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II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

INDUR
INSTITUTE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY
SIDDIPET, Medak DIST. 502277

LABORATORY MANUAL

COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB


IInd Year IInd Sem. DCME
(CURRICULUM 2009(C-09))
Prepared and verified by
R.RADHA KRISHNA
1
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

DEPARTMENT
OF

ELECTRONICS AND COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING


LAB CODE
1.

Students should report to the concerned labs as per the time table schedule.

2.

Students who turn up late to the labs will in no case be permitted to perform the experiment
scheduled for the day.
After completion of the experiment, certification of the concerned staff in-charge in
the
observation book is necessary.

3.
4.

Staff member in-charge shall award marks based on continuous evaluation for each
experiment out of maximum 10 marks and should be entered in the notebook

5.

Students should bring a note book of about 100 pages and should enter the readings/observations into
the note book while performing the experiment.

6.

The record of observations along with the detailed experimental procedure of the experiment
performed in the immediate last session should be submitted and certified by the staff member incharge.

7.

Not more than three students in a group are permitted to perform the experiment on a setup.

8.

The group-wise division made in the beginning should be adhered to, and no mix up of
among different groups will be permitted later.

9.

The components required pertaining to the experiment should be collected from


after duly filling in the requisition form.

10.

When the experiment is completed, students should disconnect the setup made by them, and should
return all the components/instruments taken for the purpose.

11.

Any damage of the equipment or burn-out of components will be viewed seriously either by putting
penalty or by dismissing the total group of students from the lab for the semester/year.

12.

Students should be present in the labs for the total scheduled duration.

13.

stores

student
in-charge

Students are required to prepare thoroughly to perform the experiment before coming to Laboratory.
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II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

14.

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Procedure sheets/data sheets provided to the students groups should be maintained neatly and to be
returned after the experiment.

INDEX
LIST OF EXPERIMENTS

Sl. No.

Page No.

Identify motherboard components

05 09

RAM identification, removal, installation.

10 14

CMOS setup.

15 20

Print a summary of your system Hardware.

21 24

Upgrading memory

25 27

Hard drive, optical drive installation

28 31

How to recover lost data on hard drive.

32 38

Trouble shooting keyboard ,monitor, printer

39 45

Printer Problems

10

Installation of operating system

11

Installation of Network card.


Preparing the UTP cable for cross and direct connections using
crimping tool.
Installation of a switch and connecting systems to a network
switch.
Installation of a modem (internal, external or USB) and
connecting to internet.

12
13
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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

15

Using FTP for uploading and downloading files.

16

Installation and configuring the proxy server for internet access

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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

EXP. No. 1: Identify motherboard components


AIM: To Identify various components of mother board and state the function of each
Component of mother board.
EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer(PC)
2. Tool Kit
THEORY
Definition-1: Computer is an electronic data processing machine which receives and stores a large volume
of information in the form of symbols and digits. Instructions given by the user and gives the result.
Definition-2:
Computer is an electronic device which
Accepts the data,
Stores the data,
Process the data, and
Gives the results at a great speed
According to user instructions
Mother board: Mother board is a printed circuit is a foundation of computer & allows the CPU, RAM & all
other hard ware components to function with each other. Mother board provided electronic connection
between various components in system. The primary purpose of a System Board is to house the CPU and
allow all devices to communicate with it each other.
The main Circuit Board of a Microcomputer
This is also called Main Board or Mother Board.
The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards.
The two most popular System Boards are
Older AT
Newer ATX
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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PROCEDURE
When you open the computer case we find this.
Mother board:
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

The main Circuit Board of a Microcomputer


This is also called Main Board or Mother Board.
The motherboard contains the connectors for attaching additional boards.
The two most popular System Boards are
Older AT
Newer ATX
It provided inter face for various add on card such as 3D graphic sound cards,
networking inter face card etc..,
It provides CMOS battery driver for real time clock.

It supports ports links such as serial, parallel, USB, & internet, etc..,

S.M.P.S:
It stands for switch mode power supply. It converts AC supply to 3.3V, 5v, 12v,
DC
It provides the power to all components of system
Processor: This is the chip that does the thinking of the computer. These are the Pentium & AMD
processor speed is measured is MHZ & GHZ (1GHZ=1000MHZ)
Memory: Stores the Data, Two types
Primary Memory, Example: RAM
Secondary Memory, Example: Hard Disk
RAM (Random Access Memory): It is a temporary memory

Whenever the power is switched off the contents will be lost

It is also called volatile memory

Two main types: Static RAM (SRAM) and Dynamic RAM (DRAM)

Hard Disk (HDD): is often shortened as Hard Disk, Hard Drive, or HDD.Is a Non-Volatile storage
device that stores digitally encoded data on rapidly rotating rigid (i.e. hard) platters with
magnetic surfaces?
Read Only Memory (ROM) Chip:

ROM holds programs and data permanently even when Computer is switched off
Data can be read by the CPU in any order so ROM is also direct access
Rom chip contains instruction which are specified for the particular which are specified for the
particular mother board these programs & instruction will be remaining the PC throughout its life
usually they are not already altered

PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) Slot: for high-speed input/output


AGP (Accelerated Graphics Port) Slot: for a video card
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ISA (Industry Standard Architecture) Slot: for older or slower devices


Chip set:
Set of chips on the motherboard
Controls Memory Cache, External Buses, Peripherals
Intel dominates the market in the field of chipsets---Example: i800 series of Chipsets
The chip set usually chip two section they are
(1) North bridge
(2) South bridge
---The Northbridge links the CPU to very high-speed devices, especially, Main memory and
Graphics controllers, and
---The Southbridge connects to lower-speed peripheral buses such as PCI or ISA
Hard ware:
Physical components of Computer
What we can see and touch
Ex. Key Board, Monitor, CPU, Hard Disk, Printer etc.,
Floppy drive:
This is slot in the front of your computer where you insert which store data & meaning to the other
computer is your computer IMAC you will not have floppy disk are 3 1/2 inches in size & hard 1.44MB
data
CD ROM (or) ROM drivers:
This plays your music & data CD it will also play DVD movies data CD hold up to 70MB of
Information .DVD hold up to 4.7GB of information if have CD (or) CD-R/W you can store
information on CD's
CMOS battery:
CMOS battery provides voltage to the BIOS computer setting are stored here & system clock
Heat Sink: The purpose of heat Sink, it is cool processer temporarily
Power connection:
These connections connects you power supply to drives & devices in your computer
Data cables: The purpose of these cables is to communicate data between mother board & devices link
disk, CD drive etc..,
OBSERVATIONS
We identified the various components of mother board and study the various functions of each
component of mother board.
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the various components of mother board.
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
1.
2.

