Vous êtes sur la page 1sur 14

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01

23

Mechatronics Design of Small Electric Vehicles;


Research and Education
Farhan A. Salem1,2
1

Alpha Center for Engineering Studies and Technology Researches, Amman, Jordan . 2Mechatronics program,.
Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Taif University, 888, Taif, Saudi Arabia.
Email: salem_farh@yahoo.com

Abstract-- This paper proposes mechatronics design of small


electric vehicles (S MEV), including Mechatronics design,
modeling, simulation and integration of accurate sub-systems
and overall system models. the proposed design and models can
be used to select, integrate, analyze and validate Mechatronics
deign process of S MEV and its sub-systems ; including
mechanical system, control system, components and electrical
energy, resulting in simplification, acceleration and increasing
accuracy of design. The proposed overall system model can be
modified to include any control strategy and/or any electric
machine (motor), where the motor and its associated driving
power circuit and /or controller can be replaced with different
motors and/or control strategy. The proposed model intended to
be used for research purposes as well as, for the application in
educational process. The proposed models were created and
verified using MATLAB simulink software.

.
Index Term Mechatronics design, Electric vehicle, Electric
Motor, simulink function block model.

I.
INTRODUCTION
Mechatronics systems design is Modern interdisciplinary
design procedure; it is a concurrent selection, evaluation,
integration, and optimization of the system and all its
components as a whole and concurrently, all the design
disciplines work in parallel and collaboratively throughout the
design and development process to produce an overall optimal
design. Mechatronics engineer is expected to design products
with synergy and integration toward constrains like higher
performance, speed, precision, efficiency, lower costs and
functionality, and in order to evaluate concepts generated
during the design process, without building and testing each
one, the mechatronics engineer, also, must be skilled in the
modeling, simulation, analysis, and control of dynamic systems
and understand the key issues in hardware implementation.
The Electric Vehicle, EV, was invented around middle of 19th
century. An EV uses one or more electric or traction motors for
propulsion and can be separated into three groups, based on
how and where the electricity is produced; powered from an
external power station, e.g. trolleybuses, powered by stored
electricity from an off-board generation system e.g. battery
electric vehicles and powered by an on-board electrical
generator such as an internal combustion engine (a hybrid
electric vehicle)[1] the last two groups are shown in Fig. 1. EV

can also be categorized into two groups; big and small electric
vehicles. In this paper we are most interested in design and
control of Small Mechatronics Electric Vehicles, SMEV.
Application examples of SMEV include; golf cars, power chairs
for the disabled, go-karts, home mobile robots, mobility
scooters, sea scooters and tiny quad bikes . A general model
that can be used to simplify and accelerate the mechatronics
design process of SMEV is desired. This paper suggests such
model, we are to develop general mathematical and simulink
models that can be applied in mechatronics design of SMEV,
considering all dynamics, with corresponding optimal control
strategy for desired output response, a general model that can
be used to design, select, integrate, test, analyze and control
SMEV to achieve desired performance.
The EV system consists of two subsystems, the electric motor
and the vehicle systems, the main components of the electric
vehicle (see Fig.1) are an electric machine as drive system,
electrical energy sources, control systems as a central control,
and power converter as a device that converts electrical energy
source with variable needs of the electric vehicle by switching
devices [2]. Meanwhile electric vehicles generally use a battery
as its main energy source [3],[4],[5]. But the batteries on
electric vehicles have a weakness that has the capacity and
service life is limited so that necessary arrangements for
charging batteries do not work hard [2].To drive EV system,
one electric motor can be used or two electric motor each for
each wheel, we will consider the case of one front drive electric
motor used.
The EV system takes input voltage as electric motor input, and
outputs the rotational speed of electric motor or the motion of
electric vehicles, electric motors are capable of generating high
torque at low speed, can operate efficiently over a greater
range of speeds, that is their speeds can be smoothly
controlled and in most cases are reversible, also electric motors
and their features can be tested and analyzed both by control
system design calculation and by MATLAB software, also by
using a simple controller e.g. of PIC micro, with corresponding
program and drive circuit, the rotation of electric motor, that is
the motion of electric vehicles can be controlled easily and
smoothly. The electric actuator most used for SMEV are DC
motors, therefore, the SMEV motion control is simplified to a
DC motor motion control. Controlling the performance of EV, in
particular, smooth driving for comfortable riding, is not a
simple task, where the design and operation parameters of EV,

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01


as well as the road condition are always varying, therefore, the
controller should be designed to make the system robust,
adaptive and improving the system on both dynamic and
steady state performances (fast responsive and low-ripple).
With reference to testing a maximum speed of 23 m/s, (that is
82.8 km/h) in maximum of 8 seconds, if an electric vehicle
with total mass m= 900 kg , friction coefficient of 0.19, air
density of 1.25 kg/m3 and aerodynamic factors of 0.75, the
surface area of vehicles 1.5 m2, width of 1 m , height of 0.5,
the gear ratio G, n at 2, wheel radius of 0.3 m, and maximum
power efficiency of 0.77

Electric motor

Controller

Power
converter

Drivers

Mechanical
transmission

Battery charger
Mechanical
coupling

Battery

Tacho
Fig. 1. (a) Architecture of electric vehicle

Electric motor

Controller

Power
converter

Drivers

Mechanical
transmission

Battery charger
Mechanical
coupling

Battery

Tacho

Fig. 1. (b)Architecture of electric vehicle

Controller

Battery

Battery charger

Power converter

Fuel tank

Mechanical
transmission

Drivers

Mechanical
coupling

Electric motor

Gasoline en.

Fig. 1. (c) Architecture of hybrid electric vehicle; Hybrid vehicle


combines an internal combustion engine and an electric motor.

II.

