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COURSE GUIDEBOOK COURSE GUIDEBOOK * From Monet to Van Gogh: A History of lmpressionism Part 11 Professor Richard Brettell Universiry ofTexas ar Dalias From Monet to Van Gogh: A History of lmpressionism Partll Lecture 13: Lecture 14 Lecture 15: Lecture 16: Lecture 17: Lecture 18: Lecture 19: Lecture 20: Lecture 21: Lecture 22: Lecture 23: Lecture 24: The Third Exhibition Edgar Degas Gwtave Caillebotte Mary Cassatt Manet's La ter Works Departures Paul Gauguin The Final Exhibition T he Studio of the South: Van Gogh aod Gaugujo Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec The Nabis La Fin l 1-800-TEACH -12 1-800-832-2412 'J'Hr Tr '' 111". CÓ\IP-\.'\\ Course No. 7186 41 'i l..J ;¡~ene Cc:r r Dmt" '\ urk lOO ( www.teachl2.com THE TEACHING COMPANY Ripped by JB-24601 T able of Contents From Monet to Van Gogh : A History of lmpressionism Part 11 Professor Biograpby............................................................................................ i Course Scope ....................................................................................................... 1 Lecture Thirteen The Third Exhibition ................................................. 3 Lecture Fo urteeo Edgar Degas .............................................................. 6 Lecture Fifteen Gusta ve Catllebotte ................................................... 9 Lecture Si,teen Mary Ca<;satt ............................................................ 12 Lecture Se\enteen Manet's Later Work!> ............................................... 15 Lecture Eighteeo Departures ............................................................... 19 Lecture ~in eteen Paul Gaugum ........................................................... 21 Lecture Twenty Lecture Twent) -One The Final Exhibition ................................................ 23 The Studio ofthe South: Van Gogh and Gauguin............................................................. 26 Lecture Twenty-Two Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec ...................................... 28 Lecture Twenty-Three The Nabis ................................................................ 30 Lecture T\\ ent) -Four La Fin ...................................................................... 33 Cr edit Lines for Paintings Discussed .............................................................. 37 Timeline ............................................................................................................. 46 llibliography ..................................................................................................... 57 Tite tilles of the 1\'0rks of art in this course hove clwnged often O\'er time ami betweenlan~uages. During tltis lecture series, Dr Brette/1 often refers to paimings by their original titles or by their commonly kno11 n historical title.\. In order to honor copyright la11 s and reproduction agreements, 11 e ho\'e clw.\ell to title the works according to the wishes of the currem copyright holder. From Monet to Van Gogh : A History of lmpressionism Seo pe: This course of l\\-enty-four lectores will analyze an era within the history ot art that, with the help of contemporary events, philosophies, and ideal>, launched the birth of modematy and changed the way Y. e see the world. We begin with a look at the troubled state of art in France in the l850s. At this time, French art was reliant on the govemance of the Academy of Fine Arts and the govemment~ponsored art exhibitioru. known as "the Sa1ons. ·· At mid-century. there wru. a ~trong rivalry between two competing traditions-the Classical, lead by JeanDominique lngres, wbich was rooted m idealized, Greco-Roman culture, and the Romantic, lead by Eugene Delacroix, which was influenced by the painterly style and vivid color~ of the nonhem European Baroque movement. To further complicate matters was the anception ol Realism, which had a ~trong interest an a realí~tic treatment of the líve~ and expenences of ordmary people. 11 wa~ with these tensions that the stage was set for a new artislic movement. Before delving anto the development of lmpressioni-.m, the course first examines the city of Paras during the Second Empire, the reagn of Napoleon m, and its emergence ru. a modem metropolis. The birth of the modem city brought with it the birth of modem thought from such people as poet and art crittc Charles Baudelaire. Hts ideas were illustrated in such work~ as The Paimer ofModem Life and were embodied by the painter Edouard Manet, who applied a number of ae~thetic and representational strategie~ put fonh by Baudelatre. The course clo'>ely examine~ Manet, both his wor~ and his influence on a group of young painters wanting to push painting further and further mto modem life, a group that will cometo be known as the lmpressionists. We will take a chronologicaJ, and often ttmes biographical, approach to studying the artist~ mther than Iooking at each career separately. Thh is due in Large part to the fact that there wru. a certain amount of collectivity among them, visible not only in the lmpressiont'>t exhibitton'>, but in the arti~tic tours/retreats that pairs of painters tooJ... in order to ~tudy modern life and it~ environs. A major focus will be on the key painters of the Jmpressiont'>t Movement: Claude Monet. PierreAuguste Renoar, Camille Pissarro, Paul Cézanne. Berthe Morisot, Gustave Caillebotte, Mary Cassatt, and Edgar Dega~. We wall also look at those arti~ts whose work carne out of the Impressionist Movement: Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, and the Nabas. A~ the Iife and career of each painter unfolds. we are introduced to their families, fnends, and colleagues, all of whom become subjects in and influences on their work. The carccrs of many of the arti~ts are discussed from thetr early exposure to art, their teat.hers, travel'>, and later stylistic influences. 11 C2002 The Teachmg Company Limited Panner.hip C2002 The Te.~ching Company Limited Pannen.hip Lecture Thirteen It is worth noting that two of the prominent Impressionist painters happen to be \\-Omen. 8oth Berthe Morisot and Mal) Ca~an will be discu~ed in their own right. first as artists and also as women-a fact which affected their approach to painting and subject matter. Their presence in the lmpressionist group added much to its reputation as a thoroughly modem movement. A lecture is devoted to each of the major nhibitions of works by the Société Anonyme des Artistes C to Gauguin and van Gogh at lhe "Sludio of the South·· And while many of these artists spent time studying nature in bucolic settings, an equal number were attracted to the modemity and urbanism of the city. Attention will be given to the street scenes of Gustave Caillebone and the night life to which Toulouse-Lautrec was so attracted. Over time the group began 10 dismantle. sorne favonng a more academic treatment of painting, wbile others grew old or disabled. lronically, the lmpressionist movement was simultaneously gaining popularity on the Continent. in Great Britain. and ovef!>Cas in America, a popularity that !asted into the 20th Century and is still seen today in the tremendous interest Impressioni~t exhibitions generate. The Third Exhibition Seo pe : In 1877. a relative newcomer to the group. Gusta ve Caillebotte ( 1848· 1894 ), organized the third Impresstonist ellhibition. He solicued the help of Edouard Manet and may actuaJiy have come close to persuading the reluc1ant pamter to exhibit. UnJorrunately. Manet didn'l choose to do so. and one of bis greatest canvases of 1he l870s, Nana, was rejected by the Salon jury and, thus. went unexhibited that year. Outline 1. C:ullebotte had recently finished a sene\ of very large canvases describing the landscape around the Pont de I'Europe jusi nortb and a little eas1 of the St. Lazare Train Stalion, then being painled in series b) Monet. A. Paris Street, Ramy Day ( 1877) is representattve of these pruntings, showing urban. bourgeo1s Parisians as they go about 1heir business in the modero city. B. Such modem and 1horoughly urban worh anchored 1he exlubllton thal can now be called the single most tmportanl of all eighl lmpressionist exhibittons. The third exhíbition was also the fm.t one in whích the artists called themselves " lmpress10nists." C. The pamters contributing lo the exhibition were reduced to the bare mínimum of oulstanding artists. each of whom submined a greater number of works 1han m earlier exhtbitions. The goal was 10 give viewers a greater ~ense of lhe artists by showing a large number of their work!.. D. The arttsts also arranged publicity and secured an "msider" critic. Georges Riviere, to produce a booklet that describeeems to have had a kind of "theme... A. One room dealt with sununer "leisure" in the gardens and sailing landscapes desígned for 1he wealthy bourgeois urbanites and nouveaux riches 1ha1 the arttsts hoped to sohcil for clients. Thts room tncluded Reno ir'~ The Bar at the Moulín de la Ga/eue ( 1877). a daytime scene of the urban workmg cla.\s at play and a hallmark of lmpresstonism. B. Some of the rooms showed large-scale "decorations" designed to be hung into paneling like etghteenlh-century painlings. Monet's The Turkey~ ( 1877). showing a large country house anda delica1e gathering of turkeys, was one such "decoratton.., 2 02002 The Teaching Compan} Limtted Partnel'hlp ezm2 The Teaching Company Linuted Partnel'hip 3 C. Another "theme" was the relationship between older and younger painters-with Renoir acting a<; the mentor of Morisot, and Pissarro acting as that for Cézanne. D. One large room contained paintings by Caillebotte and Monet that immersed the viewer in the ever-changing, ever-moving world of the city just outside the apartment's doors. E. Degas wa~ the only artist given his own room, in which exquisite pastel and gouache paintings outnumbered oil pamting~ on can va<,. Hi.'> imagery was equally rnodem a'> that of Caillebotte or Monct but contained a whiff of scandal. of low-ltfe. and of the nighL Moffett, Charle!> et al. Tire New Pointing: lmpres:.ionism, 1874-1886. Fine Arts Museurns ol San Franci~co, 1986. Ruther. Berson. The New Paiming · lmpressionism. 1874- 1886. Fine Arts Museurns of San Franct..co, 1996. 2 volumes. Qu~tions to Consjder : J. How was the third exhibition different from the two that preceded it? 2. What were the aru~ts' atms in the vanous themed roorns of the exhibition? U l. The exhibition received a number of critical notices-many of them supportive of the atrns of the painters. lt launched thc movernent finally. defining the major artists for the next several generations. Pa intings Discussed: --París Street.Rainy Doy, 1877 by Gustave Caillebotte. The Art Institute of Chicago --Nana, 1877 by Edouard Manet. Kunsthal1e. Hamburg --The Bar at the Moulin de la Galette, 1877 by Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Musée d'Orsay --In a\ 'illa at the Seaside, 1874 by Berthe Morisot, The Norton Simon Foundation --The Cote des Boeufs at I'Hermitage near Pontoise, 1877 by Camille Pissarro. National Gallery. London --Sti/1 LiJe uith a Dessert, 1877 by Paul Cézanne. Philadelphia Museum of Art --The Bathers, 1877 by Paul Cézanne, The Bames Foundation --The Garden at Pontoise, 1877 by Camtlle Pic;sarro. Prívate Collection --The Turkeys, 1877 by C1aude Monet. Musée d'Orsay --The Gare Saim-LA:are: Arrival ofa Train. 1877 by Claude Monet. Fogg Art Museum. Harvard University --The Arrival ofthe Normandy Train , Gare Saint-LA:are, 1877 by Claude Monet, The Art Institute of Chicago --Women 011 the terrace ofa café in the eve11ins:. 1877 by Edgar Degas. Musée d'Orsay --Sea BathinR: A young girl and her maid, 1876-77 by Edgar Deg~. National GaUery, London Essential Reading: Varoedoe. Kirk. Gustare Caillebotte. Yate UniveT:>ity Press, 1987. Diste!, Anne. Douglas Druick. Gloria Groom. and Rodolphe Rapetti. Gustare Caillebotte: Urba11fmpressionism. Abbeville Publíshers, 1995. Winmer, Pierre. Caillebotte and His Gardens at Yerres. Abrams, 1990. 4 C:!OCI2 Thc T~aching Company Limit~ Partner-.hip 02002 Thc Tea~hong Compan) Lillllt~ Pilltnership 5 Lecture Fourteen 2. Edgar Degas 3. Scop e: One artist more than any other represented the modero urban condition as a psychological. as well as a social. condition. Edgar Degas exhibited in the lmpressionist exhibitions throughout the l870s. often in his own space. creating a body of work in various mediums that defme Parisian modemism through the interaction of figures in their settings. Outline l. Degas was boro into a wealthy and importan! farnily of French and Italian origins. He was deeply educated about art and was rebellious and somewhat eccentric. A. During the 1870s and 1880s, Degas was closely involved with the lmpressionists, bringing such young artists as Cassatt and Caillebone into the group. B. He also believed strongly that if an artist exhibited with the Impressionists, he or she could not exhibit at the Salon. 