TROUBLE SHOOTING:
Check the working condition of Computer components/Parts
Check the all properties
2.
Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
3.
Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Verified the various components of mother board and their functions of each component of mother
board.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems
QUESTIONS
1. Define computer?
2. What is a chipset? Give an example
3. List different types of motherboards?
4. Define form factor of system board?
5. Define motherboard?

EXP. No. 2: RAM identification, removal, installation


AIM: RAM identification, removal and installation
EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. RAM (Random Access Memory)
(Memory RAM ranges from 128MB to 3GB)
3. Tool Kit
THEORY
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Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Random Access Memory (RAM) is the best known form of Computer Memory. The Read and write
(R/W) memory of a computer is called RAM. The User can write information to it and read information
from it. With RAM any location can be reached in a fixed (and short) amount of time after specifying its
address.
The RAM is a volatile memory, it means information written to it can be accessed as long as power
is on. As soon as the power is off, it cannot be accessed. So this mean RAM computer memory essentially
empty. RAM holds data and processing instructions temporarily until the CPU needs it.
There are two basic types of RAM:
(i) Dynamic Ram
(ii) Static RAM
Dynamic RAM: loses its stored information in a very short time (for milli sec.) even when power supply is
on. D-RAMs are cheaper & lower.
Similar to a microprocessor chip is an Integrated Circuit (IC) made of millions of transistors and capacitors.
Static RAM: A form of flip-flop holds each bit of memory. A flip-flop for a memory cell takes four or six
transistors along with some wiring, but never has to be refreshed. This makes static RAM significantly faster
than dynamic RAM.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

PROCEDURE
When you open the computer case we find this.
Remove all cables from the PC, then remove the cartilage one side, then remove
the two chips in the RAM chip on the mother board, Tabulate the ram check it is DDR1,DDR2(or)DDR3.
If RAM is not workin0g exchange a mother ram with same configuration then insert the ram in
ram slots on mother board properly, the fix RAM pins & automatically locked to power on system.
Press delete key to check ram configuration in CMOS setup product information then click at
should ram capacity
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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

OBSERVATIONS
We identified the RAM slots on mother board, removed and installed.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of RAMs
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of Computer RAMs
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Identified the RAM, removed and installed on the mother board.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems
QUESTIONS
1. Define RAM
2. Define ROM
3. What is Memory?
4. What is meaning of Memory Mapping?
5. What are types of RAMs?
6. Define Stack?
7. What is difference between Static memory and Dynamic Memory?
8. What is NVRAM

EXP. No. 3: CMOS setup


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II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

AIM: To open CMOS setup and identify the configuration of the system.
EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. RAM (Random Access Memory)
(Memory RAM ranges from 128MB to 3GB)
3. Tool Kit
THEORY
Computer stores most configuration information of one CMOS chip that retains the data even, when the
computer is turned off. A battery near the CMOS chip provide enough electricity to enable the chip to
maintain its data. If the battery is disconnected or fails setup information is lost password information is one
of the part in computer setup is stored in CMOS.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

PROCEDURE
Power on the pc and restart and press delete key.
Wait for few seconds.
To display CMOS setup.
A program used to display and edit user configurable settings in the BIOS of a PC
Also called BIOS Setup
The BIOS setup is accessed at startup
Soon after a PC is turned on,
a short text message typically passes by very quickly on screen indicating which
key to press (usually the DEL or F1 key)
Most Configuration information is stored on one CMOS chip
Retains the data even when the Computer is turned off
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A Battery near the CMOS chip provides enough electricity to enable the chip to maintain its
data
Updated via BIOS program
Three primary BIOS brands
American Megatrends (AMI), Award, Phoenix
To enter setup, press key combination
(may be Del, ESC, F1, F2,
CTRL-ALT-ESC,
CTRL-ALT-INS,
CTRL-ALT-Enter,
or CTRL-S)
CMOS Set up: Main menu
- Access to all submenus

Clock, hard drives, floppy drives

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Normally set to Default or Auto for all

POST, boot order

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

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Use to enable/disable power-saving features

Rarely need to
manipulate on todays PCs

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Set Password

SECURITY:
THIS feature will protect our cmos setup configuration it also gives the security for
unauthorized users..
LOAD DEFAULT SETTINGS:
While we protect the load default the settings will be defaulted automatically.
SAVE AND EXIT:
After all settings press f10 and f2 to save and exit it is used to save our bios.
OBSERVATIONS
Keep OS rescue disk. It is FDD used to start up a computer when the HDD fails to boot..
PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the CMOS properties
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of Computer
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
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CMOS setup and identified the configuration of the system.


APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems

QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.

Define CMOS
List any four CMOS setup options.
What is need for CMOS setup?
What is BIOS?

EXP. No. 4: Print a summary of your system Hardware

AIM: To Print a summary of your system Hardware


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II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. Tool Kit
THEORY
The following list describe the types of reports that you can print:

System summary
This option prints a summary of the devices that are installed on your computer or on the remote
computer that you are managing. The summary includes the product version number, bus type,
registered owner, and resource information, such as interrupt request line (IRQ) and input/output
(I/O) usage.

Selected class or device


This option prints a report for the device or the hardware type that you choose. The report includes
the device name, device driver location, version and manufacturer information, and resources that
are allocated to the device, such as I/O ports and memory addresses.

All devices and system summary


This option prints a report for each device or hardware type that is installed on your computer, as
well as a summary of your computer. If you have many devices installed on your computer, this may
be a long document.

WINDOW DIAGRAM
Option 1 - Performance Information
This option prints your Windows Experience Index ratings as well as your system manufacturer, total
storage and RAM, basic graphics driver details, and a list of network adapters.
There are several ways to get to this information such as by navigating through the "Control Panel" - this tip
just lists one way.

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Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

1. Click the "Start" button.


2. Type in performance without pressing Enter.
3. Underneath "Control Panel" click on "Performance Information and Tools".

4. The "Performance Information and Tools" dialog box appears.


Click the "View and print detailed performance and system information" link next to the printer icon.
5. A "More details about my computer" dialog appears. Scroll through the information, and click the "Print
this page" button if desired.

