Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 7

5/23/2015 ComputationalFluidDynamics(CFD)BlogLEAPAustralia&NewZealand|Tips&Tricks:CalculatingtheMeanAgeofAirforHVACsimulationsinA

UA336027821

About Us

Industry Focus

Technical Benefits

Business Benefits

Tips & Tricks

Contact Us

Tips & Tricks: Calculating the Mean Age of Air for HVAC simulations in ANSYS CFD
Home

Featured

Tips&Tricks:CalculatingtheMeanAgeofAirforHVACsimulationsinANSYSCFD

Searchfor:

Search

SubscribetoBlogviaE

PostedByLEAPCFDTeamonApr22,2014|1comment

emailaddress

Engineerswhoaretaskedwithdesigningheating,ventilationandairconditioning(HVAC)systemsforbuildingswillneedtoassesstheindoorairqualityto

Subscribe

ensureoptimumhealthandcomfortforoccupantsandmeetminimumregulatoryrequirements.GenerallyaHVACCFDanalysiswilltakeintoaccount
variablessuchasairtemperature,relativehumidity,airspeciesconcentrationsandvelocity.Additionally,CFDengineerscanuseANSYSCFDtosolvefor
thelocal"meanageofair"(MAA)toassesstheairqualitywithinanindoorenvironment.ByexaminingMAAacrossthehabitablespacewithinabuilding,
engineerscanquantifytheairchangeeffectiveness(ACE)oftheirventilationsystemandconfirmthattheirdesignmeetsNABERS/GreenStarregulations.
HowcanIplottheMeanAgeofAirinANSYSCFDPost?

LeadingEngineeringApplicati
Usuallydesignersareinterestedinlocaldistributions,thereforeitisusefultoplottheACEastheratiobetweenthenominaltimeconstantandtheageofair
oritsinverse.WithinANSYSCFDPost,itispossibletocalculatetheACEataspecifiedheightwithasimpleexpressiondefinedusingCEL.

Australia:1300882240
NewZealand:099777444

Thisallowsustoquantifytheareaoccupiedbyairwithanageexceedingthemeanvalueacrossareferencesurface(typicallylocatedatbreathingheight,

VisitLEAPWebsiteformorein

ie.1mabovefloor).Accordingtomanyregulatorystandards,theareaexceedingthetargetvaluemustbelessthan5%.

CFD,FEA,CAD,CAMandrela
products,plusourtrainingand
schedule.
Follow

Recent

ThesetupfortheNormalisedAgeofAirvariable(expressedasAgeofAir/NominalTimeConstant).
NotethatwhensolvingusingFLUENT,avariablecalled"Scalar0"willbepresentinthevariablelist.Itsdimensionscanbedisplayedbydefininganew
expressionsuchas
AgeofAir=Scalar0[s]andthencreatinganewvariablewhichbydefinitionisequaltoAgeofAir.
ClippingtheAgeofAirtoaspecificrangeofvalues
ThisisusefultoquantifythesizeofanypocketsofairthatmayexceedourtargetMAAvalue(ie.thevalueprescribedbyregulations).Inordertovisualize

http://www.computationalfluiddynamics.com.au/tipstrickscalculatingmeanageofairwithcfd/

Popular

Exciting
advances
Wind
Engineer
using AN
CFD
Apr14,2015

Using CF
predict fl
generate
and othe
1/7

5/23/2015 ComputationalFluidDynamics(CFD)BlogLEAPAustralia&NewZealand|Tips&Tricks:CalculatingtheMeanAgeofAirforHVACsimulationsinA

aeroacou
effects

theairwhichisolderthanthisnominalvalue,wecreateanisoclipforavaluegreaterthanthetargetvalue,appliedtoaplanelocatedataspecifiedheight
abovethefloor(typically1metre).

Nov6,2014
Theresultshouldlooksimilartotheoneshownintheimagebelow.The"holes"areregionswheretheMAAvaluesareaboveorbelowthethreshold

Smart ga
appliance
manufac
use rising
costs to t
competit
advantag

specifiedinyourisoclipsetup(inthiscase,anythingbelow1200secsandabove1300secs).

