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2/2/2015

CompetitiveExams:IndustrialSociologyTerminologyExamrace

Employment
Employmentisacontractbetweentwoparties,onebeingtheemployerandtheotherbeingtheemployee.Inacommercialsetting,the
employerconceivesofaproductiveactivity,generallywiththeintentionofcreatingprofits,andtheemployeecontributeslabourtothe
enterprise,usuallyinreturnforpaymentofwages.Employmentistheentireserviceofanindividualperformedforsomekindofwage,
underanytypeofcontract.Thelawpresumesthataworker'sservicesareemploymentunlesstheemployercanprovethattheworker's
servicesareexempt.Employmentdatarepresentthenumberofworkersonthepayrollduringthepayperiodincludingthe12thdayof
themonth.Thepayperiodvariesinlengthfromemployertoemployerformostemployers,itisa7dayperiodbutnotnecessarilya
calendarweek.Anemployerwhopaysonmorethanonebasis(suchasweeklyforproductionemployeesandsemimonthlyforoffice
employees)reportsthesumofthenumberofworkersoneachtypeofpayrollfortheperiod.Anyservice,unlessspecificallyexcluded,
performedforcompensationunderacontractofhirewhetherthecontractisexpressorimplied,writtenororal,andwithoutregardto
whethertheserviceisperformedonaparttime,fulltimeorcasualbasis.

Contractwork
Thisisworkthatisdoneforaspecificperiodoftimeandacontractisdrawnbetweentheemployerandtheworker.Thecontractwork
doesnotincludebenefitsContractworkcouldbethecareermakeoverthatyou'relookingforwithoutcompletelycuttingyourtieswith
thecorporateworld.Contractworkmeansthatyoucanenjoythebestofbothworlds.Bybeingyourownbosswhilestillworkingon
projectsonsiteorhavingthechoiceofworkingfromhome.Contractworkhasproventobeaviablecareeroptionformany,butbefore
leavingourlifeasanemployeebehind,thereareanumberofissuestobetakenonboardandthoughtthroughcarefully.Firstly,it's
importanttoassessourskillstodeterminewhethertheyaretransferabletoacareerasanindependentcontractor.Secondly,thoroughly
analyzethemarketdemandforthetypeofserviceweplantoofferthinkalsoaboutsupplyanddemandinthatmarket.Highly
competitivemarketscanmakeithardertogainafootholdandwinbusinessintheearlystages.Inthefinalanalysis,effective
networkingandyourtrackrecordandprovenexpertiseinthefieldaremajorfactorsinestablishingourconsultingcareer.Somepopular
areasforindependentcontractorsinclude:
programming
webdevelopment
webdesign
graphicdesign
managementconsulting
marketingconsulting

Maladjustedworkers
Workerswithnervoustemperamentstendtogetmaladjustedbecausenormalcyofpersonalityisanessentialconditionofproper
adjustment.Maladjustedoftheworkercaneitherbemildorserious.Andtheirsymptoms
Jealousy
Selfpity
Cheerlessbearing
Lackofcooperation
Faultfinding
Strongemotions
Conflictwithcolleagues
Abnormaldesiretoattractattention
Aworkerwiththisproblemisjealousoftheotherworkersoververyminorissuesandattimesbelievesthathehimselfisavictimof
othersenmity.Hedoesnotcooperatewithothersandisconstantlyengagedinfindingfaultwiththemanagementandwithhis
colleague.Inattaininghisowninterestsheplaysnoattentiontotheproprietyorimproprietyofmeans,andfightswithotherstogain
advantage.Hewantstoattracttheattentionofotherpersonstowardshimself,andisnotbotheredabouttheproprietyofthemeanshe
adoptsforthispurpose.

Palekartribunal
Thecentralgovernmenthadappointedtwotribunalsundertheprovisionsoftheworkingjournalistsandothernewspaperemployees
andmiscellaneousprovisionsact1955.Thefunctionofthetribunalswastorecommendratesofthewagesinrespectofworking
journalistsandnonjournalistsnewspaperemployeesinFeb.1979headedbyD.Gpalekarretiredjudgeofthesupremecourt.The
tribunalssubmittedtheirrecommendationstothegovernmenton13august1980.Thegovernmenthadacceptedtherecommendations
ofthetribunalexceptthoserelatingtothedearnessallowance.Thegovernmentpublishedaformulawithminormodificationsandorder
tothiseffect.Thegovernmentaftergivingtheopportunitiestoeveryoneconcernedtopresenttheiropinionfinallymodifiedthe
dearnessallowancesformularecommendedbythetribunals.Ordersnotifyingtherevisedratesofthedearnessallowanceswere
publishedinthegazetteofIndianextraordinaryof20July1981.

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