PROCEDURE
By right clicking on my computer and go to properties.Then a window appears then note
down the system configuration open run and cmd then type "system info" by typing this
command.the total system configuration is displayed including the system as version.
HOST name:SDPT.C
OS name:MS WINDOWS VISTA.
OS version:6.0 N/A build 6000.
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OS: Microsoft corporation.


Registered owner:IIET SDPT
PRODUCT ID:89576-DEM-7332141-00029
DOMAIN:Workshop
RAM:1 GB
OBSERVATIONS
We identified the PC system Information and Printed on the paper.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the total system configuration
2. Note the important specifications and functions
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of Computer
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Printed the summary of system Hardware.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems
QUESTIONS
1. Define System summary
2. Define Hardware?
3. Define Software?

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II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

EXP. No. 5: Upgrading memory


AIM: To upgrading the memory
EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. Hard disk/RAM
3. Tool Kit
THEORY
Hard disk is a permanent storage device which huge amount of data. A Hard Disk Drive is often
shortened as Hard Disk, Hard Drive, or HDD. Is a Non-Volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded
data on rapidly rotating rigid (i.e. hard) platters with magnetic surfaces?
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

PROCEDURE
UPGRADING MEMORY:

The only method of upgrading method is to change the method is to change the hard disk by
keeping the hard disk.

How to Upgrade Your PC's RAM:


Adding RAM is often the most cost-effective upgrade you can make to speed up a sluggish
computer. PCs that had more than enough RAM when they were new often have trouble keeping up with the
demands of the latest programs after a few years. New operating systems almost always call for more
memory, too. When a computer runs short of RAM, it's forced to swap the overflow data on and off of the
hard drive, which can significantly slow performance. Below, we'll tell you how to diagnose a memory
shortage and what to do about it. To see how a RAM upgrade is done, check out our companion video.
How do I know if I need more RAM?
Windows Task Manager can tell you if your machine needs more RAM. Windows Task Manager can
tell you if your machine needs more RAM. Check your PC's RAM usage by opening Windows Task
Manager. Press Ctrl-Alt-Del (Vista users will have to click Start Task Manager) and click the Performance
tab. If the figure next to 'Available' (or 'Free' in Vista) under 'Physical Memory' hovers around zero and 22
your
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PC seems sluggish, you need more RAM.


OBSERVATIONS
We identified the RAM slots on mother board, removed and installed.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of RAMs
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of Computer hard disk
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Identified the hard disk, RAM removed and upgraded the memory.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems
QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.

Define RAM
Define ROM
What is Hard disk?
What are types of Hard disks?

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EXP. No. 6: Hard

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

drive, optical drive installation

AIM: To install hard drive and optical drive


EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. Hard drive and optical drive
3. Tool Kit
THEORY

Hard drive:
Hard disk is a permanent storage device which huge amount of data. A Hard Disk Drive is often
shortened as Hard Disk, Hard Drive, or HDD. Is a Non-Volatile storage device that stores digitally encoded
data on rapidly rotating rigid (i.e. hard) platters with magnetic surfaces.
Optical Disks: CD-ROM and DVD
CD-ROM (Compact Disk - Read Only Memory)
By its definition, CD-ROM is Read Only.
Special CD drives burn information into blank CDs.
Burn: A laser is used to burn craters into the surface to represent a binary 1.
Two main types of CDs:
CD-R (Compact Disk - Recordable)
CD-WR (Compact Disk - ReWritable)
It takes longer to write to a CD-R than a hard drive.
Special software is needed to record.
DVD (Digital Versatile Disk)
Allows up to 17 gigabytes of storage (from 4.7 GB to 17 GB).
Compatible with older CD-ROM technology.
The four versions of the DVD:
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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PROCEDURE
If the DVD is not working we can make it normally by make in management.
Uninstall: Right click on my computer and press manage and select device manager and select optical
drive then uninstall.
Install: Go to control panel select to add to hardware and device is display then disk to add the hardware.
OBSERVATIONS
We identified the Hard drive and CD/DVD drive slots on mother board, removed and installed.
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PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of hard drives
2. Note the Company specifications of CD/DVD drive
3. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of hard drive and optical drives
2. Check the all properties
3. Check a hard disk CMOS setup failure.
4. Check the jumpers.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Hard drive and optical drive (CD/DVD) installed and tested.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems
QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.

What is Hard disk?


What are types of Hard disks?
Explain about optical drive.
Write different functional units in CD ROM drive.

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II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

EXP. No. 7: How

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

to recover lost data on hard drive

AIM: To recover the lost data on hard drive


EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. CD, DVD and Pen drive and Hard drive
3. Tool Kit
THEORY

If Hard Disk is not functioning or failed, what we have to do for getting the data from the HDD?
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Data recovery is the process of extracting data from:

Damaged,

Failed,

Corrupted, or

Inaccessible primary storage media when it cannot be accessed normally

Recovering data after physical damage:

A wide variety of failures can cause physical damage to storage media

CD-ROMs can have their metallic substrate or dye layer scratched off

Hard disks can suffer any of several mechanical failures, such as head crashes and failed
motors

Tapes can simply break

Physical damage always causes at least some data loss

Recovering data from physically damaged hardware can involve multiple techniques

Some damage can be repaired by replacing parts in the hard disk

A specialized disk imaging procedure is used to recover every readable bit from the surface

Once this image is acquired, the image can be analyzed for logical damage and will possibly
allow for much of the original file system to be Hardware repair:

Examples of physical recovery procedures are: removing a damaged PCB (Printed Circuit
board) and replacing it with a matching PCB from a healthy drive

Disk imaging:

The extracted raw image can be used to reconstruct usable data after any logical damage has
been repaired

reconstructed

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Recovering data after logical damage:

Logical damage is primarily caused by power outages that prevent file system structures from
being completely written to the storage medium but problems with hardware (especially RAID
controllers) and drivers, as well as system crashes, can have the same effect

Logical Damage - Data Recovery Techniques:

Two main techniques are used to recover data from logical damage

Consistency checking, involves scanning the logical structure of the disk and checking to
make sure that it is consistent with its specification

Zero-knowledge analysis, is for file system repair is to assume very little about the state of
the file system to be analyzed and using any hints that any undamaged file system structures
might provide, rebuild the file system from scratch