SMEV SYSTEM M ODELING

The SMEV system consists of two subsystems, the electric


motor and the vehicle systems; both will be modeled,
considering all acting forces and parameters, we will couple the
SMEV platform with the wheel rotational velocity via
characteristics of the electric motor and surface as well as to
derive the expressions for the acting forces, to calculate
required torque and power expressions, that can be used to

24

build the simulink model, finally, suggest, design and couple


control systems.
II. I
ELECTRIC M OTOR M ODELING
The electric vehicle is driven by an electric motor, the SMEV
motion control is simplified to an electric motor motion control
that may or not include gear system. In the proposed model,
for design and control of SMEV motion control, only the motor
and its associated driving power circuit can be replaced with
different types of electric motors used, also with different
electric motors, it is necessary to use different control
strategies. EV requires that the driving electric machine has a
wide range of speed regulation. In order to guarantee the
speed-up time, the electric machine is required to have large
torque output under low speed and high over-load capability,
and in order to operate at high speed, the driving motor is
required to have certain power output at high -speed
operation[6]. Presently, brushed DC motor, brushless DC
motor, AC induction motor, permanent magnet synch ronous
motor (PMSM) and switched reluctance motor (SRM) are the
main types of motors used for electric vehicle driving [11].
DC machines are characterized by their versatility. By means of
various combinations of shunt-, series-, and separately-excited
field windings, they can be designed to display a wide variety
of volt-ampere or speed-torque characteristics for both
dynamic and steady-state operation. Because of the ease with
which they can be controlled, systems of DC machines have
been frequently used in many applications requiring a wide
range of motor speeds and a precise output motor control [13,
14]. The selection of motor for a specific electric vehicle is
dependent on many factors, such as the intention of the EV,
correspondingly allowable variation in speed and torque and
ease of control, etc. The dynamic equations of these motors
can be derived, mainly based on the Newtons law combined
with the Kirchoffs law. The fundamental system of
electromagnetic equations for any electric motor is given by
[16,17]
d s

us Rs i s
j k s

dt

d R
us RR i R
j ( k Pb m ) R
(1)
dt

s Ls i s L i R

R LR i R L i S

Where : the angular speed of rotating coordinate system


(reference frame), Depending on motor construction (AC or
DC), the method of the supply and the coordinate system
(stationary or rotating with the rotor or stator flux) the above
mentioned model becomes transformed to the desirable
form[18], and the complement Eqs. (1) is equations describing
mechanical part of eclectic motor.
A series wound DC motor has the armature and field coils
connected in a series across the power source as shown in Fig.
2(b) A series wound DC motor is easy to use, will generate a
larger torque increase (startup torque) compared with a shunt
k

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01


wound DC motor for given increase in current. Series motors
cannot be used where a relatively constant speed is required
under conditions of varying load." this means series wound
DC might not climb hills with varying slope briskly and
smoothly. The voltage supply is divided between stator and
rotor circuits and a common current flow through the field and
armature coils current i a, this all can be expressed as:

Vin Va Vf

, im if ia

Applying Kirchoffs law around the electrical loop,


di
di
V in (s ) (La a Lf f ) I a R f I a R a EMF
dt
dt
di a
di f
V in (s ) (La
Lf
) I a R f R a L mutual * i * n
dt
dt
Where :Lmutual :is the mutual inductance between the armature
winding and the field winding . Under steady state condition,
induction (L=0), gives:

V in (s ) R f I a R a I a EMF

V in (s ) I a R f R a EMF
The torque developed in the rotor is:

Tm K * *i K f *i f

Tm Kt *i 2
The back EMF, also, can be expressed as:

EMF Kb * * n Kb (K f * I a )n

Substituting, we have the armature current given by:

Ia

K t m

The DC shunt motor has the same equations for torque as for
the separately excited motor,
A compound wound DC motor is a combination of shunt wound
and series wound configurations as shown in Fig.2(c). This
allows the compound motor to be used in applications where
high starting torque and controlled operating speed are both
required.
The separately excited DC motor (Fig.2(d)) The voltage is
applied to both to field and armature terminals, as shown, there
are two currents, filed current, if and armature current, ia in
order to have linear system, one of these two currents most
held constant, this motor allows having independent control of
both the magnetic flux and the supply voltage, which allows
the required torque at any required angular speed to be set
with great flexibility. The biggest drawback is they are nois y. In
[12] the mathematical model, transfer function and simulink
model of separately excited DC motor were derived and built,
where from Eqs. (1);
The air-gap flux, is proportional to the field current and
given by:
K f *if
2

EMF K* * m V in - Ia Ra

Motor Torque T m K 1 * *i a (t )

From this equation, if the input voltage Vin is kept constant, the
output angular speed is almost inversely proportional to the
square root of the torque, therefore a high torque is obtained at
low speed and a low torque is obtained at high speed. The sum
of the torques must equal zero, we have:
Te T T - TEMF = 0
Substituting the following values, gives :

L mutual * i 2 T Load

, i m if ia

The torque developed by the motor is related linearly to air-gap


flux, and the armature current ia(t), and given by:

V * Kt

Ra R f

Vin Va Vf

And the developed torque given by:

motor, im is the sum of the field current, if and armature current


ia, this all can be expressed as:

The back EMF voltage is given by:

V in (s )
R a R f K b m
2
in

25

d 2
J m 2 bm
dt

0
dt

A shunt wound DC motor has the armature and field (stator)


coils connected in parallel (or shunt) across the power source,
in result the same voltage is applied to both coils this is shown
in Fig. 2(a). Shunt wound DC motor is designed for
applications where constant speed characteristics under
varying load conditions are important such as pumping fluids
and fans, shunt motor speed varies only slightly with changes
in load. A shunt wound DC difficult to control, as reducing the
supply voltage also results in a weakened magnetic field, thus
reducing the back EMF, and tending to increase the speed.
The stator and rotor circuits have the same voltage supply and
therefore the same voltage drop, and the current drawn by the

