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Global offices - CD-adapco

Americas

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Headquarters
CD-adapco New York office
60 Broadhollow Road
Melville, NY 11747, USA
Tel.: (+1) 631 549 2300
info@us.cd-adapco.com
www.cd-adapco.com

Headquarters
CD-adapco London office
200 Shepherds Bush Road
London, W6 7NL, UK
Tel.: (+44) 20 7471 6200
info@uk.cd-adapco.com
www.cd-adapco.com

CDAJ
Japan
37/F Yokohama Landmark Tower
2-2-1-1 Minato-Mirai Nishi-ku
Yokohama 220-8137 JAPAN
Tel: (+81) 45 683 1997
info@cdaj.co.jp
www.cdaj.co.jp

Austin, TX
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Atlanta, GA
Cincinnati, OH
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Tulsa, OK
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For S. America - please contact
Melville Office

France
Paris office
Lyon office
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Germany
Nrnberg office
info@de.cd-adapco.com

the worlds leading cfd magazine

issue 2.01

China
CD-adapco Japan Co. Ltd
Beijing office
cdbj@public.bta.net.cn
CD-adapco Korea
Seoul office
info@cdak.co.kr

Italy
Turin office
Rome office
info@it.cd-adapco.com

CD-adapco India
Bangalore office
info@in.cd-adapco.com

Australia
Veta Pty
info@veta.com.au

Malaysia
Numac Systems Technologies S/B
nst@numac.com.my

South Africa
Aerotherm Computational Dynamics
martin@aerothermcd.co.za

Greece
ENEFEL
enefel@enefel.gr

New Zealand
Matrix Applied Computing Ltd.
sales@matrix.co.nz

Taiwan
FLOTREND Corp.
buhner@flotrend.com.tw

India
CSM Software Pvt Ltd
info@csmsoftware.com

Russia
SAROV
info@saec.ru

Turkey
A-Ztech Ltd
info@a-ztech.com.tr

Resellers

dynamics

Dynamics is printed on Nine Lives recycled paper using vegetable inks.


To advertise in Dynamics contact: geri@uk.cd-adapco.com

Features

www.cd-adapco.com

www.cd-adapco.com

BIGGER, BETTER

THERMOFLUIDS

PRO-S3

FLOW ASSURANCE

Motor Sport CFD

In Turbomachinery

Aerodynamic Analysis

For the Oil & Gas Industry

Contents
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41

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Introduction
The Power of Integration
by Jean-Claude Ercolanelli
Breaking News
ING Renault F1 Team unveil new CD-adapco logo
Key Studies
Flow & thermal analysis of a turbine blade - Denis Yurchenko and Pavel Krukovsky
Partner News
New consulting services from DNV with fluid dynamics software from CD-adapco
Dassault Systmes Announces CAA Software Partnership with CD-adapco
Product news
STAR-CCM+ STAR-CD STAR-CAD Series

19

23

27

29

33

37

41

43

45

51

Surface Wrapping
Surface Wrapping Technology for Industrial CAE
Surface Wrapping Seminar
CD Giveaway
CFD
Business Benefits
A Business Benefits Argument for CFD
Turbomachinery
Thermofluids in Turbomachinery
Conjugate Heat Transfer; Dynamic thermal response
Automotive
STAR-CCM+
An Elegant Engineering Solution to Engine Conjugate Heat Transfer
Bigger, Better, Motor Sport CFD
In the world of simulation, bigger is usually better.
Motorcycle race aerodynamics
Aerodynamic Analysis of a Motorcycle and Rider on a high speed corner
Consumer Products
Dont Waste Hot Water:
Computer Simulation unlocks the secret of the Perfect Shower
Marine
Germanischer Lloyd & CD-adapco join forces
State-of-the-art simulation for the marine industry
Oil & Gas
Computational Flow Assurance
New Challenges Increase the Importance of 3-D CFD in the Oil and Gas Industry
Forever Blowing Bubbles
Revolutionary MBF Separator Design with CFD
DVD Giveaway
Flow, Thermal & Stress Simulation Technology from CD-adapco
Reducing Separation Anxiety
Powerful 3D Flow & Thermal Simulation
CPI
Slag-Cleaning
Building Services
Flow modeling
Belarusian National Academic Grand Theatre of Opera and Ballet
Parallel Computing
Gaining CAE Productivity with CD-adapco & Panasas
Regulars
Training
Dr Mesh
Winners
CAE Guru 2008
Upcoming Events

Printed on Nine Lives recycled paper using vegetable inks. Were doing our bit, are you?
Reduce your Carbon Footprint today http://www.carbonfootprint.com/

EDITORIAL
Dynamics welcomes editorial from all users of CD-adapco software or services.
To submit an article:
Email editorial@uk.cd-adapco.com Telephone: +44 (0)20 7471 6200
Editor
Sub-editors
Art Director
Advertising
Multimedia Director

Stephen Ferguson stephen.ferguson@uk.cd-adapco.com


Joel Davison, Dejan Matic
Brandon Botha
Geri Jackman geri@uk.cd-adapco.com
Mark Adlington

Subscriptions
Dynamics is published approximately three times a year, and distributed internationally.
To subscribe or unsubscribe, please email info@uk.cd-adapco.com
Telephone +44 (0)207 471 6200

Cover Image Credit - Joel Davison

..::INTRODUCTION Jean-Claude Ercolanelli

..::NEWS ING Renault F1

Bringing it all
together, the power
of integration

The past year has


certainly been a
crucial one from our
perspective,
requiring an
integrated effort
across our entire
organization to
deliver best-in-class
CAE tools to you,
our users. In a
rapidly changing
CAE world, the next
twelve months
promises to be even
more exciting.

Introduction by Jean-Claude Ercolanelli


You will be hearing a lot about integration in the coming months; we finished
2007 with releases of all our major products in a frantic three week period,
together these form a truly integrated toolkit for the solution of the most difficult
engineering problems that your industry can throw at you.
Firstly STAR-CCM+ version 2.10 was released; we here at
CD-adapco believe that its single integrated environment really is
the future of CAE analysis with class leading meshing,
visualisation and solver technology wrapped up in an intuitive, yet
extremely powerful tool. We are all excited about what the future
holds for STAR-CCM+ with 2008 promising yet more groundbreaking developments in this rapidly maturing product that
provides flexibility, accuracy and increased productivity.
We also launched version 4.14 of the STAR-CAD Series, which
continued its tradition of empowering Design and Professional
engineers to undertake flow and thermal analyses directly within
their companys chosen CAD environment. The integration of
STAR-CCM+ technology into industry proven CAD and PLM
environments is allowing CFD to be used throughout the design
process leading to unrivaled levels of CAE integration from
prototype to production.
Last, but certainly not least, came the latest version of STAR-CD,
4.04, the largest and most important piece in our integration
strategy. With an established reputation for versatility and
unrivalled efficiency to tackle problems involving multi-physics
phenomena, version 4.04 continues the integration theme with

03

dynamics 2.01

extended flow, thermal and stress capabilities, combined with the


latest meshing technology seen in STAR-CCM+. More than just a
CFD code, STAR-CD is an integrated CAE platform for performing
powerful multi-physics simulations.
The past year has certainly been a crucial one from our
perspective, requiring an integrated effort across our entire
organization to deliver best-in-class CAE tools to you, our users.
In a rapidly changing CAE world, the next twelve months promises
to be even more exciting. All the CD-adapco teams are
committed to make this happen!

Jean-Claude Ercolanelli
Vice President, Product Management
CD-adapco

L EMAIL jc.ercolanelli@fr.cd-adapco.com

ING Renault F1 Team R28


CD-adapco logo newly unveiled
The ING Renault F1 Team officially launched its 2008 season as it revealed the brand
new Renault F1 R28 and its driver line-up at Renaults communications headquarters in
Boulogne-Billancourt, on the banks of the Seine in south-west Paris.
The glittering unveiling ceremony was attended by
Renault President and CEO Carlos Ghosn, along with
500 media and VIP guests from around the world,
including CD-adapco founding Director Professor David
Gosman. The team announced its determination to return to the
front of the F1 field in 2008, thanks to a combination of
aggressive design concepts in the new car, a large investment in
CFD technology, and the talents of the sports only active double
world champion, Fernando Alonso, allied to rookie Nelson Piquet.
CD-adapco is the exclusive providers of CFD software to the ING
Renault F1 Team, and has been a partner of the Team since its
inception. Industry leading CFD codes STAR-CD and STAR-CCM+
have been used extensively in the design of all the Teams cars
including the R28 and the World Championship winning R25 and
R26. The R28 carries the CD-adapco logo on both sides of the
rear brake-light mounting. According to CD-adapco VP of Sales
Didier Halbronn, the location of the logo is no accident: The rear
of the car is the view of the R28 that we think that drivers of
most other teams will see most often this season. We wanted to
give them a constant reminder of the competitive advantage that
using CD-adapcos CFD software gives the ING Renault F1 Team.

A large investment in CFD is a key part of the ING Renault F1


Teams strategy for regaining the World Championship, explains
Managing Director Flavio Briatore: The teams commercial
outlook is healthier than ever for 2008. Renault has
demonstrated its commitment to the sport with the new CFD
Centre of Excellence, and we have a range of cutting-edge
partners eager to collaborate on this exciting project.

A large investment in CFD is a key part


of the ING Renault F1 Teams strategy
for regaining the World Championship
Flavio Briatore - Renault Managing Director

L EMAIL info@uk.cd-adapco.com

dynamics 2.01

04

..::KEY STUDIES Turbomachinery

..::PARTNER NEWS DNV

W Fig:01
External and internal heat transfer
coefficients (far left and middle) of
the turbine blade with resulting
temperatures shown on the right.

Flow & thermal analysis


of a turbine blade
Within a highly complicated gas-turbine there are few elements
subjected to more extreme conditions than the turbine blade.
Sitting behind the combustion chambers, the blades must not only
be able to withstand extreme temperatures but also high
rotational speeds.

The need for improved modeling techniques has, in


recent years, paved the way for 3D CFD analysis and
more specifically conjugate heat transfer methods (CHT)
where the temperature field within the solid as well as
the fluid is considered. By modeling both blade and
flowfield simultaneously errors are reduced, along with
timescales and costs, and the need for code to code
coupling is reduced or removed. CD-adapcos meshing
technology also adds the capability for simultaneous and
conformal meshing of both blade and fluid so removing
the need for mapping across non-conformal interfaces.
The implementation of 3D CFD in the modeling of
turbines also allows for full configuration simulation with
little or no simplification of the blade geometry.
Traditional bespoke codes rely on simplified geometries
and flow paths so reducing geometric accuracy.

L MORE INFORMATION

05

http://www.ittf.kiev.ua

dynamics 2.01

Such complicated geometries rarely have experimental


data for comparative and validation purposes; this is due
to the extreme operating conditions. In this case the
modeling methodology is validated against existing
published work and then extended to the full 3D
geometry. Further to this empirical relationships may be
studied to provide further verification of the simulations
results.

Partner News
Dassault Systmes
DNV (Det Norske Veritas) has selected a software solution for computational
fluid dynamics (CFD) from CD-adapco to extend its leading-edge technical
consulting service line. The new software will be a valuable addition to the DNV
toolbox to provide accurate and reliable estimation of slamming and sloshing
loads, which are critical for the design and operation of both ships and offshore
structures.

Denis Yurchenko and Pavel Krukovsky - Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Kyiv, Ukraine

In the drive to increase performance and so


hold a competitive advantage over their rivals,
gas turbine manufacturers must push turbine
blades harder by increasing the range of
temperatures and pressures they operate under. As the
operating conditions become more extreme, it is
important to be able to determine the maximum local
temperatures and temperature gradients within the blade
as well as the stress-strain fields to ensure failure does
not occur whilst in operation.

New consulting services from DNV with fluid


dynamics software from CD-adapco

S Fig:02

Temperatures of the turbine blade


as well as the primary gas and
cooling flow paths.

Drawing on more than 140 years of experience,


DNV deliver services that predict and assess the
motions, loads and other dynamic responses of
ships and offshore structures in waves or related
fluid flow problems.

Numerous comparisons were carried out in the current


study between a range of blade profiles and empirical
and experimental data. It is shown that the results of the
CFD calculations are of a high quality and to a good level
of accuracy allowing multiple configurations to be studied
and the geometry optimized. Key to the study is the
optimization of the cooling system, the design of which is
critical in preventing potentially catastrophic turbine
blade failure.

Says Dr Bo Cerup-Simonsen, head of DNV Maritime Technical


Consulting and DNV Fellow in computational mechanics: The
shipping and energy industries are faced with a number of new
challenges, driving the need for novel designs and
technologies. For shipping this concerns, among others,
container and LNG vessels as well as more specialized ships.
The lack of experience for a novel design demands accurate
prediction of loads, motions, resistance and propulsion
efficiency. For example, slamming pressures on the bow and
aft part of the ship and sloshing effects in LNG tanks are some
of the areas that are critical and challenging. This new CFD
solution combined with our world-class competence will extend
our capabilities to better meet this demand.

Editors note: due to an oversight, CD-adapco previously


published some of the images from this article without
crediting them to the Institute of Engineering
Thermophysics. We apologize for this, and are happy to
fully credit the authors of this work.

CD-adapco has a long history of successful partnerships with


leading companies in both the maritime and petrochemical
industries. The company has invested heavily in providing
capabilities within its software that meet the most challenging
problems within these industries.

L MORE INFORMATION

info@uk.cd-adapco.com

We are delighted that DNV, with its global presence and as


one of the big-three classification societies, has justified this
investment by choosing our software. By working closely with
DNV, we intend to further refine our technology to meet the
industry demands, says Dr Dennis Nagy, CD-adapcos Vice
President of Marketing and Business Development and Director
for the Energy Sector.

S DNV is a global provider of


services for managing risk.
Established in 1864, DNV is an
independent foundation with the
objective of safeguarding life,
property and the environment.
DNV comprises 300 offices in
100 countries, with over 7000
employees.

Simulating sloshing behavior


DNVs engineers will use CD-adapcos STAR-CCM+ to tackle
problems involving sloshing resonance. Liquid motion
resonance can lead to sloshing impacts at sharp corners and
knuckles inside tanks, with a potential risk of damage. The
software will allow DNV to simulate sloshing behavior driven by
a wide range of sea-conditions, allowing engineers both to
visualize the liquid motion and to identify critical events that
may cause high sloshing induced impact forces. DNV will also
use STAR-CCM+ for the analysis of vortex induced vibration
and for general six-degree-of freedom free-surface
calculations.

http://www.dnv.com/

dynamics 2.01

06

..::FPARTNER NEWS Dassault Systmes

..::FPARTNER NEWS Dassault Systmes

W Fig:01
A transient, fluid structure interaction
simulation of a flexible baffle in an air
stream is enabled by coupling
ABAQUS finite element analysis
software with computational fluid
dynamic (CFD) results from STAR-CD.
This color contour plot of fluid
pressures in STAR-CD depicts a
specific instance in time, at which the
polyhedral CFD mesh from STAR-CD
has moved to accommodate the
structural deformation of the ABAQUS
baffle model.

Dassault Systmes
Announces CAA
Software Partnership
with CD-adapco

W Fig:02
This thermal-stress analysis of an engine
manifold is performed by coupling the
computational fluid analysis from STAR-CD
with the structural analysis in ABAQUS finite
element analysis. This color contour plot
from ABAQUS shows temperature
distribution on the manifold resulting from
the flow of hot exhaust gases.

Capabilities to be Enhanced for Managing


Flow and Thermal Simulations within
Leading PLM Environment
Stephen Ferguson, CD-adapco

Dassault Systmes, a world leader in 3D and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM)


solutions, confirms that CD-adapco, a leading global provider of full-spectrum
engineering simulation solutions for fluid flow, heat transfer and stress, is now a
Component Application Architecture (CAA) Software Partner.
CD-adapcos commitment to integration with CATIA
and SIMULIA is a key factor in upgrading CD-adapco to
CAA Software Partner status, states Ken Short, VP
strategy and marketing, SIMULIA, Dassault Systmes.
By taking our business relationship to the next level of technical
collaboration, CD-adapco will be able to work more closely with
our R&D teams to enhance the integration, capabilities, and
scalability of their solutions within the worlds leading PLM
environment.
We share a common vision with Dassault Systmes of providing
robust simulation solutions to designers and analysts through a
collaborative PLM environment, states Dennis Nagy, VP of
marketing and business development, CD-adapco. DSs open
CAA environment ensures that we are able to provide our
common customers with advanced simulation technology to gain
insight into product performance and deliver innovative products
to market faster while lowering development costs.

L MORE INFORMATION info@uk.cd-adapco.com

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dynamics 2.01

As a CAA Software Partner, CD-adapco will leverage DSs CAA


environment to extend and enhance the capabilities of their
proven STAR-CAT5 product for flow and thermal management
integrated within CATIA. Simulation set-up and input/output
requirements have been automated and integrated into CATIA,
enabling users across many industries, including automotive,
aerospace, oil and gas, electronics, and pharmaceuticals to
concentrate on evaluation of engineering results and optimization
of designs while taking full advantage of CD-adapcos advanced
simulation technology.