Recover file from backup


If the file has been backed up to HDD, CD/DVD disk or other medium (pen drive) it is
recommended that the file be restored from that backup if the file cannot be found.
Restore from Recycling Bin or Trash
If you are running Apple MacOS or Microsoft Windows and the file has been recently deleted it may still be
in the Trash or Recycle Bin. If present within this area it can be recovered.
Below is a list of freeware file recovery programs that can be used freely to recover lost data.
1. Recuva
2. Restoration
3. Undelete Plus
4. FreeUndelete
5. Photorec
6. PC Inspector File Recover *Not compatible with Vista/7
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7. The Norton Utilities by Symantec is recovery package


CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

PROCEDURE
This is the major problem to recover the cost data to recover the data we have two methods.
Method1:This method may work or may not work if the system is hanged open it in a safe mode click start
& go to programs & then accessories then go to system restore
Then a window appears & the restore point data with timing's if we want the lasted data then change the
previous data then the data is also be retained
We can also make the antivirus which is for one month & if can work for months by the data reverse or
back
Method2: Another method of recovering the data is copy the filed into D or E drive & format C drive.
We can also keep the files in CD's, DVD's ect..,
By keeping this important files backup we can store the data for long period.
OBSERVATIONS
We identified and use the Free Hard Drive Data Recovery Software - EaseUS Data Recovery Wizard
.
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PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of Hard Drive Data Recovery Softwares
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of HDD and CD/DVD disk
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS

We recovered the lost data on hard drive


.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems
QUESTIONS
1. Define Data Recovery
2. What is Trouble Shooting?
3. Define HDD Hardware and Software Problems
4. What is abbreviation of CD/DVD?
5. Write about hard drive partition

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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

EXP. No. 8: Trouble

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

shooting keyboard ,monitor, printer

AIM: To Trouble shooting the keyboard, monitor and printer


a) few keys do not work.
b) keyboard does not work at all.
c) key continuous to repeat after being released.
d) key produces wrong character.
e) Power light (led) does not go on, no picture.
f) Power LED light is on no picture power up .
g) Power on but monitor display wrong character.
h) Monitor flickers has wary lines.
i) Screen goes blank 30 seconds or minute after the keyboard is left
untouched
EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. Keyboard, monitor and printer
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

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II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

3. Tool Kit
THEORY
Keyboard doesn't respond
If your machine, when booting, gives off a constant beeping noise, it is telling you that your keyboard is not
connected or not working.
Check the plug to make sure it's connected securely. Try unplugging it and re-plugging it again.
If there is no response, check the indicator light on the keyboard. Is it on? Do the lights respond when you
press the caps lock or the num lock key? If not, maybe your keyboard is broken.
Is there a key stuck? Gently pry off the cover and clean it with alcohol. Make sure it is not connected to your
machine when you are cleaning it. The space bar frequently comes off track. Gently pry it off, noting which
way the bar lies in your particular keyboard so you can replace it properly.
I cant see anything on my computer screen
Is the computer turned on? There is a light on the CPU. If the computer is on, it will be lit.
Is the computer plugged in? Check to see if ALL plugs are secure.
Power cord from the computer to the power strip.
Power strip to the wall socket.
Is the Power Strip turned on? There is a light on the strip. If the strip is on, the indictor light will be on.
Is the Monitor on? There is a light on the monitor. If the monitor is on, it will be lit. If it is turned on, check
the contrast and brightness buttons to see if they have been tampered with.
Is the computer in Power Save or Sleep mode? Move the mouse or press any key on the keyboard to see if
the computer will "wake-up."
Are all peripherals plugged in? Verify that all cables and cords leading in to and out of your computer to
insure they are all in tight and not disconnected.
Printer Problems

Check the cables first. Unplug and replug the printer into the computer. Be sure the power cable is
plugged in and the outlet works.
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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Check to make sure the correct printer is selected in the Print Dialog box. If you are on a network,
you could be sending the output to a printer in someone else's room.

Can you print from a different application? Does it only occur with a certain application or is it not
working with anything?

Can you print a test page directly from the printer with it unconnected to the computer? Each
manufacturer has their own special series of buttons to hold down for this self-test. Most of the time
it will be in the user's manual.

Reinstall the software. Delete the old drivers first. Did that fix the problem?
Printer machine wont turn on.
Check to see if the power is on.
Check to see if the printer cable plugged into the back of the printer and the wall.
Error lights are flashing.
Check the error display on the fax for jams, paper, toner, etc.
Can connect to the network.
Open the Network Neighborhood icon on your desktop. You should see a long list of servers. If not, reboot.
My printers are gone.
Open your Start Menu; go up to settings, then over to printers. You should see a list of your printers that you
use there. If not, reboot.
My printer is set to work offline.
Open your Start Menu; go up to settings, then over to printers. Click once on your printer, select "File" in the
top left corner and verify that "work offline" does NOT have a check mark next to it.
The printer is paused.
Open your Start Menu; go up to settings, then over to printers. Double click on your printer, select "File" in
the top left corner and verify that "pause printing" does NOT have a check mark next to it.
Printer Does Not Respond.
First, make sure that the printer is online and has paper in the tray. Check to see if the printer will work with
another program. If so, Clear the unit's memory by turning it off, waiting a few seconds, and turning it back
on. (Check the printer cable to make sure it is firmly connected to the printer and the computer. Reinstall the
printer, select Start-> Settings-> Printers to open the Printers folder. Right click the icon for the printer and
select Delete. Then reinstall it by clicking the Add Printer icon.
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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

PROCEDURE

35
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

36
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

37
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

OBSERVATIONS
We identified the keyboard, monitor and printer problems.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of keyboard, monitor and printer
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of keyboard, monitor and printer
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

38

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Identified and Trouble shoot the keyboard, monitor and printer problems
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems
QUESTIONS
1. Define types of keyboards.
2. What are the types of monitors?
3. Define input peripherals.
4. Define output peripherals.
5. What are types of printers?

