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and / or consumables

Joint Design
a. Welding position
b. Edge preparation
c. Method of cleaning, degreasing etc.
d. Fit up of joint
e. Jigging or tacking procedure
f. Type of backing
Welding Position
a. Whether shop or site weld
b. Arrangement of runs and weld sequence
c. Filler material, composition and size (diameter)
d. Welding variables - voltage, current, travel speed
e. Weld size
f. Back gouging
g. Any specific features, e.g. heat input control, run-out length
Thermal Treatment
a. Preheat and interpass temperatures including method and control
b. Post weld treatment including method and control
ESSENTIAL VARIABLES
An essential variable is a variable that will influence or change the mechanical
or metallurgical properties of the welded joint - changes affecting the procedu
re approval. Any change in an essential variable requires a new welding procedur
e specification (WPS).
Essential variables include: wall thickness, joint design, process, materials, c
onsumables, welding position, direction, heat input (voltage, amperage, travel s
peed), heat treatment.
APPROVING THE PROCEDURE
When the data has been collected, the procedure must be validated by producing a
nd testing a trail weld.
If the procedure is to be used on a fabrication, which has been designed to meet
the requirements of a code, the test weld is done under the supervision of an i
ndependent witness. The detailed arrangements for the test are subject to agreem
ent between the contracting parties.
A number of British Standards make cross-reference to another standard which cov
ers approval testing. Other codes of practice include their own weld procedure /
welder approval information. In general they include a standard format, which c
an be used to report the results of an approval test.
Range of approval. (extent of approval, scope of approval)
Provides a working range over which certain variables may alter without requirin
g a new welding procedure or welder approval.
Variables include thickness (e.g. 1/2 down to 2x above), diameter (e.g. 1/2 down
to 1/2 above) materials (different materials can be covered), position, process
, parent plate group, and consumables.
Re-approval of a welding procedure is necessary if there is a change of any of t
he essential variables or considerable defect re-occurrence.
ABBREVIATIONS
WPS
welding procedure specification - an approved and accepted weldi
ng procedure; an
authorised document.
PQR
procedure qualification records - proof the procedure works - record of
tests
undertaken to qualify procedure.

WAC
welder approval certificate - required to ensure a particular welder is
capable of