CAA is DSs open middleware and development environment for


PLM. The CAA Software Community Program is dedicated to ISVs
(Independent Software Vendors) willing to develop, sell and
support CAA-based applications, fully integrated with CATIA,
SIMULIA, ENOVIA and DELMIA. This collaboration results in the
expansion of DS's 3D PLM solutions to cover the entire product
lifecycle range, thus enabling mutual customers to take
advantage of a larger set of products in response to their specific
industrial needs.

http://www.3ds.com/alliances/software-partnership/

About Dassault Systmes


As a world leader in 3D and Product Lifecycle Management (PLM) solutions,
Dassault Systmes brings value to more than 100,000 customers in 80
countries. A pioneer in the 3D software market since 1981, Dassault
Systmes develops and markets PLM application software and services that
support industrial processes and provide a 3D vision of the entire lifecycle of
products from conception to maintenance. The Dassault Systmes portfolio
consists of CATIA for designing the virtual product - SolidWorks for 3D
mechanical design - DELMIA for virtual production - SIMULIA for virtual testing
and ENOVIA for global collaborative lifecycle management, including ENOVIA
VPLM, ENOVIA MatrixOne and ENOVIA SmarTeam. Dassault Systmes is listed
on the Nasdaq (DASTY) and Euronext Paris (#13065, DSY.PA) stock
exchanges.
CATIA, DELMIA, ENOVIA, SIMULIA and SolidWorks are registered trademarks of
Dassault Systmes or its subsidiaries in the US and/or other countries.

Dassault Systmes Press Contacts:


Tim Webb (SIMULIA)
Tel: +1(401)276-8105
tim.webb@simulia.com
Derek Lane
(Americas)+1(818) 673-2243
derek_lane@ds-us.com
Mikiko Igarashi
(AP)+81-3-5442-4138
mikiko_igarashi@ds-jp.com
Arnaud Malherbe
(EMEA)+33 (0)1 55 49 87 73
arnaud_malherbe@ds-fr.com

S Fig:03
In this model of an engine manifold, a thermal-stress analysis is performed by coupling the computational fluid analysis results from STAR-CD with
the structural analysis in ABAQUS (Figure 2).

dynamics 2.01

08

..::PRODUCT NEWS

..::PRODUCT NEWS

STAR-CD

STAR-CAD Series

With the release of Version 4.04, STAR-CD reinforced its position as


the leading CAE code for engineering problems involving complex
multi-physics. Including a newly re-written version of pro-STAR,
STAR-CD V4.04 incorporates the STAR-CCM+ meshing technology,
allowing users to automatically create high quality tetrahedral,
polyhedral and trimmed cell meshes and granting pro-STAR users the
benefits of the latest generation of surface wrapping technology.

Now released alongside every new version of STAR-CCM+, the


STAR-CAD series continues to integrate the power of the full
STAR-CCM+ solver into native CAD and PLM environments. Available
on both 32bit and 64bit windows XP and for the latest version of your
CAD software, improvements are driven entirely by our customers
needs. From version 3.02 onwards the STAR-CAD Series will adopt the
STAR-CCM+ version numbering, reflecting the integrated nature of the
two packages.

STAR-CD V4.04 includes an enhanced liquid film capability, which is


being expanded for V4.06 with stripping and re-entrainment
capabilities, and the S-Gamma model, which accounts for varying
droplet and bubble sizes in Eulerian two-phase calculations. Integration
with other codes also continues with a new MpCCI interface to
ABAQUS and the introduction of pro-STAR tools to align, map and
export data directly.

PRODUCT NEWS
Jean Claude Ercolanelli, VP of Product Management, CD-adapco

STAR-CCM+
The November release brought STAR-CCM+ version 2.10 and an
extensive list of new features, the most significant being the
addition of the Lagrangian multiphase capability to add to the
existing free surface models. From calculating the impact of rain
droplets on the windscreen of a car to predicting the erosive effect
of small particles of sand carried in an oil pipeline, the Lagrangian
models allow users to simulate the transport of solid particles,
liquid droplets or bubbles of gas by a background fluid.

STAR-CCM+
STAR-CD
STAR-CAD Series
During November 2007 CD-adapco announced three major product
releases, firstly STAR-CCM+ V2.10 and the STAR-CAD Series V4.14
were released, closely followed by STAR-CD Version 4.04.
The release of major new versions of all three product lines is
testimony to the CD-adapcos Power of Integration, a common
theme running through all of our products: STAR-CCM+ offers a
single integrated process from 3D-CAD geometry to the CFD
solution; STAR-CD provides an integrated platform for flow, thermal
and stress analysis and the STAR-CAD Series integrates industrial
strength flow and thermal technology into CAD and PLM
environments.
The release of new versions of all our products required an
integrated effort across the whole of CD-adapco, and demonstrates
commitment at every level towards delivering the best-in-class CAE
technology for our users and partners.
The concerted rate of product development continues with the
arrival of STAR-CAD series and STAR-CCM+ V3.02 and the
impending release of STAR-CD 4.06.

Future releases of STAR-CD will continue to consolidate and enhance


multiphysics capabilities, while introducing extended and validated
engine modeling capabilities as well as continuing improvements in
parallel performance helping users better utilize their computer
clusters.

Engineering data reporting has been extensively enhanced, allowing


more effective communication of results to decision makers, ultimately
reducing testing and production costs. Users of STAR-CAT5 are also
able to use CATIA V5 sensors to monitor their solutions from within the
CFD environment. CATIA sensors are designed to be shared by any
CATIA module and 3rd party partner component. Users will be able to
create CATIA parameters which can be used, for instance, within
optimization loops, the CATIA formula editor will add data together and
allow to create derived engineering parameters like pressure drop,
temperature difference, etc.
Along with continual improvements in robustness and usability, a
greater range of boundary conditions are now available with rotation
available at inlets and on walls. The release of 3.02 also saw the first
introduction of the state of the art STAR-CCM+ meshing technology
within the CAD tools, with the surface mesher now integrated helping
to created high quality polyhedral meshing.

Beyond the addition of physical models within STAR-CCM+, version


2.10 also added significant improvements in pre and post
processing. These included the addition of the extruder mesh
model allowing the extension of the solution domain through
boundary extrusion, Boolean operations on both regions and
boundaries helping to prepare geometries for meshing in record
time as well as general improvements to all the meshing models.
From a post-processing point of view the addition of animation and
constrained sections helped to bring your results to life.
Maintaining the demanding four monthly release schedule, the
newly arrived STAR-CCM+ V3.02 introduces innovative capabilities
at every stage of the workflow process and further reinforces its
competitive advantages: single integrated user environment,
surface preparation and meshing, physics modeling and improved
parallel performance across all platforms. Among the new
functionalities, STAR-CCM+ features a new automatic surface
repair function, an enhancements to the Boolean operations that
allow the merging and imprinting of surface regions and extended
extruder options. STAR-CCM+ V3.02 also introduces K-E-SST-DES
turbulence modeling as well as a new model for simulating heat
exchangers and improvements in parallel radiation capabilities.
For turbomachinery applications, STAR-CCM+ V3.02 now includes
a dedicated environment for guiding the user effortlessly through
the import, setup, meshing, running and post processing of a single
or multiple stage turbine or compressor, preparing a high quality
mesh and all boundary conditions for analysis. With the addition of
explicit mixing planes for unequal pitch rotors, recently released in
versions 2.10 and extended in 3.02, STAR-CCM+ provides you
with the tools necessary for complete turbine analyses in a single
integrated environment.

L DOWNLOAD http://www.cd-adapco.com/products/index.html

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dynamics 2.01

dynamics 2.01

10

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Surface Wrapping

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Surface Wrapping

T Fig:01
Geometries of part of a complex
conceptual building design.
Images courtesy of Atelier Ten

T CAD

T Import

T Wrapped

Surface Wrapping Technology


for Industrial CAE
Stephen Ferguson, Joel Davison - CD-adapco

Dealing with the consequences of dirty or complicated CAD data has long been the
biggest bottleneck in the CAE process and, until recently, was the single largest
obstacle preventing the routine implementation of numerical simulation early in the
industrial design process.
Although the route from CAD model to CAE solution
has been much improved in recent years, with the
introduction of better translators and CAD-embedded
CAE simulation technology, there still exists a
significant group of problems where CAD geometries are too big or
complex to be handled easily. These problems typically involve
large assemblies of complex CAD parts, many of which contain
more detail than is strictly necessary for the CAE calculation.
Estimates from the automotive industry suggest that as much as
80% of the simulation effort spent in a typical CAE project is
taken up in generating the computational model, the lions share
of which is surface preparation and repair.

2. Increased productivity, as highly qualified engineers are able to


spend more time concentrating on engineering analysis rather
than menial geometry preparation and repair.

In response to this, CD-adapco has invested heavily in developing


an automatic geometry repair tool which utilizes surface wrapping
technology. Now in its third generation, this approach has
delivered the following demonstrable business benefits to our
customers:

What type of CAE simulation is the Surface Wrapper good for?


The surface wrapper is suitable for FEA, CFD, crash, or any other
type of analyses for which a high quality triangulated surface is a
necessary prerequisite for producing a simulation ready mesh.
Surface wrapping technology is already being employed to improve
the CAE process of industry giants, such as the Mercedes Benz
Car Group and as way of making simulation a viable part of the
product development process in smaller companies that are
relatively new to CAE.

1. A significant reduction in the time required to produce


simulation results from complex or poor-quality geometric data.
In some cases users have been able to reduce their model
creation times from weeks to just a few hours.

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dynamics 2.01

3. More accurate simulation results. CAE models are able to


represent the full complexity of the actual component geometry
and do not require geometric simplification in order to facilitate
meshing.
4. Rapid turn-around times increases the viability of performing
multiple simulations early in the design cycle, increasing the
degree of design optimization.

How does the Surface Wrapper Work?


From a users point of view, surface wrapping is an entirely
automatic process. Using a simple GUI, the user first imports
the geometry, sets a representative base-size (that
determines the level of feature resolution in the final surface),
and hits the surface wrap button. The surface wrapper is
guaranteed to return a closed manifold surface.
Behind the scenes, the Surface Wrapper works by shrinkwrapping a high-quality triangulated surface mesh onto the
geometry, closing holes in the geometry and joining
disconnected and overlapping surfaces. The surface wrapper
quickly calculates the wetted surface of the geometry,
automatically discarding surfaces that are outside the
calculation-domain, instantly eliminating unnecessary detail.

S Fig:02
What constitutes dirty CAD?
High fidelity wrapped surface of Atelier
The surface wrapper is useful for dealing with many different
Ten conceptual design
instances of dirty or overcomplicated CAD:
1. Any complex collection of CAD parts, such as an
automotive underhood that needs to be combined into a
single surface for meshing. Early in the design process,
before packaging issues have been resolved, individual
components often do not fit together perfectly, as they
would in the final configuration, meaning that their volumes
overlap or surfaces potentially interfere with each other.

Although the emphasis of the surface wrapper is on fully


automatic repair, the tool is also fully customizable, allowing
users to specify the level of resolution on a surface-by-surface
basis if necessary, or using volume shapes to specify larger
areas of refinement. All size specifications are relative to a
global base size, so that once set up, the wrapped surface
can be fine tuned by just altering a single parameter.

3. A CAD part that contains internal (or external geometrical


details) that are not relevant to the CAE simulation and
need to be discarded (such as engine internals when
conducting an underhood thermal management
simulation).

Importantly the surface wrapper respects the fidelity of the


original surface. Unlike other surface-wrappers, CD-adapcos
wrapper automatically respects the sharp edges and corners
of the original model, as well as any other feature curves
that the user chooses to prescribe.
How long does it take?
The exact time to perform a wrap depends on how complex
the geometry is, what level of surface refinement is required
and how much computing power is available. A complicated
structure such as an offshore oil platform or automotive
underhood can usually be wrapped within an hour. In most
cases surface wrapping takes just a few minutes using a
simple desktop PC.

2. A fully detailed CAD part that requires too much detail for
CAE analysis, and which needs to be de-featured prior to
constructing a computational mesh suitable for analysis.

4. An assembly of parts configured for manufacture, so


containing gaps where fixtures (welds, screws, rivets etc)
are to be placed. Without closure these gaps are likely to
prevent meshing or can lead to features significantly
smaller than the domain of interest.
Conclusion
Surface wrapping is a fully automatic method for preparing
assemblies of complex CAD parts and other dirty CAD for
meshing. Now in its third generation, CD-adapcos surface
wrapper requires only modest computer resources and
minimal user training.
Deployed early in the design process, surface wrapping can
deliver significant benefits in terms of productivity and
increase in both the quality and viability of CAE analysis.

L MORE INFORMATION info@cd-adapco.com

dynamics 2.01

12

..::WORKSHOPS Surface Wrapping

..::FREE STUFF Surface Wrapping

Streamline your process


from complex 3D CAD to
successful CAE

Surface Wrapping Seminar:

FREE
CD

Streamline your process from complex


3D CAD to successful CAE
Do you spend hours or days preparing large, complex 3D CAD for FEA/CFD/CAE
simulation? Do you have problems with double or intersecting surfaces, closing
holes, defeaturing or obtaining the wetted surface? CD-adapco would like to invite
you to a seminar on how, by using fast and automatic surface wrapping technology,
you can significantly reduce the tedious and time consuming work involved in
preparing CAD for simulation.
What is Surface Wrapping?
CD-adapcos surface wrapper works by shrinkwrapping a high-quality tessellated surface mesh onto
the geometry: closing holes, removing double surfaces,
defeaturing or retaining detail as required. Starting from a complex
CAD assembly, it provides a high-quality surface mesh in minutes.
When introduced into existing CAE processes, the surface wrapper
cuts weeks of CAD clean-up work. It is this time and cost saving
that has motivated world-leading aerospace and automotive OEMs
to use it as a precursor to all their FEA and CFD work.
Daimler AGs Team Leader of Vehicle Development described CDadapcos surface wrapper as the most automatic approach that
exists. It has saved us weeks of clean-up when carrying out our air
flow studies and provides us with significant time and cost
savings.

What can you expect?


The seminar provides an opportunity for you to see the surface
wrapper in action. In the afternoon therell be a hands-on session
for you to check out the wrapper for yourself; if you are able to
bring along an example CAD part or assembly to test the wrapper
with, please do. It also provides a forum for experts from CDadapco to share their expertise and experience at optimizing
simulation processes with you, and for you to network with other
CAE professionals.
Where and when?
The seminar will be held throughout 2008 at locations across the
United States and Europe.

L MORE INFORMATION PLEASE VISIT http://www.cd-adapco.com/events/workshops/

13

dynamics 2.01

See how CD-adapcos surface wrapping


technology can revolutionise your CAE process
turning your complex CAD into analysis ready
geometries in a matter of minutes.
Following on from the series of highly successful (and ongoing)
seminars on CD-adapcos revolutionary surface wrapping technology,
we are pleased to offer you the chance to claim your free surface
wrapper information CD. On the disk you will find presentations and
information on both wrapping technology as well as the benefits it
could bring to your company. Self running demos will show you how
the wrapper works and how, with a click of a button, complex and
messy CAD may be turned into a clean closed surface ready for
meshing and analysis!

L TO RECEIVE YOUR FREE CD PLEASE E-MAIL info@uk.cd-adapco.com OR CONTACT YOUR LOCAL OFFICE.

dynamics 2.01

14

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Business Benefits

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Business Benefits

In common with other Computer Aided Engineering disciplines, Computational Fluid


Dynamics has often suffered from a misconception that the technique is both
complicated and time-consuming to apply. Often, this had led potential adopters of CFD
simulation tools to come to the incorrect assumption that investing in CFD technology
is a high risk proposition with an uncertain return on investment.
The research presented in this article demonstrates that, far
from being a risky proposition, introducing CFD technology
into an existing product development process has a high
probability of delivering one or more tangible business
benefits, the financial return on which is likely to outweigh the total
investment in CFD technology.

CD-adapco client VIASYS healthcare managed to implement design


changes to a neonatal ventilator which they estimate will lead to a
tripling of sales: from 400,00 units/year to around 1.2 million units, a
potential top-line revenue increase of approximately $16 million.

The basis of this research is a survey, conducted in 2007, of industrial


users of CD-adapcos CFD simulation technology. The survey was
conducted in order to gain a better understanding of our users, and the
ways in which our CFD software is deployed in industry. The results of
the survey, allowed usand to quantify the business benefit that users of
our software gain through using CFD simulation on a day-to-day basis.

The traditional product development process is built upon on an


iterative design-build-test principle in which the influence of
successive design changes is quantified by experimentation on a
physical mock-up of the product. Although almost universally adopted,
a problem with this approach is that the physical prototypes used in
testing are usually both expensive and time consuming to construct.

In this article we explore some of those benefits, quantifying the


magnitude of benefit achieved and calculating the probability that a new
user of our software will achieve that benefit. Of the 250 respondents
to the survey, drawn from a wide range of industries, 96% realised at
least one of the benefits described below.

In the earliest stages of the iterative design process, physical prototypes


are also likely to involve a degree of simplification, neglecting some of
the physics of the problem or perhaps being constructed at a smaller
scale than the actual product.