4. He also painted bankers, factory owners, gentlemen fanners, and intellectuals in their appropriate settings. His portrait of Diego Martelli shows us an act critic in the throes of writer's block. Degas was fascinated by the urban working classes. He never painted factory workers; rather. he preferred to paint women in the '"entertainment industry," which carne to be a dominating economic force in Third Republic París. a. He was among the first artists to look seriously into the realm of urban prostitution for modero subjects that raised powerful moral and psychological issues for his viewers. b. His depiction of A Woman lroning (1873) makes connections between the work of Degas and Zola and between the manual labor of the laundress and that of the painter. Finally, Degas depicted the ·'down and out." sometimes using his friends as models for low-life characters. as we see in L' Absimhe ( 1876). lll. Degas's two favorite subjects were the racecourse and the ballet A. He used the racecourse to make a statement about temporal instability. 8. We see horses moving at various cates of speed anda train rushing by in the background. The paintings are ''about" motion and speed. ll. Like Morisot, Degas began his investigations of human interaction using his family, then his friends. as models. A. Even in paintings made for the Salon from classical subjects, Degas challenged nonns. 1. A prime example of this artificial atmosphere is seen in Young Spartans Exercising (c. 1860). 2. This painting is somewhat subversive, because it is classical in style, but its subject matter is not a great moment in history. Instead, it depicts a group of pubescen! girls taunting a group of boys. 3. The viewer is forced to ask what the painting means and to think about the connections between the lives ofthe ancients and those of the modems. B. Such works are part of a larger collective examination of the modero individual in society, not unlike those of Balzac, Flaubert, and Zola. C. 6 Degas's project was to create a total portrait of his country, to depict the anxieties, hopes, fears. and habits of French people of aJI ages and typeS and both genders. l. For example, he painted bourgeois women arnidst theic possessions with a haunting combination of precision and ambiguity. as we see in Madame Camus (1869-70). 02002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnen.hip IV. Even when he was "slumrning," Degas was admired by critics for his extremely skillful compositions and effects of light. Among the most detailed and "artificial" of the Impressionists, he created ·'natural'' worlds with such skill and control of his medium that everyone seems to have marveled at his confections. A. In 1881, Degas exhibited the single work of sculpture he allowed to be publicly displayed in his long lifetime. The Little Dancer of Fourteen Years was among the most perplexing works of sculpture ever shown. B. Made of colored waxes with real clothing, haic ribbon, and ballet shoes, it looked more like a scientific specimen or a study in ..natural history'· than a work of art, and had it not been slightly reduced in scale, many viewers rnight well have thought that the young girl was ··real." Degas's only work of sculpture was, thus, more radical than any of his paintings, drawings, oc pastels. Paintings Discussed : --Young Spartans Excercising, c.l 860 by Edgar Degas, National Gallery. London --Madame Camus, 1869-70 by Edgar Degas, National GaJiery of Art, Washington, D.C. --Portrait of Diego Martelli by Edgar Degas. National Gallery of Scotland --A Woman lroning, 1873 by Edgar Degas, The Metropolitan Museum of Art @2002 The Teaching Company ümited Partnen.hip 7 --L'Absinthe, 1876 by Edgar Degas, Musée d'Orsay --The Racecourse: Amateur Jockeys Near a Carriage, 1876-1887 by Edgar Degas, Musée d'Orsay --Miss Lata attlte Cirque Femando. J879 by Edgar Degas, NationaJ GaJlery, London --Little Dancer of Fourteen Years by Edgar Degas. Pbiladelphia Museum of Art --Tite Millinery Shop, 1884-90 by Edgar Degas, The Art lnstitute of Chicago Essential Reading: Lecture Fifteen Gustave Caillebotte Scope: Gustave Caillebone was the weaJthiest of all the artists associated with Impressionism. Long known as a collector and patron of the group, Caillebotte was recognized as a painter in his own right on1y after World War 11, when works from the family collection began to be acquired by major museums. Arrnstrong, Carol. Odd Man Out: Readings of the Work and Reputation of Edgar Degas. University of Chicago Press, 1991. Boggs. Jean Sutherland. Degas at the Roces. NationaJ Gallery of Art, Washington, 1998. Callen, Anthea. The Spectacular Body: Science, Method, and Meaning in the Work of Vegas. Y aJe University Press. 1995. KendaJI, Richard. Vegas by Himse/f. New York Graphic Society, 1987. - - -. Degas and the Little Vancer. Y aJe University Press, 1998. Reff. Theodore. Degas: The Artist' s Mind. Harvard University Press, 1987 (reprint of 1976 edition). Recommended Reading: Dumas, Ann, and David A. Brenneman. Vegas and America: The Early Collectors. Rizzoli InternationaJ, 2001. Questions to Consider: l. 2. How was Degas's project similar to that ofZola, Balzac. and other nineteenth-century novelists? In what ways must his paintings be ·'read" like no veis? How does Degas reveal the process of making art in bis paintings? How does he connect himself with his subjects? Outline l. Boro into a family with landholdings in botb country and city, Caillebotte was trained as an engineer. His fascination witb technicaJ drafting and machinery was. therefore, greater than tbat of any other anist of the group. A. Caillebotte was brought into the movement in 1876 by Edgar Degas, whose motivations for doing so are unknown, but who must have recognized that Caillebone could play an importan! role in tinancing the group's projects. B. The paintings by Caillebotte in the 1876 exhibition included works that deaJt with maJe urban workers-a subject unassayed by bis fellow Impressionists to that date-and weaJthy bourgeois families. His use of the window both as a metaphor for the picture and as a psychologicaJ device is remarkable. C. Caillebotte's works figured largely in one of the most important critica! essays about lmpressionism ever written, Edmund Duranty's 'The New Painting. '' O. Although Caillebotte never fmished the Kimbell Museum's On the Europe Bridge in time for the 1877 exhibition, it is the boldest and mo~t powerful representation of modemism and techno1ogy painted by any of the anists. E. Caillebotte's paintings were considered to be "academic" in many ways by critics-their smooth surfaces. clear perspectiva! space, and careful compositions were unlike the roughly ftnished, quickly painted, and informal works by Monet, Renoir, Morisot, and Pissarro. II. Throughout the remainder of his active career as an Impressionist, Caillebotte concentrated on figuraJ compositions that dealt primarily with upper-dass life and, with few exceptions. the world of men. A. His rare nudes--more roen than women-seem not to have been exhibited. But their frankness-he included femaJe pubic hair and maJe scrotums when no other lmpressionists dared-remains shocking to this day. 8 0200211le Teaching Company Limited Partnership @2002 The Teaching Company ümited Partnen.hip 9 B. He painted importan! "'view'> from above'" in the newly created boulevard neighborhoods of Second Empire and Third Republic París. creating a body of urban "'landscapes·· that were the most modem and the most experimental of any lmpressionists. Que~tions l. 2. to Consider: How did Caillebotte 's París landscape)) dtffer from those of hi~ predecessors'? How did Caillebotte 's background affect his role in 1he lmpre~~ioni~t gruup? C. He also created \\.hat might be called ·'commerciar' stilllifes. representing fruits. meats. and poultry not as they were arranged by the pamter in his studio. but as they were displayed in the food shops of París. D. Caillebotte also painted the world of maJe bonhomie. His maJe sittef'> sail, row, play cards. drink. walk dogs, and stroll through landscapes they appear to O\\.n. lll. Perhaps his most startltngly original painting is a study of a single male figure in a relatively ne\\. Parisian café. Completed in 1880, the work was shown in the ImpressioruSI exhibition of that year. It is perhaps the first great French painting lo deal with the mirror. both as a metaphor for the picture and as a powerfully ambiguous psychological device. Paiotiogs Discussed: --Paris Street, Rainy Doy, 1877 by Gustave Caillebotte, The Art Tnstitute of Chicago --Young Man at Iris Windo K, 1875 by Gustave Caillebotte. Private Collection -Tite Floor Scrapers. 1876 by Gustave CailJebotte. Musée d'Orsay -On tite Europe Bridge. 1876-77 by Gu:.tave Caillebotte. Kimbell Art Museum -Rue Halé~}', Sixtlt Floor Vie1~. 1878 by Gusta ve Caillebotte. Prívate Collection -A Man Docking his Skifl. 1878 by Gustave Caillebone. The Virginia Museum ofFine Arts -In a Café, 1880 by Gustave Caillebotte. Musée des Beaux-Arts. Rouen -Fruit Disp/ayed on a Stand, c. J881-82 by Gustave CailJebotte, Museum of Fine Arts. Boston -Reclining Nude, 1882 by Gu'>tave Caillebotte. The Minneapolis Tnstitute of Arts --Portrait of M. Richard Gallo. 1884 b) Gustave Caillebotte. Private Collection Essential Reading: Vamedoe, Kirk Gusta\'e Cail/ebotte. Yale University Press, 1987. Distel, Anne, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom. and Rodolphe Rapetti. Gustove Cail/ebotte: Urbanlmpressionism. AbbeviiJe Publishers, 1995. Wittmer, Pierre. Caillebotte and !lis Gardens at Yerres. Abrams, 1990. Moffett, Charles et al. Tite New Paiming: lmpressionism, 1874-1886. Fine Arts Museurns of San Francisco. 1986. Ruther, Berson. Tite Ne~t Paillfing: lmpressionism, 1874-1886. Fine Art'> Museum.s of San Francisco. 1996. 2 volumes. JO 0:!110:! 1lle T~aching Compan)' ümited Partnership 02002 The Teachmg Company Limued PiU1nel'>hlp JI l. lecture Sixteen Mary Cassatt 2. Scope: Mary Cassatt was a well-bom American painter who had \\Orked exteru.1vely in Europe before she rnet Edgar Dega5 in 1876. He introduced her into the lmpressionisl circle, into which only one other American, J. A. M. WhiMier. had ties. and she became lhe onJy American painter who became a major force in the movement. Because Cassatt was an American, most of her works were purchased by American clients and can be found 1oday in American museums. The Musée d 'Orsay has a paltry colleclion of her works, in -;pite of the fa~.:l thal she was. in effect, a Parisian painter. Ln the Jmpre!>l>ioni'>t exhibition of 1879 was as imponant and ausp1cious as had been Caillebotte'!> m 1876. And,like Caillebotte, she brought new frnancial resources into play for the artists. 111. Many of Cassatt's painting!> represent wealthy women (there are few rnen. and, in tht!>, ~he is the opposite ofCadlebotte and comparable to Moriwt). A. Her ponraits show women who are inlelligent, self-confident, and alone. They make a powerful political statement that these modem, upper-class women are !.elf-sufticient. Cassatt added 1he second "t'' to her sumame. perhaps in an effon to make il seem more "French,'' bul she never altered the decidedly Anglo-American spelling of her first name, Mary. Thus, her nationality and her gender were not disguised. Her paintings are gendered in term~ of both their subjects and their maker. MaJe lmpre'>sionist anis~ treated similar subjec~ but in d1fferent ways. Cassatt was able to document the dr.una, beauty, and intimacy of priva te moments of women in ways thal mal e artists never could. She was the tir~t anist who treated women's bodies and minds equally in her painlmg. A. She was bom into a wealthy farnily in Pennsylvania and was trained al the Penns)'lvania Academy of Fine Arts. C. Cassan 's world was abo colored by her identifica!Ion asan expatria te Amencan. A Cup ofTea ( 1880). for example. Í!> a v1sual analy!>ts of B. She eventually went to Europe to conlinue her educalion and work as an anist. S he Ji ved frrst in Spain. where she studied Old Masters and painled "eJtolic" contemporary Spanish Ji fe. C. In lhe 187(}.,, she moved 10 Paris, a wealthy and sophic;ucated woman. as we see in the one self-ponrail we have. The portrait looks somewhal unftnished and unresolved, as if Cassatt wanted people to lhink aboul the process of making art. 11. Through her friendship with Degas, she began lo paint modem life and to concentrate on the world that she new best and their French friends. the life of wealthy eJtpatriatc., A . Cassatt was very interested in fashion and its use as a form of disguise or armor for women. She pru.sed this intereM along lo Dega'>. as we .,ec in his painting of a young milliner makíng a hat. l . Agam, we note that Degas's piece is a work of art aboul the process of making a work of art, similar lo Cassatt's self-ponrait. 