployeeinvolvement

ImproveCommunicationwithinthecompany
PremiereusesseveralLeanmanufacturingandSixSigmat
oolsinthe

workplace,suchasthe5Whys,Kaizen,5Ss,SMED.Overall,Theyseemtoplac
e
higheremphasisoncontinuousimprovementandemployeeinvolvement.T
heyh ave
hiredamemberofthestaffthatspecificallyfocusesonContinuousImprovem
ent
withinthecompany.Theyalsoholdweeklyreviewmeetingsineachdepartme
ntin
ordertofindanyissuesinproductionorworkflow,toseewhatnewtoolsare
neededandsol
veanyfrustrationstheemployeesmayhave.Theyusethewhite
boardapproachforcontinuousrecordandvisualaid.Theyalsohavetopdo
wn
meetingsforspecificprojectgroups,whichhavethesameobjectivesasthe
departmentmeetings.Thesemeetingshe
lptheentirecompanytoimprove
processes,reducecost,reducestressandcreateamorepositiveworkenvir
onment.
TheyalsohaveincorporatedwhattheycallaGreatCatchprogram;when

an employeecatchesaflawormissinginformationwithintheproduc
tionprocess,they
areenteredintoadrawingforprizesandvacationdays.Thecompanyalsopl
acesa
focusoncustomerfocusthroughtheiremployees,constantlygoingthroug
htraining
andeducationinordertoestablishPremierPressasacustomerservice
company, servingbothinternalandexternalcustomers.
ThethreerespondentsfromPremiersawthemselvesusingthreeofQua
lity
Managementapproaches:TheOrganizationalModelapproach,theTQMEle
ment
Cornelison 39

approach,andtheJapaneseTotalQualityApproach,b
asedontheirvariousquality

managementactivitiesandthedefinitionsofeachapproachthatwaspr
ovided.Both
theFulfillmentLeadandGormanconsideredthemselvestobeusingTota
lQuality
Management,whileKrohndidnot.

SmythCompanies,LLC
SmythCompanies,LLCisalabeling
companystationedinMinneapolis,Minnesota.
Thecompanywasfoundedin1877byHenry
MartinSmyth,andisoneoftheoldestbusiness
entitiesinMinnesota.Theirlabelproducts

Illustration

2:SmythCompanies,LLC

includepressuresensitive,cut and stack,in


mold,heattransfer,shrinksleeve,andpromotionallabeling.Theyalsoo
fferin
housedesign,prepress,andlabelapplicationsystems.Smythutilizeso
ffset,digital,
flexography,specialty,andvariabledataprinting.Theyprimarilymarkett
othefood and
beverage,personalandhouseholdcare,alcoholicbeverage,andprivatela
bel
sectors.TheyhavewonafewawardsinvariousLabelcompetitions,andareI
SO 9001:2008Certified.

FourSmythemployeesrespondedtothesurvey.ThefirstisAndre
aMossong,

ProjectManager,whohasbeenatSmythandintheprintingindustryforle
ssthan5
years.ThesecondisAllenHallberg,VicePresidentofContinuousImprovem
ent,who

hasbeenatSmythforlessthan5yearsbutintheprintingindustryforover
21 years.The
thirdisGregDooley,theMaterialWasteCoordinatorandEstimator,who
Cornelison 40

hasbeenatSmythandintheprintingindustryforover20years.Thefourthi
s

WilliamDenzen,GeneralManager,whohasbeenatSmythforlessthan10
years,
andhasworkedinthepri ntingindustryforover21years.
SmythhasbeenincorporatingfeaturesfromvariousQualityMana
gement
systems.Betweenthefourrespondents,variouscombinationsofLean,Si
xSigma,
TotalQualityManagement,StatisticalProcessControl,andISOwerenam
ed.They

havebeenusingcomponentsofthesesystemsforthelast6
10years.Theirmain
objectivesoftheQMSisasfollows:

Reducedefects

Improvecustomerservice

Continuousimprovement

Improveemployeeinvolvement

Improvecommunicationwithinthecompa ny
ThecompanyisISOcertifiedat3outoftheir5plants.TheirLean
initiative

entailsthatoftheShingoPrize:1)anemployeeengagementprogram,2)a
team
focusedondevelopinganddeployingtrainingonLeantools,aswellasafo
cuson driving20
30Kaizeneventsperyearperplanttodriveimprovement,3)using
PolicyDeploymenttodeployenterprisestrategywithinallbusinessteam

s;and4)
focusingonresultsthatarebeneficialtoboththeircustomersandtheir
stakeholders.Theyhaveimplemented
asystemforreportingdefects,andaroot
causeanalysisandcountermeasureprocessaswell.

Smythcreatesgoalsthroughtheiruppermanagementandfilters
them
downtoeachoftheirplants.Eachplantthendetermineshowtoreachthos
egoals
Cornelison 41

individually,usingtoolssuchasKaizeneventsandprojects.Eacheventgets

assignedaLeanleaderandisgivenaduedate,aswellasexpectedres
ults.
Mossongalsomentionedanemployeeengagementinitiativethatwas
startedless thanoneyearago.Theenti
recompanyrunsonthesamesharedriveinordertosee
whatisoccurringacrossallplants,whichhasbeenimprovingcommuni
cationand theabilitytoworktowardthesamegoals.
Someflawsthatwereseenintheirqualityapproachwerenothav
inga
commonrepositoryfortheISOdocumentationofallplants,aswellas
alackofa
systemtoleverageresourcesatallplantstousecommontools,templa
tes,etc.They
alsothoughttheyrushedintotheirLeansystem,andcouldhavetakent
hetimeto slowdowni
nordertofullytraintheiremployeesandimplementthesystemtoits
fullest.Denzenalsomentionedthatit
isdifficulttomakesuchalargechangein
culturethroughoutthecompanywhenimplementingthesequalitypr
ograms.
Allfourparticipantshadhe ardofTQM,anddefineditbytheprincipleof
ContinuousImprovement.TheybelievedtheyusedthethreeTQMprinciple
s
throughtheiremployeeengagementprogram,includinganonymousempl