Substituting (2) in (3), and rearranging to separate current ,we


have:

T m K 1 * K f *i a (t ) * i f (t )

i f (t )

Tm
Tm

K 1 * K f *i a (t ) K b *

Substituting (4) in (3), gives:

T
V in - K* * m R a m
Kb
The torque developed, is given by:
K*
Tm
V in K b n
Ra
The transfer function relating input filed voltage Vin_field(s), and
motor output speed m(s), with armature current ia (t) held
constant and ,given by:

G angle (s )

(s )

V in _ filed (s )

Km
Lf s R f Js b

, the transfer function relating input armature voltage to output


motor angular speed, with varying both armature current ia (t)
and field current if(t ) , and given by:

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01

(s )
V armature (s )

Kt If
Ra R f b

K V
La J 2 La J
s 1 b field

s
R a R f2b
R ab
Ra b

Brushless DC motor (BLDC): The main disadvantages of


brushed DC motor drawback is that they need a commutator
and brushes which are subject to wear and require
maintenance, therefore have low life-span. the rotor (armature)
is composed of one or more permanent magnets, see Fig.2(f),
and coils for the stator (field). The rotor, being a permanent
magnet, simply follows the stator magnetic field around. The
speed of the motor is controlled by adjusting the frequency of
the stator power. In the BLDC motor, the electromagnets do
not move; instead, the permanent magnets rotate and the
armature remains static. The BLDC motor is actually an AC
motor. The wires from the windings are electrically connected
to each other either in delta configuration or WYE ("Y" shaped) configuration (see Fig.2(f))
The kinetics of the motor can be described as:
Te T T - TEMF = 0
d 2
d
T e T Load J m 2 bm
0
dt
dt

The generated electromagnetic torque, T e is given by:

Te

Pe

EMFa * i a EMFb * i b EMFc * i c


m

Where : Pe electromagnetic power of the motor, e a , eb, ec : the


back EMF in each phase . ia , ib, ic stator phase currents. Under
normal operation, only two phases are in conduction, therefore
the voltage balance equation, cross the two windings under
conduction, is given by:
di (t )
V w Rw iw (t ) Lw w
EMFw
dt
Induction motor is a type of alternating current motor where
power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic
induction. Stator windings are arranged around the rotor so
that when energized with a poly-phase supply they create a
rotating magnetic field pattern which sweeps past the rotor.
This changing magnetic field pattern induces current in the
rotor conductors, which interact with the rotating magnetic
field created by the stator and in effect causes a rotational
motion on the rotor. It has the advantages such as low-cost,
high-efficiency, high reliability, maintenance-free, easy for
cooling and firm structure, etc. making it especially competitive
in EV driving. Physical Model of 3-phase AC induction Motor
is shown in Fig.2(h) [6].
Permanent Magnets DC Motor,( Fig.2(e))
DC Motor and its features can be tested and analyzed both by
control system design calculation and by MATLAB software.
The PMDC motor is an example of electromechanical systems

26

with electrical and mechanical components, a simplified


equivalent representation of PMDC motor's two components
are shown in Fig.2(g). DC motor is a closed loop system in
nature, the back EMF introduces a negative feedback signal
proportional to the motor speed, which enhances the damping
of the system. In [12] the detailed equations of deriving
mathematical model of PMDC are introduced, where can get
differential equation that describes the electrical characteristics
of PMDC motor, by applying Ohm's law, substituting and
rearranging, all that gives:

d (t )
di (t )
V in R a i a (t ) La a K b
dt
dt

(Las +Ra) I(s) = Vin(s) - Kb s(s)

And, we can get differential equation that describes the


mechanical characteristics of PMDC motor, by performing the
energy balance on the PMDC motor system; the sum of the
torques must equal zero, we have:
Te T T - TEMF = 0
Considering that system dynamics and disturbance torques
depends on platform shape and dimensions the mechanical DC
motor part, will have the form:
Kt *ia = T + T + Tload +Tf
The coulomb friction can be found at steady state, to be:
Kt *i a - b* = Tf
Simplifying and substituting, we have:
d 2
d
K t * i T Load J m 2 bm
0
dt
dt

KtI (s) = (Jm s + b m) s (s)


6
The PMDC motor open loop transfer function without any load
attached relating the input voltage, Vin(s), to the angular
velocity, (s), given by:

G speed (s )

Kt
(s )

V in (s )
La s R a J m s bm K t K b

Kt
(s )
7
G speed (s )

V in (s ) (La J m )s 2 (R a J m bm La )s (R abm K t K b )

The geometry of the mechanical part determines the moment of


inertia, the mobile platform can be considered to be of the
cuboid or cubic shape, with the inertia calculated as shown
below, where the total equivalent inertia, Jequiv and total
equivalent damping, b equiv at the armature of the motor with
gears attaches, are given by:
2

N
bequiv b m b Load 1 J equiv J m J Load
N2
bh 3
J load
12
8

N1

N2

The equivalent mobile robot system transfer function will be


given by:

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01

G speed (s )

robot (s )
V in (s )

Kt / n
(La J equiv )s 2 (R a J equiv bequiv La )s (R abequiv K t K b )

9
The next open loop transfer function, relating the armature
input terminal voltage, Vin(s) to the output terminal voltage of
the tachometer Vtach(s), with most corresponding load torques
applied are considered, is given by:

27

can be seen by studying simulink models shown in Fig.3, the


simulink model of the filed current controlled DC motor is
shown in Fig.3(a), the simulink model of separately excited DC
motor is shown in Fig..3(b), Equivalent block diagram of
PMSM is shown in Fig. Fig.3(c) where Ts =Lq/Rs and =Pb m ,
and ea = f = Pb m f [18], the simulink model of PMDC motor
is shown in Fig. Fig.3 (d)