2. Degas and Cassatt were a powerful duo, highlighting the crossinfluences that were <;O mucha pan of lmpressionism. B. Cassatt ·s first importan! pamting. Little Girl in a Blue Armehair ( J87R l. has often been considered to be a collaborative work in which Dega:. actively panicipated. 12 C. Ca:.">att's ..debut"' B. Outline l. Its '>Weep of tloor. eccentric placernent of fumilure, and ac;ymmetrical composition all have affinities with Degas's earlier work. Yet it is fully signcd and looks in facture and palette like a painting by Cassan. 0 2002 The Teaching Company ümited Partnership upper-class expatrwte life in the international anisuc capital of Parí'>. D. Although she did paint children in the 1870s and early 188&, she d1d not hn on the ..mother and child" theme that dorninates her work until the 189 suffused with color and was lauded by CflllC'>. Paintings Discussed: --Se/f-portrait, c.l878 by Mary Cassatt, The Metropolitan Museum of Art --The Millinef} Shop, 1884-90 by Edgar Degas. The Art lnstitute of Chicago --Little Girl m a Blue Armchair, 1878 by Mal) Cassan, Nauonal Gallef} of Art, Washington. D.C. CZ11112 The Teachmg Compan~ Limited Parlnef'hip 13 --Young Woman in Block (Portrait of Madame 1), 1883 by Mary Cassatt. Courtesy of the Maryland Commission on A.rtistic Property of the Maryland State Archives, on loan to the Baltimore Museum of Art -Atthe Opera, 1879 by Mary C~tt. Museum of Fine Arts. Boston --lnthe Box. 1879 by Mary Cru,satt --Lydia in a Loge Wearing a Peor/ NecJ..Iace. 1879 by Mary Cassatt. Philadelphia Museum of A.rt --A Cup ofTea, 1880 by Mary Cassatt. Museum of Fine Arts, Boston --Lydia Crochering in tlze Garden al Mar/y, 1880 by Mary Ca">satt. The Metropolitan Museum of Art --Young Gírl in a Green House by Berthe Morisot -Chi/dmr P/ayíng on rlze Beach. 1884 by Mary Cassatt. National Gallery of A.rt, Wru,hington, D.C. -Gir/ Arranging Her Hair, 1886 by Mary Cassatt, National Gallery of Art. Washington. D.C. Essentia l Reading: Mathews. Nancy Mowll. Mm~v Ca:;sau: A Lífe. New York. 1994. - - - . Mary Cassatt: A Retrospectil·e. New York. 1996. Pollock. Griselda. Mary Cassau: Paimer of Modem Women. Thames and Hudson, 1998. Question!> to Consider : l. How drd Cassau depict the prívate world of wornen? 2. What evidence do we see in Cru,sau's work ofthe restrictions ofher gender"? How was her work enriched by her gender? Lecture Seventeen Manet' s Later Works Seo pe: Edouard Manet is chiefly known toda y as a painter of maJOr Salon paintings in the 1860:. anda'> the creator of a late mru,terpiece, A Bar at tire Folíes Bergere ( 1882). Thrs view is incorrect and undervalues the 1mponance of hü. lmpressronrst experiments. In fact, he is among the few ··great painters'" in the hbtory of art who adapted hls style to that of younger artists as a mature painter. Outline l. After.Manet's summer with Monet and Renoir in 1874, he worked increasingly with the young anists, ~haring many friends and clients and introducing them to a higher Jevel of French society. A. Manet 's career during thi!. period is often characterized as a lackluster denouement to bis early and middle career. B. In fact, his later career seems to have been falsely underrated precisely because he painted smaller p1ctures that were more aligned with the lmpre&sionists and not for the Salon. C'. Hh later career w¡c, abo deepl) affected by the pictonal experiments of the younger artists with \\hom he \\.Orked in the 1870~ and 1880s. II. Hrs last major Salon painting of the 1860!>, The Ba/cony <1868-69>. approxrmates urban life and its physical interpenetrations and social inequaliries more fully than any painting to that date. A. The Balcony depicLs a group of people on a balcony in an upper-class Parisian apartment. The central figure. whom we know to be Morisot, seems to be bored and is lookmg to the viewer to be amused. 8 . This picture would have been hung in the gallef) at almo'>t the height of a real balcony. transforming the interior ofthe museum into the exterior of the city. As viewers. we get the sense that the painting is viewing us, rather rhan the other way around. lll. In the 1870s, Manet's works range widely in subject and style, but are, in the main, faithful to Parisian genre and ponraiture. \Ve begin to '>ee an energy and a quickness in hh work that prompts us to think about the proces'> of painting. A. Ll1 Dame orce e¡•enrail:;; Nina de Collios (The Womon l\ uh Fans) ( 1873-74) shows usa middle-aged woman in a Spamsh costume. She is not glamorous. but sbe •., in control of herself. Her pose seems to provoke the viewer into panicipating in lhe painting. to actívate the viewer. 14 C 20021ñe Te«<:hing Company Limited Partner..hip C2002 1lle Te.Khíng Ct•mpany Limited Partner.htp 15 B. Manet's portraits also include major writers and political figures in startlingly di verse ¡.,ituations and poses. l. Manet was close lo lhc poet Stephanc Mallarmé, who wrote that the Jmpressionist movement used art as a means or dcmocratizing France and carrying the country into a newer realm. 2. Manet's portrait of Mallarrné shows the relaxed intímacy of French ínlelleclual life. 3. Manci also painled Mallarmé's mistrcss in a genrc sccne of thc leminine boudoir, similar to those assayed by Morisot and Degas. Thís work is a sensuous, irnrncdiate, and playfullook at the artiticc ofwomen. 4. Wc ~ee this sarne ímmediacy in a painting of a singer atan outdoor café. She is holding her hand out to invite applause, and we get thc sense that Manet is also inviting our applause for his performance. 5. Finally, Manet conveys his own política! views in his somewhat my~terious portraits of política! figures. We see, for example, Rochefort paintcd as he escape~ in a rowboat from Devil's Island. We feel that this scene, of a tone man trying to c~cape authority, is a personal emblem lor Manet. C. At this time, Manet became obsessed with the public café, where people meet both habitual! y and occasionally without any invasion of privacy. Manet explored the relationship between social classes and between servers and served in these subtle works. lle also explored the nature of sexual desire in a public place, as we see in his picture of a prostitute waiting to initiate an encounter in a café. IV. In the early 1880s Manet began work on his final masterpiece, A Bar at tht• Folies Bergere, sent to the Salon of 1883, the year of his death. A. The work deals with lhe impossibilities of human desire across class divides-a familiar themc in French literature of the Rcalist and Naturalist schools. It al~o deals with the "impossibility of the picture.. accurately to represent the world. This is achieved through the device of the mirror with its "skewed" reflection. B. --Nana, 1877 by Edouard Manet, Hamburg Kunsthalle --Tite Balcony, 1868-69 by Edouard Manet, Musée d'Or!>ay --La Dame aux eventails: Nina de Callias, 1873-74 by Edouard Manet, Musée d'Orsay --Portrait ofStéphane Mal/armé, 1876 by Edouard Manet, Musée d'Orsay - Before the Mirror, 1876 by Edouard Manet, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York --Café Concert, 1879 by Edouard Manet, Prívate Collection --Escape of Rochefort, 1880-8 1 by Edouard Manet --Plum Brcmdy, c.l877 by Edouard Manet, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C. --A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1882 by Edouard Manet, Courtauld lnstitute GaJleries --Vase of White Lilacs and Roses, 1883 by Edouard Manet, Dalias Museum of Art Essential Reading: Brettell, Richard.lmpression: Painting Quickly in France, 1860- 1890. Y ale University Prcs~. 2000. Brombert, Beth Archer. Edouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coat. New York, 1996. Cachin, Fran9oise, and Charles Moffett. Edouard Manet, 1832- 1883. New York, 1983. Collins, Bradford R. 12 Views of Manet' s Bar. Princeton University Press, 1996. Hanson, Anne Coffm. Manet and the Modem Tradition. Yale University Press, 1977. Rand, Harry. Manet' s Contemplation at the Ca re St.Lazare. University of California at Berkeley, 1987. Reff, Theodore. Manet and Modem Paris. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1982. The themes of isolation in a public place, loneliness, and repressed desire are major ones in this painting. V. Manet became wracked by tertíary syphilis in 1882 and spent a good deal of the lac;t months of his life in bcd. Here, he created a serie¡., of fresh, rapidly painted, and small stilllifes of the fresh t1owers brought to him by his friends and admirers, including Berthe Morisot, who was with him almo~t continuously in the final days. Paintings Discussed: --The Railway, 1873 by Edouard Manet, National Gallery of Art, Washington. D.C. 16 C2002 The Teachmg Company u mued Partner.hip C20021 he Teaching Company Limited Partner.h1p 17 Questions to Consider: l. In what way!> does Manet bnng the viewer tnto his paintmgs? What is the point of our participation? 2. How does Manet's obsession with café life relate to one of the Iarger atm' of the lmpressionist movement, to democratize art? lecture Eighteen Departures Scope: August Renoir and Claude Monet became increasingly successfuJ as arti~h in the early 1880s and, perhaps as a result, increasingly dÍ!>!>atisfied with the group dynamics and politics of the Impressiontsts. They also became reMive about Paris and its suburbs as the sole subject of their art. Outline l. Renoir started his rebellion from the rebels by submiuing a major portral! of the wife, children, and dogs of the great publisher Gusta ve Charpentier to the Salon of 1879. It w;c, accepted and created a pubhc <.ensation, both because of 1ts pictonaJ bnlhance and because of the po'-"er and media-savvy of the Charpentier family. A. Degas wanted to maintain a rule that no artist could be in both the Salon and the lmpressionist exhibition, effectively disqualifying Renoir. Renoir "'as upset by Degas's willingness to include minor urban reahsl'>. such as de Nittis, Forain, and Raphaelli, in the Impressionist group. Both lost and both won. B. Renoir carne to loo k away from the group for his ímpetus and actually took the ftrSt major trip away from París in 1881, "'hen he went to Provence (france), haly. and Algena-the landscape~ of ..great art" in the case ofIta! y and of his hero Delacroix in the case of Algeria. C. These trips resulted in a new style of painting, smoother, more fully accepttng of the physical integrity of the body, and more classically composed than his earlier art. The signa! for this ne\.\ style is Luncheon of the Boating Party ( 1880-81 ). 11. Monet's wtle. CamiJie, dted a painfuJ death ata young age late in 1879. and the painter's entire life and mode of wort.ing changed simultaneously. A. Rather than sticking close to home and painting peopled suburban landscapes, Monet began to range further and further on bis houseboat, prefernng isolated '>pots even on the Seine and weather effects that tended toward the extremes. B. lle also experienced symptoms of a psychological condition that Freud wru. later to caJI a fugue state, in which the sufferer repeats and repeats a theme in various places in search of a break from trauma. Monet lled "home" and sought motifs in remote Jandscapes-tirst in Normand}, where he had grown up, and later, through Renoir's urgings, in the south of France and the ltalian Riviera. IX C2002 The Te.~ehing Company Límited Partner.hip C)2(102 ~ T~aching Company ümited ~hip 19 C. His works carne increasingly to be wild, distant, and late Romantic lheir sturm und drang. 10 lecture Nineteen Paul Gauguin Pa intings Discussed: --Madame Georges Cltorpentier and /ter Cltildren. 1878 by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, The Metropolitan Museum of Art -Tite Seine at Lavacourt, 1880 by Claude Monet, DalJac¡ Museum of Art -Selting Sun O\'er tite Seine ut I..Aracourt, Winter Effect. 1880 b} Claude Monet. Musée du Petit Palai!> --Tite Bar at the Moulin de la Galette, 1877 by Pierre-Augu!'>te Renoir, Musée d'Orsay -8/onde Bather, 1881 by Pierre-Auguste Renoir. Sterling and Francine Clark Art lnstitute -Tite Mosque (Arab Holiday), 1881 by Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Musée d'Orsay --Luncheon of tite Boating Party, 1880-1881 by Pierre-Auguste Reno ir. The Phillips Collection -Tite Regolfo al Argemeui/, c. 1872 b:r Claude Monet, Musée d'Orsay --Tite Manneporte (Érretot), 1883 by Claude Monet. The Metropolitan Museum ofArt -Bordighera. 