oyee surveystosetgoalsformoreprocessimprovement.Theyalsouse
GallupsQ12
Principles,andtheircontinuousimprovementandVOC(voiceofthecustom
er)
focus,whichDooleystatedisatthecenterofeverydecisionmade.Mossongb
elieved
theydidnothaveaformalplanforCustomerFocus,butmentionedKaizenan
d6S s
programsthathavebeenimplementedforcontinuousimprovement.
Betweenthefourofthem,theseSmythemployeeslistedtheTQMEle
ment
Approach,TheGuruApproach,andtheOrganizationalModelapproachtoTo
tal
Cornelison 42

QualityManagement.Becausetheycombined
multiplequalityprocesses,theTQM

Elementapproachseemedtobethemostapplicable,whiletheGuruappro
achwas
suggestedthroughtheuseofGallupsprinciplesandtheShingoPrize.Allfour
participantsbelievedSmythwasusingTotalQualityManagem
entattheendofthe
survey.

TheFleshCompany
TheFleshCompanyisanotherfamilyowned
businessthatwasfoundedin1913inSt.Louis,Missouri.
Theystartedoutasadistributorofbusinessforms,and
enteredintothemanufacturingofbusinessforms after
WorldWarII.Today,theymanufacturevalueaddedprint
productssuchasintegratedproducts,label form Illustration
3:TheFleshCompany combinations,promotionalprinting,anddocument

security.Theyutilizeoffset,flexography,andvariabledataprintprocesses,a
swell ascompl
etebinderyandfulfillmentservices.Theirmanufacturingplantnowhas
160employees,andhasatotalsalesof$25,000,000.
Accordingtotheirwebsite,Fleshhasheldthreecorebusinesspri
nciples

sinceitsstartin1913:Alwaysstayonthecuttinged

geoftechnology,always
providethebestserviceintheindustry,andstandbehindeveryorderyo
uproduce.

TheyalsohaveadetailedQualityPolicy,whichreads:

Qualityisnotaseparatefunctionofourproductionunit

Emphasisisonconsistentmetho dsaswellasqualityresults
Cornelison 43

Emphasisisfocusedoncontinualimprovementofsystemsandpro
cedures

Emphasisonempowermentoftheassociates

Emphasisofprovidingfeedbacktotheassociates
Inadditiontothesecompany establishedqualitypolicies,their
PlantManager, RandyLewis,isSixSigmacertified.
ThereweretwosurveyrepresentativesfromTheFleshCompany.T
hefirst
wasRobertBerardino,President.HehasbeenatFleshfor11years,and
beeninthe printingindustrysince1978.Thesecondisth
eProductionSupervisor,whohas beenatFleshfor16
20years,sinceheenteredtheprintingindustry.Heoversees
mostoperationsofthebusiness.
TheFleshCompanyhasbeenimplementedLeanManufacturingin
their
productionprocessforthelast6 10ye
ars.Themainobjectivesoftheirquality
managementsystemincludes:

Reducedefects

Improvecustomerservice

Continuousimprovement

Improveemployeeinvolvement

Improvecommunicationwithinthecompany
TheyhavealsobeenintegratingtheirLeansystemwit
h,asBerardinostated,aslant
toISO.TheyarenotinternallyinneedofanISOsystematthistime,butbec

ause
theyhaveusedISOinthepast,theyhaveincorporatedsomeofitsprincipl
esinto theirLeansystem.Berardinobelievesthatthissystemh
asbeenveryeffective
creatingawarenessthroughoutthecompanyofwaste,thereforereduci
ngcycletime
Cornelison 44

andleadingtoimprovedcustomerservice.Healsobelievesthatthemostb
enefithas
beeninemployeeempowermentandinvolvement,andthatthroughthe
program
theassociateshavebecometheproblemsolversinthebusiness.Theyhav
e
implementedtaskteamsanduseamanagebyparticipationapproachw
iththeir
employees.Inaddition,theirqualitymanagementsystemhasgiventheir
production employeesa
thoroughunderstandingofthebusinessendoftheprintingprocess.
Berardinodoessay,however,thatthereisdifficultyinkeepingtheemploy
ees excitedandfocusedonthecontinuousimprovementprocesses.
BothrespondentshadheardofTotalQualityM
anagement,andBerardino
defineditintermsofunderstandingcustomerneeds,rewardingassociat
esand
returningequitytothestockholders.Theybothbelievedtobeusingthe
OrganizationalModelapproach.Berardinobelievedthatthecompanyw
asinfact
usingTQM,whiletheProductionSupervisorsawapossibilitythattheywe
redoing

so.TheybothbelievedthatimplementingTQMwouldbebeneficialtothei
r company.

