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EXHAUST SYSTEM OF AN

INTERNAL COMBUSTION
ENGINE VEHICLE

REPORT WRITING
DEPARTMENT OF MANUFACTURING PROCESSES AND AUTOMATION
ENGINEERING

BY
SHUBHAM GUPTA
661/MP/13

NETAJI SUBHAS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY (NSIT)


UNIVERSITY OF DELHI

20th April, 2015

The exhaust system of an internal combustion (IC)


engine vehicle plays a very crucial role in vehicle
performance and dynamics. The exhaust system
becomes really critical for an internal combustion (IC)
engine, where many harmful exhaust gases and high
frequency sound exit the engine which cannot be allowed
to be left untreated. The exhaust system comprises many
important components such as the muffler, catalytic
converter, pipes & joints, manifold and tail pipe. It
becomes very essential to take care of the exhaust
system of ones vehicle since a leaking exhaust could
turn out to be fatal if harmful gases find their way into the
drivers compartment. Mufflers resonate and attenuate
sound while catalytic converters eliminate the harmful
gases. Meanwhile, its very essential to have a smooth
exhaust system for better efficiency of any vehicle
running on power derived from an Internal Combustion
(IC) Engine.

CONTENTS
INTRODUCTION

1. THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION (IC) ENGINE


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2. THE EXHAUST SYSTEM
2.1.COMPONENTS AND WORKING
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2.1.1. MANIFOLD
2.1.2. EXHAUST PIPES AND CONNECTORS
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2.1.3. OXYGEN SENSORS
2.1.4. CATALYTIC CONVERTER
2.1.5. TAILPIPE AND MUFFLER
2.1.6. RESONATOR

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CONCLUSION

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BIBLIOGRAPHY

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APPENDIX

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INTRODUCTION
An exhaust system is usually piping used to guide
reaction exhaust gases away from a
controlled combustion inside an engine or stove. The
entire system conveys burnt gases from the engine and
includes one or more exhaust pipes. Depending on the
overall system design, the exhaust gas may flow through
one or more of exhaust manifold, A catalytic converter to
reduce air pollution, A muffler / silencer , to reduce noise.
An exhaust pipe must be carefully designed to carry toxic
and/or noxious gases away from the users of the
machine. Indoor generators and furnaces can quickly fill
an enclosed space with poisonous exhaust gases such
as hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxides, if
they are not properly vented to the outdoors. Also, the
gases from most types of machine are very hot; the pipe
must be heat-resistant, and it must not pass through or
near anything that can burn or can be damaged by heat.
A chimney serves as an exhaust pipe in a stationary
structure. For the internal combustion engine it is
important to have the exhaust system "tuned" for optimal
efficiency. Also this should meet the regulation norms
maintained in each country. In European countries, EURO
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5, India BS-4 etc., the norms are meant for pollution


control. Truthfully, an individual car's emissions are
relatively low, compared to other sources of pollution. But
when hundreds of thousands of people are each sitting in
a car, packing a highway to capacity, the cumulative
effects are enormous.

1. THE INTERNAL COMBUSTION (IC) ENGINE


The internal combustion engine (Ie) is a heat engine that
converts chemical energy in a fuel into mechanical energy,
usually made available on a rotating output shaft.
Chemical energy of the fuel is first converted to thermal energy
by means of combustion or oxidation with air inside the engine.
This thermal energy raises the temperature and pressure of the
gases within the engine, and the high-pressure gas then expands
against the mechanical mechanisms of the engine. This expansion
is converted by the mechanical linkages of the engine to a
rotating crankshaft, which is the output of the engine. The
crankshaft, in turn, is connected to a transmission and/or power
train to transmit the rotating mechanical energy to the desired
final use. For engines this will often be the propulsion of a vehicle
(i.e., automobile, truck, locomotive, marine vessel, or airplane).
Other applications include stationary engines to drive generators
or pumps, and portable engines for things like chain saws and
lawn mowers.
Most internal combustion engines are reciprocating engines
having pistons that reciprocate back and forth in cylinders
internally within the engine.
There are so many different engine manufacturers, past, present,
and future, that produce and have produced engines which differ
in size, geometry, style, and operating characteristics that no
absolute limit can be stated for any range of engine
characteristics (i.e., size, number of cylinders, strokes in a cycle,
etc.).