Benefit 1:
Improved Product Quality
Increasing product quality is a strategic objective of every company
involved in product design or manufacture. Despite the fact that
improvements in product quality are notoriously hard-won, increased
product quality is the most frequently achieved benefit of using CDadapcos CFD technology, according to the users that responded to our
survey. In their responses, 66% stated that they had managed to
achieve increased product quality as a direct result of applying CFD
simulation in their product design process. The average increase in
quality estimated by these users was 19%.
By most standard definitions, quality is the extent to which a product
meets or exceeds a customers expectations. American business quality
guru Joseph M. Duran defines quality as fitness for use, where fitness
is defined by the customer. What constitutes a high quality product is
hard to define because quality, like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder,
or more specifically, in the eye of a potential consumer. Although quality
is difficult to define, most people can instantly recognise a quality
product:
Better quality products are more desirable to the consumer, and
therefore more saleable. A product that is perceived (by the customer)
to be high in quality will also typically command a premium over a lower
quality alternative. Increasing the quality of an existing product will,
almost always, result in increased revenue for that product and,
provided that the improvements can be delivered at a reasonable cost,
will deliver an increased profit.

A Business Benefits
Argument for CFD
Stephen Ferguson, CD-adapco

15

dynamics 2.01

If making better quality products were easy then everyone would do it.
Any improvement in product quality is usually the result of significant
investment in design, engineering, manufacturing and marketing. In
CAE-mature industries, such as the automotive sector, utilizing CFD is
a competitive necessity since everyone sees benefits in using it. For
these industries, small increases in the quality of an already highly
engineered product (for example a 1% increase in fuel economy of an
automobile) are likely to command a significant premium in the
marketplace.
However, applying CFD simulation to the redesign of a product that has
not previously been the subject of CAE analysis can deliver immediate
and sizeable benefits. Within a few days of installing STAR-Works,

Benefit 2:
Reduction in the number of physical prototypes

Increasingly, CAE is being used to replace some of these physical tests,


reducing the number of physical prototypes required in the product
development process and replacing a number of design-build-test
iterations with much quicker design-simulate iterations. Of the
respondents to our survey, 63% claimed that by using CFD technology
they had reduced the amount of experimental testing, on average by
around 19%.
An MIT survey of over a hundred respondents estimated the average
cost of a single prototype to be over $85,000 dollars. However, the net
benefit of reducing the number of prototypes is likely to significantly
higher than this: product development time saved can be invested in
either securing a faster time to market (see below) or in further design
iterations that increase the quality of the product (see above). The
rapid turn-around time of numerical simulation (in which
simulations can often be performed within the CAD package) also
promotes a more interactive design process in which a designer can
often visualise simulation results within a few hours of submitting a
design change, promoting full and thorough investigation of the design
space.

What I mean (and everybody


else means) by the word
quality cannot be broken down
into subjects and predicates.
This is not because quality is so
mysterious but because quality
is so simple, immediate and
direct.

Robert Pirsig
Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance (1974)

dynamics 2.01

16

Epsilon Euskadi & METCA using STAR-CCM+


www.epsiloneuskadi.com

Flow, Thermal & Stress


Simulation for the Automotive Industry
 Productivity

 Accuracy

 Flexibility

 Expertise

What do you expect from your Engineering Simulation Software?

at:
Visit us

ess
ld Congr
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W
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A
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1401
BOOTH
7 2008
April 14-1
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Detroit M

For more information contact info@us.cd-adapco.com

VIASYS Healthcare managed to replace a whole year of physical


testing with just a few days of CFD calculation, reducing the time to
market and significantly increasing product quality1.
Unlike testing of physical prototypes, CFD simulations are typically
carried out at full scale (the computer model has the same
dimensions as the actual product rather than those of a smaller
experimental model). This has the considerable advantage that results
can be interpreted directly and do not have to undergo scaling, a
process that can introduce a significant uncertainty, especially for
transient phenomena or those involving a number of fluids.

Replacing physical prototypes with numerical simulation demonstrates


increased confidence in CAE technology. When describing how Daimler
AG had managed to reduce the number of full-car mock-ups used in
the vehicle production from five to three using CAE simulation
(including CFD with STAR-CD), Daimler AGs CAE manager outlined the
conditions under which CAE becomes a viable replacement for a
physical test2:

For a CAE simulation to replace a


physical test, the CAE tool must deliver
results of required quality within given
time frame. In Virtual Product
Development, a late result is not much
better than no-result at all.
2

17

Walter Bauer, Daimler AG

dynamics 2.01

Benefit 3:
A Faster Time to Market
If two products, equal in quality and cost, are released to the market
six months apart, the revenue generated by the first product during
that time is incremental profit. Beyond this, being first to market
generally helps to increase both brand awareness and market share
while simultaneously maximising the potential lifetime of the product.
A faster-time-to-market is an obvious benefit of reducing the amount
of physical prototyping required to bring a product to fruition, but also
a direct benefit of the availability of simulation data early in the design
process. This allows designers to rapidly eliminate poor design
variants, allowing them to focus their efforts on a smaller number of
potentially more productive designs. In safety critical or politically
sensitive applications, simulation results can also help to demonstrate
compliance with legislative requirements, ultimately overcoming one of
the final barriers to product release.
In their responses, 39% of our users claimed that, by applying CFD
simulation to product design, they had managed to reduce time-tomarket, by on average 11%. Although the length of development
cycle varies by product and by industry, the development process for
most products is typically measured in years rather than months, for
which an 11% speed-up represents a significant competitive
advantage over a similar product that was not engineered using CFD.

Benefits 4 and 5:
Fewer Field Failures and Avoided Product Recalls
In the perception of most consumers, durability is a key factor in
determining product quality. Market research3 has conclusively
demonstrated that consumers are not only capable of accurately
estimating product durability, but that their perception of durability is
often linked to the price that they are willing to pay for a product.
While all products have a finite lifetime, the failure of a product in
service can have serious consequences, particularly in the case of safety
critical applications, in which unforeseen failure can result in injury or

loss-of-life. Even in less serious circumstances, the unexpected failure of a


product can act to de-motivate consumers from further purchase,
damaging brand reputation, and potentially incurring large warranty
expense.
As companies such as Mattel and Firestone will testify, although product
recalls are rare, when they do occur, the cost can be enormous, in direct
financial terms (the cost of executing the recall, performing repairs,
providing replacements and compensating consumers), but more
importantly in terms of lost reputation. 26% of our survey respondents
indicated that they had reported fewer product failures as a result of
applying CFD; 13% reported that they had avoided product recalls.

Benefit 6:
Increased Satisfaction of External Customers
Customer satisfaction is the bigger picture. While the benefits listed above
might help to increase margins and satisfy internal customers, the biggest
benefit of any process improvement occurs when it makes a tangible
difference to the end user of the product. More satisfied customers are
also more loyal, generally more likely to offer you repeat business or to
forgive any temporary lapse in service. According to the survey, 44% of
users managed to increase the degree of satisfaction experienced by their
external customers.
Multiple Benefits
Realised individually, any of the six benefits described above is likely to
yield significant bottom-line benefits for an organization that successfully
adopts CFD or CAE technology. However, the real benefit of CFD
simulation is that even if you are seeking to realise a single specific
benefit, the ancillary benefits of increased engineering insight will inevitably
lead to a better overall product. In our survey, 76% of respondents realized
two or more of the benefits, 11% four or more, and 4% all six.
REFERENCES

www.cd-adapco.com

Within three days we had reduced


the supply pressure required to
the unit by 48%. This level of
improvement previously took
approximately 1 year to achieve.
STAR-Works saved us $250,000
in physical testing alone, and paid
for itself in three days!
1

Steve Han, VIASYS Healthcare

The Cost of Inaction


Finally, although the focus of this article is a positive one, it is worth
remembering that, in a increasingly competitive marketplace, the benefits
described above are available to your competitors. 96% of respondents
realised at least one of the benefits described above. Should your
competitors adopt CFD technology into their process, when you do not,
there is a 96% probability that they will achieve a significant increase in
productivity increase, productivity, an increase you might not be able to
replicate.

L MORE INFORMATION

info@uk.cd-adapco.com

[1] STAR-Works helps VIASYS Healthcare to Breathe More Easily, SW Ferguson, CD-adapco, Dynamics #27
[2] Walter Bauer, Daimler AG in an address to the 2006 STAR Conference
[3] Physical quality, price, and perceptions of product quality: Implications for retailers, JJ Wheatley, JS Chiu, A
Goldman - Journal of Retailing, 1981

dynamics 2.01

18

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Turbomachinery

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Turbomachinery


T Fig:05
Rate of heating of a turbocharger turbine

S Fig:04
Full CHT analysis of a turbocharger including
compressor, turbine and lubricating channels

Thermofluids
in Turbomachinery

EXTERNAL GAS PATH

Conjugate Heat Transfer; Dynamic thermal response


Fred Mendona, CD-adapco

The recent advances brought to you in STAR-CCM+ are changing the standard
in Thermal analysis for turbomachines. Those pains, particularly caused by
limitations in complex geometry handling and fluid-solid contiguous meshing,
are set to become just a memory.
CD-adapcos geometry and automated meshing
technologies have been successfully applied to the
combined fluid and thermodynamics in a wide range of
turbomachinery flows. In this article, we expound two
key areas; turbine-blade cooling and turbocharger turbines. From
geometry to solution, full conjugate-heat-transfer analyses reduce
from weeks to days.

S Fig:03

slice through a turbine blade


showing conformal polyhedral
mesh through primary gas path
(grey), solid blade (blue) and
cooling passages (orange).
Image courtesy of Wood Group

19

Turbine-blade Cooling:
Making the analysis process more efficient
The high-temperature of operation in aero and industrial gas
turbines, require active cooling to prolong turbine blade life, with
cooler air bled from the compressor to flow paths cut inside the
blade to provide direct cooling of the metal. The analysis of these
geometries presents a significant challenge, including extreme
physical conditions and highly complex geometries with many
small features relative to the overall size of the domain, stretching
computational and software resources to the limit.
The traditional way of modeling turbine blade cooling is to split the
system into separate functions, external flow, internal cooling and
solid thermal analysis, all coupled together through common
boundary conditions (Figure 1). The flow analysis is completed
first, using a guessed surface temperature or heat flux

dynamics 2.01

PRIMARY GAS PATH


Idealised geometry handling in hub,
shroud, tip leakage
EXTRACTION of external HTC + added
Experimental correlations

INTERNAL COOLING PASSAGE


1D
EXTRACTION of internal HTC + added
Experimental correlations
MAPPING for thermal and stress
calculation

BLADE METAL
THERMAL & STRESS
S Fig:01

The traditional process in blade cooling analysis the external flow, internal flow
and metal thermal analyses are performed separately.

distribution (which is then modified later in the loop), before the


other elements of the analysis are carried out in turn. The
workflow continues until all separate parts of the system have
interacted often enough for the combined system to converge.
Furthermore, the internal cooling path is often geometrically so
complex that 1-D analyses are performed, and supplemented by
experimentally correlated heat-transfer coefficients.

Many project hours continue to be spent in this area, amongst most


manufacturers and maintainers of small and large gas turbines, and in
collaborative efforts [1]. There is always need to improve the design and
optimize the analysis with the ability to mesh continuously between the
flow paths, including the solid, and resolve the internal passages with
sufficient fidelity brings some significant benefits. With this ability, the
process may be simplified to that shown in Figure 2, where all parts are
performed in one simulation, and requires no iteration because all the
parts are implicitly connected.
Thermal transience response to load changes
Now take the fact that you can easily mesh continuously through the fluid
and solid domains, and suddenly a whole new world of turbine analysis
opens up. The combined system can be run dynamically so as to assess
the thermal effects which changes in flow condition, or operational load
conditions, make to the system. Previously such analyses would be
prohibitively long and impractical so as well having to use 1D
assumptions and mapped results, only a snapshot of the flow field at a
set range of operating conditions could be studied without being able to
analyze how the effects of transitioning between one operating point and
another.
In a recent project performed on a dual turbocharger assembly, the rate
of heating in the metal was assessed during a change in condition from
low-load to high-load. The change in load alters the flow path into a
bypass channel and wastegate, the metal heats up, subsequently cools
down, and results in a low-cycle thermal loading which can lead to
problems locally.
The CD-adapco solution
The advanced polyhedral meshing technology implemented in STAR-CCM+
allows the simultaneous and conformal meshing of all three domains
considered in a turbine blade cooling analysis. Shared boundaries, or
REFERENCES
[1] AITEB-2 project www.aiteb-2.eu

No Geometry Idealisations Advanced tools for CAD handling and


AUTOMATED MESHING

INTERNAL COOLING PASSAGE


(3D, ribs, pedestals, film cooling holes)

CHT across FLUID and SOLID for Steady and Transient


S Fig:02
The reduced process the external flow, internal flow and metal thermal analyses are performed
in a single analysis.

interfaces, are recognized and meshed so that the one-to-one connectivity


is maintained; ensuring that simultaneous solution of both fluid and solid
fields is carried out without the need for mapping or interpolation of
boundary condition. Tools also exist to automatically ensure that the mesh
within the cooling passages and around the blade tip, to the required level
of detail to capture flow features and heat transfer correctly.
With a continuous mesh in place, CD-adapco tools have the ability to
simultaneously solve for all the fields required in the blade analysis:
Flow, both primary gas path and internal cooling
Thermal, through both fluid and solid fields and any corresponding
heat transfer
Stress, both mechanically and thermally induced in the blade,
shroud and hub
The solutions provided by CD-adapcos meshing and solution technologies
help provide significant benefit, both analytical and financial, to the
analysis engineer and the wider company. By reducing the number of
pieces of analysis software from three or more down to one ensures that
only one mesh needs to be built per geometry, only one software package
needs to be learnt and no errors can occur in mapping from one solution
to another. These benefits in turn lead to the freeing up of computer and
man power resources helping to provide, more accurate, more numerous
and more cost effective solutions. 

L MORE INFORMATION info@uk.cd-adapco.com www.woodgroup.com/

dynamics 2.01

20

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Automotive

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Automotive

W Fig:04
Section of Computational Mesh showing
Cylinder Head, Block, Gasket and Coolant Flow
Passages with close up below.
(Image Courtesy GM)

Import CAD data

Mesh Coolant Passages


CFD Mesh Structure - FE

STAR-CCM+
An Elegant Engineering Solution to Engine
Conjugate Heat Transfer
Richard Johns, Automotive Director CD-adapco

Structural Integrity of major engine components is the one of the most


fundamental of design criteria that is considered by powertrain engineers.
The loads on the cylinder head and block are complex and include assembly and
operating loads, residual stresses and, especially towards the top of the block
and the cylinder head, thermal loads.
Indeed, fatigue failure resulting from thermal cycling
has been the cause of many engine component failures
in the past and the increase in thermal loading from
the recent trends in downsizing and engines of high
specific output will keep this in focus for the foreseeable future.
Since the early 1970s, Finite Element calculations of
temperatures and stresses in engine structures have been
undertaken by major OEMs throughout the world. Accurate
calculation of the temperature field is critical to determining the
stresses and this, in turn, depends upon the accuracy of a
computational mesh generated to fit the geometry and the
boundary conditions that are applied on both the gas and coolant
surfaces. Determination of the gas-side boundary conditions is
beyond the scope of this article but, suffice it to say that methods
are available in STAR-CD and involve detailed calculations of the
in-cylinder flow and combustion.

21

dynamics 2.01

In the early days of engine structural temperature calculations,


coolant-side boundary conditions were determined using empirical
formulae based on Nusselt Number Reynolds Number
relationships and with significant experimental input under
appropriate conditions to ensure their validity. In the early 1990s
as CFD methodology matured and computers became faster (and
cheaper!), coolant flow calculations became commonplace.
Initially, meshes were generated from drawings and could take
many weeks of laborious work. As good 3D CAD data became
available and robust automeshing techniques were developed, this
task became automated with a step change in usefulness as the
analysis was able to not only keep pace but to lead the design.
Although the flow within the coolant passages is of interest in its
own right, it is the structural temperatures which are of primary
interest; here, analysis developments have followed a more
leisurely pace. The multi-code, thermal boundary condition
exchange process shown schematically in figure 2 has been used

W
W

Mesh Coolant Passages & Structure


Together

Run CFD for Flow Solution

Run FE code for Thermal Simulation

Run STAR-CCM+ for Flow & Thermal Solution


W

Apply Flow & Gas-SideThermal BCs

Map HTCs to Structural FE Model &


Apply Gas Side BCs

W Fig:01
Coolant flow streamlines through a four
cylinder engine.
(Image Courtesy GM)

Import CAD data

Apply BCs

Asses Design

Asses Design

S Fig:02

S Fig:03

Traditional Multi-code Flow and Thermal Analysis.