Cornelison 45

Chapter5
Conclusions
Thepurposeofthisresearchwastodeterminetheprevalenceand
effectivenessofthecoreprinciplesofTotalQualityManagementsystemsw
ithinthe
printingindustry.TheobjectivesweretodetermineifTQMprinciplesarecur
rently
beingusedintheprintingindustry,whichonesareprimarilybeingimpleme
nted, andtod
etermineiftheimplementationofTQMprincipleswereorwerenotproving
beneficialtocompanies,andthereasonsforthis.Thein
depthsurveyusedfordata collectionyieldedseveralthought
provokingresults,aswellasraisedsome questionsthathas
providedameansforfurtherstudyonthetopicofTotalQuality
Management.
Fromtheresearch,datacollection,anddataanalysis,itcanbeseent
hatthe
coreprinciplesofTotalQualityManagementarealmostalwaysemphasized
,insome way,withinprinti
ngcompanies.Thecompaniessurveyedunderstoodthat1)
CustomerFocus,2)EmployeeInvolvement,and3)ContinuousImproveme
ntare
indispensableconceptstobeimplementedinaqualityimprovementproce
ss.An interestingobservationtakenfromthisresearc
histheclearfactthatthevast

majorityofemployeesofprintingcompanieshasheardofTotalQuality
Management
butoftendonotactuallyhaveaclearunderstandingofwhatTotal
QualityManagementis.WhilerealizingthatTQMcanhaveawiderangeo f

definitionsandapplications,asdiscussedinChapter2,theself
writtendefinitions
askedforinthesurveygeneratedaverywiderangeofresultsthatoftencou
ldnot
realisticallybedesignatedasTQM.Manygivendefinitionsoftenencompa
ssedthe
Cornelison 46

conceptsofotherqualitymanagementsystems,particularlyLeanandSixSig
ma.

WhiletheconceptsofTotalQualityManagement,Lean,andSixSigmacanofte
n
overlap,manyrespondentsconfusedthestatisticalprocesscontrol
andcost reductionaspectsofLean
andSixSigmawiththecoreprinciplesofTQM.

Similarly,manyprintingcompaniesdonotseemtorealizewhetherorn
ot
theyareactuallyusingTotalQualityManagementintheircompany.Many
companiesthatclearlyemphasizedthecoreprinciplesofTQMdi dnotsee
themselvesasusingTQM,whileothercompaniesthatshowedlessemphasis
ofthe
coreprinciplesdidregardthemselvesasusingtheprocess.Whilethiswasthe
case,
itwasseenthatthemajorityofthecompaniessurveyeddidinfactusethecore
TQM
principles,atleastpartially,asthecoreoftheirqualitymanagementprocess.
RegardlessofwhetherornottheyactuallyknewwhatTotalQualityManagem
ent
wasdefinedas,mostofthesecompanieswereindeedusingTQMandimplem
enting itasafundam entalpartoftheirqualitystrategy.
Anotherdeductiondrawnfromthisstudy,particularlythroughthecas
e
studies,isthetendencyformoresuccessfulcompanies(profitwise)toshow
extremeemphasisofTQMprinciples.Moreprominently,thesecompanies
seemedto

haveaclearunderstandingoftheirqualitymanagementsystemfromemplo
yeeto employee
inotherwords,theemployeesfromthelargerandmoreprofitable
companiessurveyedseemedtohaveverysimilarresponsestooneanother.
While theobserv
ationofthisconceptwaslimitedduetoonly3companiesyieldingmore
thanoneparticipant,itwasinterestingtoseethesimilaritiesandthedifferen
cesin thegivenresponsesfromcoworkers.
Cornelison 47

Somequestionsarisefromtheseresultsthatmayserveasa
solidfoundation
forfurtherstudyinthisarea.Theprimaryapplicationforadditionalresearch
would
betodeterminewhetherornotthethoroughknowledgeofTotalQuality
Managementanditsparametershasaninfluenceontheeffectivenessofusi
ngTQM principles doesitmatterwhethernotthecompanies know
theyareusingTQM?Or
isitenoughthattheyunderstandthatthecoreprinciplesareimportantfor
implementation?
Whileitmayprovebeneficialforthecompaniesusingthecore
TQMprinciplestod
igevendeeperintoTQMtotakeadvantageofitsfullpotential,it
maybethatcompaniescanbejustassuccessfulwhileusingthecoreprincipl
es
withouteveractuallyusingthetermTotalQualityManagement.Afurtherl
ook intothisquestioncouldadd
ressthevalueofTQMasawhole,asopposedtothe
valueofthecoreprinciplesindividually.
ItwouldalsoprovebeneficialtolookmoreintothefinancialeffectsonT
QM
implementation.Thiscouldincludeconductingstatisticalresearchonprofi
tabilit y,
costreduction,etc.andmakingexplicitcomparisonsinrelationtotheuseof

TQM
concepts.Themainpurposeofthiswouldbetoobservethedirecteffectsthat
TQM
ismakingonthecompany,ratherthansimplyacceptingtherespondentso
wn subjective
reportsofimprovementbytheirownmerits.Thiswouldexpandthe
credibilityoftheresearch,andprovidemoreaccuracyabouttheeffectsofTo
tal QualityManagement.
TheunmistakablepresenceandbenefitsfromtheuseofTotalQualit
y Managementandit
scoreprincipleshasbeenmadeclearthroughtheresearchand
surveysconductedinthisstudy.Whenincorporatedintoacompanysroote
dvalues

Cornelison 48

andactions,andclearlycommunicatedthroughouttheorganization,iti
sseentobe

alargefactorinthesucce
ssofthatcompany.WhilethespecifictermTotalQuality
Managementmaynolongerbeabuzzwordintheprintingindustry,itsp
remiseis
justasimportanttodayasitwasintheageofDemingandJuransquality
managementefforts andprovidestheopp
ortunitytobeusedtoitshighest
capabilityasapowerfultoolforsuccess.