1884 by Claude Monet. The Art lnstitute of Chicago Essential R eading: Isaacson, Joel. The Crisis of lmpressionism, 1878-/882. Univer:.ity of Michigan Pres!>, 1979. House. John. Monet: Art into Nature. YaJe University Press, 1986. Diste!, Anne. Renoir. London, 1985. Seo pe: A young banker-!.tockbroker named Paul Gauguin ( 1848-1903) met Camille Pissarro in lhe late 1870:. and be<.ame, lhereafter, a major coUector of lmpressionism. He abo embarked on a career ac; an amateur painter and sculptor and euubJted with lhe lmpres:.ionists in their la:.t four exhibilion:.. Outline l. Gauguin 's teacher in painting was Pi!i~arro. who Wa!> himself beginning an adventure an painting in which he carne increa:.ingly to pamt the human figure. Yet, in contrru.t to Renoir, Degas, and Manet, who painted modem, urban subjects, Pissarro painted thoroughly ··modero" paintings of traditional rural workers. Hi'> fascinauon with pre-modem populations hada great effect on the subsequent career of Gauguin. A. Pissarro's figure:. were designed to compete with those of Renoir and Dega:. m the Impressioni!.t exhibitJons of the early 1880:.. R. Pissarro 's landscapes increasingly became tightly controlled compositio~ wtth geometric sub!>tructures and carefully placed figures. Gone, for him, was the informality of 1870:. Impressionism. He carne to prefer various syste~ of order to the c~ual pictorial aesthetic that had dommated the earlier decade. ll. Gauguin pamted frequently with Pissarro and Degas m the years around White, Barbara Ebrlich. Renoir: His Lije. Art, and Letters. Abrams, 1984. 1879-1883 and finally stopped worlmg in lhe financtal sector to devote himself fulltirne lo painting in 1883. Questions to Consider : l. l low did the work of Reno ir and Monet change as they became more successful'? 2. How did travel affect lhe lmpressionist movement. and how did it begin to change toward the end of the century? A. His subrnissíons to lhe Impres!>tonist exhtbition of 1880 included a major painting of a nude that stirred extraordinary cnticism. The sheer ugliness of the woman 's body and the fact tbat she seems to be sewing while posing gave lhe painting a di:.tinctly un-idealízed air, separaüng it from the esthetic of SaJon paintíng. 8. Gaugum's sculpturaJ ~ubmission wa!> equall:r surpn!.ing. lle chose a Renai-.sance tondo. or circular shape, for his repre~entation of a café singer. :.imilar to those that had been portrayed m paint and p~tel by Deg~ and Manet, but he carved her in \\-ood, very much like a northem RenaJ'>'>ance or even a "prirnitive" object. C. Just before and definittvely after the breakup wilh his w1fe in 1883. Gauguin made a series of works of art that deal fonhrightly wilh hl!> own marital dtscords and with lhe anxieues of modem bourgeois lite. Perhap'> the strongest of these t'> Still Life With Flm' ers, Interior of the Arri.\t'.\ Apurtmem, Rue Caree/. Paris of 1881. in which Gauguin 's wife 20 02002lhe Teachmg Company umlled Partner.hip 021Wil The T~a.:hing Comp.m) um11ed P~híp 21 is cut off in the act of playing the piano and his friend. the paintcr Emile Schuffenecker, watches. Gauguin's own absence from the painting is overt-expressed by the cmpty chair and the strange spaces of the room. D. Gauguin also used fables and other literary texts, such a~ La Fontaine's !ron Pot and Clay Pot, as the subject matter of certain of his works of art. For him, the visionary carne to rcplace vision. Paintings Discussed : --Study of aNude, 1880 by Paul Gauguin, Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek --Sti/1 Life with Flowers: Interior of tite Arti!>t' s Apartment, Rue Caree/, Poris, 1881 by Paul Gauguin, National Gallery, Oslo Lecture Twenty The Final Exhibition Scopc: In 1885, Camille Pissarro went to visita young, academically trained painter narned Georges Seurat ( 1859-1891 ). Thi!> meeting changed both men 's careers and the ~ubsequcnt history of art, bringing a scientific rigor into the conception, compo!>ition, and execution of thc modcm work of art. Their collaboration finally brought an end to thc lmpressionist experiment when they dominated the critica! discourse around what was to become the finallmpressionist exhibition in April of 1886. --Cioy Jug ond !ron Jug, 1880 by Paul Gauguin, The Art Institute of C'hicago --Peasant Womon, 1880 by Camille Pis~arro, National Gallery of Art, Wa<;hington, D.C. Outline l. --Young Peasont Woman Drinking her Café au Loit, 1881 by Carnille Pissarro, The Art Institute of Chicago --Landscope at Chaponval (Val d'Oise), 1880 by Camille Pissarro, Musée Pissarro·~ Londscape at Chapom•al: (Val d'Oise) (1880) signals a new tendency in painting: the creation of an abstract pictoriallanguage to represen! the real world in a new way. d'Orsay A. In the real world, we don't see form; we see light. This painting is structured to reflect that concept. Essen tia l Reading: B. This notion, combined with the idea that artists had to fix the freid of Brettell, Richard, et al. The Art of Pau/ Gauguin. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1988. Sweetman, David. Paul Gauguin: A Complete Life. London, 1995. Mathewc¡, Nancy Mowll. Paul Gauguin: An Erotic Life. Y ale Univeri~ty Press, 2001. Recornmended Reading : Merles, Víctor. Correspondance de Paul Gauguin, 1873-1888. París, 1984. Questio ns to Consider : l . How was Gauguin affected by the mentorship of Pissarro? 2. In what ways did Gauguin 's early career differ from that of most of the lmpres~ionists? visioo--give it structur~o that it could become art, formed the basis of a new idea of Impres~ionism in the 1880s. 11. 1 hese two ideas carne together in Georges Seurat, an acadermcally trained artist who treated modern Parisian life, but in a new and highly structured manner. A. Seurat had inaugurated his career through the public exhibition in 1884 of a monumental painting called Bathers at Asrzieres ( 1883). 1. The painting represents working-class men on the beach, posed in a deliberare manner reminiscent of Egyptian art. Seurat was fascinated with injecting into modemity the time-tested art of Egypt. 2. This hieratic work, with it') carefully considered and geometrically ordered composition and neatly painted surface, seemed antithetical to the working-class subject. 3. Seurat, like the older Impre!>sionist Renoir, began to paint in opposition lo the informality of Impressionism. 8. In 1884, Seurat began a work that, when completed in the spring of 1886, was a "pair" to the earlier Bathers at Asnieres. This work, A Sunday Afternoon 011 the lsland of La Grand Jatte, (1884-86) represents the island in the Seine opposite the shores of Asnieres; the same boat race in the Seine is ~een in both paintings. 22 e2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnership C2002 The Teachmg Company Limited Panner..h1p 23 l. 2. This very large painting again reveaJs the rigorous rules of Egyptian art applied to modem subjects. The men m the painting are "types"; their costumes 1ell us lheir idenlilies, and they are interesting lo us onJy in their inleraclions wi1h the "-Omen. In contrast. women are represented in all stages of life. The scene is a gendered drama in \vhich men play subsidiill) roles. C. While workmg on this painting. Seurat learned more about color thcory and met Pis.~o. He repainted the work with many small dols lo get brillianl new colors in lo his representation of brighl sunshine. Mo~l of lhese colors "'ere chemically unstable. and the painting dulled from yellow~ 10 dull greens and from brilliant orange to browns shortly after it was exhibiled. D. The "-Ork uses a thoroughJy ·'scientific·· theory of light. color. and composition derived from Seurat's systematic reading of lexts in physics, optics, lighl and color theory. and psychology. This resulted in a new kind of painling called ··scienlific Impressionism" by certain artists and '·Neo-lmpressionism'' by others. The style was never referred 10 as "pointillism" by its makers or their critics. E. Seurat's painling appeared between two others in the final Impressionist exhibition, one by Pissarro and the other by their young friend Paul Signac, each of which dealt with distinctly separate social realms- rural workers for Pi<>sarro and urban workers for Signac. All three of lhe painlings show an equal obsession with female figures and lhe role of women in modem sociely. l. The painling caused a major splil in the Impressionisl movement. Gauguin haled il; Monet and Renoir refused to exhibil w1th Seurat. 2. Seural 's work carne to be thought of as having replaced the lmpressionist experiment with art that was more rigorous and structured and conveyed reverberations from the entire history of art. Pa intings D~cussed : --LandJcape at Clzapom·al (Val d'Oise ), 1880 by Camille Pissarro, Musée d'Orsay --The Bathers. 1887 by Pierre-Auguste Reno1r. Phlladelphia Mu~urn of Art --Bathers at Asnieres, 1883 by Georges Seurat, Natíonal Gallery. London --A Sunday Aftemoon on the /stand of La Grande Jatte, 1884-86 by Georges Seurat, The Art lnstitute of Chicago -La Cueil/ette des pommes (The Apple Han·estJ, 1886 by Camille Pissarro, Ohara Museurn of Art, Kurashilu, Japan --Les modistes. 1885 by Paul Signac. Sammlungen E.G. Buhrle. Zurich --Portrait of Felix Fénéon. against the Enamel of Background Rhythmic with Beats and Angles, Tones and Colours, 1890 by Paul S1gnac, Private Collection E~ential Reading: Herbert, Robert L. Seurat Paintings and Drawings. Yale University Press, 2001. Ratliff, Floyd. Paul Signac and Color in Neo-lmpressionism. New York, 1992. Thomson, Richard. Seurat. Phaidon, Oxford, 1985. Ward, Martha. Pissarro: Neo-lmpressionism and the Spaces of the AvantGarde. University of Chicago Press, 1996. Zimmennann, Michael F. Seurat and the Art Tlzeory of His Time. Antwerp, 1991. Cachin, Fran~oise. Paul Signnc. New York, 1971. Hutton, John. Neo-Jmpressionism and the Searchfor So/id Ground. University of Louisiana Press, 1994. Qu~tions to Consider : Neo-lmpre~s1onists l. What Matements about "-Omen were the make in their work? 2. What new ideas and teclmiques did Seura1 bring 10 lmpressionism that cau!>ed a splil in the movement'? attempting to m. A young writer, Felix Fénéon. became the strongest critica! voice for the Neo-lmpressiomsls. Using clear and simple prose, he created verbal equivalents for their complex ideas and their systematic technique. A. Yel the death of Seural in 1891 was a blow to the movement-its slrongest practitioner was no longer at the center of its practice and theorizing. 24 C20112 1be Teaching Company Limjted Partner..hip C20021be Teachmg Company limued PilltlleJ',hip 25 Lecture Twenty-One The Studio of the South: Van Gogh and Gauguin I V. Gauguin's subsequent work, before his departure to Tahiti late in 1890, dealt with the one area of subject matter that had been effectively bamshed from modemtst painttng in France for more than a geoeratton-religion. A. His rarnous The ~'ision after the 5ermon ( 1888) wa:. painted for the Scope: A young Dutch painter, Vincent van Gogh, carne to París in February of 1886 and was in the city to see the fmallmpressionist exhibition. With his art dealer and brother. Theo van Gogh. as his guide. he befriended many of the artists but carne increasingly under the spell of Paul Gauguin. parish church in Pont A ven and rejected by the priest. B. His extraordinary Self- portrait ( 1889), representing the artist as both Eve and Christ m a world of pure color. was one of a pair of cupboard doors in the inn where Gaugutn stayed. The paired door had another paintmg by Gaugum with copte'> of two books, Mil ton·~ Paradise Lo~t and Thomas Carlyle's Sartor Resartus. Outline l. Gauguin 's contributtons to the lmpressionist exhibition of 1886 were so overshadowed by the painting of the Neo-lrnpressionists that he was forced complete! y to reconsider his career. Never systematic and always interested in literary subjects and the exotic. Gauguin fled Paris for the remole and culturally complex landscapes of Brinany in the summer of 1886 and. henceforth, sought an anti-modem and anti-urban world as the subject for his art. 11. By 1888. Gauguin had created a "school" of artists, all much younger than hirnself. in the I0\\-11 of Pont A ven in Brittany. These artists sought to exaggerate color, to create highly decorative compositions, and to take art further and further from the realm of sight or optical reality. Hence. they became anti-lmpressionist and anti-Neo-Impressionist at once. 111. Early in 1888, van Gogh moved to the south of France in Aries and succeeded in convincing Gauguin to join him in the creation of an artistic brotherhood in \\ohat he called the "Studio of the South.