STAR-CCM+ Conjugate Heat-Transfer Analysis.

widely for many years to deliver the structural temperatures. Separate


programs are used alternately for the flow and structural temperature
solutions with to-and-fro mapping of heat transfer coefficients and
temperatures between the programs. After a few cycles of this
process, the solution usually converges and the process is terminated.
Although this is a pragmatic engineering solution which is still used
widely, there are a number of potential disadvantages: firstly, it is not a
simultaneous solution and as the temperatures of the solid and
coolant and the flow conditions are coupled, care must be taken to
ensure both local and overall convergence of the heat flux. Secondly, it
is time consuming building 2 meshes for 2 different programs often
different types of meshes for finite-volume and finite-element based
solvers and the multi-program solution process. Finally, and potentially
of most importance, local boiling can occur, especially in regions of the
cylinder head, and proper inclusion of this phenomenon requires a
boundary condition that is dependent on both the local fluid conditions
and the structural temperature; it also requires tracking of the vapor
within the flow passages. Clearly, there is an opportunity to improve on
the existing process and the remainder of this article describes the
STAR-CCM+ solution that overcomes all of the above deficiencies.
STAR-CCM+ has the ability to generate meshes in multiple domains
and if the domains are connected and separated by common
boundaries, then the meshes at these boundaries are conformal with
one-to-one connectivity. In the context of engine coolant flow and
thermal analysis, different parts of the analysis model can be assigned
to different domains such that the coolant flow passages, lube oil
circuit and different parts of the structure (such as aluminum, cast iron
and gasket materials) are delineated and can be assigned appropriate
properties. Figure 4 shows a section through an engine structure with
the head, block, gasket and coolant passages clearly identified. Also
shown is the use of prism layers adjacent to boundaries and
introduced by the user to enhance accuracy in the application of
boundary conditions and to resolve gradients close to the surface.
Conjugate heat transfer problems are addressed in STAR-CCM+ by
solving the thermal energy equation in all solid and fluid domains

simultaneously whist the fluid flow is only considered in those for which
it is relevant. In addition to the traditional convective flow boundary
conditions the heat transfer between the solid and the fluid
incorporates a model for sub-cooled nucleate boiling which, in turn,
depends upon the local pressure, fluid and structural temperatures
and fluid properties. In addition to enhancing the rate of heat transfer
under boiling conditions, vapor is also generated and a transport
equation for vapor fraction is also solved.
There are a number of advantages to this approach compared to the
multi-code solution methodology described earlier:
Faster:
It is a one pass, single code methodology see figure 3, in which
there is no iteration between codes
More Accurate:
A simultaneous solution to the coupled fluid-structural flow and heat
transfer is obtained. Furthermore, it is the only way in which boiling
can be incorporated properly.
Integrates into Existing Processes:
The way in which gas-side boundary conditions are applied is identical
to existing methods instead of mapping to an FE surface the data is
mapped to a STAR-CCM+ mesh.
Validation of the model has been carried out with reference to
experimental rig data and good agreement was found for the heat flux
for flow, pressure and surface temperature conditions typical of those
found in engines. Figures 1 show some typical results from the same
multi-cylinder engine shown in figure 4. Run time for this calculation
was 5 hours on 10 cpus but overall process time was significantly
reduced compare to the original multi-code approach.
Many OEMs are now assessing the STAR-CCM+ solution described
above and anticipate both process efficiency and accuracy
improvements through adopting this technology. Clearly, this is but one
application in one industry and this methodology has potential benefits
across a wide range of analogous problems elsewhere.

L MORE INFORMATION VISIT www.cd-adapco.com

dynamics 2.01

22

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Automotive

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Automotive

In the world of simulation, bigger is usually better, nowhere more so than in the
world of motorsport CFD, where leading teams regularly run simulations using
computational meshes that are counted in hundreds of millions of cells. A long
time staple of the Formula 1 world, CFD is now finding increased use in NASCAR
(for aerodynamics, underhood thermal management and engine simulations).
This article describes how STAR-CCM+ is enabling teams in both F1 and NASCAR
set-up, simulate, and analyze bigger, and hopefully better simulations.

Bigger, Better,
Motor Sport CFD
Alex Read, CD-adapco
Why so big?
Race teams use Computational Fluid Dynamics (or CFD) as an aid and
extension to physical testing. It is used to reduce the dependence on
expensive wind tunnel testing by rapidly identifying the best designs,
and subjecting only those to testing, and to provide information would be difficult
to obtain through testing alone. For NASCAR underhood thermal management,
this can be detailed visualization of the flow and thermal field in the engine
compartment. For external aerodynamics, it may be the cars front and rear
down force balance when drafting.
Race teams other requirements are accurate results and rapid and robust
model turn around. This presents a particular challenge in areas like external
aerodynamics where components have a strong interdependence. For example,
the performance of the rear wing of an F1 car will vary depending on the set-up
of the components in front of it: and vice-versa. F1 teams opt for running
detailed models of the full car to ensure accurate aerodynamic resolution for all
parts of the car. Similarly in NASCAR the interaction between cars is a key part
of racing. As a lot of the time the cars are bumper to bumper and door handle
to door handle, understanding the effect on front and rear down force and
airflow to the engine compartment when in close proximity to other cars, can be
the difference between success and failure.
Historically, this has presented problems: is my computer big enough to store and
solve at each of my hundreds of millions of cells? If it is, is my CFD tool
sufficiently adept at utilizing this enormous computing resource, with hundreds of
processors operating in parallel, to enable me to create, set-up, run and postprocess my case within a reasonable timeframe?
CD-adapco has a proud history of solving these problems for race teams:
supplying CFD tools to, among others, the double World Championship winning
ING-Renault F1 team since its inception in 2001. Our latest offering, STARCCM+, has been specifically designed for motor sport CFD, with regular
evaluation and specification being carried out by top motor sport teams during
its development.
Around five years ago we starting to develop STAR-CCM+ from a blank sheet of
paper, explains Dr Richard Johns, CD-adapcos Director for the Automotive
industry, which allowed us to use everything wed learnt in the previous twenty
years of developing and using CFD, as well as the latest computing technology.
In addition, at CD-adapco, we see our users as partners and not just clients.
As well as using our own know-how, our motor sport partners were integral in
defining STAR-CCM+s specification and reviewing its progress. The result is a
code thats revolutionizing motor sport CFD, allowing teams to run ever more
detailed models, with ever more computational cells, while shortening case
turnaround times.

23

dynamics 2.01

W Fig:01
STAR-CCM+ simulation of single NASCAR

As well as using our own


know-how, our motor
sport partners were
integral in defining
STAR-CCM+s
specification and
reviewing its progress.
Dr Richard Johns

The Technology
Much of the focus on CFD codes has been the time it takes for them
to solve the Navier-Stokes equations for a large number of
computational cells. Of equal importance is the time required to
create, set-up and post-process the case, which can take days or
even weeks. A key technology in STAR-CCM+ is the process by which
it does this for very large cases. First, all the steps of the simulation
process are integrated into one tool: from CAD geometry to postprocessing. This saves a considerable amount of time as there is no
requirement to export and import large data sets and there is no
requirement to re-specify parameters in different tools or when
running iterative design studies.

simulate the complex interaction between multiple NASCARS in close


proximity and to see how far we could push STAR-CCM+ on existing
hardware.

Second, it utilizes the latest software technology: a client-server


architecture. The server may be run on a parallel cluster, distributing
the work of processing hundreds of millions of cells, while the light
java client only passes the information it needs. What this means is
that cases can be set-up, run and post-processed using the light
client while the server makes full use of parallel hardware, significantly
cutting model turnaround time.

However, the effects are highly dependant on the car positions. At


times, the drag on the second car is reduced as the first car deflects
the air over it. In other configurations the drag force on the rear car is
actually greater than that on the lead car as it sits in the dirty, highly
turbulent wake. Both cars handling are also affected as the front and
rear lift on each varies with the car positions and strong yaw forces
occur on the rear car when in the offset position. These simulations
provided the aerodynamicists with detailed visualization of the
complex flow patterns around the cars.

Pushing the limits


So far, weve got to a simulation of forty cars with a mesh count of
one billion polyhedral cells: , the equivalent of several billion
tetrahedral cells! The purpose of the simulation was twofold: to

The starting point for the calculation was creating a mesh around a
single car, providing the baseline drag, lift and yaw force values. A
second car was then introduced and analyses were performed with
the cars directly in-line, and with an offset as if at beginning an
overtaking maneuver. The drivers goal when in the drafting formation
is to reduce the drag on both cars, making them collectively faster. If
the second car is in the correct position, it has the effect of increasing
the pressure at the rear of the lead car, reducing its overall drag.

The model was then extended to evaluate what happens in highly


complex race conditions, with many cars unevenly spaced and

dynamics 2.01

24

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Automotive

Computational Flow
Assurance
Risk Mitigation &
Performance Improvement

T Fig:02
Billion cell STAR-CCM+ simulation of entire NASCAR grid.

Visit us
at:

OTC

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Houston y 05-08
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Flow, Thermal, Stress


3D Simulation Software & Services
STAR-CCM+

S Fig:02
STAR-CCM+ simulation of
offset drafting between two
NASCARs

positioned. This was built using a building block approach. One


car and its close proximity were meshed. This mesh was then copy
and pasted with an offset to produced two cars side-by-side, or
nose to tail. To vary the distance between the vehicles a spacer
mesh section was used. Using this technique, a model of forty,
unevenly distributed cars with a total mesh count of one billion cells
was generated. Although this is impressive by todays standards,
according to Dr Richard Johns, multi-billion cell calculations will be
common-place in the not too distant future: As the hardware
vendors continue to produce even bigger and faster machines, so
the model sizes race teams want to run increases. Its our goal to
make sure STAR-CCM+ can efficiently handle these enormous
calculations. So far weve made it to one billion, we dont see any
reason why in the future we cant go much larger than that.
More than just flow
Of course, aerodynamics is only one application area for motor sport
CFD. NASCAR teams are increasingly using CFD for underhood
thermal management simulations to gain detailed insight into the
flow and thermal fields. Here, the CFD tool must be able to
automatically mesh highly complex geometries and deal with the
additional physics required to efficiently model fans and heat
exchangers as well as convective and radiative heat transfer.
CD-adapcos pedigree is strong, having been running underhood
simulations for over a decade. Our codes are the tried and trusted
solution for powertrain teams around the world, and when
developing STAR-CCM+ it was one of our target applications, says
Johns. Its combination of the latest generation of our surface
wrapper, and dedicated underhood models mean its much more
than just a flow code.
At the heart of STAR-CCM+ is an automated process that links a
powerful surface wrapper to CD-adapcos unique meshing
technology. The surface wrapper significantly reduces the number of
man-hours spent on surface cleanup and, for problems that involve
large assemblies of complex geometry parts, reduces the entire
meshing process to hours instead of days. The surface wrapper
works by shrink-wrapping a high quality triangulated surface mesh
onto any geometrical model, closing holes in the geometry and

L MORE INFORMATION info@uk.cd-adapco.com

25

dynamics 2.01

joining disconnected and overlapping surfaces, providing a single


manifold surface that can be used to automatically generate a
computational mesh without user intervention. STAR-CCM+ also
has specialist models for efficient representation of fans and heat
exchangers.

STAR-CD

For more information on Flow, Thermal & Stress Simulation, please visit: www.cd-adapco.com
Or contact: info@us.cd-adapco.com

Staying ahead
In motor sport CFD from F1 to NASCAR bigger, is better. As teams
continue to push the envelope of CFD so the tools they use need
to adapt to their requirements. By adopting state-of-the-art
technology, in combination with years of know-how from us and our
partners, STAR-CCM+ is helping race teams run bigger models,
faster and ultimately to stay at the front of the grid.

www.cd-adapco.com

Flow, Thermal & Stress


Solutions that Span the
Aerospace Industry

The surface wrapper


significantly reduces the
number of man-hours spent
on surface cleanup and, for
problems that involve large
assemblies of complex
geometry parts, reduces
the entire meshing process
to hours instead of days.

STAR-CAD Series

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integrate

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apco.com
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Accuracy

Flexibility

Efficiency

Experience

What do you expect from your Engineering


Simulation Software?
For more information on Flow, Thermal & Stress Simulation, please visit:
www.cd-adapco.com
Or contact: info@de.cd-adapco.com

American
www.cd-adapco.com

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Automotive

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Automotive

W Fig:02
Different configurations or both bike and
ride angle were studied automatically
using the mesh replace feature and the
surface wrapper

Aerodynamic Analysis
of a Motorcycle and Rider
on a high speed corner

W Fig:01
Slice view of final polyhedral mesh with
volume source visible around the bike.

Giorgio Pagliara and Giuseppe Ganio

Pro S3 was founded in November 2001


by three shareholder coming from
Polytechnic of Turin University.
After 3D CAD design, other services like
FEM analysis and CFD simulation have
improved the company range of
activities.
Autovotive, Aerospace, Defense and
General Industry are the typical areas
where Pro S3 gives best demonstration
of its capabilities.
Nowadays Pro S3 is a mature reality
offering 360 degrees engineering
support to its customers.

The analysis of motorcycle race aerodynamics can present a significant


challenge, requiring the simulation of many different configurations and
positions of both bike and rider. Because of the manner in which the rider
maintains stability by leaning into corners, wind tunnel analysis with a rolling
road is often impractical. The deployment of CFD within the design process,
however, enables such studies to be carried out with relative ease.
The current study demonstrates that, using surface
wrapping and polyhedral mesh technology, it is
possible to run an aerodynamic optimisation study
using only a relatively small 2 CPU machine.
Although widely used throughout the automotive and transport
industries, the analysis of motorcycle aerodynamics using CFD
remains relatively rare; by coupling STAR-CCM+ to the
geometry creation and manipulation package Blender, it was
possible to perform multiple studies automatically, providing
detailed insight into the behaviour of both rider and bike
through a high speed corner.
Geometry preparation
The geometry consists of both bike and rider separately.
Before constructing a computational mesh the two separate
geometries needed to be combined and placed in an

27

dynamics 2.01

aerodynamic domain. This combination was achieved using


the blender software, a package primarily designed for 3D
rendering and visualisation as opposed to engineering design
and analysis. The use of this software presented several
challenges as it is not designed to fit into a CAE process and
so the generic CAD formats exported from it were not of a
high quality and contained many errors preventing volume
meshing without surface cleanup.
To ensure a suitably high quality surface for aerodynamic
analysis, the STAR-CCM+ surface wrapper was used to
perform geometry cleanup and repair, as well as connecting
the rider, motorbike and ground together. During the wrapping
process free edges, self intersections and surface mismatches
were removed in order to provide a clean closed surface ready
for surface re-meshing and volume meshing.

The computational mesh was constructed automatically using polyhedral


cells mesh, surrounded at solid boundaries by three prismatic extrusion
layers. Because polyhedral cells fill space more efficiently than
tetrahedral elements, fewer cells were required than might otherwise
have been needed, significantly aiding the goal of using a small desktop
machine to perform such aerodynamic analyses.
Two different configurations of bike and rider were studied firstly a high
speed straight line analysis with the bike perpendicular to the ground.
Once complete the angle of the bike was changed to represent the
position during cornering, the replace mesh feature in STAR-CCM+
allowed an updated geometry to be imported with original mesh settings
retained for faster turnaround time.
Results
The results of the simulation predicted that at a straight line speed of
120 Km/h, the motorcycle is well balanced with neither excessive lift or
down force experienced. During a turn, however, the rider and bike are
at an angle to the ground, generating large amounts of lift and a rolling
moment that acts to straighten the bike.
Plots of pressure coefficient show that, during cornering, the rider
produces aerodynamic downforce while the bike produces lift. The L/D
ratio (lift over drag) ratio of the bike and rider is around 0.4 which may
be compared to a typical value of between -3.5 to -2.5 of an F1 car, a

difference which is largely accounted for by the lack of any lifting


surfaces (front and rear wings) and the effect of rider on the overall
aerodynamic performance.
After the preliminary study of the original geometry in both configurations, modifications were made to the bikes shape to improve the
L/D ratio with the aim of increasing downforce and reducing drag. The
ultimate goal of the optimization study was to produce a negative L/D
ratio, as with F1 cars, to help hold the bike to the road and so enable
faster cornering. Although this was not achieved it was possible to
reduce the L/D to 0.1 (compare with 0.06 on the straight) so
representing a significant reduction relative to the original configuration
which yielded a value of 0.4
Conclusions
One of the key aims of the study was to prove that it was possible to
easily produce and turn around aerodynamic studies of vehicles using
relatively modest computational resources. By using the surface
wrapper and polyhedral mesh technologies in STAR-CCM+ it was
possible to take a tight budget and perform studies on a racing
motorcycle and rider in multiple configurations.
It is the intention of the authors to continue this work and expand it to
including engine cooling of the bike whilst further refining the process.

L MORE INFORMATION ON PROS3 http://www.pros3.it

dynamics 2.01

28

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Consumer Products

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Consumer Products

the quantity of water used in showers in the UK will rise from about, 650
Ml/d in 2000 to over 1200 Ml/d by 2020. As a result the use of water for
showering is likely to become a major component of the water by domestic
customers consumption (potentially rising to over 15% of total household
water consumption by 2020). Unchecked this could have serious
implications for both the environment and the UK economy.
Climate change
The average domestic water usage in the UK is around 150 litres per
person per day5, over two times the recommended target of 70 litres per
day for new dwellings6. In America, this average increases to a staggering
360 litres per day while in parts of the developing world, for example India,
people survive with a daily usage of 25 litres or less7.