Cornelison 49

References
"TheFleshCompany~100Years."
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Goyal,Niraj."NewspaperAimstoImprovePrinting:ATQMCaseStudy."
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Milosan,I.(2011).StudiesAbouttheTotalQualityManagementConcept.
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Cornelison 52

Appendices
AppendixA: ListofContacts

Name
JustinThompson
TedBiggs

Email
jthompson@advancedweb.com
tbiggs@advancedweb.com

GordonRivera
RyanKokubun
SteveCassel
JeffLing
WarrenMeinder
BrianMaskell
WayneFortenberry
TimBurton
JohnPaine
DougSpeer

gorivera@calpoly.edu
rkokubun@andersonla.com
scassell@appletonideas.com
jling@bedfordind.com
wmeinder@bedfordind.com
bmaskell@maskell.com
awaynefortenberry@gmail.com
tjb@burtonmayer.com
ppaine@gmail.com
dspeer@calpoly.edu

AlanPhillips

alan.phillips@clearwaterpaper.com

AmyGravel

amgravel@comcast.net

ByronSimmons
ChelseaSchneider

byron.simmons@clearwaterpaper.com
chelsea.schneider@clearwaterpaper.co
m

ChristopherRice

chris.rice@clearwaterpaper.com

DannySantos

danny.santos@clearwaterpaper.com

DavidLIttle

david.little@clearwaterpaper.com

DonaldMoore

don.moore@clearwaterpaper.com

GregoryWayne

greg.wayne@clearwaterpaper.com

JamesAnkey

james.ankney@clearwaterpaper.com

Jameswatson

jim.watson@clearwaterpaper.com

JeanetteProvan

jeanette.provan@clearwaterpaper.com

JenniferJefferies

jennifer.jefferies@clearwaterpaper.com

JohnMo rris

john.morris@clearwaterpaper.com

JoshHudson

joshuahudson@clearwaterpaper.com

KatieByrum

katie.byrum@clearwaterpaper.com

KeithOvans

kevin@ovans@clearwaterpaper.com

MarkBittner

mark.bittner@clearwaterpaper.com
michael.deveney@clearwaterpaper.co
m

MichaelDeveney

Company
AdvancedWeb
AdvancedWeb
AllanHancock
CampusGraphics
Anderson/LA
AppletonPapers
BedfordIndustries,Inc.
BedfordIndustries, Inc.
BMA,Inc.
BryceCorp
Burton&Mayer,Inc.
C PFlexiblePackaging
Central CoastPrinters
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporat
ion
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on

MichaelLawrence

michael.hogan@clearwaterpaper.com
michael.lawrence@clearwaterpaper.co
m

PeggyRyan

peggy.ryan@clearwaterpaper.com

PeterHill

pete.hill@clearwaterpaper.com

RobertLee

robert.lee@clearwaterpaper.com

RonaldJones

ronald.jones@clearwaterpaper.com

SteveBarden

steve.barten@clearwaterpaper.com

StevenMurphy

steve.murphy@clearwaterpaper.com

ThomasBinzen

thomas.binzen@clearwaterpaper.com

TineSoule

tina.soule@clearwaterpaper.com

WilburRamos
WilliamHackwood

wilbur.ramos@clearwaterpaper.com
william.hackwood@clearwaterpaper.co
m

YvesSimard

yves.simard@clearwaterpaper.com

ClearwaterPaper
Corporation
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on
ClearwaterPaperCorporati
on

RobergMorgen

bmorgen@coffeycomm.com

CoffeyCommunications,In
c.

MichaelHogan

Cornelison 53
BrianGerstner
ChrisMoon
DanielMahany
LaurieHiggins
RickMoll
ToddMeissner
JohnCompton
LeoRodriguez
JeffDumbauch
JeffEdry

bgerstner@cohber.com
cmoon@cohber.com
dmahany@cohber.com
lhiggins@cohber.com
rmoll@cohber.com
todd@colorink.com
spc1946@yahoo.com
lrodriguez@contemporarygraphics.co
m
jeff@csicorr.com
jeff@cpcsolutions.com

ChristyMi ners

cminers@democratprinting.com

JohnParke

jparke@democratprinting.com

AllenHallberg

ahallberg@smythco.com

AndreaMossong

amossong@smythco.com

AnnWarzecha

awarzecha@smythco.com

EdwardWright

ewright@smythco.com

GregoryDooley
JeremyRutledge

gdooley@smythco.com
jrutledge@smythco.com

CohberPress,Inc.
CohberPress,Inc.
CohberPress,Inc.
CohberPress,Inc.
CohberPress,Inc.
ColorInk,Inc.
Compton&Associates
ContemporaryGraphics
CorrugatedSynergies
CPCSolutions
DemocratPrinting&LithoComp
any
DemocratPrinting&LithoComp
any
DowIndustrie ASmythCompa
s
ny
DowIn
ASmythCompa
dustries
ny
DowIndustrie ASmythCompa
s
ny
DowIndustrie ASmythCompa
s
ny
DowIndustrie ASmythCompa
s
ny
DowIndustrie ASmythCompa

JodyHurt

jahurt@smythco.com

MichaelDoherty

mdoherty@dowindustries.com

ScottBoucher

sboucher@dowindustries.com

WilliamDenzen
ErnieHernandez
JohnGulino
ThomasStaib
ChrisopherWood
HankWelter
JasonHoffman
LisaYoung
RickKappel

bdenzen@smythco.com
ernieh@dualgraphics.com
john@dwsprinting.com
tstaib@dwsprinting.com
chris.wood@efi.com
hwelter@charter.net
jasonh@finelineprintinggroup.com
lyoung@finelink.com
rickk@finelineprintinggroup.com

RoseMcKernon
BernieDean
StephenRousse

rmckernon@flexography.org
bdean@fphorak.com
srousse@fphorak.com

BettyVanGorder

betty.vangorder@glsmn.com

StevenLasher

steve.lasher@glsmn.com

TroyBauer

troy.bauer@glsmn.com

DonCurtis
MikeStewart
RobertSchultz
CharlesFowler
DavidHarding
PeterAston
MartinMOran
OliverDemus
ThomasCummings
JeffCooper
JeffTaylor

dcurtis@goodnewscompany.com
mstewart@gll.com
rschultz@gll.com
cfowler@hammerpackaging.com
dharding@hardingpoorman.com
peter.aston@heidelberg.com
martin.moran@heidelberg.com
oliver.demus@heidelberg.com
thomas.cummings@heidelberg.com
jcooper@hemlock.com
jtaylor@hemlock.com