Oct29,2014

RecentComments

AnisoclipfortheAgeofAirVariable.

ChrisBennetton

WindEngineeringusingAN

Itisthenstraightforwardtocreateanexpressionthatquantifiesthe%areaoftheisocliptothefullareaoftheplane.Typicallyengineersaimtoensurethat

OmaronTips&Tricks:Estim

thisdoesnotexceed5%(accordingtotheACE0.95criteria).InthisexampletheCELexpressionwouldbewrittenas:

FirstCellHeightforcorrect

Ratio=area()@IsoClip1/area()@Plane3

HARIHARANon

EstimatingtheFirstCellHe
correctY+

metinonTips&Tricks:Estim

FirstCellHeightforcorrect

HARIHARANon

EstimatingtheFirstCellHe
correctY+

Tags
HowtocliptheAgeofAirVariabletothedesiredvalues

2012CSIROCFDConfere

aerodyna
ANSYSANSY
acoustics

HowdoIcalculatemeanageofairinmyANSYSCFDsimulation?

aerospaceanddefence

Themeanageofair(MAA)isnotautomaticallyincludedasapredefinedvariableingeneralpurposeCFDsoftware,suchasANSYSCFXandANSYS
Fluent.Itcanbedefinedinthepreprocessingstageasanadditionalvariableusingthemethodsoutlinedbelow.Thissectionprovidessomebackground
andfurtherdetailsonhowtoincludetheMAAvariableinbothANSYSCFXandANSYSFluent.
Somebackground...
Themeanageofair,denoted

,isobtainedbysolvingthefollowingadvectionequation:

CFDANSYSMe
AustralianInternationalAirshow

DesignCFD
methodsCFD

modellingof
turbulentflows

simulationacc

combustioncommonmisconc
consumerproductsConvergence

andtestingdesign
Thederivativewithrespectoftimeofthesourceis1sothattheintegralitselfistime.Whenintegrated,theagescalarwillequaltheresidencetime.

optimisation
eulerianmodelling

InANSYSCFDsolvers,scalarquantitiesaremultipliedbythedensity

inthetransportequations,sothatisinthisparticularcasetheequationtouse

is:

trainingFaceSizing

interaction formula1CF
SAEgranularflowHPC

LayerMeshing

innovationlagrangian

tracking MeshControlse
Thetermontherighthandsideoftheequationisknownasthesourceterm,andithastobetakenintoaccountwhenimplementingthemeanageofair
variableinthesimulation.

AccordingtotheACE0.95criteriaformodernbuildingregulations,forinstance,thedisplacementairwithintheenclosedenvironmenthastoprovideanair
changeeffectiveness(ACE)higherthan0.95foratleast95%ofthenetlettablearea(NLA)whenmeasuredinaccordancewithASHRAE1291997.

http://www.computationalfluiddynamics.com.au/tipstrickscalculatingmeanageofairwithcfd/

independencemineralsand

industriesmultiphase
Multiphysicssimulation

predictionof
aerodynamicf

ShearStressTranspo
turbulencemodel
engineeringtransitio
modellingturbulen
2/7

5/23/2015 ComputationalFluidDynamics(CFD)BlogLEAPAustralia&NewZealand|Tips&Tricks:CalculatingtheMeanAgeofAirforHVACsimulationsinA
Airchangeeffectivenessisdefinedastheratiobetweenthenominaltimeconstantandtheaverageoftheageofairatareferenceheight

modelling

modelswallfunction

Thenominaltimeconstantistheratiobetweentheairvolumeofaspaceorbuildingdividedbytherateofoutdoorairsupply,whichistheincoming
volumetricflowrate.Meanresidencetime

