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CONFIDENTIAL

EH/JUN 2014/CHE584/594

QUESTION 1

(P01, C01, C02, C2, C3)


a) Chemical reaction can be divided into homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction. Define
homogeneous and heterogeneous reaction, and explain factors that could influence their
rate of reaction.
(8 marks)
b) The following decomposition reaction

c) proceeds at temperatures below 100C. The temperature dependence of the first-order


rate constant has been measured. The experimental data are summarized below:
T (K)
288
298
313
323
338

1.04 x10's
3.38 x10's
2.47 x 10-4
7.59 X 10-4
4.87 X 10.3

d) Using an appropriate approach, determine the activation energy, E and pre-exponential


factor, A for this decomposition reaction.
R is given as 1.9872 cal mol-1 K-1.
(12 marks)

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QUESTION

EH/JUN 2014/CHE584/594

(P01, C01, C2, C3)


An elementary
reaction was carried out in a sealed beaker and placed into a constant
temperature bath at 412 K. After various reaction times, the beaker was removed and quickly
cooled to room temperature
to stop the reaction. The chemical reaction equation can be
described as follows:
2A ~ product
From the amount

of product

collected,

the conversion

Time (min)

was recorded

Conversion

5
13

11.2
20.4
25.6

59

31.6
36.7

80

45.3

100
120

50.7
55.2

Given the initial concentration


If these data consistent

(%)

4.9

25
34
45

a)

in table below:

of A was 0.2 M.
with second order reaction rate, determine

the rate constant,

k.

(10 marks)
b)

Construct a stoichiometric
table for this reaction.
reaction achieves 90% conversion.

Determine

the rate of reaction

if the

(6 marks)
c)

Suggest time required

for this reaction to achieve 90% conversion.

(4 marks)

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EH/DEC 2013/CHE5841594

QUESTION 1

(P01, C01, C1, C2, C, C4)


a)

An undergraduate student conducted an experiment in a laboratory, as part of his


course requirement, to study the kinetics of a reaction of two unknown reactants, A
and B. The instructor informed him that the reaction was according to the
stoichiometric equation of A + B -7 products. The recorded experimental data was as
follows:
Table 1. Reaction rates of a reaction A and B.
Concentration of A, CA
(moIlL)
3.0
3.0
4.5

Concentration of B, CB
(mollL)
187.5
96.0
96.0

Reaction Rate, -rA


(moIlL'min)
75
48
72

Determine the reaction orders with respect to A and B and hence, determine the
overall order of the reaction.
(8 marks)
b)

The stoichiometric reaction of reactants A and B is as follows:


A+B-7C+D
The liquid-phase reaction is first order with respect to A and
of this reaction is equal to 0.0017 m3lkmol'min at 188C with
of 47,166 kJlkmol. The initial entering concentrations of A
kmol/m3, respectively. Given the universal gas constant, R, as

B. The rate constant, k,


an activation energy, E,
and Bare 1.8 and 6.6
8.314 kJ/kmolK.

i)

of A, -rA, in terms of

Express the rate law for the rate of disappearance


concentration.

(2 marks)
ii) Set up a stoichiometric
conversion (XA).

table for this reaction and express -rA, in terms of


(10 marks)

iii) Calculate the initial rate of reaction (XA

= 0) at 188C and 25C.


(7 marks)

iv) Determine the rate of reaction at 90% conversion at 25C.


(3 marks)

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EH/DEC 2013/CHE584/594

QUESTION 2

(POS, C02, C3, C4)


Some of the uses of ethylene glycol are for antifreezing and the manufacturing of
polyesters. A laboratory-scale batch reactor which operates isothermally has produced
ethylene glycol (MW
62 kg/kmol) from the mixing of 500 mL of a 2 M solution of ethylene
oxide in water with 500 mL of water (containing a very small amount of catalyst). The
reaction is first-order with respect to ethylene oxide. Assuming the concentration of water is
constant during the course of the reaction, the concentration of ethylene glycol is recorded
as a function of time as given in Table 2.

H20

C2H40
ethylene oxide
(A)

C2H602
ethylene glycol
(C)

Table 2. Concentration-time data of ethylene glycol.