JoeAker
ChrisCzada
JohnVanWieren
LoriBarnes
MattBerry
Sarahanson

joeaker@cableone.net
cczada@impactlabel.com
johnv@impactlabel.com
lorib@impactlabel.com
mattb@impactlabel.com
sarah@impactlabel.com

s
ny
DowIndustrie ASmythCompa
s
ny
DowIndustrie ASmythCompa
s
ny
DowIndustrie ASmyth
s
Company
DowIndustrie ASmythCompa
s
ny
DualGraphics
DWSPrintingAssociates,Inc.
DWSPrintingAssociates ,Inc.
EFI,Inc.
Exopack
FinelinePrintingGroup
FinelinePrintingGroup
FinelinePrintingGroup
FlexographicTechnicalAssocia
tion
FPHorakCo.
FPHorakCo.
GLSComp
anies
GLSCompani
es
GLSCompani
es
GoodNewsCommunications,L
LC
GreatLakesIntegrated
GreatLakesIntegrated
HammerPackagingCorp.
HardingPoormanGroup
HeidelbergCanadaGraphic
HeidelbergUSA,Inc.
HeidelbergUSA,Inc.
HeidelbergUSA,Inc.
HemlockPrinters,Ltd.
HemlockPrinters,Ltd.
Hood
Packaging
ImpactLabelCorporation
ImpactLabelCorporation
ImpactLabelCorporation
ImpactLabelCorporation
ImpactLabelCorporation

MarkPannell

mpannell@inksystems.com

InkSystems,I
nc.

David.Nunez@ipaper.com
frank.boncore@iwco.com
michael.henry@iwco.com
paul.overn@iwco.com
russ.palm@iwco.com
blaforest@colorink.com
john.collins@jtsdirect.com

InternationalPaper
IWCODirect
IWCODirect
IWCODirect
IWCODirect
jiml@lantech.com
JTSD irectLLC

Cornelison 54
DaveNunez
FrankBoncore
MichaelHenry
PaulOvern
RussPalm
BenLaForest
JohnCollins

JeanetteHiemstra

jeanette@keithmerrick.com

MichaelFleming
DonSmith
DebraDouglas
EdieWerner
JeanneKrien
JulieKnox
KarenGionet

mikef@keithmerrick.com
don@lavaprintmedia.com
ddouglas@4lpi.com
ewerner@4lpi.com
jkrien@4lpi.com
jknox@4lpi.com
kgionet@4lpi.com

ChrisBu day

cbuday@mccrackenlabel.com

LukeVassiliades
DetlefWuest
DanVermeesch
JacobiaSolo mon
BillCoughlin
JamesHillman
ShawnWelch
BrianWhite
DavidSettimio
MichaelHileman
RegisSherry
DeanToth
MichaelBalaskovits
DavidQuirion
IanPulrang
JohnRush

lukev@mccrackenlabel.com
d.c.wuest@mediacologne.de
danvermeesch@micronmfg.net
jsolomon@mimeo.com
bcoughlin@mossbergco.com
jhillman@mossbergco.com
swelch@mossbergco.com
brian.white@npcweb.com
david.settimio@npcweb.com
michael.hileman@npcweb.com
regis.sherry@npcweb.com
dean@oneilprint.com
mbalaskovits@oneilprint.com
david.quirion@octopusmes.com
ian.pulrang@octopusmes.com
jrush@rushpress.com

CraigCompton
DonnaBinkley
DarrellWard
DevlinHinchey
ScottStalker
ChrisFeryn
JeremyFarrara
JodiKrohn
JoniFeryn
JuliCordill
LisaHeld
ScottGorman
JeanieRemier
ChristopherGreenwoo
d

craig.compton@pcmc.com
binkleyd@phototype.com
dward@pbl.ca
dhinchey@pbl.ca
sstalker@pbl.ca
chrisf@premierpress.com
jeremyf@premier press.com
jodik@premier press.com
jnf@premierpress.com
julic@premierpress.com
lisah@premierpress.com
scottg@premierpress.com
jeanie@printcraftpress.com

DeeGentile

dgentile@printing.org

JamesWorkman

jworkman@printing.org

JimKyger

jkyger@printing.org

JulieShaffer

jshaffer@printing.org

KeithWhisler

kwhisler@printing.org

LisaRawa
MarkBohan

lrawa@printing.org
mbohan@printing.org

greenwoodCR@ldschurch.org

KeithM.MerrickCompany,I
nc.
KeithM.MerrickCompany,I
nc.
LavaPrintMedia
LiturgicalPubli cationsInc.
LiturgicalPublicationsInc.
LiturgicalPublicationsInc.
LiturgicalPublicationsInc.
LiturgicalPublicationsInc.
McCrackenLabelCompan
y
McCrackenLabelCompan
y
MediaCologneGmbH
MicronManufacturing
Mimeo,Inc.
Mossberg&CompanyInc.
Mossberg&CompanyInc.
Mossberg&CompanyInc.
NPC,Inc.
NPC,Inc.
NPC,Inc.
NPC,Inc.
O'NeilPrinting
O'NeilPrinting
OctopusMes
OctopusMes
OrangeCountyPrinting
PaperConvertingMachine
Co.
PhototypeEngravingCo.
PollardBanknote,Ltd.
PollardBanknote,Ltd.
PollardBanknote,Ltd.
PremierPress
PremierPress
PremierPress
PremierPress
PremierPress
Premier Press
PremierPress
PrintcraftPress
PrintingDivisionofLDSChu
rch
PrintingIndustriesof
America
PrintingIndustriesofAmeri
ca
PrintingIndustriesofAmeri
ca
PrintingIndustriesofAmeri
ca
PrintingIndu
striesofAmerica
PrintingIndustriesofAmeri
ca
PrintingIndustriesofAmeri