Dont Waste Hot Water:


Computer Simulation unlocks the secret
of the Perfect Shower
Dr Darren Woolf, ARUP

Water is a precious resource. Water used for showering has been steadily increasing
year on year. DEFRAs Market Transformation Programme (MTP) recently
commissioned Arup to undertake research to help understand ways of designing a
more efficient shower head. The adoption of more efficient shower heads, will lead to
a reduction in water AND energy use leading to a reduction in our carbon footprint.
Parameters such as flow rate, water temperature, skin
pressure and orifice size all contribute to the sensation of
a comfortable shower. Martin Shouler, leader of
environmental services engineering in Arup, brought
together a specialist team for the research using Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD).
Shower Power
Showering has always been about more than simply keeping clean.
Although its uncertain as to exactly how long humans have been
showering, ancient Greek and Egyptian murals suggest that weve
been doing it for at least a few thousand years. Indeed, washing by
pouring water over ones head probably dates back to primeval times.
Showering now occupies a special place in popular culture; while
bathing is usually associated with luxury, tranquillity and relaxation,
showering is typically credited with stimulation and invigoration, both
mental and physical. While our ancestors might have been content to
shower under a waterfall (or even using one of those strange rubber
contraptions that fitted over the bathroom taps), modern consumers
have developed a much more sophisticated taste in showering
equipment.
Modern showers are expected to provide multiple spray settings,
which provide a body and scalp massage while covering the occupant
in a plentiful supply of temperature controlled warm water. Power
showers include mains pressure showers and pumped showers.

29

dynamics 2.01

Actual flowrate depends on many factors including supply pressure.


Those that require electrical pumping can deliver higher volumes of
water than those delivered by mains pressure alone therefore they
also have an increased environmental impact because of the energy
required to power them. While, until relatively recently, electric powershowers were seen as an expensive luxury, they now account for 16%
of all showers installed in the UK and are a growth sector1.
Many hotel bathrooms have dispensed with the bath entirely, to be
replaced by stand-alone shower cubicles. Modern houses and
apartments and those adapted for disabled persons often boast wetrooms and walk-in-showers as an luxury alternative to more
traditional bathroom arrangements.

According to the 2003 United Nations Environment Programme, global


water use had more than tripled since 1950; within the next 25 years half
of the worlds population could have trouble finding enough fresh water for
drinking and irrigation. Although water usage in temperate regions has no
direct impact on the water available to those in the developing world, an
uncomfortable truth is that the world as a whole simply cannot sustain
water consumption patterns similar to those of North America and Europe.
Drought and water-shortage are also not just problems for the developing
world. Despite the fact that the UK has a temperate climate, in 2006
Southern England endured record drought levels for a second successive
year. Much of the water usage in the UK is skewed towards the populous
South East of England - to the extent that water demand frequently leads to
the over exploitation of local water resources. The water-supplier responsible
for most of the London area recently made an application to build a 200
million desalination plant to treat salt water from the Thames estuary - an
approach that until now has been reserved for hot and arid countries.
The threat posed by the inefficient usage of water is well recognized by the
UK Government, which is currently implementing a number of Market
Transformation Programmes (MTP) aimed at understanding the current and
future impact of products that are responsible for consuming large amounts
of energy or water.
Key to the programme is an MTP analysis of the domestic shower. To this
end, the UK Government has enlisted the help of Arup, a leading
international engineering consultancy, to apply the latest computer
simulation technology to enhance the understanding of the physics behind
a shower.
Virtual Shower Solution
The principal aim of the study was to gain a firm understanding of the
physics that determine the effectiveness of shower design and to determine
if an acceptable level of shower performance could be provided at lower
flow rates. In order to assess this, the study also identified a number of key
performance indicators that could potentially be used to categorize the
performance of showers in the marketplace. Other issues such as consumer
awareness and industry drivers that could influence change towards more
environmentally sustainable designs were also considered.

Although the increased levels or cleanliness associated with the rise


in popularity of showering is to be applauded, long, hot showers
consume large amounts of both water and energy. Gravity showers
are fed from a cistern within a house and are therefore low pressure
by nature. While five-minutes under an old-fashioned gravity shower
uses about a third of the water of a bath, a modern pumped shower
can use more water than a bath in well under five minutes. This
assumes a typical bath volume of 65 litres2 and a five minute shower
at 15 litre per minute, i.e. 75 litres3.

Arup used the STAR-CD Computational Fluid Dynamics software from


CD-adapco, to build a virtual model of a shower cubicle, including a
mannequin to represent a person showering. Computational Fluid Dynamics
(or CFD) is a technique that simulates the flow of fluids (and associated
phenomena such as heat-transfer and chemical reaction) using desktop
computers. The technique first gained popularity in the aerospace and
automotive industries during the early 1980s, and has since spread across
a multitude of industries and applications. Today it is difficult to find a single
component on a modern automobile whose design has not been optimised
to some extent by CFD simulation with the technology for sprays in engine
design being transferred over to this showering application.

In the UK the amount of water used for showering is steadily


increasing as a percentage of overall household usage. The Market
Transformation Programme4 estimated that, if current trends continue,

Arups CFD model tracks the progress of the water droplets as they leave
the individual nozzles of the shower head until they hit the body of the
occupant or, upon missing entirely, gather in the shower tray. Whilst in free-

S Fig:01
Droplet trajectories and temperature
contours around the shower occupant.

dynamics 2.01

S ARUP are a global design and


business consulting firm.
Outstanding solutions, innovation
and value characterise our work. As
professional consultants we have a
vast pool of technical expertise
across the world, enabling us to
achieve the best possible results for
our clients.

30

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Consumer Products

..::PARTNER NEWS Germanischer Lloyd

W Fig:01

In the examples shown here, courtesy of


Germanischer Lloyd, a commercial super-liner is
subjected to waves of 7.3 meters height, while
travelling at 26 knots.
A graphical comparison of the pressure
experienced at various points on the hull surface
shows outstanding agreement between numerical
and experimental studies. The overall quality of
the simulation results gave Germanischer Lloyds
engineers confidence in the methodology,
enabling them to assess the safety of a wide
range of ship designs, operating under the most
adverse conditions.

W Fig:02
Shower head spray distributions were measured
experimentally for comparison.

Importantly, the results also showed that there is almost a direct


correlation between reducing the flowrate and reducing the energy
required to power the shower. Put simply, says Woolf, by halving the
flowrate you can directly half the energy usage costs associated with
showering.

We found that by reducing the


size of the individual spray
holes it was possible to
increase the water coverage
over the body, while
significantly reducing the
flowrate of the shower.

The project also demonstrated that some popular shower designs are
more energy inefficient than others. From an energy point of view,
atomiser sprays were shown to be particularly inefficient, observes
Irene Pau, the Arup engineer responsible for performing the
simulations. The smaller droplet sizes result in a much larger
temperature drop en route to the body requiring the user to increase
the shower temperature in order to keep as warm.

Darren Woolf, ARUP

The findings of this research have already been shared with


manufacturers who have shown an interest in taking the techniques
developed in the simulations further. In addition to this simulation
based study, a parallel experimental investigation has just been
completed at Liverpool John Moore University [1] which compared the
level of comfort predicted by the virtual model with those experienced
in real showers.

flight droplets can potentially collide (thereby coalescing into larger


droplets), split into smaller droplets, or evaporate, increasing the
humidity inside the cubicle. The liquid film formed as water droplets hit
the occupant is also tracked as it flows down the body of the
mannequin, allowing Arup engineers to easily assess the degree of
water-coverage resulting from each shower design.

For more information on UK Government Market Transformation


Programme please visit: www.mtprog.com. The full report Assessing
and Improving Shower Performance can be requested from this site.

What separates CFD simulation from physical testing of a prototype


shower is the multitude of data that the technique produces. Arup
engineers were, for every shower design, able to predict the
temperature and water coverage at every point on the mannequin and,
by simulating each droplet of water, calculate the force of impact of
individual water particles. Using this approach it becomes much easier
to identify showers that could possibly provide higher degrees of
occupant satisfaction at lower flow rates.

REFERENCES
[1] United Utilities and Liverpool John Moore University Report Water efficient showers:
Project report, May 2007.
[2] MTP Briefing Note BNDWBATHS: Actions to improve bath design and efficiency,

31

www.mtprog.com

dynamics 2.01

CD-adapco, a global enterprise offering computationally-based engineering solutions, and the


classification society Germanischer Lloyd (GL) have joined forces. The two companies signed a
cooperation agreement whereby they will closely work together in the sector of Computational
Fluid Dynamics (CFD) for marine applications. The future collaboration will comprise of mutual
publications, development, validation as well as workshops.
Dr Ould el Moctar, GLs Head of Department Fluid
Dynamics, explains: Germanischer Lloyd and CDadapco have already been working together for many
years. Both parties have considerable experience in
the field of CFD analyses. Former joint publications by
CD-adapcos Technical Director, Prof Dr Milovan Peric, and Dr
el Moctar include papers on Wave Loads or the Simulation
of Sloshing in LNG-Tanks.

Germanischer Lloyd has always been in the vanguard of CFD


analysis in the maritime field, today offering the full scope of
maritime engineering services such as the computation of
slamming, sloshing, wave loads, cavitation or fluid-structure
interaction. In all cases, advanced simulation software is
needed. However, the true value offered by advanced
engineering providers lies in the symbiosis of software or
hardware and highly skilled staff, Ould el Moctar says.

The importance of computer-aided engineering in shipping


cannot be underestimated, the GL-expert stresses: The
technological progress of simulation in this sector is rapid,
both for software and hardware. Simulation technology is
employed in a wide range of marine applications and often
plays a critical role in the decision making process. Raimund
Schipp, CD-adapcos European Director of Sales, adds:
Computer simulation technology is finally fulfilling its
enormous potential. The availability of accurate and reliable
predictions at the earliest stage of the design process leads to
significant savings in effort and money, compared to
performing tests and amending the design later in the
process.

Modeling therefore also requires considerable collective


experience. This is why the cooperation is so very interesting,
Raimund Schipp points out: We will combine both the
theoretical as well as practical experience of our two
companies to come up with beneficial solutions.

S Germanischer Lloyd is the


market leader in the classification
of containerships. Every second
containership is built according to
GL Rules. Devoted to promoting
innovation, sustainability and
environmental protection,
Germanischer Lloyd also covers all
other ship types such as tanker,
bulker, multi purpose vessels, high
speed ferries and cruise ships. The
current newbuilding orderbook
contains more than 1,400 vessels
with 28 Mio GT.

March 2007.

The study demonstrated quite conclusively that it is possible to reduce


the flow rate of a shower from 15 to 6 litres per minute without
compromising its delivery performance, says Arup CFD expert Dr
Darren Woolf. We found that by reducing the size of the individual
spray holes it was possible to increase the water coverage over the
body, while significantly reducing the flowrate of the shower.

L MORE INFORMATION

Germanischer Lloyd
& CD-adapco join forces

[3] Environment Agency Report Conserving water in buildings: Shower and baths.
[4] MTP Briefing Note UK water consumption of showers, 2007.
[5] MTP Report Product Overview: Water.
[6] GLA Report Water matters: The Mayors draft water strategy, March 2007.
[7] Waterwise web site Per capita consumption and metering level by country summary,
May 2006.

www.arup.com

www.cd-adapco.com

L MORE INFORMATION

info@uk.cd-adapco.com

http://www.gl-group.com

dynamics 2.01

32

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Marine

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Marine

State-of-the-art simulation
for the marine industry
Stephen Ferguson, CD-adapco

S Fig:01
Free surface simulation of the
Earthrace boat.

CD-adapco has a 25-year history of providing state-of-the-art flow, thermal and


stress simulation to the marine industry. From large shipyards to suppliers of
small components, the use of our technology has become a standard feature
in marine design and safety assurance process. Using our cutting-edge solver
technology, our customers have been able to tackle some of the most
demanding problems that the industry has to offer. Recent successes include:
Bow Flare Slamming
The extreme pitch-and-heave motion of a ship
operating in rough seas causes Bow flare
slamming. Modern ultra-large container ships,
which typically rely on the additional cargo capacity of a large
bow flare, are often exposed to a high risk of slamming due to
their relatively high speed and operational requirements that
they be driven through adverse weather conditions.
CD-adapcos simulation technology has been used extensively
throughout the industry to understand the mechanisms
behind bow flare slamming and to help mitigate the risk of
damage. A significant advantage of numerical simulation is
that tests can be carried out at full scale and that pressure
loads can be predicted at every point on the hull.
The Earthrace Boat (www.earthrace.net). Designed to pierce
through waves instead of riding over them. (see Pitch and roll
Simulations overleaf) In the example shown in figure three,
courtesy of Germanischer Lloyd, a commercial super-liner is
subjected to waves of 7.3 meters height, while traveling at 26
knots. A graphical comparison of the pressure experienced at
various points on the hull surface shows outstanding
agreement between numerical and experimental studies. The
overall quality of the simulation results gave Germanischer

33

dynamics 2.01

Lloyds engineers confidence in the methodology, enabling


them to assess the safety of a wide range of ship designs,
operating under the most adverse conditions.

and rudders, often causing surface pitting and fatigueinducing vibration. CD-adapcos simulation technology
accurately predicts the onset of cavitation and the
unsteady phenomena associated with the build up and
break up of large cavitation regions. Detailed analysis of
both steady and unsteady cavitation has been performed
with considerable success across the industry.
For a given design, this technology allows designers to
identify under which operating conditions the worst
cavitation problems are likely to occur, or alternatively
which design is least prone to cavitation under a given
operating condition.

Propeller and rudder cavitation


Cavitation is a significant cause of damage to ship propellers

Classification society rules contain formulas for slamming


loads. Generally, these formulas are adequate for
conventional ships, as they are based on operational
experience. However, for many modern ships it becomes
necessary to resort to direct computations of slamming
loads.

S Fig:02
The Earthrace Boat (www.earthrace.net).
Designed to pierce through waves instead
of riding over them.

T Fig:04
Cavitation Analysis.

In an extension of the work described above, deformation


of the ships structure resulting from the impact of a series
of large waves was predicted. In a coupled fluid-structureinteraction simulation the forces calculated from the
simulation of the flow were used (via an interface
developed by Germanischer Lloyd) to provide boundary
conditions for a structural-analysis simulation, which
predicted the structural deformation as shown.

Pitch and roll simulations


The motion of a vessel under the influence of a rough sea is a
complex combination of translation, pitching, rolling and
yawing. CD-adapcos simulation technology allows the motion
of a vessel to be predicted in all six-degrees of freedom, using
a fully coupled simulation technique that accounts for both
the influence of the flow on the boat, and the influence of the
boat motion on the flow.
Germanischer Lloyd has used this technology to good effect in
their analysis of the unconventional Earthrace vessel (see
photo overleaf). In rough conditions the Earthrace boat is
designed to pierce through waves instead of riding over them.
In the results shown below, the bow of the boat can be seen
entering a simulated wave. Simulation results such as these
allowed the boat designers to understand its performance in
very rough conditions, from the comfort of their design-studio,
before even the first prototype had been built.

Structural deformations from wave impact


Slamming loads can cause deformation of local structural
components and induce high stresses. The accurate
assessment of such loads is essential for the design of a
ships structure.

X Fig:03

Wave impact study of offshore platform

L MORE INFORMATION

info@uk.cd-adapco.com

http://www.gl-group.com/

dynamics 2.01

34

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Oil and Gas

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Oil and Gas

X Fig:01
Gas bubble distribution through a subsea Christmas tree and
insulated pipeline configuration.

W Fig:03

3D CFD allows the study of the effects of


complex geometries in subsea piplines, in this
case a pipe inspection gauge (PIG).

Computational
Flow Assurance

Flow Assurance is
the ability to
identify and prevent
potential fluid
related problems
from impacting oil &
gas production
throughout the
asset life.

New Challenges Increase the


Importance of 3-D CFD in the
Oil and Gas Industry
Dennis Nagy, CD-adapco

The rapid rise in the price of crude oil and natural gas, and the
general belief that prices will continue to rise as global energy
demand outstrips resources and production, is causing many
Dennis
Nagy, CD-adapco
business
changes in the oil and gas industry.

Additionally, geopolitically changing currents are


causing some countries to look strategically for
greater energy supplies in what are perceived as
friendlier waters. These ongoing changes are
creating at least three challenges where improved engineering is
key to a successful response:
1. Developing and producing from deposits lying below even
deeper offshore areas
2. Extracting oil from the huge oil-sands deposits in Canada
(Alberta), Venezuela, and the U.S.
3. Extending the life of existing oil and gas reservoirs by
extracting more than was previously economically feasible.
This article focuses on the particular challenges of deep offshore
technology and the increasing role for 3-D CFD simulations to
assure optimal flow in ever more extreme environmental
conditions. The other two challenges listed above will be the
subjects of later articles.
Although offshore oil production has existed for over 100 years
(the first offshore well was built in 1897 in Summerland, CA), the
search for producible oil and gas in ever deeper waters is much
more recent, driven by rising demand and prices plus technology
advances. Over the past 30 years, major oil companies such as

Petrobras coined the term around 1990 and, in brief, Flow


Assurance is the ability to identify and prevent potential fluid
related problems from impacting oil & gas production throughout
the asset life. Flow assurance is a multidiscipline process
involving sampling laboratory analysis, production, and facilities
engineering working together to assure uninterrupted optimum
productivity.
The fluid-related problems mentioned above are caused by,
among other things, by a combination of higher pressures at
such depths (both well fluids and ambient ocean-bottom water),
hotter well fluids (300 degrees F/150C and greater), nearfreezing ocean water, much longer runs of piping and risers back
to production facilities, and tricky ocean currents at different
depths. Certain particular combinations of pressure and
temperature of the raw well fluids (a varying mixture of crude oil,
water, natural gas, sand, mud, and various impurities) can cause
the formation of hydrates (an ice-like substance formed from gas
and water at temperatures as hot at 80 degrees F/26C ) and
waxy paraffins that can impede and eventually block the flow of
well fluids.
The main focus, up to now, has been on preventing these
formations within the pipelines and risers running from the
ocean-bottom well heads to the topside processing facilities
(FPSOs or platforms). Useful software has been developed by a
number of companies (including SPT, Schlumberger, Netotec) to
simulate the flow (steady-state or transient) of well fluids in long
pipelines and estimate the pressure-volume-temperature

X Fig:02

Slug catcher simulation in STAR-CCM+.