EXP. No. 9: Printer Problems


AIM: To identify and Trouble shooting the printer problems
9.1 laser printer:
a) Printer never leaves warm-up mode.
b) Paper Jam message is displayed
c) Printed messages are distorted
9.2 DMP
a) Print head moves back and forth but nothing prints.
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

39

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

b) Print self test works but printing from a computer application


does not work etc.,
EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. Printers (Laser and DMP)
3. Tool Kit
THEORY

A laser printer is a printer that uses a focused beam or light to transfer text and images onto paper.
Though contrary to popular belief, the laser does not actually burn the images onto the paper. Instead, as
paper passes through the printer, the laser beam fires at the surface of a cylindrical drum called a
photoreceptor. This drum has an electrical charge (typically positive), that is reversed in areas where the
laser beam hits it. By reversing the charge in certain areas of the drum, the laser beam can print patterns
(such as text and pictures) onto the photoreceptor.
A Dot Matrix Printer(DMP) or Impact Matrix Printer refers to a type of computer printer with
a print head that runs back and forth on the page and prints by impact, striking an ink-soaked
cloth ribbon against the paper, much like a typewriter. Unlike a typewriter or daisy wheel printer,
letters are drawn out of a dot matrix, and thus, varied fonts and arbitrary graphics can be
produced.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

PROCEDURE
There are deffirent type of printer problems when printer is not printing
(or) printing same word carectors problems cud be the computer are software.
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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

CHECK CONDITION:
If the printer is on line to seif test type.
c:\DOS>DIR>LPT(or) c:\DOS>DIR>COM
DIOGNOSING PROBLEM:
1.the main problem is if paper is not printing correct are quality printer does not
print make sure the printer is turnedon the power line should beon
2. make shure that the printer is connected to the computer bya sutable cable.
3. check that the software you are using selected paper printer are
not.
PRINTER DOES NOT WORK(OR)DEAD PRINTER:1An ac input voltage impropar check the input voltage=check 2 A block
white horizontal line long each linemissing dots during printing tip of the print
rint bein bom out replace to connect
3 Fall in the nprinter electronics orservis printer self test pack up is not pripar check
power peint hed print het data
there are diffirent printer such as defficalt in paper loading the paper printer
runs out the paper with printing a loang document.
OBSERVATIONS
We identified the RAM slots on mother board , removed and installed.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of RAMs
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of Computer RAMs
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Identified the RAM , removed and installed on the mother board.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems

QUESTIONS
QUESTIONS
1. Define Printer.
2. Define input peripherals.
3. Define output peripherals.
4. What are types of printers?
5. What is abbreviation of DMP?

42
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

EXP. No. 10: Installation of operating system


AIM: To Install operating system
EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. OS CD
3. Tool Kit
THEORY

An operating system act as an intermediary between the user of a computer and computer
hardware. The purpose of an operating system is to provide an environment in which a user
can execute programs in a convenient and efficient manner.
An operating system is a software that manages the computer hardware. The hardware must
provide appropriate mechanisms to ensure the correct operation of the computer system and
to prevent user programs from interfering with the proper operation of the system.
Definition of Operating System:
An Operating system is a program that controls the execution of application programs and
acts as an interface between the user of a computer and the computer hardware.
A more common definition is that the operating system is the one program running at all
times on the computer (usually called the kernel), with all else being applications programs.
An Operating system is concerned with the allocation of resources and services, such as
memory, processors, devices and information. The Operating System correspondingly
includes programs to manage these resources, such as a traffic controller, a scheduler,
memory management module, I/O programs, and a file system.

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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

PROCEDURE
Step 1 - Start your PC and place your Windows XP CD in your CD/DVD-ROM drive. Your PC
should automatically detect the CD and you will get a message saying "Press any key to boot from
CD". Soon as computer starts booting from the CD.
Step 2 - At this stage it will ask you to press F6 if you want to install a third party Raid or SCSI
driver. If you are using a an IDE Hard Drive then you do not need to press F6.
Step 3 - Press S to Specify that you want to install additional device.
Step 4 - You will be asked to insert the floppy disk with the Raid or SCSI drivers. Press enter
after you have inserted the disk.
Step 5 - You will see a list of Raid drivers for your HDD. Select the correct driver for your device
and press enter.
Step 6 - You will then get a Windows XP Professional Setup screen. You have the option to do a
new Windows install, Repair previous install or quit. Since we are doing a new install we just press
Enter to continue.
Step 7 - You will be presented with the End User Licensing Agreement. Press F8 to accept
and continue
Step 8 - This step is very important. Here we will create the partition where Windows will be
installed. If you have a brand new unformatted drive you will get a screen. We can choose to
install Windows in this drive without creating a partition.
Press C to create a partition.
Step 8 - Windows will show the total size of the hard drive and ask you how much you want to
allocate for the partition you are about to create Partition. Then press C to create another
partition. You will see the total space available for the new partition.
Step 9 - Now you will see both partition listed. Partition 1 (C: Drive) and Partition 2 (E: Drive)
Select Partition 1 (C: Drive) and press Enter.
Step 10 - Choose format the partition using NTFS file system.This is the recommended file
system.
Windows will now start formatting drive C: and start copying setup files
Step 11 - After the setup has completed copying the files the computer will restart. Leave the XP
44
CD in the drive but this time DO NOT press any key when the message "Press any key to boot
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

from CD" is displayed.


Step 12 - Choose your region and language.
Step 13 - Type in your name and organization.
Step 14. Enter your product key.
Step 15 - Name the computer, and enter an Administrator password. Don't forget to write down
your Administrator password.
Step 16 - Enter the correct date, time and choose your time zone.
Step 17 - For the network setting choose typical and press next.
Step 18 - Choose workgroup or domain name. If you are not a member of a domain then leave
the default settings and press next. Windows will restart again and adjust the display.
Step 19 - Finally Windows will start and present you with a Welcome screen. Click next to
continue.
Step 20 - Choose 'help protect my PC by turning on automatic updates now' and press next.
Step 21 - Will this computer connect to the internet directly, or through a network? If you are
connected to a router or LAN then choose: 'Yes, this computer will connect through a local area
network or home network'.

Step 22 - Ready to activate Windows? Choose yes if you wish to active Windows over the internet
now. Choose no if you want to activate Windows at a later stage.
Step 23 - Add users that will sign on to this computer and click next.
Step 24 - You will get a Thank you screen to confirm setup is complete. Click finish.
Step 25. Log in, to your PC for the first time
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS

Operating system installed and verified.