ca
JasonBarrier

jbarrier@printpack.com

PrintpackbasedinAtlanta

EdHlava
PaulJohnson
RickRing
MichaelMicklewright
DanJohnson
JeffSpense
MikeThorson
TomKonecny
GeneMartin
TomCooper
AndrewPolanco
DeanMoretti
SantiagoEulloque
WesConley
RoxanneBaker
RhondaSchaake
ToniKitchen
JamesMcGowan
MattSonderen
SteveWillemsen

ehlava@purdue.edu
pjjohnson@purdue.edu
rickring@purdue.edu
mike@mikemick.com
danj@riponprinters.com
jeffs@riponprinters.com
miket@riponprinters.com
tomk@riponprinters.com
gmartin@therobinetteco.com
livinglifesun@yahoo.com
apolanco@royalpaperbox.com
dmoretti@royalpaperbox.com
seulloque@royalpaperbox.com
wes.conley@rrd.com
roxanne.baker@sealedair.com
rschaake@skinnerkennedy.com
tkitchen@skinnerkennedy.com
jamesm@sonderen.com
matts@sonderen.com
stevew@sonderen.com

DannyCamp

danny.camp@sctray.com

SteveHarris
BruceRiddell
GregVinyard
MarkLoscudo
AndrewSchwarzbauer
ChrisopherParrilli
ErinTice
BeverlyMorrison
SandyKampen
LonRobinson
BenDaugherty
JillianFlesh
JohnMoresi
KenLaBarre
RandyLewis
RobertBerardino
RobertWiley
CaryRipsch
GaryCundiff
RyanWhite
ZacharyHarrison
DavidLacure
JosephRebecca
RobinThonen
PaolaBozze r
AlanRobinson
SharonEuccee
V3Sales

steve.pharris@sctray.com
Briddell@spectrumlabel.com
gvinyard@steinhauserinc.com
mloscudo@steinhauserinc.com
andy.s@stratatac.com
chris.parrilli@sunchemical.com
erin.tice@sunchemical.com
beverly.morrison@suttle straus.com
sandy.kampen@suttle straus.com
lrobinson@tension.com
bend@fleshco.com
jillianf@fleshco.com
johnm@fleshco.com
kenl@fleshco.com
randyl@fleshco.com
bobb@fleshco.com
bobw@fleshco.com
cary@ovidbell.com
garydcundiff@ovidbell.com
ryan@ovidbell.com
zach@ovidbell.com
davidl@thestandardgroup.com
joer@thestandardgroup.co
rthonen@thestandardgroup.com
paola.bozzer@tc.tc
agr@isenberg.umass.edu
sharon@packagingchic.com
sales@v3corporation.com

PurdueManufacturing
PurdueManufacturing
PurdueManufacturing
QualityQuest,Inc.
RiponPrinters
RiponPrinters
RiponPrinters
RiponPrinters
RobinettePackaging
RockTenn
RoyalPaperBoxCompany
RoyalPaperBoxCompany
RoyalPaperBoxCompany
RRDonnelleyPrintSolutions
SealedAir
Skinner&KennedyCompany
Skinner&KennedyCompany
SonderenPackaging
SonderenPackaging
SonderenPackaging
SouthernChampmionTrayCom
pany
SouthernChampmionTrayCom
pany
Spectrumlabel
Steinhauser,Inc.
Steinhauser,Inc.
StrataTac
SunChemicalCorpor ation
SunChemicalCorporation
Suttle Straus,Inc.
Suttle Straus,Inc.
TensionEnvelo pe
TheFleshCompany
TheFleshCompany
TheFleshCompany
TheFleshCompany
TheFleshCompany
TheFleshCompany
TheFleshCompany
TheOvidBellPress
TheOvidBellPress
TheOvidBellP ress
TheOvidBellPress
TheStandardGroup
TheStandardGroup
TheStandardGroup
TranscontinentalPrinting
UniversityofMassachusetts
UtahPaperBox
V3,OxnardCA

Cornelison 55

DouglasMadeley
DeanMalinkovich
RickHansen
RonCole

dmadeley@visionps.com
dean.malinkovich@visionsfirst.com
rick.hansen@visionsfirst.com
ron.cole@visionfirst.com

VisionIntegratedGraphicsGrou
p
Visions,Inc.
Visions,Inc.
Visions,Inc.

AudyCompton

audy@voxpackaging.com

VoxPackaging,LL C

AdamWright
DavidReid
JimmyMartinez
MikeMcDougal
RobertReid
StewartMorris
GregArmstrong
JackMackert
JoePiazza
KeithOrtego
MichaelPodgurski
TimothyKeran

adam@voxprint.com
david@voxprint.com
jimmy@voxprint.com
mikem@voxprinting.com
robert@voxprint.com
stewart@voxprinting.com
greg_armstrong@walle.com
jack_mackert@walle.com
joseph_piazza@walle.com
keith_ortego@walle.com
michael_podgurski@walle.com
tkeran@westerngx.com

RonBarth
SaraGieselmann

ron.barth@westernsouthern.com
missy.gieselmann@wikoff.com

TimothyBrophy

tbrophy@whaprint.com

VoxPrinting,Inc.
VoxPrinting,Inc.
VoxPrinting,Inc.
VoxPrinting,Inc.
VoxPrintin g,Inc.
VoxPrinting,Inc.
WalleCorporation
WalleCorporation
WalleCorporation
WalleCorporation
WalleCorporation
WesternGraphics,Inc.
WesternSouthernFinancia
l
WikoffColorCorporation
WorthHiggins&Associates
,Inc.