35

Shell and Petrobras have pioneered in venturing beyond the


relatively friendlier continental shelves (500 ft.) to deepwater (up
to 5000 ft.) and now increasingly to ultra-deep opportunities. As
production opportunities moved deeper, many new challenges
were encountered. In this article we focus on one called Flow
Assurance.

dynamics 2.01

conditions in order to then design against hydrate and paraffin


formation (with modified pressures or flow rates, increased
thicknesses, insulation, and/or chemical additives). Such software, to
be useable (run times), needed to take the more general 3-D
multiphase flow equations and reduce them to equivalent 1-D
(position along the pipeline) equations with coefficients determined by
estimating the type of flow (stratified, annular, or slug) and conducting
many correlation experiments to get good coefficients for their 1-D
approximations.
There are, however, limitations in the accuracy/usefulness of this 1-D
approach to computational flow assurance. First of all, flow in the
various subsea equipment and systems at the ends of such pipelines
(or even at pipe junctions) is much more 3-D and displays many
three dimensional effects with the corresponding performance
verification of such equipment in ever-harsher environments requires
either more extensive testing (which is increasingly expensive/difficult)
or the use of reliable, industry-proven 3-D CFD software in the hands
of knowledgeable flow assurance engineers.
Traditional subsea equipment in this category include, among others:
Wet Christmas Trees (assemblies of pipes, valves at the well head)
Manifolds (where multiple wells feed their fluids into one concentration) point)
BOPs (blow-out protectors)
Valves
Pumps
Pigs (pipe inspection gauges)

As depths increase, oil companies are also transferring more and


more of the topside equipment functions (separators, slug catchers,
dry trees) to the ocean bottom, creating the need to design radically
different kinds of equipment to perform reliably (much less need for
repair/replacement, due to its expense) in that environment. 3-D CFD
becomes increasingly important in such engineering design work
because the engineers have no history of practical experience to
guide them. CD-adapco software is now being used more and more in

such engineering design and verification situations, as shown for


example, in Figures 1 and 2.
Accumulated deposits in pipelines have traditionally been removed by
either chemical solvent additives (which then need to be removed
again to produce pure enough crude oil for later refining) or the use of
physical devices called Pigs which are inserted and flow along the
inside of pipes to scrape off accumulated deposit. 3-D CFD can also
be used to design better pigs and pigging processes, as shown in
Figure 3.
Even in the long 1-D pipes, there are flow conditions (such as
recirculating flow in steep pipelines/risers, where the gas continues to
flow upward but the heavier crude oil slips back down the pipe over a
significant length before trying again to rise) that cannot be
simulated accurately enough by the 1-D methods. The obstacle, up to
now, has been that full 3-D CFD for such large geometries produced
unacceptably long run times (by orders of magnitude). Improvements
in solution algorithms and exploitation of massively parallel
computer configurations have now opened the door for near-future
practical use of full 3-D CFD (probably in combination with the
existing 1-D codes) for flow assurance in long pipelines. HPC clusters
are now becoming much more affordable and finite-volume-based
CFD scales excellently on such distributed memory parallel
computers.
CD-adapco, under contract to a major Scandinavian oil company, has
recently demonstrated significant run-time reductions (43x) for such
long-pipeline configurations (including pipe junctions) through a
combination of proprietary time-stepping algorithm improvements and
smart numerical exploitation of the still long nature of the resulting
CFD meshes. Stay tuned for further important news on this front!

L MORE INFORMATION info@uk.cd-adapco.com

dynamics 2.01

36

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Oil & Gas

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Oil & Gas

A major factor which aided in the


determination of an optimal tank
design was Computational Fluid
Dynamics (CFD) modeling.

Douglas Lee

Forever Blowing
Bubbles
Revolutionary MBF Separator Design
with CFD
Stephen Ferguson in conversation with GLR Solutions Ltd. CEO Douglas Lee

Faced with increased water-cuts from maturing wells and a combination of environmental
legislation and operational demands, Oil and Gas operators are being forced to review their
separation processes. Not only must separation trains now handle a larger throughput of
well fluids (due to the increased water content), but the water that they deliver for disposal
or re-injection must also be cleaner than ever before.
In this article, we explore how Canadian company GLR
Solutions has applied advanced Computational Fluid Dynamic
simulation in the design and implementation of their Micro
Bubble Flotation technology which has become recognized in
the industry as one of the highest performance methods for treatment of
produced water.
At the heart of most Oil and Gas separation processes is the API Skim
Tank. Slow and reliable, the skim tank depends on the difference in
specific gravity between oil and water, lighter oil eventually floating to the
top of the denser water content, where it can easily be skimmed off.
Although ubiquitous, the standard skim tank suffers from the long
retention times required to perform effective separation, which can be
useful when buffering out the effects of upstream spikes in production,
but ultimately is inefficient when separating small amounts of oil from
large amounts of produced water. API gravity tanks are also relatively
inefficient when dealing with heavy oils or emulsions.
To counter these shortcomings, many modifications to the traditional API
vessel have been attempted, aimed at increasing the separation
efficiency of the API vessels (wherever possible using existing separation
equipment), often resulting in the introduction of internal structures or
distribution nozzles, which are intended to encourage the coalescence of
oil droplets within the tank. A more novel, and generally more effective
approach, involves flooding the separation vessel with bubbles of gas,
which adhere to similarly sized oil particles and float them to the surface
of the tank. This approach, known as Induced Gas Flotation, or IGF,
usually requires the partitioning of the vessel into various chambers so

37

dynamics 2.01

that the bubbles can act on successfully cleaner batches of produced


water. The downside of IGF is the requirement for additional process
vessels, limited efficiency due to bubble size limitations of conventional
equipment, and that the relatively low retention times do not provide an
adequate buffer against upstream disturbance (process upset).
GLR Solutions have devised, with the aid of extensive CFD simulation,
an improved gas flotation technology that uses micro bubbles of gas
(~10-50 microns in diameter) to assist separation. Douglas Lee,
President and CEO of GLR Solutions, explains: A bubble of gas of a
given size will attach itself to a similar sized oil droplet and encourage it
to float to the surface where the oil coalesces, collects and is skimmed
off.
According to Lee, GLR Solutions Micro Bubble Flotation technology
(MBF) substantially enhances the separation process over
conventional skim tanks and IGF and gives much improved separation
results: The benefits of this are increased revenue from recovered oil,
fewer problems in reinjection of the water, elimination or fewer
chemicals where chemicals are used and the ability to separate oil even
in an emulsified state with considerable savings in the reduction of
chemicals.
Fewer problems in reinjection include less plugging of the formation due
to oil and solids contamination and a reduced need for expensive well
workovers to remedy plugging. A reduced level of oil and solids in the
outlet from the skim tank also offers much-reduced loading on final, oil
removing filters when in use. One of the most unique applications of

MBF is directly within API tanks which typically incorporate


multiple stages to enhance removal of the oil, while eliminating
of oil short-circuiting. The application of gas flotation within API
tanks provides increased retention time, relative to an IGF
separator, which would buffer any upsets in oil concentration or
flow rates produced in upstream operations.

Case Study MBF Separation for ENI Dacion


GLR Solutions have invested heavily in CFD simulation, both in
the initial development of the MBF system, and while planning
large-scale commercial installations, including the recent
installation of an API tank based flotation system in Eastern
Venezuela.
ENI Dacion BV, is a Venezuala based joint venture of ENI S.p.A.
a worldwide oil producer and oilfield operator, owns and
operates numerous facilities for the treatment of oil and water.
GLR Solutions were engaged to provide the most appropriate
separation technology for the GED-10 Station in the Dacion
field. The GED-10 Station is one of ENIs smaller facilities; when
it was originally designed and built, water cuts in the produced
oil were typically very low, with anticipated flow rates of 5,000 10,000 bwpd. However, as is typical for reservoirs with active
aquifers, water cuts have significantly increased in recent years
(the station currently operates at 6,000 bopd, 15,000 bwpd),
and it is expected that the facility will eventually need to handle
flows of up to 25,000 bwpd. This has meant the majority of the
equipment now has insufficient capacity to be used in the way it
was originally designed.
During previous development in the Dacion field, expensive
water treatment systems had been installed, based on desanding and de-oiling hydrocyclones and nutshell filter
technology. Despite the high capital and operational costs of
these (relatively complex) solutions, the level of treatment
efficiency delivered by these systems was insufficient. ENI
decided to evaluate other technologies for the selection of the

most appropriate system for GED-10 in order to meet the


treatment capacity and water quality specifications. ENI
established a set of selection criterion in order to determine
which separation technology was most appropriate, based on:
ease of operation and maintenance; cost of operation and
maintenance; capital cost; performance; and flexibility (the
ability to handle a large range of inlet flow fluctuations, both in
total flow, and oil and solid content).
After internal evaluations within ENI, the multi-chamber API tank
configuration of MBF was selected, allowing GLR Solutions to
set about designing the optimal configuration for the GED-10
field. Aware that there would be little opportunity for postinstallation modification (without disrupting oil revenue from the
station), GLR Solutions decided to undertake detailed design
analysis using CD-adapcos STAR-CD CFD package: A major
factor which aided in the determination of an optimal tank
design was Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling,
says Doug Lee. CFD simulation allows us to simulate fluids in a
variety of compositions as they flow through the complex threedimensional structure of the separator.

GLR Solutions Ltd. is a manufacturer


and supplier of innovative
technologies and services for the
treatment of produced water.
Notably we have pioneered new
applications of Micro Bubble
Flotation, Nutshell Filtration and
Fluid Dynamic Modeling. GLR
Solutions has distribution and
service representatives Worldwide to
assist you with projects of any size.
www.glrsolutions.com

An optimal design, as determined by GLR Solutions, had to


include a number of attributes. As the design was to be
incorporated into an existing tank at GED-10 Station, and it was
known that flow rates would be increasing, it was important to
make use of the available volume of the tank: For heavy oil
applications, such as GED-10, it is essential to ensure that
there is sufficient contact between oil-droplets and
microbubbles throughout the tank, said Lee. Using CFD
modeling we could not only visualize the flow patterns within
the separator, but we could also track the progress of individual
microbubbles. This allowed us to conclusively demonstrate that
sufficient mixing occurred between the microbubble and
produced water streams and that adhesion would readily occur
in the designated region of the tank.

dynamics 2.01

38

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Oil & Gas

..::FREE STUFF Oil & Gas

Flow, Thermal & Stress


Simulation Technology
from CD-adapco

CFD modeling has proven to be a


continuously useful tool in the
design of tanks and vessels and a
critical tool to our R&D of new
produced water treatment
technologies
Douglas Lee

FREE
DVD

S Fig01
The silly Jabberwocky auctioned off one lampstand, although Tokyo
cleverly towed five bureaux, howeve

As well as ensuring sufficient contact between bubbles and oil in the


produced water, it was also necessary to ensure that, after contact with
the oil, the bubbles were transported directly to the liquid surface, and
not through the outflow of the separator where they might cause
problems for downstream processes: CFD modeling allows us to track
bubble particles through the tank. We can therefore predict whether
bubbles travel to the lower portions of the tank and, if so, how we can
prevent them doing so. Current chambered API tank designs have been
modeled and the models field verified to confirme that bubbles will not
exit the last chamber with the clean water.
With the aid of CFD we were able to test a variety of internal configurations over a wide variety of operational conditions, that finally led to
the optimal design that we proposed to ENI, and that was eventually
implemented at the GED-10 facility. One of the benefits of CFD is that,
using post-processing, we were able to effectively communicate to our
client exactly how the separator would perform in action, using easy to
understand graphics, rather than having to deal exclusively in abstract
engineering descriptions.
Having determined the details of the optimal basic design (which
includes two tanks as shown), GLR Solutions then deployed further
CFD simulation in order to refine other aspects of the separators
performance, closely examining flow patterns within the tanks for
additional benefits within the system: GED-10 had identified a major
concern with solids in their water treatment system, to account for this
we tried to incorporate internal modifications that would not only
prevent solids from hindering performance, but might also aid in the
removal of solids from outlet water, says Lee. Based on the CFD
results, GLR incorporated a solids dropout area within the water weir of
the first chamber. The CFD modeling predicted that upon entry of the
produced water to the weir, the majority of the water would flow over the
weir into the chamber, while a smaller volume of water containing the
heavier solids would drop out and be directed to the bottom of the tank.

L MORE INFORMATION www.glrsolutions.com

39

dynamics 2.01

An additional benefit that was incorporated into the multi-chamber


design was positioning and sizing of nozzles and weir shapes and sizes
to allow for easy hydraulic skimming of oil into the oil trough. As seen
by the CFD graphics (Figure 8), hydraulic patterns at the surface are
such that oil collected on the surface readily flows into the trough, from
all areas of the chamber.

Operational Results
Modifications of the existing tank 30-T-04 began in mid February of
2005. After cleaning and preparing the tank, nozzles were added and
internals were welded as designed by GLR Solutions. The microbubble
system was started up in May 2005, and favourable results for water
quality were observed within days of start-up.
During normal operations over the spring/summer of 2005, the skim
tank (30-T-04) receives approximately 15,000 bpd of produced water at
oil concentrations ranging from 100-600 ppm. The quality of the clean
water exiting the tank is consistently within 2-21 ppm during normal
operations. Periodically high inlet oil concentrations would occur in
which concentrations of oil would spike to 1,000-2,000 ppm and in rare
cases much higher. During these upsets it was found that oil removal
efficiencies would remain above 90% with outlet oil in water concentrations less than 40 ppm.
CFD modeling has proven to be a continuously useful tool in the design
of tanks and vessels and a critical tool to our R&D of new produced
water treatment technologies , says Douglas Lee. Many on-going
projects are being designed through the use of CFD modeling by GLR
Solutions and in the future solids will be tracked through CFD models
and a design will be determined in order to better handle produced
water with high solids concentrations.
GLR Solutions is also exploring further is the modifications to the
physical models of the CFD software itself, to allow them to include
explicitly the effects of model bubble and oil coalescence, as this is an
obvious occurrence within the system.

CD-adapco invites you to explore the


business advantage that can be gained
through the application of flow,
thermal, and stress simulation
technology within the Oil and Gas
industry with our new DVD.
More than any other, the Oil and Gas industry is
dominated by fluids. From the extraction,
processing and delivery of the hydrocarbons, to
designing installations that are more able to resist
the most-extreme environmental conditions, understanding
the behavior of fluids in and around your process is critical to
success in an intensely competitive industry.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (or CFD) is a technique that
simulates the flow and heat transfer of fluids using computer
technology. CD-adapco's flow and thermal simulation
technology can provide insight into any problem that involves
fluid flow (liquid or gas or combinations of both) and has been
applied at every stage of the oil and gas production process from exploration to extraction, from transport to processing.
Our DVD includes material to explain how CD-adapco's
advanced simulation technology can be used to increase
safety, reduce costs and improve efficiency of a wide range of
Oil and Gas processes.

L TO RECEIVE YOUR FREE COPY OF OUR DVD PLEASE EMAIL oilandgas@cd-adapco.com OR CONTACT YOUR LOCAL OFFICE.

dynamics 2.01

40

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Oil & Gas

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Oil & Gas

CFD simulation allows


separator designers to
make informed decisions
early in the design
process, before even the
first prototypes are
available.

Reducing
Separation
Anxiety with
powerful 3D Flow &
Thermal Simulation
S Fig:01
The largest single product
of the global oil and gas
industry is neither oil nor
gas, but water: produced at
a rate of approximately 3
barrels to every barrel of
oil, in 1999 the oil and gas
industry was responsible
for extracting 77 billion
barrels of water.

Separating reservoir fluids into streams of oil, water and gas is a major concern
to the global oil and gas industry, and has been almost since its inception.
Historically, the major driver for effective separation was economics extracting
the maximum amount of usable hydrocarbon from the reservoir fluids.
However, environmental concerns now mean that oil and gas producers are also
increasingly bound by legislation that strictly controls the levels of pollution in
discharged produced water this combination is the growing separation anxiety.
Designing separators to meet these demands remains a significant
engineering challenge. Critically, separators do not come in a onesize-fits-all specification. They must be carefully chosen to not only
account for the unique composition of fluids produced from a given
reservoir, but also for the likely changes in composition that will occur over the
lifetime of the well. Separator technology that is effective in early production
might become less effective, or even fail, as the well matures or because of
some temporary and unexpected change in the reservoir fluids. The increasing
cost of platform real estate also means that there is also constant demand
either to reduce the size of offshore separators or else to move them off the
platform altogether, turning to newly developed subsea separation technologies.