V s
K tach * K t
Gopen (s ) in

V tach s La s R a (J m s bm ) La s R a T K b K t

Where :T the disturbance torque, is all torques including


coulomb friction, and given by:

T=Tload+Tf
For high accuracy, the inertias of the gears and wheels have to
be included in the calculations, this value can be obtained from
literature or calculated using the equations for the inertia of a
cylinder since the gear has a form of cylinder, this can be
rewritten as follows:

J equiv J motor J gear (Jwheel

N
mr ) 1
N2

Fig. 2. (b) Series wound DC motor

Fig. 2. (c) Compound DC motor

Fig. 2. (d) Separately excited DC


motor

Permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM)


A permanent magnet synchronous motor is a motor that uses
permanent magnets to produce the air gap magnetic field rather
than using electromagnets. Such motors have significant
advantages, such as high efficiency, small volume, light
weight, high reliability and maintenance-free, etc., attracting
the interest of EV industry. The PMSM has a sinusoidal back
EMF and requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce
constant torque[6].
The d-q model of PMSM is shown in Fig.2(i) Voltage equations
are given by:

V d R * i d Ld

Fig. 2. (a) A shunt wound DC motor

Fig. 2. (e) PMDC motor

Fig. 2. (f) BLDC motor equivalent


circuit [6]

di d
e Lq * i q
dt

di
V q R * i q Lq d e Ld * i d K b m
dt
The equations giving the stator current can be written in the
following form:

Id
Iq

1
V d e Lq * i q
Ld s r

ELECTRIC component of PMDC motor system

MECHANICAL component of PMDC motor system

Electromechanical PMDC motor system

Fig. 2. (g) Schematic of a simplified equivalent representation of the PMDC


motor's electromechanical components

1
V q e Ld * i d K b m
Lq s R

The electromagnetic torque developed by the motor is given


by:

Tm

3K b I q
2

0.5* P (Ld I d I q Lq I d I d )

The simulink model of series wound DC motor, shunt wound


DC motor, Permanent Magnets armature controlled DC Motors
are allmostly identical, the differences are in current filed or
armature applied to both torque and back EMF constants, this

Fig. 2. (h) Model of 3-phase AC


induction Motor[6]

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

Fig. 2. (i) T he d-q model of PMSM

I J ENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01

motor
torque

filed
current

Km

Lf.s+Rf
Step
12 V

Gain

filed
Transfer Fcn

28

To determine the electric battery capacity, we need to


estimated energy required of SMEV platform, the requested
power in kW that SMEV platform must develop at stabilized
speed can be determined by multiplying the total force with the
velocity of the SMEV, and given by:

motor angular Motor linear


speed
speed
1
s
J.s+B
Integrator
Scope
Transfer Fcn
1

SEPARETLY EXCITED DC MOTOR

Fig. 3. (a) Simulink model of the filed current controlled DC motor

PTotal ( F ) * FTotal *

11
Electrical
power
(in
watts)
in
a
DC
circuit
can
be
calculated
by:
Motor
Torque
angular
1
P=
I
x
V
1
speed
Km
1/n
-KLa.s+Ra
Vin
Jequiv.s+bequiv
Where: I is current in Amps and V is voltage. Based on
armature
Armature
.,
rad2mps
motor
gear ratio
linear speed
constant
,
n=3.1 V=W*r1
fundamental principle of dynamics the acceleration of the
1
motor.mat
vehicle is given: by
Field
Lf.s+Rf
current
To File..
P Ptotal
Vin.
field
,.
filed
m
M *
Kb
Where: Pm :The power
available
in the wheels of the vehicle.
Armature
Fig. 3. (b) Simulink model of separately excited DC motor
resistance
M,: vehicle mass
and speed
Table: Parameters of the DC Motor.
1
1/La
The totalsresistiveRa torque, TTotal is the torque of all acting Vf=240[V]
Load
Tload
torque

armature
Current,i

V armature

Armature
inductance

Integrator,

La=0.012[mH]

forces. The driving force-K- comes from the powertrain shaft


Va=240[V]
mutual
Lmutual=1.8[mH]
torque, which can Product
be written
as the wheel torque, given by:
Inductance

Twheel G * *T shaft

12

La

Fig. 3. (c) Equivalent block diagram (simulink model) of PMSM

Current,i
1
Vin

La.s+Ra
Transfer function
1/(Ls+R)1

Load
torque

Torque

Kt

1/n

angular
speed
-K-

Jequiv.s+bequiv
torque
constant

Transfer function
1/(Js+b)1

gear ratio rad2mps linear


V=W*r1 speed
n=3.1
Motor.mat

Kb

armature
Ra=0.6[W]
This wheel
torqueinductance
provides the resultant driving, tractive force,
1
Cr=29.2[N.m]
Rf
s
F
to
the
vehicle:
Total Integrator.
Lf=120[mH]
Field
Field
Fc=0.0005[N.m.Sec/Rad]
inductance
resistance
TField
G * *T shaft
wheel
inductance.
FTotal

13
r1/Lf
r
Referring to Fig.4, the relationship between the resultant
1
tractive force
andfc the torque produced angular
by the motor Tshaft ,can
s
speed
Integrator.,as: friction
be obtained
coefficient
rCr
T shaft FTotal
* Couple
14
-Kresisting
*

mutual G
Product1
.1
inductance
The vehicle inertia
torque can, also, be defined by the
1/J
following relationship:
Inertia
1/Lf

V Field

Tload

Rf=240[W]
J=1[Kg.m2]

To File..

EMF constant

Fig. 3. (d) Simulink model of PMDC motor.