EricFields

eric@rcprint.net

RiverCityPrinters

Cornelison 56

Cornelison 57

AppendixB:EmailtoContacts
April27,2013

SurveyLink:
http://www.surveygizmo.com/s3/1237864/The Effectiveness of Total
Quality Management Principles in the Printing Industry
Hello!
MynameisPaigeCornelison,andIama GraphicCommunication studentat
California PolytechnicStateUniversity,SanLuisObispo .
Youarerecei
vingthismessageeitherbecauseIknowyoupersonally,Iwasreferredtoyou
byoneofmyprofessors,oryouattendedtheContinuousImprovementConfe
rencein Indianapolisearlierthismonth.
Ma nagementPrinciplesinthePrint ingIndustry"
IamcurrentlyworkingonmySeniorProject,

"TheEffectiven
essofTotalQuality
.
Iamusingasurveyforameth
odof

research,andIwouldlikeyoutoparticip
ate!
Theobjectivesofthisstudyaretodetermine:
1)TheprevalenceofTotalQualityManagement(TQM)in theprintingindustry
2)WhichTQMprinciplesarebeingused
3)TheeffectivenessoftheseTQMprincipleswhenimplementedintheprintingi
ndustry.
Iamencouraging
printingcompanies
allemployeesof
(companieswhoseprimary
service/generatorofincome
isaprintingoperation)
toparticipateinthissurvey.
Iwouldthoroughlyappreciateitifyouc
forwardthisemail
ould
toanyoneyouknowthat
wouldfitthiscriteria!
Thedataandresponsescollectedfromthisresearchwillbeusedforeducational
purposes only.Youridentitywillremainanonymous.
Youranswerscanbeasvagueorspecificasyou
wouldlike.Thereare30questions,consistingofmultiplechoice,checkbox,andfilli
nthe blank/essayresponses.Youcansaveyourprogressandcomeback
tothesurveyatany
time.Noneofthequestionsarerequired,butthemoreinformationyoucangive,the
better!
Iamalsointerestedindoingin
personorphoneinterviewsthatwouldconsistofvery
similarquestions.Ifyouwouldprefertodothissur
veyoneoftheseways,pleasecontactme atmyemailaddressbelow.
Iwouldliketohaveallresponsesinby

Saturday,May11th.

Thankyou!Pleasefeelfreetocontactmewithanyquestionsorconcerns!

PaigeCornelison
pcorneli@calpoly.e
du

[Note:Contactsweresentareminderemailthefollowingweekcontainingthesam
e
message.]

Cornelison 58

AppendixC:SurveyQuestionnaire
[Note:Linesindicatepagebreaksintheonlinesurvey.]

TotalQualityManagementinthePrintin

gIndustry

Introletter
ThissurveyisforuseinmySeniorProject,"TheEffectivenessofTotalQuali
ty
ManagementPrinciplesinthePrintingIndustry".
Theobjectivesofthisstudyaretodetermine:
1)TheprevalenceofTotalQualityManagement(TQM)
intheprintingindustry 2)WhichTQMprinciplesarebeingused
3)TheeffectivenessoftheseTQMprincipleswhenimplementedinthe
printing industry.
Iamencouragingall employeesofprintingcompanies
(companieswhose primaryservice/generatorofinco
meisaprintingoperation)toparticipateinthis survey.
Thedataandresponsescollectedfromthisresearchwillbeusedfored
ucational purposesonly.
Youridentityandresponseswillremainanonymous .Your
answerscanbeasvagueorspecificasyou wouldlike.
Thereare30questions,consistingofmultiplechoice,checkbox,andfillin
the blank/essayresponses.
Youcansaveyourprogressandcomebacktothesurvey
atanytime.
Thisoptionislocatedatthetopofthesurveypage.Noneofthe
questionsarerequired.Youcanansweranyquestionsyouwish,andskipa
nythat donotapply(butthemoreinformationyoucangive,thebetter!)
Iwouldliketohaveallresponsescompletedby
Saturday,May11th.
Iappreciateyourtimeandefforttosuppo
Thankyou,
PaigeCornelison
GraphicCommunicationStudent
CalPolySanLuisObispo
Demographics

rtmySeniorProject!

1)Whatisyourage?
()18 24
Cornelison 59

()25 34
()35 44
()45 54
()55 64
()65 74
()75+
2)Whatisyourgender?
()Male
()Femal
e
CompanyInformation
3)Whatisyourcompany'sname?
____________________________________________
4)Whatisthejobtitleforyourcurrentposition?
____________________________________________
5)Whatisyourpositiontype?
(Checkallthatapply
[]Management
[]Operations
[]Prepress
[]CustomerServices
[]HumanResources
[]ResearchandDevelopment
[]Production
[]Marketing
[]Sales
[]Finance/Estimating
[]Purchasing
[]QualityControl
[]Bindery/Finishing
[]Technician

[]Pr essOperator
[]Other(pleasespeci
fy):

CompanyInformation
6)Howmanyyearshaveyoubeenatyourcurrentco
mpany?
()Lessthanoneyear
()1 5

1
()6 0
Cornelison 60
()11 15
()16 20
()20
+
7)Howmanyyearshaveyouheldyourcurrentpo
sition?
()Lesst hanoneyear
()1 5
()6 10
()1
1
15
()1
6
20
()21
+
8)Howmanyyearshaveyouworkedintheprintin
gindustry?
()Lessthanoneyear
()1 5
()6 10
()1
1
15
()1
6
20
()21
+
CompanyInformation
9)Whenwasyourcurrentcompanyfounded?
()
1
9
5
0
o
r
e
a
rl
ie
r
()
1
9

5
1
1
9
6
0
()
1
9
6
1
1
9
7
0
()
1
9
7
1
1
9
8
0
()
1
9
8
1
1
9
9
0
()
1
9
9
0
2
0
0
0
()
2
0
0
0
2
0
1
0
()