Thereferencesurfaceistakenat1[m]abovethefloortoconsiderthebreathingzoneoftheenclosedspace.
ACEgivesameasureofthedistributionofairatthebreathingheightandavalueclosetounityindicatesthattheairdistributionwithinthezonehas
reachedperfectmixing.AccordingtotheGBCAsGreenStarrequirementsofIEQ2version2,awelldesignedceilingairdiffusionsystemwillachievean
ACEofnearunity(between0.8and1.2)atdesignairflowrates.AdisplacementventilationsystemtypicallyachievesanACEofgreaterthan1.2.
Howtodefinethevariable"AgeofAir"inANSYSCFX:
Tocalculatetheageofair,itisnecessarytocreateanewvariableundertheExpression,FunctionsandVariablestreeinCFXPre.Inthisexamplethenew
variablehasbeennamedAgeofAir.Ithasunitsofseconds.

AddinganadditionalvariableinCFXPre

thesetupforthecreationoftheAgeofAirVariable

CFXsolvesatransportequationforthenewlycreatedvariable.ThisisshownintheFluidModelstabofthedefaultdomain,undertheAdditionalVariable
Models.Astheageofairdoesnotdiffuse,itisnotnecessarytodefineaKinematicDiffusivityforit.Note,thatinANSYSCFX,turbulentdiffusionisincluded
bydefault.

ThesetupoftheAgeofAirVariableintheFluid
Modelstab

Asthetransportequationisoftype'specific',itisnecessarytoaddasourcetermequaltothefluiddensity.Thisisdonebycreatingasubdomain(here
namedAoA),undertheDefaultDomainanddefiningthe'Source'tobedensityasbelow.

http://www.computationalfluiddynamics.com.au/tipstrickscalculatingmeanageofairwithcfd/

3/7

5/23/2015 ComputationalFluidDynamics(CFD)BlogLEAPAustralia&NewZealand|Tips&Tricks:CalculatingtheMeanAgeofAirforHVACsimulationsinA

OncecreatedthesubdomainisdisplayedintheDefault
Domaintree

Thesetupforthesourceinthesubdomain

ThelaststepinANSYSCFXistosetavalueforAgeofAiratanyboundaryconditionswhereaircanenterthedomain.Inthisexample,theAgeofAiratthe
diffuserandattheexhaust(foranyreturnflow)hasbeensetto0[s].Itisalsopossibletospecifynonzerovaluesifrecycledairisused.
Howtodefinethevariable"AgeofAir"inANSYSFluent
Intheprevioussectionwe'vedescribedthemethodtoincludeanadditionalvariable(intheformofatransportequation)forcalculatingtheageofairin
ANSYSCFX.Similarly,inANSYSFLUENTwecancalculatetheageofairthroughuseofauserdefinedscalar(UDS).Thisinvolvescreatesauserdefined
scalarfortheageofairthensolvingitsequationafterasolutionfortheflowfieldhasbeenobtained.

DefiningaUserDefinedScalar(UDS)

ThefollowingUDFcomputesthediffusivitytoaccountforturbulentdiffusion(whichisnotimplicitlydefinedasinCFX)andthesourceforthemeanageof
air.ThisfunctioncanbeexecutedasaninterpretedorcompiledUDF.
#*******************************************************************
#include"udf.h"
#include"prop.h"
#ThisdefinetheAoAdiffusivity
DEFINE_DIFFUSIVITY(mean_age_diff,c,t,i)
{
returnC_MU_EFF(c,t)/0.7
}
#Thisdefinesthesource
DEFINE_SOURCE(mean_age_source,c,t,dS,eqn)

http://www.computationalfluiddynamics.com.au/tipstrickscalculatingmeanageofairwithcfd/

4/7

5/23/2015 ComputationalFluidDynamics(CFD)BlogLEAPAustralia&NewZealand|Tips&Tricks:CalculatingtheMeanAgeofAirforHVACsimulationsinA
{
realsource
source=C_R(c,t)
dS[eqn]=0
returnsource
}
#********************************************************************
AftertheUDFisinterpretedorcompiled,thenamespecifiedintheDEFINEmacroargument(e.g.,mean_age_diff)willbecomevisibleandselectableinthe
Create/EditMaterialsdialogboxinANSYSFLUENT
Thenextstepistodefinethescalarinthevolumeoffluidrepresentingthesolutiondomain,
asshownintheFigurebelow.

