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Precision approaches

Precision approaches An automatic landing system is fail­passive if, in the event of a failure, there

An automatic landing system is fail­passive if, in the event of a failure, there is no significant out­of­ trim condition or deviation of flight path or attitude but the landing is not completed automatically. For a fail­passive automatic landing system the pilot assumes control of the aircraft after a failure (JAA).

Remark : you can fly a CAT IIIA approach with a DH less than 50 ft, but a RVR still above 200 meters, that makes it a IIIA and not a IIIB. The RVR is the deciding factor here.

Cat III (and Cat II in Europe) are conducted with radio altimers (RA) to determine the Decision Height. When necessary, the published DH takes into account the terrain profile before runway threshold (RA on some plates). The Cat I decision height is converted in a Decision Altitude with a barometric altimer.

CAT

CAT

I :

II :

DH CAT

DH CAT

I = max {200 ft ; OCH } DA

II = max {100 ft ; OCH } < 200 ft

LEZL ILS W 27 (CAT I only)

Spanish AIP

LEZL ILS W 27 (CAT I only) Spanish AIP The ILS RWY 27 is a CAT

The ILS RWY 27 is a CAT I only ILS. It is clear on the spanish chart, thanks to the empty rows below the CAT I row.

This State plate shows only the OCA(H) ­ this is an important information from the point of view of regulatory compliance, but is not used directly to describe "minima".

Obstacle clearance altitude OCH is the height on an IAP with the minimum permitted clearance above obstacles on the final approach. It does not take into account the limitations associated with the navaid (system minimum). Thus the DH or MDH is the higher of the OCH or the system minimum. CAT I :

DH CAT I = max {200 ft ; OCH } .

The conventional DH for this approach in CAT I, ACFT of category A, would be 200 ft (DH 200). But DH is 213 with an ACFT of category C in application of DH ILS 27, ACFT C = max {200 ft ; OCH 213ft } .

Aircraft category

CAT A :

0 < VAT <

90 kt

CAT B :

91 < VAT < 120 kt

CAT C : 121 < VAT < 140 kt CAT D : 141 < VAT < 165 kt CAT E : 65 < VAT < 210 kt

CAT III

LEMD ILS 33R (CAT I/II/III)

Spanish AIP

CAT III
CAT III

Jeppesen

III LEMD ILS 33R (CAT I/II/III) Spanish AIP CAT III Jeppesen Above DH C A T
III LEMD ILS 33R (CAT I/II/III) Spanish AIP CAT III Jeppesen Above DH C A T

Above

DH CAT II = max {100 ft ; OCH } . The OCH is not shown, because the Jeppesen charts are oriented for operationnal use.

minimus

compliants

with

DH CAT I = max {200 ft ; OCH } and

are

From DH 100ft (Height Above Touchdown) we take RA 109ft, because ground is not perfectly flat below the plane. An height of 100 ft above the runway is actually a radio­altimeter height of 109 ft before the runway due to the terrain in front of this runway.

Two charts are used, one for the CAT I and another one for CAT II/CAT III.

to the terrain in front of this runway. Two charts are used, one for the CAT
CAT III
CAT III

Navigraph

Navigraph The OCH is not shown, because the chart is oriented for the thrue operation of

The OCH is not shown, because the chart is oriented for the thrue operation of the aircraft, which does not requires to know the OCH that led to the calculated DH. The DH is also not shown for CAT II as only RA will be taken into account during the final approach. The Navigraph chart displays only the essential information.

EGGW ILS 26 (Cat I/II/IIIB)

United Kingdom AIP

EGGW ILS 26 (Cat I/II/IIIB) United Kingdom AIP The UK plate shows only the OCA(H). The

The UK plate shows only the OCA(H). The conventional DH for this approach in CAT I would be 200 ft (DH 200) ­ABCD.

The CAT III Operations are only described in the textual AIP :

« (a) Runways 08 and 26, subject to serviceability of the required facilities, are suitable for Category ll/III operations by operators whose minima have been accepted by the National Aviation Authority.

(b) During Category ll/III operations, Special ATC procedures (ATC Low Visibility Procedures) will be applied. Pilots will be informed when these procedures are in operation by ATIS broadcast or by RTF. »

As CAT III minimums are strongly related to each pilot and aircraft certification (crew minima and aircraft minima), it logical to only pinpoint CAT II minimums . The fact that Jeppesen uses RA50' RVR200m is consistent however with the RVR CAT IIIA rule (RVR greater than 200m while DH is lower than 100 ft, but superior to 50 ft if the system is fail passive ) and might be related to the very company the charts were supplied to. The RVR minima for CAT IIIA and CATIIIB will be discuted later.

Jeppesen

CAT III
CAT III

The above minimus are stated only in the 2009 plate but no more in the 2011 plate. In contrast to LEMD, only one chart is used for the three CAT capabilities (see below).

CAT III
CAT III

Nowhere is mentionned the CAT IIIB capability explicitely written on the 2009 Jeppesen chart. It is only stated that the runway is approved for CAT III operations in general in the text. That could mean that Jeppesen considers CAT III as both IIIA and IIIB, otherwise specified.

CAT III
CAT III

Navigraph

both IIIA and IIIB, otherwise specified. CAT III Navigraph Navigraph does not mention any CAT IIIA

Navigraph does not mention any CAT IIIA minimums instead of Jeppesen. But it clearly states that CAT IIIB is available.