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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

EXP. No. 11: Installation

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

of Network card

AIM: To install Network card


EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. Network card
3. Tool Kit
THEORY
A high-speed network interface card (NIC) forcommunication networks is used.A
network interface controller (also known as a network interface card, network adapter,
LAN adapter) is a computer hardware component that connects a computer to a computer
network.Network interface cards, commonly referred to as NICs are used to connect a PC to a
computer network.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

PROCEDURE
When you open the computer case we find this.
Remove all cables from the PC, Then remove the
cartilage one side Then remove the two chips in
the ram chip on the mother board Tabulate the
ram check it is DDR1,DDR2(or)DDR3
If ram is not workin0g exchange a mother ram with same configration Then insert
the ram in ram slots on mother board proporty
the fix ram pins & automatically locked to power on system
press delete key to check ram configuration in CMOS setup product infromation
then click at should ram capacity

OBSERVATIONS
We identified the RAM slots on mother board , removed and installed.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of RAMs
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of Computer RAMs
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Identified the RAM , removed and installed on the mother board.
APPLICATIONS
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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

1. PC
2. Embedded systems

QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Define RAM
Define ROM
What is Memory?
What is meaning of Memory Mapping?
What are types of RAMs?
Define Stack?
What is difference between Static memory and Dynamic Memory?
What is NVRAM

48
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

EXP. No. 12: Preparing the UTP cable for cross and direct connections using crimping tool
AIM: RAM identification, removal and installation
EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. A minimum of two plastic RJ-45 connectors, a 5 meter CAT5 cable (the length will depend on
your requirement), and RJ-45 crimping tool.(Tips: CAT 5 Maximum Length = 100 meters)
3. Tool Kit
THEORY
Random Access Memory (RAM) is the best known form of Computer Memory. The Read and write
(R/W) memory of a computer is called RAM. The User can write information to it and read information
from it.With Ram any location can be reached in a fixed ( and short) amount of time after specifying its
address.
The RAM is a volatile memory, it means information written to it can be accessed as long as
power is on. As soon as the power is off, it cannot be accessed. So this mean RAM computer
memory essentially empty. RAM holds data and processing instructions temporarily until the CPU
needs it.
There are two basic types of RAM :
(i) Dynamic Ram
(ii) Static RAM
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

49

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Dynamic RAM : loses its stored information in a very short time (for milli sec.) even when power
supply is on. D-RAMs are cheaper & lower.
Similar to a microprocessor chip is an Integrated Circuit (IC) made of millions of transistors and
capacitors.
Static RAM: A form of flip-flop holds each bit of memory. A flip-flop for a memory cell takes four
or six transistors along with some wiring, but never has to be refreshed. This makes static RAM
significantly faster than dynamic RAM.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

PROCEDURE
Step 1

Measure the required distance between the laptop an the desktop and cut off the required length of the CAT
5 cable. Now take one end of the cable and peel off approximately 2.5 cm of the insulating sleeve using the
stripper portion of the crimping tool.

Step 2
Step 2

Separate the four colored wire pairs from each other.


Note: Some cables have white wires coded with lines or dots to mark the pair while some cables don't.
Remember that each wire pair will be twisted around each other to denote the pair.

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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Step 3
Step 3

Cut off any two pairs that you won't be using to make the cross cable. (Only four wires or two pairs are
needed for connectivity). We chose to keep blue and orange pair and chopped off the remaining two pairs.

Step 4
Step 4

Now straighten all the wires in a neat line and align them in the following manner;

White Orange : Orange : White Blue : Blue.

Step 5
Step 5

The next step is to cut off the edges of the wire using the cutter of the crimping tool in a manner that all the
wires are now of the exact same length.
Note: Do not cut the wires too much because if the length of the wires is too short, they may not be properly
crimped inside the RJ45 connector. The length of the wires coming out of the sleeve should not be longer or
shorter than 1.5 cm.

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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Step 6
Step 6

Now separate the last wire (Blue) from the others keeping a gap of around 1/2 cm. This is because the first
three wires would connect to pin numbers 1, 2 & 3 and the last wire would connect to pin number 6 of the
RJ45 connector.

Step 7
Step 7

Take a good look at the RJ45 connector. Hold it in the same direction as shown in the image with the plastic
lock facing away from you and the golden leads facing upwards. Now note the pin numbers (see picture)
because the next steps would completely depend on straining your eye correctly insert the right wire into the
right groove. Also note that each pin or lead has a groove to let only one wire reach the lead.

Step 8
Step 8

Now carefully insert the wires into the pins and confirm they are in the right order and groove. Double
check the connection for each respective wire and pin. Insert the wires all the way inside the connector by
pushing it with a little force. Wire colours should be matched in the manner as illustrated in the picture.

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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Step 9
Step 9

After you have aligned and pushed all the wires deep inside the RJ45 connector, it is the time to take a final
check. Turn the connector on both sides and look closely to confirm if each wire has reached the extreme top
of the connector and the sleeve of the CAT 5 cable has crossed the lock zone (see image). If the wires are not
reaching the end and/or if the sleeve does not cross the lock zone, there are chances of bad connections
and/or the wires may get damaged respectively. Ensure proper fitting to avoid problems. If you find that
wires are too short or long, start the entire process again ;). Do not take any risks because once the connector
is crimped to the wire. you cannot undo it. In such case, the connector will be wasted and the wire will get
shorter.

Step 10
Step 10

Finally after ensuring that all wires are in place inside the connector, it's time for crimping. Insert the
connector, by holding the wire in the crimping tool. While doing this, apply a little force on the cable to push
the sleeve and the wires as far as it can go into the connector and immediately press the handles to crimp the
connector.
Press the tool firmly to ensure a good crimped connector and to avoid loose connections, You should also
here a click when you are crimping which indicates that the sleeve as been locked in position inside the
connector,

Step 11
Step 11

to crimp the other end with a connector, follow the procedure from Step 1 to Step 10 but the only difference
will be the order of the cable colour. Here follow the order of the colour as follows;

White Blue : Blue : White Orange : Orange

The rest of the procedure us the same. Your cable should now be ready for use.
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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Suggested Crimping Tool

OBSERVATIONS
We identified the RAM slots on mother board , removed and installed.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of RAMs
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of Computer RAMs
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Identified the RAM , removed and installed on the mother board.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems

54
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Define RAM
Define ROM
What is Memory?
What is meaning of Memory Mapping?
What are types of RAMs?
Define Stack?
What is difference between Static memory and Dynamic Memory?
What is NVRAM

55
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

EXP. No. 13: Installation of a switch and connecting systems to a network switch
AIM: RAM identification, removal and installation
EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. RAM (Random Access Memory)
(Memory RAM ranges from 128MB to 3GB)
3. Tool Kit
THEORY

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

48-Port switch

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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Fig. 65.4
9CM403.65

Computers connected using Switch

Fig. 65.6

PROCEDURE
1)

Turn off your computer and any other computers that will be plugged into the
switch.