2. THE EXHAUST SYSTEM


Exhaust systems are developed to control emissions and
to attenuate noise vibration and harshness to meet the
regulatory requirements. The exhaust system
components are manifold, close coupled and underbody
catalytic converters, flexible bellow, muffler, resonator,
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connecting pipes, flanges, and tailpipe. The primary purpose of


the exhaust system is to expel burned gasesor exhaust
to the rear of the vehicle and to dampen the sound of
engine combustion. While exhaust systems are now being
fabricated to monitor engine performance and sufficiently
tuned for power.

2.1. COMPONENTS AND WORKING


The major parts of an exhaust system include:
Manifold
Exhaust pipes and connectors
Oxygen sensors
Catalytic converters
Tail pipe
Muffler or Silencer
Clamps
Resonators

2.1.1. Manifold
The exhaust manifold collects the burned gases as they
are expelled from the engine cylinders and directs them
to the exhaust pipe. Although the manifold is often
thought to be a part of the engine, it is a key component
of the exhaust system. The exhaust manifold is the
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component, usually made of cast iron, that gathers all the


exhaust as it comes out of the head into a single
collector. The manifold then delivers the burned gases
into exhaust pipes.
The primary purpose of the exhaust pipes is to serve as
an enclosed route for the burned gases to exit the
system. While exhaust pipes are joined to the manifold by
a manifold pipe/connector, there are a variety of ways to
assemble the route or system.
For example, a vertical dual exhaust system would utilize
a manifold pipe with a splitter tee adapter to route the
exhaust in two different directions. On the other hand, a
Wye Connector would be used in a V-type engine
application, typically a medium duty truck. There are also
mufflers which feature two inletsone for each half of a
V-type engineleading to one outlet.
There is also a very important phenomenon associated
with exhaust manifold which is of exhaust scavenging.
The exhaust flowing out of the engine at the exhaust
valve is provided with a narrow area while is increased at
the header or manifold, where due to this change in area,
the exhaust generates a low pressure zone following it
which sucks out all of the exhaust gases left in the engine
block.
2.1.2. Exhaust pipes and connectors
Besides safely transferring the exhaust gases between
the exhaust manifold and catalytic converter (or muffler,
in earlier model vehicles), the exhaust pipe reduces noise
as well. Exhaust pipes and elbows have several important
purposes. Exhaust gas is toxic, and these exhaust pipes
serve to contain the exhaust and route it towards the rear
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of the vehicle as quickly and efficiently as possible. The


pipes and elbows are used to create an effectively sealed
pathway to guide the exhaust gas safely from the engine
to the exterior of the automobile.
2.1.3. Oxygen Sensors
The oxygen sensors lies in various parts of the exhaust
system though usually are found right before and after
the catalytic converters. The oxygen sensors measure the
amount of oxygen present in the exhaust mixture
comparing it with the atmospheric oxygen. If the oxygen
content is high, it indicates that less fuel is being injected
into the cylinder while all of it is burned and still leaving
behind o2 while if less or no oxygen is left, it means fuel
is added in extra quantity and un-burnt fuel is left, and
hence the fuel air ratio is monitored.
2.1.4. Catalytic converters
To meet stricter emission control standards,
manufacturers began to install catalytic converters on
domestic automobiles. Located between the exhaust pipe
and muffler, this device converts harmful carbon
monoxide and hydrocarbons into carbon dioxide and
water vapor. Newer converters also change nitrogen
oxides into harmless oxygen and nitrogen. By law, these
catalytic converters must remain on the vehicle. The
working of a catalytic converter is explained below in the
form of a diagram.