2
0
1
0
p
r
e
s
e
n
t
()Namethespecificyear::_________________
10)Pleaseprovideabriefhistoryofyourcompan
y:
CompanyInformation
11)Whichoft
hefollowingbestdescribesyourcompanytype?
[]QuickPrint/Retail
[]CommercialPrinting
[]Other(pleasespecify):
12)Whichofthefollowingdoesyourcompanyoff
er?(Checkallthatapply)
Cornelison 61
[]Offsetprinting
[]Digitalprinting(Inkjet/Electr otograph
oph
y)
[]Flexography
[]Gravure
[]Letterpress
[]Engraving
[]Thermography
[]Reprographics
[]Specialtyprinting(screen,pad
,etc.)
[]Marketingservices
[]VariableData/DirectMail
[]WebsiteDevelopment
[]GraphicDesign
[]Web to print
13)Otherproducts/service
s:

QualityManagementSystems
14)DoesyourcompanyhaveaQualityM
anagementSystem?
()Yes
()No
()Idon'tknow
15)Ifno,whyhasn'tyourcompanyimplementeda
QualityManagement
System?
[]Notenoughtime
[]Too
difficulttoim
plement
[]Tooexpensi
ve
[]Noreasont
odoso
[]Idon'tknow
[]Other(pleasespecify):

16)Ifyes,hasyourcompanyimplementedanyof
thefollowingQuality
ManagementSystems?
[]LEAN
[]SixSigma
[]TotalQualit
yManageme
nt []
ISOseries
[]MalcolmBaldrigeNationalQualityAward
[]TheDemingPrize
[]TheEuropeanQualityAward
[]StatisticalProcessControl
[]Other(pleasespecify):
Cornelison 62

17)Ifyes,isyourcompany
currentlyusingthisQualityManagementSystem?
()Ye
s ()
No

()Idon'tknow
18)Howlonghasyourcompanyused/beenusingthissystem?
()1 5years
10year
()6 s
()1 15year
1
s
()1 20year
6
s
()21+years
QualityManagementSystems
19)Whatarethemainobjectivesofyourcompany'sQualityMa
nagement System?(Checkallthatapply)
[]Reducedefects
[]Improvecustomerservice
[]Continuousimprovement
[]Improveemployeeinvolvement
[]Improvecommunicationwithinthecompany
[]Other(pleasespecify):

20)Pleaseprovideamoredetaileddescript
ionofyourcompany'sQuality ManagementSystem:
21)Inyouropinion,inwhatwaysisthisQualityManagementSyst
em
effective?
22)Inyouropinion,inwhatwaysisthisQualityManagementSyst
emflawed?
TotalQualityManagement
23)Haveyouheardof TotalQualityManagement?
()Yes
()No
()Soundsfamiliar
24)Ifyes,howwouldyoudescribeit?

TotalQualityManagement
TotalQualityManagement(TQM)
isaconceptthatdescribesanall
encompassingQualityManagementSystemwhereanentirec
ompan yis
committedtotheoverallimprovementofthatcompany.Altho
ughthereare
Cornelison 63

severaldefinitionsandversionsofimplementation,myresearchs
eemsto
pointTQMtothesethreemainprinciples:
EmployeeInvolvement
CustomerFocus
ContinuousImprovement
25)InwhatwaysdoesyourcompanyfocusonanyofthesethreeTQ
M
principles?(Specificexamplesareencouraged!)
TotalQualityManagement
The
CertifiedManagerofQuality/OrganizationalExcellenceHandbook
(Westcott 2005,p.306 307)fromtheAmericanSo
cietyforQualityidentifies5different
possiblestrategiesforimplementingaTotalQualityManagementsyste
m.Theyare asfollows:
TheTQMElementapproach.
Thisapproachincludeskeybusinessprocessesoftheparticularbusiness
anduses themaintoo
lsofTQMtostimulateimprovements.ThiswidelyincludesputtingTQM
elementsintopracticeastheyarelearnedmoreextensivelythroughoutt
heprocess.
TheGuruapproach.
Thisself explainedapproachusesoneormoremethodsofaknownquality
philosopher(W.EdwardsDeming,AramandFeigenbaum,JosephM.Juran,
PhilipB.
Crosby)todeterminewherethebusiness/organizationhasroomforimprov
ement, anddirectlyparallelsthesolutionstothatofthechosen"guru".
TheOrganizationModelapproach.
CompanieschooseanotherasuccessfulTQM
basedcompanyonwhichtomodel
theirownqualityimprovementplan.Theycombinethemodel'sideaswi
ththeir owninordertobetterapplyittotheirspecificneeds.
TheJapaneseTotalQualityapproach.
Thisapproac
hisspecificallymodeledoffoftheDemingPrize.Companiesusingthis
approach"developalong rangemasterplanforin
houseuse"andoftenuseitto actuallycompetefortheDemingPrize.
TheAwardCriteriaapproach.

Thisapproachisageneralsystem
thatchoosesanyofthequalityawardcriteria

MalcolmBaldrige,DemingPrize,EuropeanQualityAward,orotherwise

inorderto implementatotalqualitysystem.
26)Whichapproach(es)bestdescribesyourcompany'sQualityM
anagement
System?
[]The TQMElementapproach
Cornelison 64

[]TheGuruapproach
[]TheOrganizationalModelapproach
[]TheJapaneseTotalQualityapproach
[]TheAwardCriteriaapproach
27)Inwhatway(s)doesyourcompanyimplementanyofthese
approaches?
Conclusion
28)Afterlearni
ngthisinformation,wouldyouconsideryourcompanytobe
usingTotalQualityManagement?
()Yes
()No
()Maybe
29)Ifno,doyouthinkimplementingaTotalQualityManageme
ntsystem
wouldbebeneficialtoyourcompany?
()Yes
()No
()Idon'tknow
30)Anyfinalthoughts/comments?

Cornelison 65