II.II M ODELING ELECTRIC VEHICLE, SMEV, DYNAM ICS


current IS maintained
constant ia(t) = ia=model
constant
When derivingthe armature
an accurate
mathematical
for SMEV, it is
important to study and analyze dynamics
between
the road,
Motor linear
motor angular
filed current motor torque
speed
speed
wheel and SMEV
considering
all
1
1the forces1 applied upon the
Km
s
J.s+B
EV system.Lf.s+Rf
The modeling
ofTransfer
a FcnSMEVIntegrator
system
dynamics
Step
Scope
Gain
filed
12 V
Transfer
Fcn
involves the balance among the several acting on a running
SMEV forces, these acting forces are categorized into roadload and tractive force. The road-load force consists of the
gravitational force, hill-climbing force, rolling resistance of the
tires and the aerodynamic drag force and the aerodynamics lift
force, where aerodynamic drag force and rolling resistance is
pure losses, meanwhile the forces due to climbing resistance
and acceleration are conservative forces with possibility to,
partly, recover. This resultant force is the sum of all these
acting forces, will produce a counteractive torque to the
driving motor, i.e., the tractive force.
The disturbance introduced to the EV system is changes in the
road surface inclination angle, , it is required to design
controller to be robust and should have a disturbance
rejection. The disturbance torque to SMEV is the total
resultant torque generated by the acting forces, and given by:

FTotal Faerod Frolling Fclimb FLinear_acc Fangular_acc 10

T JVehicl

d vehicl
dt

The relationship between the linear velocity of SMEV platform,


v, and the angular velocity of the electric motor is given by:

r * / G

Where: r: The tire radius of the mobile platform. G,n: The


transmission gearing ratio. TL: Tshaft is the torque produced by
the driving motor. : The transmission efficiency. v: the
velocity of the vehicle. : the angular velocity of the motor. It
is required to couple the SMEV platform with the wheel
rotational velocity via characteristics of the electric motor and
surface such as the traction force, the torque, etc. as well as to
derive the expressions for the acting forces, to calculate
required torque and power expressions
that can be used to

build the simulink models.


FLift
F, wind
Fgrafitation
Traction force

Fwheel_powertrain

Faerod

=r

F tractive
M*g

Fig. 4. (a)

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01

direction of the SMEV's motion, rr: Rotor winding resistance


(per phase), rr =0.0503 Ohm. : The air density (kg/m3) at STP,
=1.25, At 20C and 101 kPa, =1.2041, The air density is
calculated by Eq. (18) expression, where: o = 101325 Pa, sea
level standard atmospheric pressure, T0 = 288.15 K sea level
standard temperature. g = 9.81 m/s 2.Earth-surface gravitational
acceleration. L = 0.0065 K/m temperature lapse rate. R =
8.31447 J/(mol*K) universal gas constant. M = 0.0289644
kg/mol molar mass of dry air:

Road incl.

M*g

g *m

Fig. 4. (b)
Fig. 4. (a)(b) Forces acting on moving vehicle.

II.II.I Rolling resistance force, Frolling: is produced by


flattening of the tire at the contact surface of the roadway and
depending on the vehicle speed and it is proportional to the
vehicle weight, and is given by:

15

Frolling Fnormal _ force * Cr M * g * Cr * cos( )

Frolling Fnormal _ force * Cr M * g * Cr


In terms of the vehicle linear speed Eq.(15) becomes:

Frolling M * g * Cr0 -Cr1 * * sign ( )

Where : M : The mass of the SMEV and cargo (Kg). g .Cr The
rolling resistance coefficients is calculated by the following
expression:
3.6

Cr 0.011
robot
100

II.II.II Aerodynamic Drag force , Faerod: is the force opposing


the motion of the SMEV due to air drag, the aerodynamic drag
force is function of mobile platform linear velocity, and given
by:
2
Faerod 0.5* * A*Cd *vehicl

16

Considering car and wind speed Eq.(16) become:

Faerod 0.5* * A*Cd * vehicl wind

* sign (vehicle )

* sign vehicl wind

The aerodynamics torque is given by:


1

Taerod * * A*Cd *vehicle 2 * rr


17
2

Where: Cd : Aerodynamic drag coefficient characterizing the


shape of the SMEV and can be calculated using the following
expression:

CD

II.II.III
The aerodynamics lift force, Flift; is caused by
pressure difference between the SMEV's roof and underside,
and is given by:

19

Where: B : SMEV's reference area. CL: The coefficient of lift, (


CL to be 0.10 or 0.16), and can be calculated using the
following expression:
L
CL
0.5 2 A
Where: L: lift, the air density (kg/m3) at STP, =1.25, V:
velocity of SMEV, A: frontal area.

Fwind 0.5* * A*Cd * vehicle wind

M * g *Cr *cos( ) * rr

18

II.II.IV The force of wind , Fwind ; can be calculated by:

The rolling resistance torque is given by:

Faerod 0.5* * A*Cd * vehicle wind

L * h R *L
M * 0 1

TO

R *T

2
Flift 0.5* * C L * B * vehicle

For motion on a level surface, =0, cos()=1 , and Eq.(15)


becomes:

Trolling

29

Faerod

0.5 2S

S: frontal area of SMEV, assuming shape of the SMEV is long


cylinder
, Cd =0.80, for sphere
Cd =0.47, and for
streamlined body
Cd =0.04 . A: Cross-sectional area of
the SMEV where it is the widest, (m2) : The linear speed of the
SMEV (m/s), o : The speed of the wind (m/s), against the

20

II.II.V The hill-climbing resistance force Fclimb; while the


SMEV is moving up or down a hill, the weight of the SMEV will
create a hill-climbing resistance force directed downward, this
force will oppose or contribute to the motion, it is a
conservative force with possibility to, partly, recover. Two
components of gravity, the component of gravity in the
dimension of travel is the hill-climbing resistance force and is
given by:

Fclimb M * g *sin( )

21

Where: M : The mass of the SMEV and cargo (Kg). g: The


gravity acceleration (m/s2). :Road or the hill climbing angle,
road slope (Rad.). If we assume the SMEV is on a level surface,
this force is zero, = 0 ,sin(0)=0. The hill-climbing resistance,
slope, torque, is given by:

22

Fclimb Fslope = M * g *sin( ) * rwheel

II.VI The normal force Fnorm: is the force exerted by the road
on the mobile SMEV's tires, the magnitude of Fnorm equals the
magnitude of the Facc in the direction normal to the road, The
normal force Fnorm can be found as by:
Fnorm Fclimb Flift M * g *sin( ) 0.5* *C L * B * 2

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

23

I J ENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01


II.VII The linear acceleration force Facc : is the force required
to increase the speed of the SMEV, The acceleration force is
the total tractive effort of the SMEV minus the summation of
forces opposing the motion of the SMEV and can be described
as a linear motion given by:
J
d
d
Facc M * a M
M wheel
24
dt
r 2 dt
Facc M * a M

d
M
dt

T
J

Where: M : the mass of the SMEV and cargo, a : acceleration


experienced as a result of the force exerted by the motors or as
a rotational movement, T: the resultant torque acting on the
wheels (Nm), J: the total inertia of the SMEV (kgM2), Jwheel : the
inertia of the wheel (kgM2)
II.VIII The angular acceleration force Facc_angle , is the force
required by the wheels to make angular acceleration and is
given by:

Facc _ angle J

G2
a
2
rwheel

25

The proposed control system composed of two loops, inner


and outer; The first loop is inner current regulation loop that
accomplishes current regulation control to meet the current
needs in accordance with the needs of electric vehicle, and the
second loop is outer speed regulation loop that adjusts the
speed of the motor (see Fig. 6).
PID controllers are ones of most used to achieve the desired
time-domain behavior of many different types of dynamic
plants. The sign of the controllers output, will determine the
direction in which the motor will turn. The PID gains (K P , KI,
KD) are to be calculated and tuned experimentally to obtain the
desired overall desired response. The PID controller transfer
function is given by:

K
K
K D s 2 P s I
KD
KD
K
K s K Ps K I

G PID K P I K D D

s
s
s
The transfer function of PID control can be rewritten in terms
of derivative time and integral time to have the form:
2

The angular acceleration torque is given by:

26

T acc _ angle rwheel

T T s 2 T I s 1
1
G PID K P 1
T D s K P I D
TI s
TI s

G2
G2
*J 2 a J
a
rwheel
rwheel

Where:

Substituting derived equations in total force equation, we have


FTotal M * g * sin( ) M * g * Cr0 -C r1 * * sign ( )
0.5* * A*C d * vehicl wind

* sign vehicl wind

30

J
d
FLinear_acc M wheel

2
r
dt

Based on derived equations, a suggest simulink function block


model (shown in Fig. 11 that represents SMEV the dynamics,
and couple the SMEV with the wheel rotational velocity via
characteristics of the electric motor and surface.
III. CONTROL SYSTEM SELECTION AND DESIGN
Electric vehicle speed controller takes the nominally fixed
voltage from the power source (battery) and outputs a variable
voltage supply needed to control the motor speed. Its v oltage
output to the drive motors changes in response to control
signals supplied by the user from foot pedal, [8] When the
pedal is pushed, the controller delivers electrical currents from
the battery to the motor; this gives the car acceleration to
accelerate to the desired output speed, the sensors sense the
actual output speed and fed it back to controller. the main
voltage conversion is done very efficiently using PWM
technique, where controller sends pulses of power to the motor
thousands of times per second, where very short pulses cause
the motor to go slowly and long pulses cause the motor to go
fast. There are many motor control system strategies that may
be more or less appropriate to a specific type of application
each has its advantages and disadvantages; the designer must
select the best one for specific application. In [9], [10]

TI is the integral time

K
K P and
T D is the derivative time D
KP
KI

PI controller: because of its simplicity and ease of design, PI


controller is widely used in variable speed applications and
current regulation of electric motors. The output of the PI
controller in time domain is defined by the following equation
(27)
t

V C (t ) K P e (t ) K I e (t )dt
0

27

Integrator is added to eliminate the steady state error in the


control variable. Taking Laplace transforms and manipulating
Eq. (27) will result in the following transfer function:

K P s K I
K
Gcurrent (s ) G PI (s ) K P I

s
s

G PI (s ) K PI *

K
K P s I
K P K P s Z o

s
s

(T I s 1)
K PI
TI s

1
* 1

TI s

Where, Vc (t) is the output of the PI controller, KP is the


proportional gain, KI is the integral gain, and e(t) is the
instantaneous error signal Zo: zero of the PI-controller KP : the
proportional gain, KPI: the proportional coefficient; T I: time
constant. This transfer function, shows that, PI controller
represents a pole located at the origin and a stable zero placed
near the pole, at Zo=- KI/ KP, resulting in drastically eliminating
steady state error due to the fact that the feedback control
system type is increased by one. The PI pole and zero will
affect the response, mainly the PI zero, Zo=- KI/ KP, will
inversely affect the response and should be cancelled by
prefilter.

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01


Systems design with prefilter; Prefilter is defined as a transfer
function Gp(s) that filters the input signal R(s) prior to
calculating the error signal. Adding a control system to plant,
will result in the addition of poles and/or zeros, that will effect
the response, mainly the added zero, will significantly inversely
effect the response and should be cancelled by prefilter,
therefore the required prefilter transfer function to cancel the
zero is given by (28). In general. The prefilter is added for
systems with lead networks or PI compensators. A prefilter for
a system with a lag network, mainly, is not , since we expect the
effect of the zero to be insignificant.