2)

Locate a spot to set up the switch near a wall outlet. Plug the switch's power plug
into the power port on back of the switch.

3)

Plug one end of an Ethernet patch cable into the Ethernet port on the
router/modem. Plug the other end of the cable into the "Uplink" port on the back
of the switch.
4) Plug one end of an Ethernet patch cable into "Port 1" on
the back of the switch. Plug the other end of the cable into the network interface
card (NIC) on your computer.
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INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

5) Plug one end of an Ethernet patch cable into "Port 2" on the back of the switch. Plug
the other end of the cable into the NIC on your second computer.
6) Repeat step 5 for all computers you wish to add, plugging each computer into the
next port on the back of the switch.
7) Plug the power cord for the switch into the wall outlet. Wait for the power indicator on
the switch to display a steady green LED.

Turn on the computers. Wait a moment for them to acquire a network address
OBSERVATIONS
We identified the RAM slots on mother board , removed and installed.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of RAMs
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of Computer RAMs
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Identified the RAM , removed and installed on the mother board.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems
58
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Define RAM
Define ROM
What is Memory?
What is meaning of Memory Mapping?
What are types of RAMs?
Define Stack?
What is difference between Static memory and Dynamic Memory?
What is NVRAM

59
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

EXP. No. 14: Installation of a modem (internal, external or USB) and connecting to internet.
AIM: RAM identification, removal and installation
EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. RAM (Random Access Memory)
(Memory RAM ranges from 128MB to 3GB)
3. Tool Kit
THEORY
Random Access Memory (RAM) is the best known form of Computer Memory. The Read and write
(R/W) memory of a computer is called RAM. The User can write information to it and read information
from it.With Ram any location can be reached in a fixed ( and short) amount of time after specifying its
address.
The RAM is a volatile memory, it means information written to it can be accessed as long as
power is on. As soon as the power is off, it cannot be accessed. So this mean RAM computer
memory essentially empty. RAM holds data and processing instructions temporarily until the CPU
needs it.
There are two basic types of RAM :
(i) Dynamic Ram
(ii) Static RAM
Dynamic RAM : loses its stored information in a very short time (for milli sec.) even when power
supply is on. D-RAMs are cheaper & lower.
Similar to a microprocessor chip is an Integrated Circuit (IC) made of millions of transistors and
60
capacitors.
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Static RAM: A form of flip-flop holds each bit of memory. A flip-flop for a memory cell takes four
or six transistors along with some wiring, but never has to be refreshed. This makes static RAM
significantly faster than dynamic RAM.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

PROCEDURE
1)

Go into your Control Panel and click on Add/Remove Hardware.


2) Find your modem listing and select it. Click on Remove or
Uninstall.
3) Close the Hardware wizard and click Start, Shutdown.
4) Touch something metal before you touch your computer.
5) Turn off the Power Source of your computer. (This includes
unpluging the cord from the wall, turning off the switch at your Power Supply if it has
one AND unplugging the cord from your computer.) Some computers will still hold a
charge to PCI slots, mouse and other items if only the switch on the power supply is
turned off.
6) Remove the side (or top) of your computer and remove the old
modem.

7)

Now put the new modem into the same slot as the old modem. Make
sure that you put it in firmly so that it clicks into place.

8)

Restart your computer. The Add New Hardware wizard will start and probably
ask for driver files.
Put the installation disk into your CDROM when required
OBSERVATIONS
We identified the RAM slots on mother board , removed and installed.
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

61

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of RAMs
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of Computer RAMs
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Identified the RAM , removed and installed on the mother board.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems

QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Define RAM
Define ROM
What is Memory?
What is meaning of Memory Mapping?
What are types of RAMs?
Define Stack?
What is difference between Static memory and Dynamic Memory?
What is NVRAM
62

INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

EXP. No. 15: Using FTP for uploading and downloading files
AIM: RAM identification, removal and installation
EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
63
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

1. Personal computer (PC)


2. RAM (Random Access Memory)
(Memory RAM ranges from 128MB to 3GB)
3. Tool Kit
THEORY
Random Access Memory (RAM) is the best known form of Computer Memory. The Read and write
(R/W) memory of a computer is called RAM. The User can write information to it and read information
from it.With Ram any location can be reached in a fixed ( and short) amount of time after specifying its
address.
The RAM is a volatile memory, it means information written to it can be accessed as long as
power is on. As soon as the power is off, it cannot be accessed. So this mean RAM computer
memory essentially empty. RAM holds data and processing instructions temporarily until the CPU
needs it.
There are two basic types of RAM :
(i) Dynamic Ram
(ii) Static RAM
Dynamic RAM : loses its stored information in a very short time (for milli sec.) even when power
supply is on. D-RAMs are cheaper & lower.
Similar to a microprocessor chip is an Integrated Circuit (IC) made of millions of transistors and
capacitors.
Static RAM: A form of flip-flop holds each bit of memory. A flip-flop for a memory cell takes four
or six transistors along with some wiring, but never has to be refreshed. This makes static RAM
significantly faster than dynamic RAM.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

PROCEDURE
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

64

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Steps

1. First, you should start by retrieving your Windows XP CD.

2. Next, click the Start button and go to the Control Panel

65
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

3 After that, select "Add/Remove Windows Components."

66
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

4. Select "Internet Information Services" under "Windows Components."

67
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

5. Click "details" and select the "File Transfer Protocol (FTP)" service.
(Remember that this will also automatically select "Common Files" and "Internet
Information Services Snap-In.")

6. Click OK and follow the instructions for the install Wizard (or you can just
push next if you don't feel like reading). Be prepared with your Windows XP
CD, because it might prompt you for it if you haven't already installed it. Once it is
done, you might have to restart your computer after this.

68
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

7. After that, all you need to do is just paste the files you want to be
public into "C:\INETPUB\FTPROOT." Note that by default, these files are read-only
and public. Public meaning that anyone who knows the IP addresses may
download copies from it.
8. There's more to go! Now, you need to configure your router's firewall to let FTP
traffic through. This can be done through your router's administration menu. Note
that this will vary depending on your router.
9. After letting your router firewall let FTP connections in, you will have to
configure your regular firewall to let FTP connections in through a certain
port.