S Fig:02

Environmental concerns mean that oil and gas producers are


increasingly bound by legislation that strictly controls the level of
pollution in discharged or reinjected water.

L MORE INFORMATION http://www.cd-adapco.com/

41

dynamics 2.01

Whatever type of separation technology is employed, or retrofits and adjustments


made, the cost of getting it wrong can be immense. The production capacity of
any facility depends, to an extent, on the effectiveness of its separation process.
Although most facilities employ at least two independent separation trains,
diverting production while diagnostic analysis is performed on a poorly
performing separator inevitably results in a reduction of throughput. With oil
prices topping $60/b, even a 5% drop in production from a 50,000 b/d
installation will cost in excess of $150,000/d. Worse, if significant problems
occur in the separation process, the cause of which cannot easily be diagnosed,
the only alternative is to stop production altogether, or ship the reservoir fluids
for processing at another facility.

65m

35m

S Fig:04

Three-phase separator - courtesy of Saudi Aramco.

5m

S Fig:05
CFD simulation of FWKO drum disturbed by a passing wave while aboard FPSO.

S Fig:03
CFD simulation of three-phase separator, showing path of various particle sizes.

Separator flow simulation

In order to prevent sloshing, separator manufacturers typically insert a


series of permeable vertical baffles into the tank, which act to damp the
motion of the fluid within the vessel, preventing large-scale sloshing
motions from developing. CFD simulation allows separator designers to
make informed decisions early in the design process, before even the
first prototypes are available, allowing them to answer questions such
as How many baffles do I need?, How do the baffles influence
separator performance?, What sort of forces are acting on the baffles
and on the vessel walls?, and Under what range of wave conditions can
the separator safely operate?

CFD has been applied at every stage of the oil, gas and petrochemical
production process and can provide insight into any problem involving
fluid flow (whether liquid or gas or a mixture of both) or structural
components that are influenced by flow, and thus is particularly suitable
for separator analysis. CFD simulation can help both in the design of
new separator technology and in determining the range of operating
conditions under which existing technology might be successfully
deployed.
Data from CFD calculations can also be used to assist other types of
analysis, for example, the forces acting on the separator internals can
be calculated, either directly within the CFD code or via an external
stress-analysis software package. In extreme cases, where fluid forces
cause large deflections of components, the CFD simulation can be
coupled directly with the stress simulation tool and both stress and fluid
simulations can be performed simultaneously, each simulation feeding
new boundary conditions to the other.

Case study 1
Sloshing in a free water knockout drum
The free water knockout (FWKO) drum is perhaps the crudest form of
separator. FWKO drums work on a gravitational principle, relying on the
fact that oil has a lower specific gravity than water and, if allowed to
settle, will float to the top, forming a layer than can easily be skimmed
off and extracted. Water is extracted through a valve at the bottom of
the tank, while in the example shown in Figure 4, the oil trickles over a
weir plate at the left hand side of the drum into the oil stream outflow.
Under normal operating conditions, this system provides a very effective
means of preliminary. However, when deployed aboard an FPSO
(floating production, storage and offloading vessel), there is a risk of the
tank being disturbed by the motion of a passing wave, causing sloshing
within the tank and leading to significant amounts of water passing over
the weir plate or oil-emulsion contaminating the water outtake and
possibly damaging downstream separation equipment.
Figure 5 shows a large sloshing motion that has developed in the vessel
due the disturbing motion of a passing wave (as predicted by the CFD
calculation). The simulation predicts that, under these conditions, a
significant amount of water will slosh over the weir plate into the oil
outflow.

Case study 2
Redesign of a gas phase separator
The aim of a gas phase separator is to remove small particles of
hydrocarbon condensate (and other well-fluids) from a stream of natural
gas. To be effective, the separator needs to be able to remove the wide
variety of droplet sizes transported in a typical gas stream, from large
visible droplets of hydrocarbon, to individual mist particles measuring
just a few microns in diameter.
Exactly which fate each particle eventually meets depends largely on its
size, but for the separator to work effectively, all but the smallest
particles should be caught by one of the first three mechanisms. The
vane pack demister acts as the final line of defence, removing a fine
mist of droplets with diameters of around 10 mm or less. For effective
operation, it is critical that the demister is not blocked by much larger
oil particles, which, given enough time, should fall onto the surface of
the liquid layer due to the influence of gravity. The separator therefore
needs to be long enough, upstream of the demister, to ensure that the
gas flow has sufficient residence time to allow these larger particles to
fall into the liquid layer of hydrocarbon at the bottom of the tank.
The simulation results reported in Figure 3 show that the majority of 65
mm and 35 mm particles hit either the vessel wall or the liquid surface
a short distance after entering the separator. By contrast, many of the
small 5 mm particles are carried with the gas flow until it passes through
the vane pack, at which stage they are removed. The simulation
predicted an overall trapping efficiency of 90%, with almost a 100% of
particles of diameter 40 mm or higher removed by the separator. The
separator manufacturers were able to significantly reduce the length of
the separator, after establishing with the aid of further simulation, that
since larger particles were hitting the walls of the liquid surface soon
after entering the separator, much of the length upstream of the
demister was unnecessary.

dynamics 2.01

42

..::FEATURE ARTICLE CPI

..::FEATURE ARTICLE CPI

S Fig:02
Fig 2: Solid CAD model of the hearth, hot face refractory
lining, CFM panel and water-cooling passages

S Fig:03

Symmetry plane velocity vector distribution in the slag


tap hole region (t = 456 seconds & h = 1.725m)

S Fig:04
Symmetry plane volume-fraction-of-slag contour distribution
in the slag tap hole insert region (t = 456 seconds)

Slag-Cleaning
Bateman Minerals & Metals Investigates the
Possibility to Improve the Life Expectancy of a Slag
Tap Hole Insert Design in a Slag-Cleaning Furnace
Dr. B.J. Henning, Bateman Minerals & Metals, South Africa

Bateman Project Holding Limiteds Minerals & Metals Division are providers of comprehensive
project services, applying process technology and expert knowledge to the recovery of minerals
and metals. Long time users of CD-adapco software, Bateman recently employed STAR-CCM+ to
predict heat transfer in a slag tap hole insert for Slag-Cleaning Furnace applications.
The purpose of the investigation was to determine whether
the slag draining process causes erosion of the castable
refractory lining, which operates under arduous, high
temperature conditions in close proximity to the pyrometallurgical process. Estimating the refractory lining wear mechanisms is
critical to ensure satisfactory extended service life. STAR-CCM+ was
used to simulate the free-surface fluid flow and conjugate heat
transfer characteristics of the current slag tap hole insert design.
The furnace consists of a liquid copper blister, slag and a gaseous air
freeboard. Monel tubing water-cooling passages are cast into a
Composite Furnace Module (CFM) to enable cooling water to be
circulated through the CFM and slag tap hole insert respectively.
The free-surface fluid flow model was initialized at two different blister
bath levels, while maintaining a constant slag level. The conjugate
heat transfer model was simulated in a steady-state condition with
fixed wall temperatures and forced free convection conditions. The
combined free-surface and conjugate heat transfer model was
simulated in a transient mode for a fixed time period with a
combination of boundary conditions. The first model simulated a 180degree section of the furnace inventory and the last two models a
wedge section of the refractory lining regions initially and then the
furnace inventory added lastly.
In the case of the conjugate heat transfer and combined mechanisms
models, an inlet velocity was specified at the inlet ports of the watercooling passages and a pressure boundary specified at the outlets to
enable the pressure drop characteristics of the water-cooling
passages to be predicted.

43

dynamics 2.01

The velocity vector and volume fraction contour plots produced by


post processing of the transient simulation results were used to
assess areas of re-circulation, which indicate regions where there is a
higher risk of refractory lining erosion. These zones are associated
with high turbulence intensity, usually at the interface between the
blister and slag. High surface temperatures reduce the mechanical
properties of the copper pins and high temperature gradients make
the castable refractory lining vulnerable to cracking. According to the
results of the simulation, the water passage inlet velocity of 2 m/s
limits the water temperature to a maximum value of 77C, with a
fixed heat transfer coefficient of 400 W/m_K in the boundary layer of
the slag tap hole.
The solid CAD models of the free-surface and conjugate heat transfer
representations are shown in figures 1 and 2. The predicted transient
velocity vector distribution and volume of slag contour distribution
results at a certain time step during the transient slag tapping are
shown in figures 3 and 4.

S Fig:01
Solid CAD model of the two inventory levels and gaseous air freeboard inside the furnace

S Fig:05
Surface temperature contour distribution for
the CFM copper panel & slag tap hole insert

S Fig:06

Surface temperature contour distribution


for the water-cooling passages

S Fig:09
Surface temperature contour distribution for the
castable refractory lining (t = 316 seconds)

S Fig:10

Surface temperature contour distribution for the


CFM panel & slag tap hole insert (t = 316 seconds)

The predicted steady state solution results for the surface temperature
contour distributions for the CFM panel and water-cooling passages are
shown in figures 5 and 6.
The predicted transient results for the surface temperature distributions
in the melt; castable refractory, CFM panel and water-cooling passages
are shown in figures 7 and 9 to 11. The predicted transient result for
the surface volume fraction distribution in the melt is shown in figure
8. The predicted transient result for the velocity vector distribution on
the symmetry planes in the melt is shown in figure 12.
For modeling purposes, STAR-CCM+ has provided a cost effective
method of determining possible operating procedure changes to
enhance the slag tap hole insert life expectancy. Data will also be

L MORE INFORMATION

S Fig:07
Surface temperature contour distribution for the melt
in the slag tap hole insert region (t = 316 seconds)

S Fig:08
Surface volume-fraction-of-slag contour distribution
for the liquid melt (blister, slag & gaseous air)

S Fig:11
Surface temperature contour distribution for
the water-cooling passages (t = 316 seconds)

S Fig:12
Symmetry plane velocity vector distributions for
the liquid melt (blister, slag & gaseous air)

collected from the operational thermal measuring equipment for


simulation validation, and further design modification if necessary.
In conclusion:
STAR-CCM+ allowed for the import of complex geometries from other
CAE environments CFD enabled possible erosion mechanisms to be
identified in the current slag tap hole insert design
The multiple transient mechanisms of multi-fluid free-surfaces and
conjugate heat transfer were simulated with STAR-CCM+
Recommendations of inventory level management were proposed.

http://www.batemanengineering.com/

dynamics 2.01

44

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Building Services

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Building Services

X Fig 01:

The National Academic Grand Theatre of Opera


and Ballet of the Republic of Belarus.

Air Flow modeling

of the Belarusian National Academic Grand


Theatre of Opera and Ballet
D. Denisikhina and M. Lukanina, St-Petersburg State University of Refrigeration and Food Engineering,Russia

S Fig 03:

Flow and thermal fields around a audience member.

S Fig 02:

Spectator chairs with embedded


low-speed air distributors.

In 2006 a major renovation of the Belarusian National Grand Theatre


of Opera and Ballet began with overhaul of the interior decoration
and all of the stage equipment. As part of the renovation the
complete installation of a new lighting system, significantly more
powerful than the existing installation, was undertaken. This new
system posed significant engineering challenges as the increase in
heat generation from the lights required the retrofitting of a new air
conditioning and cooling system. This new system was designed to
not only ensure that the lighting itself does not overheat but also the
comfort of the thermal comfort of the audience (and cast) was not
adversely affected.

ventilation. The positioning of the lights is non uniform so the


volume above the stage, some 27 meters high, high temperature
gradients are formed with a considerable velocity, due to buoyancy
effects, present. That said the temperature on stage does remain
within comfortable values.
In the balcony zone, convection currents produced by the heating of
the air by the occupants deflects the inlet cool air stream so
increasing the mean age of air and reducing the comfort of the
occupants. The stalls are effectively cooled with temperatures in the
expected range, it seems that the cheap seats certainly live up to
their name!

large volume that would otherwise be impractical, if not impossible.


Lack of numerical and/or experimental results in such an expensive
and extensive re-fit could lead to damage of electrical equipment and
un-sellable seats this in turn would facilitate a costly and disruptive
retrofit of ventilation within the theatre. This study quickly highlighted
potential design flaws, specifically the ineffective ventilation around
the balcony area; the results of the simulation ultimately led to a
complete redesign in this area, ensuring that all occupants remain
comfortable throughout the performance.

The integration of CFD into the design stage of the renovation


process allowed the simulation of flow fields around an extremely

Inside the theatre


The theatre itself, in fitting with its grand nature, encloses a massive volume of air, with a stage suitable for up to 60
actors, an orchestra pit housing 83 musicians and an auditorium of over 1000 seats. The stalls and stage are
cooled by a displacement ventilation system while the orchestra pit and balcony use convection top-to-top
ventilation.

W Fig 05:

Temperature field in the volume of auditorium and stage.


Performance regime.

To ensure that the proposed ventilation scheme would be effective in ensuring the comfort of the audience,
orchestra, actors and lighting, simulations were performed using STAR-CD. A worst case scenario study was carried
out imposing the conditions that are likely to be encountered during a performance, with a full auditorium, orchestra
and stage at full capacity, stage lights on and house lights off.
The large amounts of heat generated by the lights (generating up to 900 kW of power) actually lead to overheating
of the stage area. This in turn leads to air spilling into the main auditorium and out through the ceiling exhaust
S Fig 04:

45

Zone

Parterre

Dress circle

Balcony

Stage plane

Orchestra Pit

L, m3/h

80 400

27 370

13820

43 420

10 700

t, seconds

22

22

18

22

20

dynamics 2.01

Part of 3D model of the auditorium and stage used


for calculations.
W The inlet flow rate and air
temperature for each zone of the
auditorium are collected.

L MORE INFORMATION info@uk.cd-adapco.com

dynamics 2.01

46

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Parallel Computing

..::FEATURE ARTICLE Parallel Computing

Gaining CAE Productivity


with CD-adapco & Panasas

ActiveStor Feature

STAR-CD Benefit

DirectFLOW Protocol

Maximizes Performance: Parallel I/O enables faster CFD solutions from STAR-CD.
Maximizes Productivity: Drives STAR-CD efficiency for single job scalability and
multiple job throughput, and simplifies the coupling of STAR-CD with FEA software.

Unified Storage Infrastructure

Empowers Collaboration: Engineers can speed-up collaboration tasks of pre- and


postprocessing because of shared data and storage for all platforms.

Single Global Namespace

Reduces IT Overhead: Simplifies storage and data management to provide seamless


scalability as STAR-CD model sizes and number of jobs grow.

NFS and CIFS Support

Easy to Integrate: Supports heterogenous CAE environments with Unix or Windows.

Whether mapping the human genome, imaging the


earth's substructure to find new energy reserves,
designing efficient automobiles and aircraft, or
generating the latest blockbuster animated film, dataintensive HPC applications are placing immense pressure
on computing and data storage environments. Linux
clusters have evolved as the preferred computational
solution in these environments. To generate true business
value from these cluster computing advances,
organizations require a scalable, easy-to-manage and
cost-effective way to administer the large datasets at the
core of these HPC simulations.

Panasas Parallel Storage Solutions


Demonstrate Substantial Performance and
Workflow Gains for STAR-CD Simulations
The combination of scalable STAR application software and Panasas parallel storage for
Linux clusters has demonstrated new and significant productivity advantages for CD-adapco
customers. Recent tests demonstrate STAR-CD workflow benefits that include performance
gains in 1) geometry partitioning; 2) simulation scalability; 3) and file-merging of results.
The tests also show dramatic improvements in cost-performance.
Introduction: I/O Bottlenecks in CAE
The HPC market is undergoing an aggressive
platform migration from proprietary supercomputers
and Unix servers to Linux-based clusters. This is
partly driven by organizations desire to cost-effectively increase
compute resources for technical applications. During this
migration, many of the same organizations have also
implemented network attached storage (NAS) architectures to
simplify administration and further reduce costs.
While a NAS approach offers many advantages, they are often
limited in the scalability required to effectively manage the I/O
demands of parallel CAE applications. As such, a similar
storage migration is now underway to replace legacy, serial NAS
with parallel storage architectures and parallel file systems.
CD-adapco and Panasas offer a capability that scales I/O and
overcomes serial NAS I/O bottlenecks enabling high-fidelity
CAE solutions that were previously impractical to run on clusters
with conventional NFS/NAS implementations. With the
scalability barrier removed, CD-adapco customers can proceed
with a CAE applications roadmap of the most complex current
and future HPC requirements.

L MORE INFORMATION http://www.panasas.com/

47

dynamics 2.01

Panasas developed this new class of parallel file system and


storage technology that scales I/O in order to extend overall
scalability of Linux clusters. Founded in 1999, Panasas
identified the need for a parallel storage system capable of
balancing capacity and performance growth while ensuring high
availability and ease of management.
Panasas founder and CTO, Garth Gibson, a pioneer in RAID
design, led the effort to develop an entirely new storage
architecture that combines the key advantages of contemporary
storage systems, yet eliminates the complexities and drawbacks
that have made them unsuitable for large Linux cluster
deployments. Today Panasas is a mid-sized global HPC
technology company providing storage solutions to a variety of
industries.
Productivity Gains for STAR-CD
To address the large and growing I/O and data challenges for
CAE applications, CD-adapco and Panasas developed a
business and technology alliance with investments in scalable
I/O. This joint focus ensures that STAR-CD simulations scale to
their full potential for the range of CAE objectives and model
fidelity, and that workflow collaboration is enhanced by reducing
the time required for geometry partitioning, and for merging
final results files for post-processing.