G Pr efilter (s )

ZO
s Z O

28

Controller with deadbeat response design: Deadbeat response


means the response that proceeds rapidly to the desired level
and holds at that level with minimal overshoot, The
characteristics of deadbeat response include; Zero steady
state error, Fast response, (short rise time and settling time)
and minimal undershoot, 2% error band[19].
PI-controller with deadbeat response design: With PI
controller with deadbeat response design, the overall closed loop transfer function, T(s), will be of third order will and
contain a zero of the PI-controller, Zo, This zero will
significantly affect the response of the closed-loop system,
T(s), and should be eliminated while maintaining the
proportional gain (KP ) of the closed-loop system that can be
achieved by a prefilter. Thus, the requiring pre-filter transfer
function [3]:

G Pr efilter (s )

Z PI
s Z PI

29

Referring to [19], The controller gains KP and KI depend on the


physical parameters of the system, to determine gains that
yield optimal deadbeat response, the overall closed loop third
order transfer function T(s) in terms of Zo and/or KP and KI, is
compared with standard third order transfer function given by
Eq. (24), and knowing that parameters , and are known
coefficients of system with deadbeat response given by
[19],also we choose n based on the desired settling time or
rise time , this way we obtain the optimal values of Zo and/or
KP and KI , that yield optimal deadbeat response,(for third
order system =1.9 and =2.2)
n3
30
G s tan dard (s ) 3
2
s n s n2 s n3
Current controller: The current control loop guarantees
limited variations of the current trough the inductor during
important load variations. The current regulation loop is the
inner loop connected to the stator circuit; this is shown in
Fig.5. In this paper we are to suggest to design current
regulator as PID or PI controller, in order to have small
overshoot and good tracking performance current regulation
can be designed as type-I system. In case current controller is
designed as PI regulator, the parameters of PI current controller

31

can be designed as the follows: The motor voltage can be


written as
(Las +Ra) I(s) = Vin(s) - Kb s(s)
31
The Laplace transformed equation of motor stator circuit, in
terms of input voltage Vin(s) and output current, I(s) is given
by
I s
1
32

V in s K b s (s ) La s R a
In practical systems, due to the fact that the electromagnetic
time constant is smaller than electromechanical time constant,
current regulation is faster than speed regulation. Hence,
speed regulation is faster than the variation of back EMF,
therefore, the effect of back EMF on current regulation loop
can be neglected, therefore (32), can be rewritten as
I s

V in s

La s

1
Ra

In terms of time constant, motor stator circuit will have the


form:
I s
1 / Ra

V in s Telectric s 1
Where : Telectric electrical motor (stator circuit) time constant.
Depending on [15],[16] , the open loop transfer function of
current loop is given by:

Gcurrent _ loop (s )

KP
1
(R aT electric )s (2T s s 1)

The parameters of PI current controller can be deduced


depending upon generic open loop transfer function with
damping factor =0.707and given by:

G generic (s )

1
2 s ( s 1)
KP
KI
T electric

R aT electric
4T s
Therefore, the current regulator transfer function, PI controller,
is given by:

K I _ current
K P s

K P _ current s K I
K P _ current

G PI _ current (s )

s
s

(T s 1)
1
G PI _ current (s ) K P _ current * I
K P _ current * 1

TI s
T

Is
Where: KP_current: the proportional gain; KI_current: integral gain;
TI: time constant of current regulator. mainly the PI zero, Zo=KI/ KP, will inversely affect the response and it could be
cancelled by prefilter, the required prefilter transfer function to
cancel the zero is given by:
Zo
1 /TI
33
G Pr efilter (s )

s Z o s 1 / T I
KP

Speed regulator controller: The Speed regulation loop is the


outer loop, this is shown in Fig. 5. In this paper, in order to
have smooth driving for comfortable riding, no steady state

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01


error and acceptable anti-disturbance capability at transient
state, we are to suggest designing speed controller as PID or
PI controller. In case speed controller is designed as PI
regulator, a PI transfer function given by:

K I _
K P _ s

K P _s K I
K P _

G PI _ speed (s )

s
s

(T s 1)
1
G PI _ speed (s ) K P _ *
K P _ * 1

T s
T
s

Where, KP_: the proportional coefficient of speed regulator;


KI_: the integral coefficient of speed regulator; T: time
constant of motor speed. Depending upon generic open loop
transfer function, the parameters of speed controller loop can
be found to be:

K P _

32

improved response in the form of smooth driving for


comfortable riding. Replacing, in Fig Fig.6, both PI controllers,
for current and speed regulation, with the derived PID
controllers, defining parameters, running simulink model will
result in speed curve shown in Fig. Fig. 9,
Now, Removing PID controller for the current loop, and
running simulink model with one general PID controller for the
whole SMEV, and tuning PID gains values, will result in speed
curve shown in Fig. 10. The obtained response curves show
that, applying two separate PI controllers , for both inner
current loop and outer speed loop, will result in more improved
response in the form of smooth driving for comfortable riding,
minimum settling time and less power consumption.

K
J
K I _ P
2T c
4T c

Where: Tc is the sum time delay due to speed loop, The same
approach, with PI prefilter to cancel the zero, can be applied to
speed loop PI controller.
The inverter: The input voltage Vin to inverter is considered as
constant (36V), the main voltage conversion is done very
efficiently using PWM techniques, the output voltage is
adjustable via the duty cycle ,of the PWM signal. The
transfer function of the inverter can be given as in [6] The PI
current controller is affecting the inverter switching frequency
to reduce the ripples in the torque and current

Gconverter (s )

Fig. 6. General Simulink model of SMEV using PI-controller for both,


inner current and outer speed regulation loops.
Current loop
Prefilter

Speed loop
prefilter

1/T i

1/Tw

s+1/T i

s+1/Tw

S1

Constant1

Constant
Tw.s+1

Kpw

T w.s
Manual Switch

Add,

Speed regulator
PI Controller

,.