Time (min)
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
3.0
4.0
6.0
10.0

Concentration of ethylene glycol


(mol/L)
0.000
0.145
0.270
0.376
0.467
0.610
0.715
0.848
0.995

Use an appropriate method to determine the rate constant, k, of the reaction.


(20 marks)

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EH/JUN 2013/CHE584/594

QUESTION 1

(P01, C01, C3, C4, C1)


Gas phase reaction was carried out in an isothermal batch system to form nitrogen
monoxide and water according to the reaction equation:
4NH3

+ 502

-+ 4NO

+ 6H20

An equal molar of NH3 and O2 are fed to the reactor with total pressure 4.7 atm and 300C
as reaction temperature. With respect to NH3 as the limiting reactant, the following
experimental data were recorded from constant batch reactor volume
TabeI 1 Exoenmenta data in an isot hermal batc h system
T (min)
0
50
200
100
150
PNH3

2.35

1.78

1.44

1.20

1.04

250

300

0.916

0.817

Rate law of the above reaction respond to -rA= kCAOCSi3, in which 13 is zero order with
respect to oxygen. Given R (gas universal constant) as 0.082 atrn-drn-mol+K",
a)

Construct a stoichiometric table for this gas phase reaction in constant batch reactor
volume.
(4 marks)

b)

Determine the reaction


(differentiation) method.

order,

a and the rate constant,

using

numerical
(13 marks)

c)

Write the rate of law by taking into account the stoichiometric of this reaction.
(3 marks)

QUESTION 2

(POS, C02, C3)


The dimerization of propylene into isohexane in which the reaction is 2A ~ P. The
reaction was conducted in a variable-volume batch reactor at constant pressure.
reaction was first order and initially consists of 70 mol% of A and the balance inert.
amount decreased by 20% in 4 min. Based on the given information, determine
following:
a)

The fractional change in volume,

b)

Conversion of propylene.

c)

Rate constant, k of the reaction.

SA

gas
The
The
the

for complete conversion.


(3 marks)
(5 marks)
(12 marks)

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EH/JAN 2013/CHE584/594

QUESTION 1

(POi, COi, C2, C3)


a)

Explain with examples the terms 'elementary' and 'non-elementary'

reactions.
(5 marks)

b)

Naphthalene, which is the most abundant component of coal tar is the liquid residue
formed during the distillation of coal into coke. Naphthalene is commonly used as a
raw material in the production of phthalic anhydride. Naphthalene vapours are easily
burn when mixed with air and its gas phase reaction is elementary and reversible as
follows,

An equal molar of ClOHs and O2 are fed to the reactor at a pressure of 10 atm and
200C
i) By taking C10Hs as a basis, construct a complete stoichiometric
reaction if the reaction occurred in a flow system.

table for this


(5 marks)

ii) If the conversion of C10Hs is 75%, determine the final concentration


determine the rate of reaction as a function of conversion

of CO2 and
(7 marks)

iii) Express the rate of reaction as a function of conversion if this reaction is carried out
in a constant volume system.
(3 marks)
Given:

QUESTION 2

(P05, C02, C3, C4)


a)

The following
equations:

reactions

occur in parallel to produce Y and Z with respective rate

The reactions take place in two


first reactor contains A and Z
respectively. From experimental
3 minutes with concentrations
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mixed flow reactors arranged in series. The feed to the


with initial concentrations of 1 mollL and 0.3 mollL
results, it is found that the space time for first reactor is
of CA1 to be 0.3 mol/L, CY1 of 0.2 mollL and CZ1 of
CONFIDENTIAL

CONFIDENTIAL

EH/JAN 2013/CHE584/594

0.7 mollL. If the space time for second reactor is 12 minutes,


concentration of A from the second reactor.

determine

the exit
(8 marks)

b)

In a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), an irreversible liquid phase reaction is to be


carried out according to the reaction:

A--,>B+C
Pure A enters the reactor at a concentration of 2.5 mol/dm". The experimental data
are measured which relates the variations in r and CA.

