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# 1.

OBJECTIVE
1.1 Part 1: To plot Shear force influence line.
1.2 Part 2: To verify the use of a shear force influence on a simply supported
beam

2.0

INTRODUCTION
Moving loads on beams are common features of design. Many road bridges are
constructed from beam, and as such have to be designed to carry a knife edge
load, or a string of wheel loads, or a uniformly distributed load, or perhaps the
worst combination of all three. The method of solving the problem is to use
influence lines.

3.0

THEORY
Defination: Shear influence line is defined as a line representing the changes in
shear force at a section of a beam when a unit load moves on the beam
Part 1: This Experiment examines how shear force varies at a cut section as a unit
load moves from one end to another (see Figure 1). From the diagram, shear force
influence line equation can be written.
For 0 x a a shear line is given by:
Sy = x/ L (1)
For a x b shear line is given by:
Sy = 1 x L. (2)

Part 2: If the beam are loaded as shown in Figure 2, the shear force at the cut can be
calculated using the influence line. (See diagram 2).
Shear force at cut section = F1 y1 + F2 y2 + F3 y3 (3)
(y1, y2 and y3 are ordinates derived from the influence line in terms of x 1, x2, x3,
a, b and L)

4.0

APPARATUS

4.1

4.2

Beam

Digital Force
Display

5.0
PROCEDURES

Part 1
1.

## Digital Force Display meter reads zero with no load is checking.

2.

Hanger with any mass range between 100g to 300g was placed at the first
grooved hanger support at the left support and the Digital Force reading
recorded in Table 1.

3.

The procedure to the next grooved hanger until to the last grooved hanger
at the right hand support was repeated.

4.

## The calculation in Table 1 was completed.

Part 2
1.

Three load hangers with 100g. 200g and 300g mass respectively placed at
any position between the supports. The positions and the Digital Force
Display reading recorded in Table 2.

6.0

2.

3.

## The calculation in Table 2 was completed.

RESULT

Part 1:
from left hand
support (m)

Digital Force
Display
Reading ( N )

Shear Force
at cut section
(N)

Experimental
Influence line
value

Theoretical
Influence lines
value

0.04
0.06
0.08
0.10
0.12
0.14
0.16
0.18
0.20
0.22

0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.0

0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
1.0

0.102
0.153
0.204
0.255
0.306
0.357
0.408
0.459
0.510
0.510

-0.091
-0.136
-0.182
-0.227
-0.273
-0.318
-0.364
-0.409
-0.455
-0.500

0.24
0.26
0.34
0.36
0.38
0.40

1.1
1.2
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2

1.1
1.2
-0.5
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2

0.561
0.612
-0.255
-0.204
-0.153
-0.051

-0.545
-0.591
0.227
0.182
0.136
0.091

Part 2:
Position of hanger from left hand
Location
1
2
3
4

6.1

support ( m )
100g
0.22
0.16
0.26
0.10

200g
0.24
0.08
0.04
0.24

300g
0.06
0.24
0.14
0.38

Shear force
Digital

Theoretical
Shear ( Nm )

2.0
2.4
1.8
0.9

1.962
1.581
1.156
1.000

CALCULATION

Part 1:
1) Experimental Influence line values = Shear Force (N)
Eg.

0.2 N
200 x 9.81/1000

## 2) Theoretical Influence lines value; 0.04 x 0.26m

Theoretical value, Sy = -x/L

= 0.102

Eg.

= - 0.091

## 3) Theoretical Influence lines value; 0.32 x 0.38m

Theoretical value, Sy =1 -x/L
Eg.

## Theoretical value, Sy = 1 -0.34/ 0.44

= 0.227

Part 2:
Location 1

Y3

Y1

Y2

300g

100g

200g

60mm
220mm

140mm
240mm
300mm

a/L

b/L

1. a/L

=
=

300/440
0.682

2. b/L

=
=

140/440
0.318

3. y1 / 220
y1

=
=

0.682 / 300
0.500

4. y2 / 240
y2

=
=

0.682 / 300
0.546

5. y3 / 60 =
y3

0.682 / 300
=
0.136

Theoretical Shear

=
=
=

## F1y1 + F2y2 + F3y3.

[(0.1 x 0.5) + (0.2 x 0.546) + (0.3 x 0.136)] x 9.81
1.962 Nm

Location 2
Y2
200g

Y1

Y3

100g

300g

80mm
160mm

140mm
240mm
300mm

a/L

b/L

1. y1 / 160
y1

=
=

2. y2 / 80 =
y2

0.682 / 300
=
0.124

3. y3 / 240
y3

=
=

0.682 / 300
0.372

=
=
=

## F1y1 + F2y2 + F3y3.

[(0.1 x 0.248) + (0.2 x 0.124) + (0.3 x 0.372)] x 9.81
1.581 Nm

Theoretical Shear

0.682 / 300
0.248

Location 3
Y2
200g

Y3

Y1

300g

100g

40mm
140mm

140mm
260mm
300mm

a/L

1. y1 / 200

b/L

0.682 / 300

y1

0.403

2. y2 / 40 =
y2

0.682 / 300
=
0.062

3. y3 / 140
y3

=
=

0.682 / 300
0.217

=
=
=

## F1y1 + F2y2 + F3y3.

[(0.1 x 0.403) + (0.2 x 0.062) + (0.3 x 0.217)] x 9.81
1.156 Nm

Theoretical Shear

Location 4
Y1

Y2

100g

200g

Y3
300g

100mm
140mm
240mm
60mm
300mm

a/L

4. y1 / 100
y1

=
=

b/L

0.682 / 300
0.155

5. y2 / 240
y2

=
=

6. y3 / 60 =
y3

0.682 / 300
=
0.043

Theoretical Shear

7.0

=
=
=

0.682 / 300
0.372

## F1y1 + F2y2 + F3y3.

[(0.1 x 0.155) + (0.2 x 0.372) + (0.3 x 0.043)] x 9.81
1.008 Nm

DISCUSSIONS

Part 1:
1. Derive equation 1 and 2.
Equation 1
Mcut = 0
Fy = 0
(L-x)/L -1 Sy = 0
Sy = -x/L
Equation 2
Mcut = 0
Fy = 0
(L-x)/L Sy = 0
Sy = (L-x)/L
Sy = 1 x/L

2. On the same graph paper, plot the theoretical and experimental values
against distance from left hand support.

3. Comment on the shape of graph. What does it tell you about how shear
force varies at the cut section as a load moved on the beam?
The experimental result increases with the increasing of the distance of load from
the left hand support at the left side of the cut. Based on the result, the values of
shear force at cut section (N) increases when a load moves nearer towards the cut.
4. Comment on the experimental result compared to the theoretical result.
Based on the results that we got, shows a totally different result between the
theoretical and experimental values. For the experimental influence line value,
there are a big different between those experimental and theoretical. Overall,
based on the procedure, we followed the right instruction. It might be the error of
the machine itself and not in the good condition.

Part 2 :
1. Comment the experimental result and the theoretical result in Table 2.
In this part, we used the load 100g, 200g and 300g. From this experiment, the
value for the location 1 to 4, the value for the experimental is bigger than the
theoretical value. The value is depend on the location but the value for both
results is not so much differences.

8.0

CONCLUSION

Part 1 :
From the experiment, we know that the value for the experimental and
theoretical values is totally difference. From the graph it shows totally difference
result between theoretical and experimental result. Based on the result, the values
of shear force at cut section (N) increases when a load moves nearer towards the
cut.
Part 2 :

From the experiment, its shows that the location is one of the causes for the
differences between the value. We should know that, influence lines can be used to
calculate the shear force at the cut section.