·· Far from París and far from the theorizing and gosstp of the rnetropolis. they worked in a sundrenched landscape with brilliant hues and radtcally simple compositions to give added vigor to art. A. The brotherhood began with an exchange of self-portraits--Gauguin portra);ng himself as Jean Valjean from Hugo 's Les Misérables and van Gogh representing himself as a ''brother'' or ascetic monJe B. At Aries, van Gogh rented and decorated a small hou<,e that he christened the "Yellow House." Here. Gauguin and he had adjacent bedrooms and shared cooking and cleanmg. Pain tings Discussed: --Self-portrait (Les Misérables), 1888 by Paul Gaugutn, Van Gogh Museum --Self-portrait. 1888 by Vincent van Gogh, The Fogg Art Museum, Harvard Univer:-.ity Art Museums --The Han·est, 1888 by Vincent van Gogh. Van Gogh Museum --The Bedroom al Aries, 1888 by Vincent van Gogh, The Art Institute of Chicago --The Night Café (Le café de nuit). detail. 1888 by Vincent van Gogh, Yale University Art Gallef} --Landscape near Aries. 1888 by Paul Gauguin, Indianapolis Museum of Art --The Arlésiennes (Mistral), 1888 by Paul Gaugum, The Art Institute of Chicago --Self-portrail, 1889 by Paul Gauguin, National Gallef) of Art. Washington, D.C. --Tite ~'ision after rlze Sermon (Jacob Wrestling with the Angel), 1888 by Paul Gauguin, National Gallery of Scotland Essential R eading: Anderson, Wayne. Gaugum's Paradue Lost. New York, 1971. Druick, Douglas, and Peter Zegers. Gauguinh·an Gogh. The Art lnstitute of Chicago. 2001. Questions to Consider : l. How did the coUaboration in the Studio of the South differ from the 2. Impressiontst partnerships in northem France? In what way:-. did Gauguin rebel agrunst the lmpressionist esthetic? C. Van Gogh also painted the '"hell"' of the Night Café, where he ate and drank late into the night. All these worl...s used Seurat's complementary color., but for e:- mucb better known to the Parisian public as a graphic arust-of posters. theater programs, illustrations m the press. and other "public" artthan he was as a painter. His works in the traditional rnediurns becarne better kno\\n after his death in 1900. Pa intings Dbcussed: --Equestrienne (At the Cirque Fernando), 1887/88 by Henri Toulou~-Lautrec, The An lnstitute of Chicago -- Moulin de la Galette, 1889 by Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, The Art Jnstitute of Chicago -Al 1he Moulin Rouge, 1892-93 by Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, The Art Institute of Chicago --Traming of 1he New Girls by Valelllin al 1he Moulin Rouge. 1889-90 by Henri Toulouse-Lautrec., Philadelphia Mu~um of Art --Monsieur Boileau al lhe Café, 1893 by Henrt Toulouse-Lautrec, The Clcveland Mu<,eum of Art --The Soja, 1894-95 by Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, The Metropolílan Museum of Art --Pros1itutes ( Femmes de Maison ), c.l894 by Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Dalias Museum of Art E~ntial Reading: Frey. Julia. Toulouse-Lautrec: A Lije. New York, 1994. Thompson. Rtchard. Toulouse-Lautrec. London. 1977. Hellcr, Reinhold. Toulouse-Lautrec: The Soul of Mommarrre. Munich and New York, 1997. Sweetman. David. Explosire Acts Toulouse-Lautrec, Osear Wilde, Fe/ir Fénéon and the Art and Anarchy of the Fin de Siecle. New York, 1999. Q uestions to Consider : l . How does Toulo~-Lautrec':; version of '"París by night'' both resemble and differ from Degas's'! 2. Whal is today's popular stereotype ofToulouse-Lautrec's work and how does it dtJler from hts actual oeuvre? V. Lautrec also followed Degas into the brothels, many of which he vi<,ited and sorne of which he actually inhabited for longer periods, developing a complex sense of intimaq with prostitutes thal was unknown to Degas. A. The Elles series of lithogrnphs ts perhaps the fmt sympathetic investigalion of the life of the prostitute in the history of art. B. The paintings, paslels, and gouaches of prostitutes continue this theme. sornetimes with fascinating uses of materials-in certain cases. Lautrec 28 C2002 The Teaclting Company Limited Partner.hip C>2H02 The Teachmg Company L.imited Pill'tMr.h1p lecture Twenty-Three seamstress, and he had lived in a \\'Orld of abstract color, created by the fabrics with which he was surrounded, from childhood. The Nabis Seope: In the lru.t years of the 188(}..,, a ~>mall group of young men joined together to form a ''brotherhood'' of artists called Nabis (the Hebrev. word for "prophet"'). Edouard Vuillard and Pierre Bonnard. the most important arttsts of the group. took the informal art of Impressionism into the interiors of 1890:. Paris-a realm relatively unexplored by the lmpressionists themselves. 8 . Vuillard's work is a deepl} peN>nal record of his ov.n env1ronment, and it is complete! y abstract. emphru.1zing color. arrangement, and form. The style was called "lnUml'>m... IV. Pierre Bonnard tended to turn h1s '·Nab•s eye" on the public and outdoor realms of Paris, painting the ne1ghborhoodc, of the Batignolles and Montmartre like a truffle-snufler of the city's byway'>. He also painted gardens and parks. A. These paintings are ''big" scenes of Paris, similar to those of the earlier lmpressionists, but they seem to show just a slice of the larger Parisian life, as if even the outdoors or the city could be made intimate. Outline l. The esthetic ímpetus for Nabis wa<; Paul Gauguin, who with his own brotherhood of young artists in Pont Aven. had stressed the artificiality of art. The signa! painting for this teacher was Paul Serusier·s The Talisman ( 1888), which was a representation of a pond near Pont Aven in a way that would have been foreign to the Impressionists. B. The Swiss Protestan! Félix Vallotton Jlso painted these slices of life, allowing the viewer to reimagine Pari. A. These works are oñen painted on panels or pieces of cardboartl and show a fascination with pattem and color. Vuillard's mother wao; a 30 C2002 The Teaching Compan} limited Partoer;hip V. Baudelaire had ··given penrussion" to artists to paint the streets and the outof-doors. and the Nabis celebrated the artificmlity of that act. After a little more than a decade of interaction. however. the group fell ínto disarray. as the Impressionists had done before them. Paintings Discussed: --The Tali!.man, 1888 by Paul Serusier, Musée d'Orsay --Sunlight onthe Terrace, 1890 by Maurice Denis, Musée d'Orsa} --Dusk, ora Game ofCroquet, 1892 by Pierre Bonnartl, Musée d'Orsay -- The Suitor, 1893 by Edouard Vut!Jard, Smith College Art Museum --Large lmerior with Six Figures by Edouard Vuillard, Kunsthaus, Zurích --The Cab Horse, c.l895 by Pierre Bonnard. National Gallery of Art, Wa!>hington, D.C. --Street Scene in Paris, 1895 by Félix Vallotton, The Metropolitan Museum of Art 02002 The Teaching Compan) lim•l~ Piiltoer.hlp 31 --Landscope. Windo" Ol·erlooking the Woods. 1899 by Edouard Vuillard. The Art Lnstitute of Chicago --The Big Enclosed Garden by Pierre Bonnard. Musée d'Or<>ay lecture Twenty-Four La Fin Essential Reading: Easton, Eli1abeth Wynne. The lntimate lnteriors of Edouard vuillard. Smithsonian lnstitution Press, Washington, 1989. Freches-Thory, Claire and Antoine Terrasse. The Nabis. Harry Abrarns. 1991. Groom, Gloria. Edouard Vuillard: Painter Decorator. Yale University Press, 1994. J 1 Groom. Gloria, et al. Beyond the Eose/· Decorati1·e Paintings of\'uillartl, Bomwrd, Roussel and Denis. Yale. 2001. Scope: After lheir final group exhibilion. which W.t'> boycotted by Renoír and Monel, the Impressionists worked more or less independenlly. The sense of radicali-.m and soctal experirnenlalion thal had been assoctaled wilh lhe movement began to wane as the artists aged and becarne successful. Each of the men and women tended their later caree~ with great care, often playing dealcrs off again~t one another and flirting with critics and \o\riters. Most of them worked assiduouo;ly with Paul Durand-Ruel. the most important and intemationall) c,avvy dealer of the late nmeteenth and early twenlieth centuries. Terrasse, Antoine. Bonnard. Gallimard, Paris, 1994. Outline Questions to Consider: l . What characteristics dt!.linguish Nabis painungs from tho-.e of the earher lmpressionists ? 2. l. Monel devoted a large part of the 1890s to the development of his own house and garden m Giverny. A. The growth of the farmhouse garden and the development of the \o\aler garden were a.\ much obses<.,ions of the painter in the 1890s as were his painungs. What principies of working with color did the Nabis leam from Gauguin, and ho\o\ were these applied in their painting ? B. In focusing on borne. Monet began to look al the same subjects over and over again. rather than always pain1ing new things and trying new tricks. In doing so. he observed lhe transforrnation of lhe'>e subjew.. in light and time. The stability of his molif'> enabled him 10 perceive change in relative stability. ' J 32 C2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnershtp C. Monet first exhibiled his new and emotionally satisfying extension of lmpressionism in 1891. The e~hibition was the flfSI m the history of art in which all the paintings represented the ~ame subject. l. In this senes of paintings, we see haystacks in a field near Givemy. The haystacks remain lixed. but color and light shtft around them. 2. Monet was not painting form, but the "'envelope of light" thal surrounds form. D. Monet's pictorial produclion of 1he 1890'> was dominaled by lhe concep1 of "'series.. painting~. l. In his series of poplar trees ( 1892) and Rouen Cathedral far;ade~ ( 1894 ). Monet made ""subject" and "'composition.. a constant and varied color and facture to recreate the sensations of short moments of time and light. 2. These paintings were imtially perceived by Monet's compeutors (including Pissarro) as a marketing device akin 10 industrial production. • «)2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partner...hip 33 11. Pissarro spent the ftrSt year. of the 189 he had in the past. This meant that his "through the window" ptcture:.. both urban and rural. have a deta\..hment lacking m the tactile and intimare pamtings of the previous decades. B. The mo~t ~ucce'>sful ol' these paintings repre~nt cities, and Pis~o painted more urban views than any other Impressionist between 1894 and bis death in 1903. These represent Pans, Rouen, and the port cities of Normandy. In his painting of the Avénue de 1'Opéra, for example, we see the light shifting, as in the senes by Monet, but the world is one of movement and rraflic: the -.ubject is not fixed. 111. Renoir and Morisot kept in close touch throughout the 1890:., before Mori'>Ot 's death in 1895. They worked to develop a late style based on mellinuous hnear contour'>, rounded fomlS, and re1atively smoothed and thinned facture. A. Renoir continued to paint pictures that are rooted in the ligure; he was thought 10 be the greatest figura! arti'>t of the late nineteenth century. B. Renoir was the executor of Caillebotte's will, in which Caillebotte bequeathed to the French govemment a number of Impressionist masterpieces from the 1870s and 1880s. Renoir was also involved in the ~tate of Morisot. I V. Degas devoted the 1890s. his last mtensely productive decade,to series of his own. A. Degas preferred the human figure-and the female nude-to 1andscapes and began to work concertedl) on a !>eries of bather compositions in pastel. These v.:ere based on hb 1886 Suite of Nudes but with drarnaticaJiy enlarged figures. arranged and rearranged using tracing paper as a support. B. Degas also experimented with pov.:dered pa.'>lels painted on paper with ether and v.:ith layered effecb using fixatives that create color sensations not unlike the oil surfaces of Monet. He wanted to be remembered as a great clas~11.:al aÍIIst and colonst, and h1~ late \\.Ork ~~ suffused with color. C. Beca~C>e of Degas's increasing anti-Semitbm and irascibility. he had less and less to do with his former friends and colleagues among the lmpresstonists. Eventually, ht<, sight deteriorated and he could no 1onger make art. D. lle began a serious vocation a'> a collector, building up a massive collection of painting~. drawings. and prints by In gres, Delacroix, Goya, El Greco. and others. He also owned major work'> by Gauguin. 34 C2Cl02 The Te~.:hing Compan) LimiteJ P..utner.hip \. Cézarme. the last of the initiallmpressl(>nist group. v.:orked in the ~lUth of France alone. away from his fellow artists. VI. After Gustave Catllebotte's death in 1894. the French govemment received the fu~t maJOT bequest of lmpres.,ionist painting'>. Alter sorne delay and negotiations with the arti'>t's he ir'>, a group of these v.:orks wa'> in.,talled at the Mu'iée du Luxembourg, Fran~e · s mu~eum of contemporary art. Here. the lmpressionists were enshrined with their long-time adversaries. the academic painters that the state had collected throughout the nineteenth century. Paintings Discussed: -- Stack of\Vheot (End ofSummer}. 