LGAV ILS Z 21R (Z is for CAT I)

Hellenic AIP

LGAV ILS Z 21R (Z is for CAT I) Hellenic AIP The DH is not described.

The DH is not described. We have the OCH however.

Jeppesen

The DH is not described. We have the OCH however. Jeppesen Navigraph Above minimus are compliants

Navigraph

not described. We have the OCH however. Jeppesen Navigraph Above minimus are compliants with DH C

Above minimus are compliants with DH CAT I = max {200 ft ; OCH } . The OCH is not shown in the Navigraph version but it is obvious that it is 400 ft (for missed approach at 4,0%).

LFPG « ILS CAT I » or « ILS CATII and CATIII » or « LOC » 26R

French AIP

CAT III
CAT III

The DH for CAT II (and CAT III) is not described in the french AIP. We have the OCH ILS CAT2 however.

Since DH CAT II = max {100 ft ; OCH } and the greater OCH CAT2 is 84 ft, we have a DH CAT II of 100 ft for CAT II for all aircraft categories (ABCD). It is safe to assume that DH=RA. RA CAT II is about 100 ft (RA 100). This is confirmed by the Jeppesen approach plate (shown below) which states RA 102.

Jeppesen

« All RWYs approved for CAT II/III operations, special aircrew and ACFT certification required. »

special aircrew and ACFT certification required. » The DH is published together with the RA in
special aircrew and ACFT certification required. » The DH is published together with the RA in

The DH is published together with the RA in the Jeppesen chart. According to the JAA, the DH recognition must be by means of height measured by radio­altimeter. But the FAA leaves the choice for CAT II DH recognition (radio­altimeter, inner markers or barometric altimeter).

LFSB « ILS CAT I » or « ILS CATII and CATIII » 15

French AIP

« ILS CAT I » or « ILS CATII and CATIII » 15 French AIP DH

DH CAT II = max {100 ft ; OCH }

Navigraph

« ILS CAT I » or « ILS CATII and CATIII » 15 French AIP DH

DETERMINATION OF RVR FOR CATEGORY III

DETERMINATION OF RVR FOR CATEGORY III Only the Jeppesen charts are including minima for CATIII A

Only the Jeppesen charts are including minima for CATIII A operations. They are DH 50 and RVR 200m. It corresponds to a fail­passive autoland system, both for FAA and JAA (DH greater than 50ft if fail passive).

RVR 200m. It corresponds to a fail­passive autoland system, both for FAA and JAA (DH greater
Company policy <TRT> Fail­passive landing Either Fail­Passive is the only Autoland system available on the

Company policy <TRT>

Fail­passive landing

Company policy <TRT> Fail­passive landing Either Fail­Passive is the only Autoland system available on the

Either Fail­Passive is the only Autoland system available on the aircraft or only crew certification available or Fail­passive is a degraded mode as a consequence of a failure in Fail­operational mode.

The Decision Height minima is the radio altitude (RA) above the touchdown zone. No Barometric altitude will be used (DA).

Fail­operational landing

altitude will be used (DA). Fail­operational landing Fail­operational autoland system is available on the

Fail­operational autoland system is available on the aircraft with ROLLOUT capability. Crew have adequate qualifications. CAT III is available on the considered runway.

The Decision Height minima is the radio altitude (RA) above the touchdown zone.

An automatic landing system is fail­passive if, in the event of a failure, there is no significant out­of­ trim condition or deviation of flight path or attitude but the landing is not completed automatically. For a fail­passive automatic landing system the pilot assumes control of the aircraft after a failure (JAA).

An automatic landing system is fail­operational if, in the event of a failure below alert height, the approach, the flare and landing can be completed by the remaining part of the automatic system. In the event of failure, the automatic landing system will operate as a fail­passive system (JAA).

Type

Fail­passive capacity for current autoland

Fail­operational capacity for current autoland

 

A320

CAT 3 SINGLE on the PFD

 

CAT 3 DUAL on the PFD

 

B737 Dual­AP Fail­operational

SINGLE

CH

LAND

2

SINGLE

CH

LAND

3

(FLARE)

(FLARE+ROLLOUT)

 

B737 Dual­AP Fail­passive

SINGLE CH CMD

 

­

CAT IIIA is conducted with LAND 2 (FLARE) or LAND3 for fail­operational aircraft. CATIIIB is conducted with LAND 3 (FLARE+ROLLOUT) for fail­operational aircraft.

Decision Altitude or Height ­ DA(H)

A Decision Altitude or Height is a specified altitude or height in an ILS, GLS, PAR, or some approaches using a VNAV path or IAN where a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been established. The “Altitude” value is typically measured by a barometric altimeter and is the determining factor for minima for Category I approaches, (e.g., ILS, GLS, or RNAV with VNAV). The “Height” value specified in parenthesis, typically a RA height above the touchdown zone (HAT), is advisory. The RA may not reflect actual height above terrain.

For most Category II and Category III fail passive approaches, the Decision Height is the controlling minima and the altitude value specified is advisory. A Decision Height is usually based on a specified radio altitude above the terrain on the final approach or touchdown zone.

Fail­passive

Fail­passive Fail­operational

Fail­operational

Fail­passive Fail­operational

Low Drag ILS Approach <TRT>

Visibility > 5000m and Cloudbase > 1000 feet

otherwise apply standard procedures

<TRT> This approach may be conducted using single A/P or flight director only

otherwise apply standard procedures <TRT> This approach may be conducted using single A/P or flight director