Ta bl e 1 Exoerirnenta Id ata f or CSTR


Run
,(min)
CA.mol/drn")

1
15

2
38

1.5

1.25

100
1.0

300

5
1200

0.75

0.5

i) Identify the relationship between the space time, , and concentration


stating the necessary assumption(s).

of A, CA by
(2 marks)

ii) Determine the rate of reaction and the volume of CSTR required
conversion of A is 0.80. Given that the feed flow rate is 150 mol/min.

if desired
(9 marks)

QUESTION 3

(P05, C03, C3, C4)


In a constant batch reactor, an irreversible gas-phase non-elementary

reaction of:

A+ 2B ~ C
is to be carried out isothermally and the changes in pressure is considered negligible. The
gas mixtures enters the reactor at temperature of 260C and pressure of 1013 kPa, with
molar composition of 30% A and balance B. Data taken from laboratory experiments are as
follows:
T a bl e 2 Exoenrnen t a Id aa
t f or gas-pi hase cons t an t bact h reac t or
-rA' x 10''>
0.002
0.01
0.085
0.005
0.0035
(moVka.min)
Conversion, XA

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.0015

0.001

0.5

0.6

The volumetric flow rate of the feed is 10 m3/min and assuming the density of feed to be
1 kg/m3, Using numerical method,

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EH/JUN 20121CHE584/594

QUeSTION 1
(P01, C01, C2, C3)
Ethyl benzene is an important intermediate mainly used for the production of styrene. Ethyl
benzene can be produced by reacting ethylene and toluene as follows:
2 Ethylene + Toluene

-+

Ethyl benzene + Propylene

The above reaction takes place isothermally without a pressure drop with entering pressure
and temperature of 8.1 atm and 225C, respectively. The feed gas consists of 30% toluene
and 70% ethylene. By assuming that the reaction is elementary,
a)

Construct a stoichiometric
reacting species.

table to determine the concentrations of each of the


(12 marks)

b)

Detennine the rate of reaction as a function of conversion, X and the rate constant,

k.
(4 marks)
c)

State three ways of how reacting substances could lose their chemical identity and
suggest which from these ways ethylene and toluene could lose their chemical
identity to produce ethyl benzene and propylene.
(4 marks)

QUESTION 2
(POS, C02, C3, C4)
The below equation represents a liquid phase reaction

A+B--tC
A and B streams ~5 dm3/min and concentration of 2M each) are mixed before entering a
reactor. A 800 dm PFR is operated at 300K (cannot be heated or cooled) and a 200 drrr'
CSTR (can be heated to 7rC) is planned to be used
react A and B isothermally in liquid
phase to produce product C. Note that k=0.07 dm3/mol.min at 300K and E=20 kcaLlmol.

to

a)

Suggest which reactor and under what conditions do you recommend? Explain the
reason of your choice.
(12 marks)

b)

Determine the time it takes to achieve 90% conversion in a 200 dm3 batch reactor
(BR) with CAo==Cso ~ 1M after mixing at temperature of 7rC?
(4 marks)

c)

Evaluate your answer to part (b) be if the reactor were cooled to OC


(4 marks)

1-

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QUESTION

EH/APR 2011/CHE5841594

CONFIDENTIAL

(P01, C01, C3, C4)


Industrial butadiene which has been used to produce synthetic rubber can be obtained by
the dehydrogenation of butenes through Chromium (Ill) Oxide (Cr203). A process engineer
was asked to study the specific dehydrogenation of butenes. The reaction was carried out in
a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) and in first order. The laboratory data taken shows
in Table 1.

0.00180
323.0
i)
ii)

0.00355
328.0

0.00717
333.0

Calculate the activation energy and specific rate of reaction.


Determine the reaction rate if the reaction was carried out at 500 K.
(15 marks)

QUESTION

(P01, C01, C3, C4, C5)


Naphthalene is a white solid that evaporates easily. It is also called mothballs, moth flakes,
white tar, and tar camphor. When mixed with air, naphthalene vapors easily burn. The gas
phase irreversible reaction is elementary, following:
.