1890-91 by Claude Monet. The Art lnstitute ofChicago --Stocks ofWJzeat (End of Da). Autwml). 1890-91 by Claude Monet. The Art lnstitute of Chicago --Stacks ofWheat (Sumet, SnoM' Effect). 1890-91 by C1aude Monet. The Art lnstitute of Chicago --Stock of Wheat (Snow Effect, Overcast Day), 1890-91 by Claude Monet, The Art lnstitute of Chicago --Stock ofWheat (Thaw, Sunset ), 1890-9 1 by Claude Monet. The Art Institute of Chicago --Stack ofWheot, 1890-9 1 by Claude Monet, The Art lnstitute ofChicago --The Four Trees. 1892 by Claude Monet, The Metropolitan Museum of Art --Rouen Cathedral. Sun/ight. 1894 by Claude Monet, Sterling and Francine Clark Art lnstitute -- Avénue de l'Opéra, Paris, 1898 by Carrulle Pissarro --La Place du Tlzétitre Framrais, 1898 by Camille Pissarro, Los Angeles County \4uc;eum of Art --The Loul're: Moming, 1901 by Camille Ptssarro, St. Louis Art Museum --Girls ot tite Pwno. 1892 by Pterre-Augu~te Renotr. Musée d'Orsay --After the Bath, c.l893 by Edgar Degas, The Norton Simon Foundation --A Maid Combing a Young Womon's Hair. 1892-95 by Edgar Degas. National Gallery. London -- Mont Sainte-Victoire seenfrom Les Úll'e!.. c.l900 by Pau1 Cé1arme. Philadelphia Muc;eum of Art Essential Reading: Brettell, Richard, and Joachtm Pissarro. The lmpressiomst and the Clf): Pissarro's Series Paintings Yale University Press. 1993. Kendall. Richard. Degas Bemnd Jmpress10nism. Yale Universtty Pre\S, 1997. - - - . Degas Londscopes. Yale Univer-,ity Pre<..s, 1993. Tucker. Pau1 Hayes. Monel inthe 90's: Tire Senes Pointings. Y ale University Press. 1990. OZfWI2 The Teachíng Com¡uny Lim•ted P...rt~r-.lúp 35 Questio ns to Consider: l. Ho"' d1d the lrnpressioni!.t movement evolve as the artists grew older'? 2. Wh1ch Impressionists developed distinct late styles in their painting, and Y.hich extended the work the) had done in the earlier Impresstomst heyday? Credit Unes for Paintings Discussed Lecture Thirteeo -Gustave CaiUebotte, París Street, Rainy Doy. 1877. The Art lnstitute of Chicago © Burstein Collection/CORBIS - Edouard Manet, Nana, 1877, Kun~thalle, Hamburg Photo: AKG London - Picrre-Auguste Renoir. The Bar at the Moulin de la Galette, 1877. Musée d'O~ay © Wood River Gallery - Berthe Morisot,/n a \'illa at the 5ea.side. 1874. oil on canva~. 19 ~¡ x 24 l/8 m, Norton Simon Art Foundalion. Pa,adena. CA - Carmlle Pissarro. The Cote de.s Bneufs at J'Hermitage near Pnmoüe. 1877. National Gallery, London © Nallonal Gallery Collection: By kind permission of the Trustees of the National Gallery. London/CORBIS - Paul Cézanne. Still Life ~' ith a Desurt, 1877, Philadelphia Mu~eum of Art: The Mr. and Mrs. Carroll S. Tyson. Jr. Collection. 1963-116-5 - Paul Cézanne. The Bathers. 1877 The Barnes Foundation, © Reproduced with the Permission ofThe Barne'> FoundationT'1 AH Rights Reserved - Camille Pi<,sarro. The Carden at Pontoise. 1877. Private Collection. courtesy of The Wildenstein lnstitute -Ciaude Monet, Tite Turkeys. 1877. Mu'>ée d'Orsay ©Archivo lconografico. S.A./CORBIS -Claude Monet, The Gare Saiiii-La:are: Arrival o/ a Train, 1877. Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University © Fogg Art Museum, Harvard Umversity Art Museums, USNBequest from the Collection of Maurice Wertheim, Class of 1906!Bridgeman Art Library - Ciaude Monet. The Arriml ofthe Nornwndy Train, Gare Samt-La:are. 1877. oil on canvas, 59.6 x 80.2 cm. Mr. And Mrs. MartinA. Ryer-.on C'ollection, 1933.1158 © The Art Institute of Chicago, All Rights Reserved - Edgar Degas,Women on the terrace of a café in the e\'ening. 1877, Musée d'Orsay ©Archivo lconografico. S.A./CORB IS - Edgar Degas, Sea Bathing: A young Rirl and her maid, J 876-77. National Gallery, London © National Gallery Collection: By kind permission of the Trustees of the National Gallery. London/CORBIS 36 02002 The Tc:..a~hing Cvmp;.tn) Limited Partnel"hip 02002 The Tc:..aching Company Limited P~hip 37 Lecture Fourteen -Edgar Degil!>, Young .f)partam Excercising, c.1860. Nauona1 Gallery, London © National Gal1ery Collection; By kind permission of lhe Trustees of the Nationa1 Gallery, London/CORBIS -Edgar Degas. Madame Camus. 1869-70, oil on canvas, 72.7 x 92.1 cm, Chester Dale Collection. 1963.10.121, Photograph © 200 1 Board of Trustees. National Gallery of Art. Washmgton -Edgar Degas. Portratt of Dtego Martelli. The National Gallery of Scotland -Edgar Degas, A Womanlroning, 1873. The Metropoütan Museum of Art. H. O. Havemeyer CollectJOn, Bequest of Mrs. H.O. Havemeyer, 1929 (29.100.46). Photograph © 1985 The Metropolitan Museum of Art Courtesy. Museum of Fine Arts. Boston. Reproduced with permission. © 20 Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. All Rights Re<>erved -Gustave Caillebotte, AMan Docking Ju:. Skijf(Canotier romenunt .m péri:.soire). 1878. oil on canvas. 73.7 x 92.7 cm .. Virginia Museum of Fine Arts. Richmond. Collection of Mr. And Mrs. Paul Mellon. ©Virginia Museum of Fine Arts -Gu<,tave Caillebotte. Reclining Nude. 1882 © The Minneapolis lnstitute of Arts -Gu.,tave Caillebotte. Portrait of A1. Rtclwrd Gallo. 1884. Prívate Collection Lecture Six teen -Edgar Degas. L'Absimhe, 1876. Musée d'OTh, The MillineiJ Shop. 1884-90, The Art lfutitute of Chicago © Francis G. Mayer/CORBlS Lecture Fifteen -Mary Cassatt. At the Opera, 1879, Museum of f-Ine A.rts. Boston © Burstem Collection/CORBIS -Gu.,tave Caillebone. Paris Street, Rainy Doy. 1877. The Art lnstitute of Chicago © BuNein CollectiorvCORBIS - Mary Ca<;satt. lt1 tite Box. 1879 © Francis G. Mayer/CORBIS -Gustave Caillebotte, Young Manar hi::. Willdow, 1875. Prívate Collection -Mary Cassatt. Lydia in a Loge Wearin,~ a Peor/ Necklace. 1879. Philadelphia Mu.:;eum of Art © Philade1phia Museum of Art/CORBIS -Gusta ve Caillebotte, The Floor Scrapers, 1876, Musée d 'Orsay © Erich Lessing 1Art Resource, NY -Gustave Crullebone. On the Europe Bridge, 1876-77. oil on canv:t'>, 105.7 x 130.8 cm. Kimbell Art Museum. Fort Worth, Texas -Gu.,tave Crullebone. Rue Ha/él), Sixth F/oor Colle~.:uon. Dalias, Tex:t'> ~ te11. 1878. Anonymous -Gustave Caillebotte,/n a Café. 1880. Musée des Beaux-Arts, Rouen © Réunion des Musées Nationaux 1 Art Resource. NY -Gusta ve Caillebotte, Fruit Displayed 0 11 a Stand, 188 J -82, oil on can vas. 76.5 x 100.5 cm, Fanny P. Mason Fund in Memory of Alice Thevin. 1979.196. 38 C21XI:!lñe Te....hing Comp.m} Lim•ted P..rtnen.hip - Mary Ca<;satt, A Cup ofTea. J 880, Museum of Fine Arts. Boston © Bun.tem Collection/CORBIS -Mary Cassatt, Lydia Crochetmg in tite Garden at Mar/y, 1880, The Metropo1itan Museum of Art. Gift of Mrs. Gardener Cassatt. 1965 (65.184). Photograph © 1993 The Metropolitan Museum of Art -Berthe Morisot, Young Girl in a Green llouse © Corel Stock Photo Library -Mary Ca'isatt. Children Playm ~ on the Beach. 1884. oil on can\ a-.. 97.4 x 74.2 cm. Ailsa Mellon Bruce Collection. 1970.17.19, Photograph © 2001 Board ofTrustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington C20<12lñe T~hing O>mpany Lim1ted P~r-hip 39 -Mary Cassatt, Girl Arranging her Hair, 1886, oi1 on canvas, 75.1 x 62.5 cm, Chester Dale Collection, 1963.10.97, Photograph © 2001 Board ofTrustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington -Pierre-Auguste Reno ir, Tlze Bar at the Mou/in de la Galette, 1877, Musée d'Orsay © Wood River Gallery Lecture se,·enteen -Pierre-Auguste Renoir, 8/onde Bather. 1881. oil on canvas, 1955.609. © Sterling and Francine Clark Art lnstitute, Williarnstown. Massachusens -Edouard Manet, The Rai/way, 1873, oil on canvas, 113 x 132.7 cm, Gift of Horace Havemeyer in memory of his mother, Louisine W. Havemeyer, 1956.10.1, Photograph © 2001 Board ofTrustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington -Edouard Manet, Nana, 1877, Kunsthalle. Hamburg Photo: AKG London -Edouard Manet. The Balcony, 1868-69, Musée d'Orsay © Francis G. Mayer/CORBIS -Edouard Manet, La Dame aux Eventails: Nina de Callias, 1873-74, Musée d'Orsay © Réunion des Musées Nationaux 1Art Resource, NY -Edouard Manet, Portrait ofStéphane Mal/armé, 1876, Musée d'Orsay © Edimédia/CORBIS -Edouard Manet. Before the Mirror, 1876, oil on canvas, 92.1 x 71.4 cm, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York, Thannhauser Co11ection, Gift, Justin K. Thannhauser, 1978,78.2514.27, Photograph by David Heald © The Solomon R. Guggenheim Foundation, New York -Edouard Manet, Café Concert, 1879. Privare Collection © Giraudon 1Art Resource, NY -Edouard Manet, Escape of Rochefort . 1880-81 Photo: AKG London -Edouard Manet, Plum Brandy, c.1877, oil on canvas, 73.6 x 50.2 cm, Collection of Mr. and Mrs. Paul Mellon, 197 L.85.1, Photograph © 2001 Board ofTrustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington - Edouard Manet, A Bar at the Folies-Bergere, 1882, Courtau1d Institute Galleries © Wood River Gallery -Edouard Manet, Vase ofWhite Lilacs and Roses, 1883, oil on canvas © The Dalias Museum of Art Lecture Eighteen -Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Madame Georges Charpentier and her Chi/dren, 1878. The Metropolitan Museum of Art © Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York. USNBridgeman Art Library -Pierre-Auguste Renoir. The Mosque (Arab Holiday), 1881. Musée d'Orsay © Réunion des Musées Nationaux 1 Art Resource. NY -Picrre-Auguste Renoir, Luncheon ofthe Boating Party. 1880-1881, The Phillips Collection © Francis G. Mayt!r/CORBIS --Ciaude Monet. The Regatta at Argenteuil, c. 1872, Musée d'Orsay © Corel Stock Photo Library --Claude Monet, Tlze Manneporte (Étretat), 1883. The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Bequest of William Church Osbom. 1951 (51.30.5 ). Photograph © 1989 The Metropolitan Museum of Art --Claude Monet, Bordighera, 1884, oil on canva<;, 64.8 x 81.3 cm, Poner Palmer Collection, 1922.426 © The Art Institute of Chicago. All Rights Reserved Lecture Nineteen -Paul Gauguin, Study of aNude, 1880, N y Carlsberg Glyptotek © Erich Lessing 1 Art Resource, NY -Paul Gauguin, S ti// Life with Flo~~-ers: fllleríor of the Artist' s Apartmellt, Rue Caree/, Paris, 1881, National Gallery, Oslo © Erich Lessing 1Art Resource, NY -Paul Gauguin, Clay Jug and /ron Jug, 1880, oil on canvas, 82.6 x 94 cm, A Millennium Gift of Sara Lee Corporation. 1999.362 © The Art Institute of Chicago, AU Rights Reserved -Camille Pissarro, Peasant Woman, 1880, oil on canvas, 73 x 60.4 cm, Chester Dale Collection, 1963.10.199. Photograph © 2001 Board ofTrustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington -Camille Pissarro. Young Peasant Woman Drinking lzer Café au Lait, 1881, oil on canvas, 65.3x 54.8 cm, Potter Palmer Collection, 1922.433 © The Art Institute of Chicago, All Rights Reserved --Carnille Pissarro, Landscape at Chaponval (Val d'Oise), 1880, Musée d'Orsay © Erich Lessing 1Art Resource, NY --Claude Monet, The Seine at Lal'acourt, 1880, Dalias Museum of Art © Dalias Museum of Art, Texas, USNBridgeman Art Library --Claude Monet. Setting Sun over the Seine at Úll'acourr, Winter Effect, 1880, Musée du Petit Palais © Réunion des Musées Nationaux 1Art Resource, NY 40 C2002 The Teaching Company Limited Partnen.hip 02002 The Teaching Company Limiled Partner.hip 41 Lecture Twenty -Camille Pi~sarro, Landscape ar Chaponral (\'al d'Oise). 1880, Musée d'Or<.ay © Erich Lessmg 1Art Resource, NY -Pierre-Augu'>te Reno ir, The Bathers. 1887, Philadelphia Museum of Art Philadelphm M~um of Art/CORBIS e -Georges Seurat, Bathers at A~nieres, 1883, National Gallery, London © National Gallery Collection; By kind perrnis'>ion of the 1 rustees of the National Gallery. London/CORBIS -Georges Seur.u, A Sunday Aftemoon 011 the f!,land of La Grande Jatte, 188486, The Art Institute of Clucago © Bettmann/C'ORBIS -Camille Pi s~arro, La Cuei/leue des pommes (The Apple Harvest), 1886, Ohara Museum of Art, Kurashiki. Japan © Giraudon 1 Art Resource, NY - Paul Signac, Les modiste!>, 1885, oil on camas.© The Foundatioo E.G. Buhrle Collectton, Zurich © 2002 Artists Rtghts Society CARS>. New York¡ ADAGP, París -Paul Signac, Portrait ofFélix F énéon, agamst the Enamel of Backgrou11d Rhythmic with Beats and Angle!>, Tones and Colours, 1890, Private Collection © Private Collection/Giraudon-Bridgemao Art Library; © 2002 Artists Rights Society CARS), New York 1ADAGP, París -Paul Gauguin, Se/f-portrait, 1889. oil on cam·as. 79.2 x 51.3 cm. Che~ter Dale Collection, 1963.10.150. Photograph © 2001 Board ofTru-.tee~. National Gallery of Art, Washington -Paul Gauguin. The \'ision after the Sermon (Jacob 1\UStlint?. Hith the Ant?,e/), 1888, National Gallef) of ScotJand © Nattonal Gallery of Scotland. Edinburgh. ScotJand/Bridgeman Art Library Lecture Twenty-Two -Heori Toulouse-Lautrcc. Equesrrienne (At rhe Cirque Fernando). 