10. Finally, after done with everything, you may access your FTP site
through your browser. All you need to do is type ftp://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/ in the URL
where "xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx" is the WAN address of your computer.

Installation:

Run FileZilla
(Windows)

Client

installation

Follow the installation instructions.

file,

e.g.:

INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

FileZilla_3.0.4.1_win32-setup.exe

69

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Usage:

Run FileZilla Client.

First, you must add your website information: Go to File - Site Manager:
o

Click on New Site button and add required information in


General folder:

Host - hostname of your website

Servertype - mostly FTP - File Transfer Protocol

Logontype - Normal

User - your username

Password - your password.

Click on OK button to save the changes.

Now information about your site are stored.

You can connect your website (server) now.

Click on File - Site Manager, Select your site and click on


Connect button
Uploading or downloading files:

You are now connected to your server. On the left side of client, there are files
which are saved on your personal computer. On the right side of client, there
are files which are saved on the webserver.

Click the right mouse button on file(s) on the left side of client and select
Upload. Your file(s) will be uploaded to the server.
70

INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

Click the right mouse button on file(s) on the right side of client and select
Download. Your file(s) will be downloaded to your computer
OBSERVATIONS
We identified the RAM slots on mother board , removed and installed.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of RAMs
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of Computer RAMs
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Identified the RAM , removed and installed on the mother board.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems

QUESTIONS
1. Define RAM
2. Define ROM
3. What is Memory?
4. What is meaning of Memory Mapping?
5. What are types of RAMs?
6. Define Stack?
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

71

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

7. What is difference between Static memory and Dynamic Memory?


8. What is NVRAM

EXP. No. 16: Installation and configuring the proxy server for internet access
72
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

AIM: RAM identification, removal and installation


EQUIPMENTS/APPARATUS/COMPONENTS REQUIRED
1. Personal computer (PC)
2. RAM (Random Access Memory)
(Memory RAM ranges from 128MB to 3GB)
3. Tool Kit
THEORY
Random Access Memory (RAM) is the best known form of Computer Memory. The Read and write
(R/W) memory of a computer is called RAM. The User can write information to it and read information
from it.With Ram any location can be reached in a fixed ( and short) amount of time after specifying its
address.
The RAM is a volatile memory, it means information written to it can be accessed as long as
power is on. As soon as the power is off, it cannot be accessed. So this mean RAM computer
memory essentially empty. RAM holds data and processing instructions temporarily until the CPU
needs it.
There are two basic types of RAM :
(i) Dynamic Ram
(ii) Static RAM
Dynamic RAM : loses its stored information in a very short time (for milli sec.) even when power
supply is on. D-RAMs are cheaper & lower.
Similar to a microprocessor chip is an Integrated Circuit (IC) made of millions of transistors and
capacitors.
Static RAM: A form of flip-flop holds each bit of memory. A flip-flop for a memory cell takes four
or six transistors along with some wiring, but never has to be refreshed. This makes static RAM
significantly faster than dynamic RAM.
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

73
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

PROCEDURE
Step I Internet Proxy Server Installation and Configuration
Download the latest version of CCProxy (V7.2) from the download
center
Install CCProxy on a computer which can access Internet directly. Just keep
clicking "Next" to finish the installation
"Options" -> "Advanced" -> "Networks", click to not select the "Disable
External Users" check box, then keep clicking the "OK" button to save.
"Options" -> "Advanced" -> "Networks", click to not select the "Disable
External Users" check box, then keep clicking the "OK" button to save.
Step II: Internet Proxy Server Authentication Management
"Options" -> "Advanced" -> "Networks", click to not select the "Disable
External Users" check box, then keep clicking the "OK" button to save.
There are 2 authentication types for you to select:
Anonymous - please select "Permit All" for "Permit Category" as Figure 3.
Authentication required - please select "Permit Only" for "Permit Category" and
then select proper "Auth Type" as you wish CCProxy supports several
authentication types such as "IP
Address", "MAC Address", "User/Password" and some combined authtypes as you
can see in the "Account Manager" dialog box. For an Internet proxy server, we
recommend "User/Password" authentication type.
StepIII Network Settings and Obtaining the Internet IP Address of
Your Internet Proxy Server
If the CCProxy server is accessable for Internet clients, please ignore
this step.
If it's behind a router/firewall, you need to open a hole in the router/ firewall and map
port 808 and 1080 to the computer on which CCProxy has been located.As a default
setting, CCProxy uses port 808 and 1080 for HTTP and SOCKS proxy, these two protocols
are mostly used.
Before next step, you also need to obtain the Internet proxy server
address, it should be an Internet IP address but not LAN IP address. Just google for
74
"IP query" or "query IP" or some other similar keywords and open the website google
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

has listed for you on your proxy server. Then you can get the current Internet IP
address of this Internet proxy server for free.
Step IV MakeProxy Server Settings in The Browser Such as IE, Firefox
and so on
Let's say your Internet proxy server's Internet IP address is "208.113.200.5". If
you have selected "Permit All" for "Permit Category" as Figure 3, client computers
can surf directly via this proxy server. If you have selected "Permit Only" for
"Permit Category" and "User/Password" for "Auth Type", it will require username
and password when you surf via this proxy server
OBSERVATIONS
We identified the RAM slots on mother board , removed and installed.
PRECAUTIONS
1. Note down the Different types of RAMs
2. Note the important specifications and functions
3. Do not install or remove Components/ IC from a circuit with power ON.
4. Identify the Pin numbers of the IC
5. Adjust the Proper connections.
TROUBLE SHOOTING:
1. Check the working condition of Computer RAMs
2. Check the all properties
3. Check whether input can be viewed on the Mother board
4. Check the Connecting wires.
RESULTS / CONCLUSIONS
Identified the RAM , removed and installed on the mother board.
APPLICATIONS
1. PC
2. Embedded systems
75
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology

II/II DCME- COMPUTER HARDWARE & NETWORKING LAB

Dept. of Electronics & Communication Engg

QUESTIONS
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

Define RAM
Define ROM
What is Memory?
What is meaning of Memory Mapping?
What are types of RAMs?
Define Stack?
What is difference between Static memory and Dynamic Memory?
What is NVRAM

76
INDUR Institute of Engineering & Technology