DefinitionoftheUDSDiffusivityinthematerialdialogbox

ThesetupofthesourcetermfortheUDS

Finallyitisnecessarytosetaboundaryconditionforthescalaratallinletsandoutlets.Inthisexampleuds0scalarvalues=0attheinlet(but,asinCFX,
canbesetatanonzerovalueifdesired).ThesetupforthenewvariableformeanageofairinFLUENTisnowcomplete.

DefinitionoftheUDSattheboundaries

TheUserScalar0intheSolutionControlspanel.Byselecting

itthesolverwillcalculateasolutiononlyfortheUDS.

ThisposthasaimedtoprovideanoverviewoftheageofairparameterinCFD,andsometipsonhowtocreateandpostprocesstheresultsformeanage
ofairinANSYSCFD.CFDsimulationsofthistypeareincreasinglybeingperformedbybuildingdesignersandengineerstobothmeetstringentbuilding
codesandhelpdifferentiatethesustainabilityandliveabilityaspectsoftheirdesign.Tothiseffect,ANSYSCFDprovidesengineerswithavaluabletoolto
assessthelevelsofthermalcomfortforbuildingoccupants,byexaminingparameterssuchastheairtemperatureandradiantheatloads,aswellasatool
toensureadequateairchangeeffectivenessbysolvingandassessingthemeanageofair.ForfurtherinformationortodiscussyourownCFDproblem

http://www.computationalfluiddynamics.com.au/tipstrickscalculatingmeanageofairwithcfd/

5/7

5/23/2015 ComputationalFluidDynamics(CFD)BlogLEAPAustralia&NewZealand|Tips&Tricks:CalculatingtheMeanAgeofAirforHVACsimulationsinA
withinHVACindustry,pleaseleaveacommentbelow.

Sharethispost

Author:LEAPCFDTeam

1Comment
Gregory Couerbe
NOVEMBER7,2014
WithANSYSCFXSolver,iftheAdditionalVariableisdefinedas"Volumetric"insteadofas"Specific"thentheSourcetermistobesetto"1"
(insteadtobeequaltothedensity).Thedefinitionisthereforesimpler.

Post a Reply

SubmitaComment
Youremailaddresswillnotbepublished.Requiredfieldsaremarked*

Name*

Email*

Website

Typethetext

Privacy&Terms

Comment

YoumayusetheseHTMLtagsandattributes:<ahref=""title=""><abbrtitle=""><acronymtitle=""><b><blockquotecite="">
<cite><code><deldatetime=""><em><i><qcite=""><s><strike><strong>

SubmitComment
http://www.computationalfluiddynamics.com.au/tipstrickscalculatingmeanageofairwithcfd/

6/7

5/23/2015 ComputationalFluidDynamics(CFD)BlogLEAPAustralia&NewZealand|Tips&Tricks:CalculatingtheMeanAgeofAirforHVACsimulationsinA

Categories

Subscribe to Blog via


Email

BusinessBenefits

Recent Posts

Contact Us

ExcitingadvancesinWindEngineering

emailaddress

usingANSYSCFD

Featured

Subscribe
IndustryFocus

TechnicalBenefits

UsingCFDtopredictflowgenerated
noiseandotheraeroacousticeffects

Smartgasappliancemanufacturersuse
risinggascoststotheircompetitive

Tips&Tricks

advantage

SolvingComplexCombustion
ChallengeswithCFD

LEAPAustraliaPtyLtd

LeadingEngineeringApplicationP
ENQUIRIES:
Australia:1300882240
NewZealand:099777444

VisitLEAPWebsiteformoreinform

CFD,FEA,CAD,CAMandrelated
UsingCFDtoenhanceyourmixing
processanddrivedowncosts

plusourengineeringsoftwaretrain
webinarschedule.
2014Allrightsreserved

UA336027821

http://www.computationalfluiddynamics.com.au/tipstrickscalculatingmeanageofairwithcfd/

7/7