1887/88, oil on canvas. 100.3 x 161.3 cm. Joseph Winterbotham Collection, 1925.523 © The Art lnslltute of Chicago. All Right<, Reserved -Henri Toulouse-Lautrec. Moulin de la Galette, 1889, oi l on canvas, 88.5 .x lO 1.3 cm. Mr. and Mrs. Lewts Lamed Cobum Memorial Collection. 1933.458 © The Art In~utute of Chicago. All Rights Reserved -Herui Toulouse-Lautrec. Ar rhe Mou/111 Rouge. 1892-93, The Art lnstitute of Chicago © Francis G. Mayer/CORBIS -Henri Toulouse-Lautrec. Training of the Ne" Girls by ~'alemin at the Moulin Rouge. 1889-90, Philadelphia Museum of Art © Philadelphia Museum of Art/CORBIS Lecture T\\enty-One -Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Monsieur Bmleau atthe Café, 1893, The Cleveland Museum of Art © Francis G. Maye r/CORBI S - Paul Gauguin, Self-portrait (Les Misérables). 1888, oil on canvas, Anbterdam. Van Gogh Mu~um (Vincent Van Gogh Fouodation), s0224 V/1962. -Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Thc SoJa. 1894 95. The Metropolitan Museum uf Art, Roger.- Fund, 1951 C5 1.33.2). Photogmph by Malcolm Varon. Photograph © 1984 The Metropolitan Mu!>eum of Art -Vincent van Gogh, Se/f-portrait, 1888, The Fogg Art Museum, Harvard University Art Museums © BurMein Collection/CORBIS -Henri Toulouse-Lautrec, Prostitutes ( F emmes de Maison), c.l894, oil on canvas © The Dalias Museum of Art -Vincent van Gogh, The Hane~t. 1888. oil on canvas. Am.\terdam, Van Gogh Museum (Vincent Van Gogh Foundatioo), !>0030 V/1962 Lecture Twenty-Tbree - Vincent van Gogh, The Bedroom at Aries, 1888, The Art Institute of Chicago © Francis G. Mayer/CORBIS -Vincent van Gogh. Niglu Café (Le café de 11uil). detail. Yale Univen.ity Art Gallery, Beques! of Stephen Carlton Clark. B.A. 1903 -Pau1 Gaugum, úmdscape near Aries, 1888, oil on can vas, 36 x 28 ~ in., lndianapolis Mu'>eum of Art, Gift in memory of William Ray Adams, IMA44.1 O -Paul Gauguin, The Arlésie11nes (Mistral). 1888, The Art Iru.titute of Chicago © FrancC. G. Mayer/CORBIS 42 C20CI:Z The Tea.:hing Compan)' umned Pilftner.h1p -Paul Seru<,ier, The Talisman, 1888, Mu'>ée d'Orsay © Réunion des Mu..,ées Nationaux 1Art Resource. NY -Maurice Denis, Sunliglu on the Terrace. 1890. Musée d'Orsa) © Réunion des Musées Nationaux 1Art Resource. NY; © 2002 Arusts Rtghts Soctety IARS), Nev. York 1 ADAGP. París -Pierre Bonnard, Dusk, ora Game ofCroquet, 1892. Musée d'Orsay © Erich Lessing 1Art Resource, NY; © 2002 Artists Rights Society CARS), New York 1ADAGP. París -Edouard Vuillard, The Suitor. (also called The Wor/...shop; formerly lntaior at 1' Etang-la-Vil/e). 1893, oil on millboard panel. 31.8 x 37.9 cm, Smith College Museum of Art, Northampton. Massachusetts, Purchased. Drayton Hillyer Fund, 1938; © 2002 Artists Rights Society (ARS>. New York/ ADAGP. Paris. C2002 The Tea.:hing Compan} ümited Partner.hip 43 -Edouard Vuillard, Lorge illlerior u ith Six Figures. Kunsthaul., Zurich © Erich LeS!>tng 1Art Re!>Ource, r-.,ry ; © 2002 Art1~~ Right~ Soc1ety (ARS), Ney. York 1ADAGP, París -P1erre Bonnard, The Cab Horse. c.1895, oil on canvru., 29.7 x 40 cm. Ail~ Mellon Bruce Collecuon. 1970.17.4, Photograph © 200 l Board of Trustee~. Na110nal Gallcry of Art, Washington; © 2002 Arti!.tS Rights Society (ARS), New Yorl / ADAGP. Paris -Fehx Vallotton, Street Scene in Pari::., 1895, The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Robert Lehman Collection, 1975 ( 1975.1.736). Photograph © 1985 The Metropolitan Museurn of Art -Edouard Vuillard, Londscape: Window Overlooking the Woods, 1899, oil on cam·a~. 249.2 x 378.5 cm. L.L. and A.S. Cobum. Martha E. Leverone, and Charle~ Norton Owen funds, restricted gi ft of an anonymou~ donor, 1981.77 © The Art Institute of Chicago, All Rights Reserved; © 2002 Artists Rights Society (ARS). Ne" York 1ADAGP, París -P1erre Bonnard, The Big Enclosed Gurden, Musée d'Or::.ay © Ench Lessing 1 Art Resource. NY; © 2002 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York 1ADAGP, Pari~ Lecture T wenty-Four -Ciaude Monet, Stock of~~heat (End of Summer), 1890-9 1. oil on canv~. 60 x 100 cm, Gift of Arthur M. Wood in memory of Pauline Palmer Wood, 1985. 1 103 © The Art lnstitute of Chlcago, AlJ Rights Reserved -Ciaude Monet, StacJ. ofWheat (End ofDaJ, Autumn). 1890-91, oll on canvas, 65.8 x 101 c m, Mr. and Mrs. Lewis Lamed Coburn Memorial Collection, 1933.444 © l he Art lnstitute of Chicago, AlJ Rights Re~rved --Ciaude Monct, The Four Tree:;, 1892. Thc Metropolitan Museum of Art. H.O. Haverneyer Collection. Beques! of Mrs. 11.0. Havemeyer. 1929 (29. 100.110). Photograph by Malcolm Varon. Photograph © 1984 The Metropolitan Musuem of Art -Ciaude Monet, Rouen Cathedral, Sunli~ht, 1894. Sterling and Francine Clarl.: Art In~titute © Clark Im.titute, Williamstown, MA, USA/Bridgeman Art Library --Can11llle Pissarro. Avénue de /'Opira. París, 1898 © Alexander Burkatowski/CORBIS --Camille Pissarro. La Place du Théátre Franr;ais. 1898. oil on canvas. 72.39 x 92.71 cm, Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Mr. And Mr'>. George Gard De Sylva Collection, M.46.3.2 Photograph © 2002 Museum A'>sociates/LACMA --Camille Pissarro, The Louvre· Momin~. 1901. 011 on canva<., 73.7 x 92.7 cm. The Saint Loms Art Museum. Purchase - Pierre-Auguste Renoir,Gir/s atthe Piano, 1892. Musée d'Orsay ©Archivo lconografico. S.A./COR BIS -Edgar Degas, After the Bath, c.l890-93 (dated in error by another hand: 1885). pastel on paper. 26 x 20 3/4 in, l'orton Simon Art Foundation. Pasadena, CA -Edgar Degru.. A Maid Combing a Young Woman's Hair. 1892-95 by Edgar Dega'>. National Gallery. London © National Gallery Collect10n; By kind penni~sion of the Trustees of the National Gallery. London/CORBIS - Paul Cézanne, Mont Saime-\tctoire seenfrom Les La\·es. c.l900. Philadelphia Museum of Art © Philadelphia Museum of Art/CORBIS -Ciaude Monet, Stock of Wheat (Sumet, Sno1t Effect), 1890-91, oi 1 on can vas, 65.3 x 100.4 cm, Poner Palmer Collection, 1922.431 © The Art lnstitute of Chicago, AlJ Rights Reserved -Ciaude Monet, StacJ. ofWheat (Snow Effect, 01·ercast Day), 1890-91, oil on camas. 66 x 93 e~ Mr. and Mr~. Martm A. Rye~on Collection, 1933.1155 © The Art ln~lltute ot Chicago, All R1ghts Reserved -Ciaude Monet, StacJ. ofWheat (Thaw, Sunset), 1890-91, oil on canvas, 64.9 x 92.3 cm, Gdt of Mr. and MTh. Daniel C. Searle, 1983.166 © The Art lnsutute of Chicago, All Rightl> Rel>erved -Ciaude Monet, StacJ. of l~hcat. 1890-9 1. oil on canv~. 65.6 x 92 cm, Restncted gift of the Searle Family Tru~t; Major Acquis•llons Centennial Endowment; through prior acquisition.'> of the Mr. and Mrl>. Martín A. Ryer.,on and Poner Palmer collections: through pnor beque~t of Jerome Friedman, 1983.29 © The Art ln~tllute of Clucago. AlJ Rights Re::.erved 0211112 The T~ac.hmg Company Lim•led P.•.nner..hip ()2tKI2 The Teac..hmg Compan) L.imited Partner-h•p 45 Timeline 1874 Contempora ry Events: Fi.n.l group exhibuion of lmpressionisls, at Nadar's on Boulevard de~ Capucine~ Exhibilors include Degas, Pi~sarro. Cézanne. Monet, Ren01r, Sisley, and Morisot Manet: Rejecl~ idea of participating in group show Degas: Exrublt~ ten \vorks at group show Death of his father in Naples Pissarro: Refuse-. to exhibit al Salon Daughter Jeanne dies; son Félix is bom Cézanne: At Pi~sarro's behest, exhibits in group show; landscapes and Modern 0/ympia greeted with demton Monet: Shows lmpression· Sunrise, among 12 works exhibiled al group show Wom wtth Manet and Renotr in Argenteuil Renoir: Establishes friendship with Caillebotte Death ot tús father M orisot: Father dies; marrtes Eugene Manet, Edouard's brother Gauguin: Birth of Emil, his first cluld Caillebotte: Death of rus father, Martial Cassatt: SettJes m Paris Other Artists: Seurat makes his tirst drav.ing Sis1ey visits England 1875 Contemporar} E~en~: Dealh of Corol and Millel Manet: Scandalizes Salon with Argenteuil painting Degas: Lives in Montmartre Pissarro: 46 C2002 The Teaching Compan} Lim•led Partner~hip Uves and works in Pontot'>e With Cézanne and Guillaumin. founds artists' association. L' Union Cézanne: Join'> C Union Monet: In financial stratls, ask.s Manel for help; wife falls ill Renoir: Rejecled al Salon; sells painlings for pirlance ~1oriwt: Worb in England and on the Isle of Wighl; oblains higher prices al auction for her works than Monet, Renoir, and Sisley Gauguin: Patnh in spare time Caillebotte: Rcjected at Salon Van Gogh: Tran.,fers to Goupil & Co. 's Paris office Other Artis~: Seurat works in Municipal Art School 1876 Contemporary Events: Nineteen parttctpants exhibit at the sccond lmpressionic,l eJthibition. including Degas, Pissarro. Monet. Renoir. Sislcy. and Monsot Rivtere writcs first article on Impressionist') Duranty publishes La Nourelle Peinture Manet: After Salon rejec1s two paintings. he displays 1hem to public in rus ~ludio Degas: Exhibtts 24 canva..-.es at group show: sacrifice~ much of hic; fortune to help his brothcr financially Pissarro: Exlubtts 12 paintings at group show: v.orks in Pontoi<;e Monet: Exhibits 18 pamtings at group show; starts Gare St. Lazare series Has financial difficulties Renoir: Exhtbils 15 painlings al group show; paints Balan;oire, Moulin de la Galette Morisot: Her mother dies Gauguin: Exhibils landscape at lhe Salon; buy~ collection oflmpressionisl paintings Caillebotte: Exhtbits eight works al group show; buys severa! painlings from Monet C2002 ~ Teachmg Company Limited P..nner.hip 47 Van Gogh: Fired by Goupil & Co.; goel. to England to teach Otber Artists: Sisley exhibits eíght landscapes and ~pends time in Louveciennes Seurat works in Municipal Art School and makc~ his fir:,t painting Avoid~ Salon; a~sists Monct Oegru.: Prunts c ircus scenes Cézanne: Receives financia! help from Zola; rejected at Salon ~fonet: 1877 Cootempor ary E\ents: Eighteen participants in thtrd Impre~l.ionist exhtbition, including Dega~. P~o. Cézanne, Monet, Renoir, Sbley, Mori~ot. and Caillebotte Death of Courbet Manet: One pamting accepted, another rejected at Salon Dega~: Exhibits 22 works at group ~how: invites Cassatt to join 1mpressioni~t group Pissarro: Restgn~ from L" Un ion; works with Cézanne in Pontoise; exhibits 22 works at group ~how Cézanne: Also restgns from L' Union; exhibil!> 16 works at group show ~fonct: Exhibits 30 paintings at group show; severely l.lrapped linancially Renoir: Exhibits 22 works at group show Morisot: Exhibits 19 works at group show Gauguin: Makes acquaintance of Pissarro Cassatt: Joins the Imprel.stonists, no longer exhibits at Salon Cassan's parents and sister, Lydi~ settle in Paris with the artist Caillebotte: Exhibit~ severa! works at group show Take:. part in auction of paintings at Hotel Drouot Van Gogh: Goes to Amsterdam to begin srudies for the ministry Otber Artists: Seurat copies great master..; reads de Goncourt \ novels Sisley exhibitl. 17 landscapes at group show 1878 Cootemporary Events: Paris World's Fatr Publication of Duret's Les lmpressionÜies :\1aoet: 02002 The Teachin¡¡ Company Limned Son Michel is bom; wife, Camille. fall<. ill again Renoir: Exhibtts at Salon; paints portraits Caillebotte: Faib to exhibit at Paris Universal Exhibition Finances Monet's move from Rue Moncey Receives large disrribution from family estate Van Gogh: Moves to Belgium, where he begins work as a lay preacher in mimng community Other Artists: Seurat adrnitted to Ecole des Beaux Art'> Sbley, like Renoir. exhibit'> again at Salon 1879 Contemporary Events: Fourth Impressionist group show in París Exhibitors include Degas. Ptssarro, ~1onet. Gauguin, and Cassatt Death of Daurmer, Couture Zola criticizes lmpressionists in Salon review \tanet: Two paintings showo at Salon; exhibtts Execution ofMaximilien in America. with little success Oega'>: ExhibJts fewer works at group show than promi..ed; inntes Mary Ca'>satt to partJCipate in group show Pissarro: Exlubtls 38 works at group show and invites Gauguin to participate Céz.anne: Rejected at Salon ~lonet: Exhibits 29 painttngs at group show: exhibit!> again at Salon Wife. Carnille, dies; beset by more financia! problern:. Renoir: Find., success at Salon with Mme. Charpentier and Her Children ~teet'> wife-to-be Atine Charigot Morisot: Pregnant. she does not exhibit at group show Gau~uin: Part~n.h1p C>ZOII:! The Teaching Compan) Limited Partner.hip Exhibit!> M:ulpture at group show; works with p¡.,.,arro in Pontoise Caillebotte: Exhibit!> at group !>how Continues to underwrile Monet Cassatt: Makes public debut with Impre!>!>ion•sts by exhibiting in group show Begins modeling for Degas Van Gogh: Despondl!nt at losing another job, makes pilgrimage to France to vi~it Jules Breton Other Artists: Sisley rejected at Salon; evicted from apartment in Sevre!