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It consists of 2 surface layers made up of surface


catalysts and adsorbing surfaces. The input gases to the
catalytic converter are oxides of Nitrogen NOX , oxides of
Carbon COX , and un-burnt fuel CxHX .the oxides of
nitrogen are reduced while carbon monoxide and fuel are
oxidized to less harmful carbon dioxide with water as a bi
product.
2.1.5. Tailpipe and Muffler
After exiting the catalytic converter, exhaust gases flow
through a tailpipe that ducts the flow away from the
passenger compartment of the vehicle and vents it to the
surroundings. This is usually under and out the back (or
side) of an automobile and often upward behind the cab
of large trucks. Somewhere in the tailpipe section there is

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usually a larger flow chamber called the Muffler.

This is a sound chamber designed to reduce the


operating noise of the engine, most of which is carried
out with the exhaust flow. Mufflers use two general
methods of sound reduction. One method absorbs the
energy of sound pulses by flow through a porous medium.
Other mufflers reduce sound by the cancellation of
waves. Instead of fully dampening all engine noise, some
mufflers are designed to give a louder, sporty sound. The
muffler is the primary component within the exhaust
system that reduces the noise made by the engine during
combustion; as sound waves enter the muffler chamber,
they are broken up and the noise dissipates. Some types
of mufflers include chambers with holes, while others are
padded with fiberglass or plates to dampen noise levels.
The technical challenge is to use a method that most
effectively breaks up sound waves without producing
excessive back pressure.
Some mufflers start with a more efficient design than
others, use heavier gauge materials and rely on better
manufacturing processesand these all make a
noticeable difference in quality, maintenance costs and
vehicle performance. Some automobiles with air-cooled
engines, such as the VW bug, use hot exhaust gas for
heating the passenger compartment in cold weather. The
exhaust flow is ducted through one side of a heat
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exchanger, while passenger compartment air is circulated


through the other side. This works fine when all
equipment is in good condition. However, as automobiles
age, many components suffer from oxidation, rust, and
leakage. Any leakage in the heat exchanger allowing
exhaust gas into the circulating passenger air would be
very dangerous. The tail pipe transfers the exhaust gases
from the muffler to the back of the vehicle, where they
exit.
2.1.6. Resonator
A resonator is nothing more than a secondary muffler
designed to reduce noise level even further. It is usually
found on a vehicle having a long wheelbase and powered
by a high-performance engine. It can be located in front
of or behind the muffler.

CONCLUSION
The exhaust system of any internal combustion (IC)
engine vehicle plays a role in vehicle performance and
dynamics. The exhaust system is responsible for guiding
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out the gases generated off the engine. Along with


guiding, a good exhaust system treats, filters and
attenuates the exhaust coming out of an engine. A good
exhaust system could increase the performance while a
bad one could choke an engine dead. It becomes really
critical to understand the exhaust system in place and to
find a good one for the vehicle or the engine used.
Several factors including noise and air pollution depend
on the exhaust system. Any engine basically burns up
fluid in its power or combustion stroke, after combustion is
completed and the resulting high-pressure gases have been used to
transfer work to the crankshaft during the expansion stroke, these gases
must be removed from the cylinder to make room for the air-fuel charge
of the next cycle. And hence the exhaust plays an important part in
getting the vehicle to run.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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The following are the sources for the data and assertions
used in the report.
www.bullethawkracing.com
www.howstuffworks.com/car
www.youtube.com/engineeringexplained
www.ijrdet.com
www.wikipedia.com
forums.fsae.org
www.automotive-online.com
www.autoeducation.com
www.bth.se
www.cumminsfiltration.com
www.google.com

The following books were used.


Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion
Engine
-Willard W. Pulkrabek
Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals
-John B.LHeywood

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APPENDIX

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