S Fig:02
Panasas ActiveStor feature saves up to 43% over traditional
disk file systems.

CD-adapco has a parallel I/O scheme in STAR-CD v3.2 that leverages


parallel file systems such as Panasass PanFS for extended STAR-CD
scalability and multi-job throughput. As CFD model sizes grow and
cluster core counts are increased, I/O operations must be performed
in parallel to realize the full benefits of scalable CFD.
Panasas conducted STAR-CD tests for 2 million and 4 million cell
cases, and demonstrated that STAR-CD with parallel I/O combined
with Panasas ActiveStor parallel storage, produced up to a 43%
performance advantage at 32-way over a conventional NFS serial I/O
scheme. Such gains mean 43% additional utilization of existing STARCD software licenses already purchased. Greater performance boosts
are expected for model sizes beyond 4 million cellsa size that is
small by todays industry practice. Detailed results of the 2M and 4M
cell cases appear in Figure 1.
During 2007, Panasas storage was successfully implemented to
support Linux clusters at CD-adapco headquarters in Melville, NY, and
further investigation is underway of potential Panasas benefits to
STAR-CD v4 and STAR-CCM+ v2.
Panasas Parallel I/O and Unified Storage
Today as expectations grow for Linux clusters to meet the demands of
increasing fidelity in CAE modeling and simulation, the rapid growth of
I/O requirements and data management in the CAE workflow are an
increasing bottleneck. In particular, the use of legacy file systems such
as NFS on serial NAS storage can actually increase overall job time as
more compute cores are added, rather than provide the desired effect
of scalability and faster job turn-around.
Panasas unified storage is designed to provide benefits of a clustered
parallel file system, PanFS, which allows for a single namespace of
shared storage. This system provides the foundation for a storage
infrastructure that can be leveraged for parallel I/O and a unified CAE
workflow, including all tasks of CAE computation and collaborative preand post-processing.

S Fig:03

Combined external aerodynamic and underhood


simulation presents a significant challenge with multimillion cell meshes distributed across many CPUs.

The key advantage of Panasas over other solutions is in the file


system architecture. Panasas is the market leader in shipment and
installation of object based storage the core principle of which is
that data is managed in large virtual objects and not as small blocks
or files. In this way, access of data control (metadata management)
can be separated from the data path, allowing for parallel I/O access
directly between cluster compute nodes and the Panasas parallel
storage system.
The lost productivity and wait-time of serial I/O in the CAE workflow
may not only degrade simulation performance, but may also inhibit
workgroup collaboration. Further, if solutions are not implemented to
scale I/O as CAE continues to advance, those simulations that
produce the most I/O and data such as transient CFD, large eddy
simulation (LES), fluid-structure interaction (FSI) through weak
coupling, etc., will be limited in their impact on industrial-level
applications.
Conclusion: HPC Innovation for CAE
Automotive, aerospace, and other manufacturing industries are striving
to reduce design cycle times and costs; satisfy global regulations on
safety and environmental concerns; develop military advancements;
and respond to customers who demand high-quality, well-designed
products. As such, the need for production deployment of STAR-CD
and Linux clusters for high-fidelity CFD is one example of what drives
Panasas investments in parallel file system and storage technologies,
and in ISV alliances for CAE software developers such as CD-adapco.
Effective and lasting market leadership is achieved for companies and
organizations that leverage CAE technology innovation throughout their
engineering and product development processes. Panasas leadership
in HPC storage systems, combined with a strategic business and
technology alliance with CD-adapco ensure that STAR technology and
its user community continue to achieve their ongoing CAE simulation
objectives. Panasas invites you to learn more about how parallel
storage can benefit your CAE workflow at www.panasas.com.

dynamics 2.01

48

..::REGULARS Training

Training at CD-adapco
We regularly hold CD-adapco product training sessions at our offices in:
London, Detroit, Seattle, Nrnberg, Paris and Turin.
Other courses as listed on our website can be scheduled to suit your requirements
and information can be requested from our training administrators (see below).
To register for a course:
Use the online form, or request a faxable form from your training administrator:
USA:
UK:
Germany:
France:
Italy:

training@us.cd-adapco.com
info@uk.cd-adapco.com
traning@de.cd-adapco.com
info@fr.cd-adapco.com
info@it.cd-adapco.com

(+1) 631 549 2300 x129


(+44) 020 7471 6200
(+49) 911 946433
(+33) 141 837560
(+39) 011 562 2194

Choose from courses including:

STAR-CD Basic
STAR-CCM+
pro-STAR advanced meshing
STAR-Design

Advanced STAR-CCM+
Advanced STAR-CD
Advanced Meshing
Moving Mesh

Advanced Modeling
User Subroutines
Spray & Combustion
E2P

Training:
Introduction to CFD
Course Duration: 1 Day
Course Schedule: Please check regional training centers for upcoming dates.
Cost: Please contact your local office see www.cd-adapco.com
Course Details
With the advent of upfront simulation, CFD has become accessible
to a broad spectrum of engineers working in a wide range of industries
and disciplines, many of who have little formal fluid mechanics
training. Understanding the fundamental principles that underlie
commercial CFD solvers can help the user to effectively harness the
power of modern CFD and innovate successful processes within their
organization. As an added bonus, the bargaining power is placed back
with the CFD buyer once they are equipped with the correct evaluation
skills and information about current hot topics and advances.
CD-adapco are pleased to announce a brand-new one day training
course, that is aimed at introducing new users, or non-users who
encounter CFD, to these fundamentals. Industry development and
the impact of external factors, such as hardware advances, will also
be discussed.

New Course

The course is split into nine easy-to-digest modules, each of


which is backed up with a range of practical examples that
cover the full spectrum of industrial CFD use.

A new foundation level Introduction to CFD course is now being offered at CD-adapco for those with little or no training in Fluid
Mechanics. The course is aimed at introducing new users, or non-users who encounter CFD, to the fundamentals of the subject.
Please contact your local office for more information.

Courses outline:

Note:
In most situations it will be possible to register trainees on the course of their choice. However, if requests for places on courses are
received too close to the course date, this may not be possible. Availability of places can be obtained by contacting your local office.
Please see below for our upcoming schedule of training courses. See our website for most up to date schedules.

1:
2:
3:
4:
5:

Introduction
Basic Equations
Boundary Conditions
Meshes for CFD
Turbulence

6:
7:
8:
9:

Post-processing
Quality of results
Hardware for CFD
Final tests

Attendance to this course will help users to identify the type of


problems to which CFD is suited, to understand some of the
limitations of CFD technology, and help them to avoid common pitfalls
encountered by the inexperienced user.
Open to new users of STAR-CD, STAR-CCM+, the STAR-CAD Series,
or any other commercial CFD code. The course is also ideal for CAE
managers or experimentalists wishing to gain an insight in to the
computational world. CD-adapcos Introduction to CFD will provide
the best possible general introduction to industrial CFD simulation.

To register:
For more details please contact your local Training centre.

Both the instructor and training


material were very good. I look
forward to sharing the knowledge
Ive learned during the course with
my coworkers.
Nicole Linder, Cirrus Design Corporation

49

dynamics 2.01

dynamics 2.01

50

..::REGULARS Dr Mesh

..::REGULARS Dr Mesh

The surface repair tool can be used to find errors in


your surface and then deal with them accordingly,
from a simple pierced faces to re-triangulating a
surface as well as tasks such as marking feature
edges manually and even improving your triangle quality to get a
really good volume mesh. So here is my guide to turning even the
worst surface into a thing of beauty!

Turn it on!
The first step to fixing your surface is to right click on the surface
representation you want to repair and hit repair you can then
choose which regions you want to check and which errors you
want to flag. In the case of face quality and proximity you will also
be asked for a threshold value to fill in too.

Shrink n Grow
When you browse to a surface problem a few triangles around the
fault will be displayed, before you fix the problem you may need
to shrink or grow what is displayed and what is selected. The
display control (at the bottom of the panel) is used to control
what is displayed on screen and then grow and shrink displayed
faces can be used to increase and decrease the area displayed
and there are also buttons for show and hide all and show and
hide selected.
Once you have what you want on screen you need to select some
objects, what you can select is controlled by the three boxes
faces, edges and vertices, unchecking any of these will stop that
object being selectable. As with the display control you can also
change the selection by growing and shrinking, selecting zones
and finally selecting vertices or edges connected to a triangle.
W Fig03:
The selection and display control panels,
buttons with a white triangle in the
corner mean other options are available
by right clicking

Fix it up!
S Fig01

Dr Mesh Gets
You Out Of a Fix
(By Getting You Into Another One)

Start up the repair tool and choose what you want to look for

Find your faults!


Once loaded the errors in your surface are shown in the top part
of the tool and with the faulty faces/edges/vertices colored
differently according to what is wrong with them. You can highlight
where the problems are by clicking on the colored box with the
number in or you can cycle through one by one using the browse
arrows. You can also choose to browse through certain types of
error by un-checking the error types that you are not interested
in.

There are twelve different fixing options each of which depends on


what you have selected, at the bottom of the surface repair
section of the panel there is also a undo and redo button so if it
all goes horribly wrong you can just start again! Remember
though that if you remesh the surface you have been working on,
the changes will disappear and may have to be repaired all over
again! 
Yours,

Dr. Mesh
Dr Mesh (Ph.D. CFD)

Images courtesy of Joel Davison and Dejan Matic

Lets face it, no one is perfect (apart from my good self of


course) so when things go wrong who you gonna call?

S Fig04:

The face repair options

S Fig05:

The edge repair options

I am talking of course about the surface repair tool in


STAR-CCM+ (I hope you werent expecting Ghostbusters!).
This tool is one of those hidden gems that not many
people know about but can get you out of the worst kind
of pickle.

S Fig06:

Vertex repair options


S Fig02:

The top of the tool will tell you how many problems you have

51

dynamics 2.01

L MORE INFORMATION dr.mesh@uk.cd-adapco.com

dynamics 2.01

52

..::WINNERS CAE Guru Competition

..::REGULARS Upcoming Events

01

Upcoming Events

02

03

04

CAE Guru 2008

05

06

After an exhaustive two month search, CD-adapco announced the winner


of their "2007 CAE Guru Competition." Now in its second year, the
competition was designed to highlight the best in CAE post-processing.

01 January
Giorgio Pagliara
Pro S3
Motorsport Aerodynamics

02 February
American Dynamics Flight Systems
Unmanned Systems

03 March
Julien Champigny
Areva
Nuclear

04 April - WINNER
Per Adamsen
Danfoss
Industrial Applications

05 May
Dr. Peter Nefischer
BMW
Engine Thermal Management

06 June
Chris Connor
Jacobs
Motorsport Aerodynamics

07 July
Joel Davison
CD-adapco
Re-entry Vehicles

08 August
Christof Hinterberger
EMCON Technology
Emissions Technology

09 September
Vincenzo Gagliardi
IMAL
Mixing

11 November
Dr. Allan Thomson
Wood Group
Turbomachinery

10 October
Edson Luiz Zaparoli
ITA Brazil
Electronic Cooling

12 December
Ivn Platas
Epsilon Euskadi & METCA
Motorsport Aerodynamics

Choosing from a large selection of entries, a jury of


senior CD-adapco staff finally named Danfoss Comfort
Controls Flow Specialist Per Adamson as the overall
winner, for his simulation of flow through a pre-setting
valve. Although clearly delighted at his victory, newly
crowned Guru Per was clearly somewhat shocked to
win: "I am a little bit amazed to hear that my entry
was special enough to win, considering what I had
planned in the beginning. But that just makes me
even more confident for next year's competition."

08

09

10

11

dynamics 2.01

Coal-Gen 2008
13 - 14 August 2008
Kentucky International Convention Center, Louisville, KY
http://cg08.events.pennnet.com/fl//index.cfm

SAE World Congress 2008


14 - 17 April 2008
Cobo Center, Detroit, MI
http://www.sae.org

37th Turbomachinery Symposium


9 - 11 September 2008
George R. Brown Convention Center, Houston, TX
http://turbolab.tamu.edu

COE 2008 Annual PLM Conference & TechniFair


28 - 30 April 2008
Walt Disney World Swan and Dolphin Resort, Lake Buena Vista, FL
http://www.coe.org

SAE Commercial Vehicle Congress


7 - 9 October 2008
Donald E. Stephens Convention Center, Rosemont, IL
http://www.sae.org/comvec

OTC
5 - 8 May 2008
Reliant Center, Houston, TX
http://www.otcnet.org/2008/index.html

SNAME Maritime Technology Conf. & Expo


15 - 17 October 2008
George R. Brown Convention Center, Houston, TX
www.sname.org

Electric Power
6 - 8 May 2008
Baltimore Convention Center, Baltimore, MD
www.spe.org/atce/2007

Fuel Cell Seminar


27 - 30 October 2008
Phoenix Convention Center, Phoenix, AZ
www.fuelcellseminar.com

ICONE 16
12 - 14 May 2008
Disney's Contemporary Resort, Orlando, FL
http://www.asme.org

Power-Gen 2008
2 - 4 December 2008
Orange County Convention Center, Orlando, FL
www.power-gen.com

6th North American Conference on Multiphase Technology


4 - 6 June 2008
Banff Park Lodge, Banff, Canada
www.bhrconferences.com
AUVSI's Unmanned Systems North America 2008
10 - 12 June 2008
San Diego Convention Center, San Diego, CA
http://www.auvsi.org

12

STAR American Conference 2008


23 - 24 June 2008
The Dearborn Inn, Dearborn, MI
www.cd-adapco.com

CRAY's IMEM
13 April 2008
The Detroit Downtown Courtyard by Marriott,
Detroit, MI
http://www.cray.com/kiva/

2008 ABAQUS Users' Conference


19 - 22 May 2008
TBD, Newport, RI
www.simulia.com/events/conf_08.html

As a reward for his achievement, Per will be attending


a 2008 Grand Prix as the guest of CD-adapco and the
Renault F1 Team.

53

North America
2008 HP CAE Symposium
8 April 2008
Long Beach Marriott, Long Beach, CA
http://www.hp.com

07

Stephen Ferguson, CD-adapco's Head of Marketing


Communications, explains: "The quality of entries to
the 2008 competition was staggering, which is a
reflection both on the sophistication of our user-base
and of the technological capability of our software.
The ability to communicate engineering information
while engaging with an increasingly non-specialist
audience is a key skill for any CAE analyst. The
entrants to this competition have demonstrated that,
although people are becoming increasingly familiar
with simulation generated imagery, a carefully
generated CAE image still has the power to captivate."

CD-adapco regularly participates in many global trade shows. To get the chance to talk in person
with our experienced and friendly representatives, please make a note of our appearances at the
confirmed shows below. For more information please contact our events staff:
North America: Tara Firenze tara.firenze@us.cd-adapco.com
Europe: Maeve OBrien maeve.obrien@de.cd-adapco.com

Global Petroleum Show 2008


10 - 12 June 2008
Stampede Park, Calgary, Canada
http://www.petroleumshow.com

Europe
STAR European Conference 2008
17 - 18 March 2008
Novotel, Hammersmith, London
http://www.cd-adapco.com/euconf2008
RINA Marine CFD
26 - 27 March 2008
Southampton, UK
http://www.rina.org.uk

Hannover Messe
21 - 25 April 2008 - Messegelnde
30521 Hannover, Germany
www.hannovermesse.de
29. Vienna Motor Symposium
24 - 25 April 2008
Kongresszentrum Hofburg Wien, Vienna, Austria
http://www.vk.at/index_de.htm
Engine Expo
6 - 8 May 2008
Stuttgart Messe, Stuttgart, Germany
http://www.engine-expo.com/
ETMM7
4 - 6 June 2008
The Amathus Beach Hotel, Limassol, Cyprus
http://www.ercoftac.org/index.php?id=931
Neue Entwicklungen in der Giesimulation
26 - 28 May 2008
Gieerei-Institut, RWTH Aachen, Germany
www.dgm.de
Power Gen Europe 2008
3 - 5 June 2008
Fiera Milano, Milan, Italy
http://pge07.events.pennnet.com/fl/index.cfm
ASME Turbo Expo 2008
10 - 12June 2008
Estrel Berlin Hotel & Convention Centre in Berlin, Germany
http://igti.asme.org/
ONS 2008
26 - 29 June 2008
Stavanger Forum, Stavanger, Norway
http://www.ons.no/
SMM 2008
23 - 26 June 2008
Hamburg Messe, Hamburg, Germany
www.smm2008.com
Nafems UK
10 June 2008
Scottish Enterprise Technology Park, Glasgow
http://www.nafems.org/events/nafems/2006/Page5/

CATIA FEM Usermeeting


16 - 17 April 2008
RuhrCongress, Bochum
http://www.transcat.de/

dynamics 2.01

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