C10He

1202

10C02 +4H20

An equal molar of C10HS and O2 are fed to the reactor at a pressure of 15 atm and 250C.
Additional information:
3

=
CfoHa

20 dm

mol.

a) Set up a complete stoichiometric table for this reaction if the reaction occurred in a flow
system by taking C10Heas a basis.
.
(10 marks)

b) If the conversion of C10Hs is 70%, find the final concentration


of reaction as a function of conversion

of CO2 Determine the rate


(10 marks)

c) Suggest the rate of reaction as a function of conversion


constant volume system.

if this reaction is carried out in a


(3 marks)

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QUESTION

For the following


a)

EHlOCT 2010/CHE5841594

reactions,

derive the outlet concentrations

A constant temperature

of reactant A.

and pressure gas phase reversible

reaction

of

2A <=> 2C, which

pure A is fed to the reactor.


b) For an isothermal

gas phase irreversible

reaction

3A ~

C, which

pure A is fed to the

reactor.
c)

A constant temperature

and pressure gas phase reversible

reaction A ~

3D, which pure

A is fed to the reactor.


d) An isothermal
mole of
e)

gas phase reversible

reaction

2A

+ 28 ~ 2C, with 2 moles of A and a

B fed to the reactor.

For an isothermal

gas phase reversible

reaction

3A ~

2C, which

pure A is fed to the

reactor.
(10 marks)

QUESTION

Heating of nitrosyl chloride

above 1OO"C will decompose


2 NOCI ~ 2 NO

It to the following

reaction.

+ CI2

In order to study the rate of this reaction, relevant data was collected and studied at 200"C.
The concentration initially consisting of NOCI only changes as given in Table 1.
Table 1 Concentration
t (s)
Concentration
of
NOCI (mole/l)
Determine

of NOCI0
0.0200

time data
200

300

500

0.0159

0.0144

0.0121

the order of the reaction and the rate constant,

k, in Lfmol.s.
(20 marks)

QUESTION 3
For the gas phase reaction C2H4 + C~H6 ~ C6H10 which is carried
constant volume batch reactor. The rate law of the reaction is

- rc
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H
1

out isothermally

= 3.0x 107 exp[-115,000J


Cc1H 4 Cc H 6
RT

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in

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EH/OCT 2010/CHE5841594

With,
R = 8.314 J K''mor", Arrhenius parameters A and EA in L mol' S1 and J
Given the rate disappearance of ethylene, C1H4 is 8x10';' mol L1Sl.

mar"

respectively.

a) Find the temperature, T in Kelvin would be to achieve 57.6% conversion of reactants.


Please note that the reactants initially are in equimolar ratio, time required to achieve
57.6% conversion is 4 min.
(10 marks)
b) Using the same temperature as in part (a), find the time required for 75.4% conversion of
1,3~butadiene, C4Hs, if the reaction is carried out isothermally.
(5 marks)
c) Find the total initial pressure for this gas reaction using the same temperature as in (a),
with R = 8.314 L kPa K'lmol,l.
(5 marks)

QUESTION 4
a) List three assumptions in arriving at the following expression (1) for a CSTR with heat
transfer.
... (1)

Given that expression (1) is derived from the General Energy Balance over a continuous
reactor which can be written as expression (2) below.

...(2)
(3 marks)
b) A first-order, liquid-phase endothermic reaction A 78 + C, is conducted in a CSTR of
15 m3 volume operating at steady-state. The feed temperature is 310 K. But, the reactor
is heated in order to increase the rate and achieve a conversion of 75%.
i)

Determine the rate of reaction needed to achieve this conversion.


(5 marks)

ii) Determine the temperature needed to achieve this conversion.


(5 marks)
iii) Determine the heat transfer requirement of the reactor to achieve this conversion.
(7 marks)
Given:
Arrhenius constant, A 3.5><1013S,1
Energy of Activation, EA= 100,000 J/mol
Heat of Reaction, flHrxn 51,000 J/mol
Gas law constant 8.314 J/K.mol
Heat capacity of A, Cp 3.5 J/g-K
Volumetric flow, Vo= 8.3 Us
Density, p = 950 g/L
Concentration of A in the feed, CAO 0.8 molfL

Ig)

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