> Seurat adm1res group show: stud1es Renoir's work; Jeave~ Ecole des Beaux Arts; begins military serv1ce 1880 Contemporary EHnts: Fifth Jmpressionist group show Exhibitor.. include Degas, Pissarro, Morisot. Gauguin. and Cru,satt lmpre~iom!ots anacked b) Huy:.mans Econom•c crash Manet: Show!> portrait of Prou.,t at Salon. where hi:. pupil Eva Gonzales ha!> !>uccess First sigru. of fatal illne:.:. Degas: Exhibit:. eight paintrngs and pastel!> at group !>how; travels in Spain Pissarro: Show:. pamtings and et<.hings at group show Mooet: Gives one-man show at La Vie Modeme Renoir: Shows two paintings at Salon. dbpute:. their pla,;;ement ~torisot: 1881 ('ontemporary E,·eots: Si,th Impre~s•onist group show E,h 1bítors include Degac,, Píssarro, Morisot, Gauguin, and Cas'>att f)oriéré des Artistes Fronrms created Clcmenceau founds La Justice .M anet: Two painting'> accepted at Salon Nominated for Legion of Honor by Prou<,t; falls senously ill J>egas: E'hibits statuette of danccr and pa<;tels at group show Pio,sarro: Exhibits 11 landscapes at group show Daughter Jeanne is bom; \\Orks in Pontoi<>e Cé1anne: Join~ Pissarro and Gauguin in Pontoise Monet: Moves to Poissy; decides to forego Salon in future Renoir: E'hibits severa! portraits at Salon; travels to Italy Morisot: Exhibits sevcn works at group show; spends winter in N ice Gauguin: E'h1bits eight paintings and two sculpture~ at group c,how Summers in Pontoise; birth of fourth child Caillebotte: Performs rnilitary service Buy~ propert) across from ArgeoteUJI Van Gogh: Moves to Hague and studies art Other Artists: S1sley exhibib 14 paintings at La \'ie ~foderne: travels to lsle of Wight Seurat draws, studies color theory, takes notes on Delacroix Exhibit:. 15 paintings and watercolors at group !>how Gauguin: Exhibí!!> seven paintrngs at group :.how. sorne of which were done in Pontoise Caillebotte: Exhibits l 1 works at group show Toulou!.e-Lautrec: After severa! bone breaks, has become permanently crippled Other Artists: Seurat completes miJitary service m Brest; returru. 10 Pari:. 50 C20U2 The Teachmg Company l.imited Pannel'lhip 11;)2002 The Teaching Gompany Limlled Pannen.hip 51 1882 C ontemporary Events: Sevenlh lmpre~sionisl group show Exhibnors include PJ'>sarro, Monel, Ren01r, Momol, Gauguin, Caillcbotte, and S•sley L 'Ecole de::. Beaux Arts ho'>IS retro~pect1ve of Courbel Manet: Exhibn~ Bar aux Folies-Bergere al Salon Pissarro: Works in Ponloise; exhibits 36 paintings and gouaches at group show Cézanne: Admitted to Salon; cares for Renoir M onet: Exhibils 35 painting'> al group show Renoir: Exhibils 25 works al group show and onc portrail at 1he Salon Falls ill with pneumonia; relurns to AJgie~ M ori w t : Exhibits nine paintings and pastels at group show Gauguin: Exhibils busl of son and 12 paintings at group show Caillebotte: Exhibns 17 works al group show TouJo use-Lautrec: Moves 10 Par1s 10 sludy painting Other Artists: Sísley shows 27 landscapes at group shov..·; resisl'> Durand-Ruel's suggestion of one-man shows Seurat works 10 Paris suburbs: draY.s laborers and pea.,ants 1883 Contempor a ry E vents: Boston exhibitJoo inc.lude'> lmpress•ooisls L' Art Modeme of Huysmans appears french ecooomy recovers M a net: Left leg arnputated, he die::. on April 30 His y,.ork appears in New York at Pedestal Exhibition Oegas: Shoy,.s seven paintings in London; shows 10 New York at Pedestal Exhibition Pissarro: Does one-man show at Durand-Ruel's Cézanne: Works near Aix; meets wíth Renoir and Monet ,\tonel: · Doc., one man show at Durand-Ruers Renoir: E~h 1 bits at Salon: does one-man sho"' at Durand-Ruers Morisot: . . ~1oves to Paris: prepares the Manet retrospecllve and settles h•s e .. tate Gauguin: . . . Birth of son Po la: gives up bank JOb; works w1th PJS..arro Caillebotte: Summers and sails at Trouville Draw., up will ghing h.Js collection to the State Other A rtists: Si'>ley shows 70 paintings at Duraod Ruers . Seurat exhíbits one work at Salon; beg10s work on Une 801gnade 1884 Contempora r y Eveot Degas: Exhibits series of pastel nudes at group show Pissarro: Meets Van Gogh; exhibits 20 worJ...s at group ~how Cétanne: Marrie~ Hortense Fiquet: inherits fonune from his father . Seurat exhibits La Grand Jatte to scandal at group show; quarrels wtth Gaugutn Signac exhibits with Seurat; adopts divisioni~m Benhe :'viori~ot die~ 1901 Henn de Toulouse-Lautrec dies 1903 Camille Pissarro dies 1906 Paul Cézanoe dies ~1o net : Show~ at Fifth Exposition Intemationale; shown by Durand-Ruel in New Yorl-. Renoir: Exhtbits in Bru~..els and al Fifth Expo~ition Intemationale Morisot: Organizes Eighth Impresstonist group show, \\here she exhibits 14 works; shows in New York 54 C2002l'he Tea<:htng Compilll)' um1ted Panncr.híp 1917 Edgar Degas dtes 0:!11112 The Teaching Compan) L.ímited P..utner.hip 55 Bibliography 1919 Adler. Kathleen. and Tamar Garb. Berthe Morisot. Phaidon. 1987. Pierre-August Renoir dies Ander..cn. Wayne. Gauguin's Paradise Lost. Viking, 1974. 1926 Armstrong. Carol. Odd Man Out Readings of the n ork and Reputation of Edgar DeKas. University of Chicago Press. 1991. Mary C'assatt and Claude Monetl.lie Boyer, Christine. The City ofCollecti•·e Memor)•: lts HistoricallmaKeFY and Architectural Emertainments. MIT Press. 1996. 1935 Bames. Albert C.. and Violette de Mazzia. Tlze Art of Renoir. Marion. 1935. Paul Signac dies Sources: John Rewald, Tite Hisrory oflmpressionism. 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Pissarro and Pontoise: The Painter in a Landscape. Y ale University Press, 1990. Brombert, Beth Archer. Edouard Manet: Rebel in a Frock Coot. Linte Brown, 1996. Cachin, Fran)oise. and Charles Moffett. Edouord Manet,l832-J883. Harry Abrams. 1983. Cachin, Fran)oise. Manet, 1832-1883. Metropolitan Museum of An. New York. 19R3. - . Paul Signac. New York Graphic Society, 1971. Callen. Anthea. The lmpressionws in London. Catalogue of an e~hibition at the Hayward Gallery in London, January to March 1973. - . The Spectacular Bod). Science, ~ethod, and Meaning in the Work of Degas. Yale University Press. 1995. 56 C2002lllc T~achmg Comp~n) Límit~d Panner-.hip C2002lllc T~aching Compan) Limited Partner.hip 57 du Camp, Maxime. Paris: Ses Organes et ses Fonctiom. París, 1869; reprinted 1975. Hauser. Arnold. Tire Socialllistory of Art. Vol. IV. Routledge. 1999. Champa, Kennit Swiler. Studiej in Eurh lmpres:.ionism. llacker An Books, 1985. Herbert. Robert L. Monet on the Normand) Coast: Tourism and Paintings. IS67-HR6. Yate Univel"iity Press. 1996. -.lmpressionism: Art, Leisure ond Purisian Society. Yale Urúvcf'iity Pre~s. 1991. - · 5eurat Pointin~s and Dru~1ings. Yale Univer.iry Preo;s. 2001. Charnpfleury, Ju1es. u Réalüme: Textes Choüi!. et Préumés par Generihe et lean Lecambre. París, 1973. Clairet, Alain, Delphine Montalent, ami Yves Rouan. Berthe Morisot,/8411895: Catalogue Raisonné de I'Oeurre Peinte. París, 1997. Clark T. J. lmage of the People: Gustaw Courbet and tite /848 Revolution. 1973 (Reissued Princeton Uruversity Pre~s, 1981 ). - - - . Tite Paiming of Modcm Lije: París in the Art of Manet ami His Followers. Princeton Univer!>ity Pre!>..\, 1989. Collins, Bradford R. 12 ~ 'iews of Manet' s Bar. Pnnceton Univer:.lly Pres!>, 1996. D1stel, Anne, Douglas Druick, Gloria Groom, and Rodolphe Rapelli. Gustave Cailleboue. Urban lmpressionísm. Abbeville Publisher~. 1995. - - - . Renoir. Harry Abrams, 1985. Druick, Douglas. and Peter Zegers. Gauguinlvun Gogh. The Art Jnstitute of Crucago, 200 t. Dumas, Ann, and David A. Brenneman. Degas and America: The Early Collectors. Rizzoli lntemational, 2001. Heller. Remhold. Toulouse-Lautrec The S m/ of.\luntmartre. Prestel. 1997. Higgonet. Anne. Berthe Morisot: A Biogroph.\. Collins, 1990. - · Morisot's lmages of a Womon. Harvard University Press. 1992. Holt. Eh1abeth T. The Art of Al/ Nations, /850-1873 The Emerging Role of &hibitions and Critics. Princeton University Press. 1982. Jlouse. John. M.onet: Art into Nature. Yale Univer.it;,. Press. 1986. Hutron. John. Neo-lmpressionism and the Searchfor So/id Ground. University of Loui~iana Pre~s. 1994. Isaacson. Joel. The Crisis of lmpre.uionism. 1878-1882. Urúver.ity of \1ichigan Press. 1979. Kendall. R1chard. Degas b.~· Himself.l\e\1.- York Gr.tphic Soc1ery, 1987. - - - . Degas. Little Dancer. Yale Urúversity Prer-s. 1998. - - - . De~as: Beyond /mpressionism. Yale University Press. 1997. 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The Obstac lt Roce · Tite Forwnes of n-omen Paínters and Their WorJ.:s Noonda} Press. 1982. Groom, Gloria. Edouard Vutllard: Pailller!Decorator. Yale Urúver!>ity Press, 1994. Groom, Glona. et al. Beyond the Easel: Decorath·e Pamtings by Bomzard, Vuil/ard. Roussel and Denis. Yale Urúver;íty Press. 2001. Han~n. Anne Coffin. Manetand the Moclem Tradition. YaJe Umvefl>ity Pre~~. 1977. Harding. Klaus. Courbet: To 1991. 511 ~'enture lndependence. Yale Urúvefl>ity Pre~s. 021M12111e Tea.:hing Ct>mpan} üm1ted Partncr.-h1p Míchehn. The Green Guide. Nortltem Frunce and París Region. Michelín Travel Publications, 1999. Moffett. Charle~. et al. Tire !1/ew Paillling. lmpressiomsm, 1874- 1886 , F.Jthibition catalogue. Fine Arts Museums of San Franc1sco. 1986. Musée de Marly-le-Roi publications. 1\¡ochlm. Linda. Realism 5o·le and Civili:atiNI. Vlkmg Pre<.s, 1993. Olsen, Donald J. The City as a Work of Art: Paris. London. V1emw. Yale Univers1ty Pre11s. 1988. Pemazzi. Michael. Daumier Exhibition Catalog for the Nat1onal Gallery in Canada and lhe Metropolitan Museum. Pichois, Claude. Boude/aire (translated by Graham Robb). Viking. 1990. 59 Pissarro, Joachim. Cornil/e Pissarro. Harry N. Abrams, 1993. uáer. Paul Hayes. Claude J1onet: Lije and Art. Yale University Pre!>s, June 1 !995. - · Monet at Argenteuil. Yate University Press. 1984. Pollock, Griselda. Generations and Geographies inthe ~'isual Arts: Feminist Readings Routledge, 1996. - · Tite Jmpressionísts at Arge111euil. Exhabiuon at the National Gallery of Art. Yale University Pre~s, May 2000. - - -.. Mary Cassau: Painter of Modem Women. Thame~ and lludson, 1998. Proudhon. Pierre-Joseph. Du Principe de /' Art et de sa Destination Socia/e. Pans, 1865. Rand, HarT). Manet' s Comemplation of the Gare St. LA:are. University of California Press, 1987. - · Monet in tite 90's: TI! e Series Pailllings. Yale Unaversity Press. 1990. Pinkney, David. Napo/eon 111 and the Rebuilding of Paris. Princeton Univer!>ity Press. 1972. Ratliff. Aoyd. Pau/ Signac ancl Color in Neo-lmpress10nism. Rockefeller Universuy Press, 1992. Reft, Theodore. Manet and Modem Paris. One 1/undred Paifllings, Drawings, Prints, and Photograplu by Manet and His Contemporaries. Umversuy of Chicago Press. 1983. - - -.. "Céz.anne's Con!>tru~,;uve Stroke.'' Art Quarterly 25 (Autumn 1962). - - -.. Degas · The Artist' s Mind. Harvard University Pre\S, 1987 (reprint of 1976 editton). vamedoe. Kirk.. Gusta\ e Caíllebolle. Y ale Unaverslly Press, 1987. Ward. Martha. Pis.1arro· Veo-lmpre:.sionism and Space:. of the Avant-Garde. Univef\ity of Ch1cago Press. 1996. Wech~ler. Judith. A Human Comedy: Plnsio~nomy and Caricatures in 19'" Centurv Paris. Univerl>ity of Chicago Press. 1982. White, Barbara E. Renoir: H1s Lije. Arl. and Letters. Harry Abram.'>. 1988. - . Jmpressionists Side by Side. Alfred Knopf. 1996. Wittmer, Pierre. Caillebotte and His Gardens at Yerres. 11arry Abrams. 1990. 7.eldin. Theodore. Tlze Polillcal System ofNapoleonlll. London. 1958. z1mmerman. Michae1 F. Seurat and the Art Tlleory of His Time. Ani\\Crp. 1991. - - - . Manet and Modem Paris. National Gallery of Art, Washington, 1982. Reid, Benedict. Pissarro in London. Rewald. John. The 1/istol) of lmpresi>ionism. York, 1973. Mu~eum of Modem Art, New Rubín, James H. Courbet. Phaidon Press, 1997. Ruther, Berson. The Ne~' Paiming·Jmpresswmsm, 1874-1886. Vo1s. 1-II. hne Arts Museums of San Francisco. 1996. Schivelbusch. Wolfgang. The Rail•wy Joumey: The Jndustriali:ation ofTime and Space inthe ¡ejh Cemury Univer..ity of Cahfomaa Pre~s. 1997. Shiff, Richard. Cé:anne and the End of Jmpressionism. University of Chicago Pre~l>, 1984. Shalo.es. Ralph E. Pissarro Hü Lije and ~tork. Horizon Pre~s. 1980. Stud..e). Charles, and Walliam P. Scott. Berthe Morisot,lmpressíonist. Nauonal Gallery of Art. 1987. Sweetman, David. E.\plosire Acts: Toulouse-I.Awrec, Osear Wilde, Feli.r Fénéon and the Art and Anarchy of the Fm de Siecle. Simon and Schuster, 2000. - - - . Paul Gauguin: A Complete Lije. Hodder and Stoughton, 1995. Terrasse, Antoine. Bonnard. Gallimard. París, 1994. Thompson_ Rachard. Seurat. Phaidon. 1985. - - - . Toulouse-Lawrec. London. 1977. Tomb:., Robert. The Pam Commune, 1871. Longman, 1999. 60 C2002 The Teo~chin¡ Company u mued Purtner.hip C2(1()21ñe Teaching C<>mpan) Limite\! Part~r-hip 61