Volt(0:36)

Add.1
Kb

K PWM
Ts s 1

-Kvehicle anglular feedbacK.

Fig. 7. (a)

Where: Kpwm : gain of inverter; Ts: time constant of PWM


controller, (to be 0.25 ms)
Tw.s+1

Kpw

T w.s
-1
.,1
speed
regulator
PI Controller

Fig. 7. (b) T wo PID controllers for both inner current and outer speed
regulations loops.
Kpw

Tw.s+1
T w.s

(speed)

Add

.
Speed
regulator
PI controller

Add.3

Kpi*T i.s+Kpi

Kpwm

T i.s

Ts.s+1

inverter T F .2
current regulator
PI Angular
Controller.1 speed/time

30

20

EMF constant Kb
-K-

m2

Rad/sec

A
30

Kb

20
10

vehicle anglular
feedbacK

Fig. 7. (c) PI controllers for both; inner current and outer speed
-10
0
2
4
6
regulation loops.
sec
Angular speed/time

m2

Rad/sec

0
-10

20

20

m2

30

20
10

10

10

4
6
sec
Acceleration/time

Fig. 8. (a)

30

-10

Acceleration/time

30

-10

4
sec

4 6
sec

Fig. 8. (b)

Fig. 8. 20
(a) linear speed/time and (b) acceleration/time responses of SMEV
using two
10 separate PI controllers for inner current and outer speed loops.
0
-10

4
sec

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

10

-10

Acceleration/time

30

m2

IV.
SIM ULATION AND RESULTS
The SMEV subsystems; including the electric motor, the
vehicle systems and dynamics considering all acting forces
and control system; all was modeled and coupled, were SMEV
is coupled with the wheel rotational velocity via characteristics
of the electric motor and surface and both coupled with control
systems. The simulink model is shown in Fig. 6. Three control
strategies are introduced; first strategy controlling both loops;
current and speed loops with two separate PID controllers for
each, second strategy, controlling the whole system with one
PID controller and third strategy controlling both loops;
current and speed loops with two separate PI controllers for
each current and speed loop. The simulation of these
strategies are shown in Fig.7(a)(b)(c), For our design and
simulation, the desired output max linear speed is to be 23 m/s,
(that is 82.8 km/h)
Running simulink model applying two separate PI controllers,
one for inner current regulation and other for outer speed
regulation will result in linear speed/time curve shown in Fig. 8
, adding PI controllers prefilter to simulink block, will eliminate
the affect of PI zeros on the response, resulting in more

Nm

Rad/sec

200

50

100

0
International Journal
of Mechanical & Mechatronics
Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01
0
-50

-100

10

5
sec (s)

10

Amp

M/s

1000

5
sec (s)
Linear speed/time

23m/s Current/time
(82.8 km/h), and tuning ,will return response curves
30
1000
shown in Fig. 13(a). Now, keeping same arrangement (PI and
20
PD controller) but switching input signal to motion profile will
10
500
return response curves shown in Fig. 13(b). Response curves
0
show that using PI controller for inner current loop and PD for
-10
0 outer speed loop, will result in system response without
0
5
10
0
5
10
sec (s)
(s)
overshootsecand
in smooth driving for comfortable riding, as well
Fig. 9(a)
Fig. 9(b)
as settling time is about 1.8 seconds
Fig. 9. (a)(b) T wo linear speed/time of SMEV response curves using two
Switching the general model, to PI control with prefilter for
PID controllers for current and speed regulations loops, obtained for
both , inner and outer, loops, considering that the time
different values of PID gains.
constants (speed gain Kpw=3.3,
speed time constant
Current/time
Linear speed/time
30
Tw=0.009 , current regulator and current prefilter values Kpi =
1.51, time constant Ti=0.08, and inverter time constant
20
Ts=0.0025, Kpwm=5), Running model for desired output linear
10
speed of 23m/s ( 82.8 km/h), will return response curves shown
in Fig. 14 , settling time is about 5.3 seconds , the performance
0
of SMEV is controlled desired response that is with smooth
-10
driving for comfortable riding,
2
4
6
0
2
4
6
Time (seconds)
Time (seconds)
The proposed model can be modified, where only the electric
Torque/time
Angular speed/time
Fig. 10. linear speed/time
motor can be replaced with different types of electric motors
100 of SMEV using one PID controller for whole
SMEV system.
most used for EV, also with different electric motors, it is
50
necessary to use different control strategies, model can be
V. A SUGGEST ED FUNCTION BLOCK WIT H IT S FUNCT ION
modified to include PI with dead beat response and IMC
BLOCK WIT H0 IT 'S PARAMET ERS WINDOW FOR
control.
Linear speed/time
Angular speed/time
M ECHAT RONICS SMEV DESIGN, T EST ING AND VALIDAT ING.
30
100
To simplify and accelerate
Mechatronics design process of
-50
2
4
6
0
2
4
6
20
SMEV
in terms of most mechanical
components and control
Time
(seconds)
Time (seconds)
50
system selection and integration, a function block with its
10
function block parameters window is proposed, shown in Fig.
0
0
11, , this function block can be used as follows: using
supporting m.file , designer is to define form, dimensions and
-10
-50
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
weight of required SMEV, define required variables and
Seconds (s)
Seconds (s)
coefficients for calculating acting forces e.g. CD, CL A, also
linear acceleration m/sec 2
Torque/time
150
1000
selected controller and its corresponding gains and/or zeros,
100
use manual switch to switch between controller types, PI,PD,
500
PI with prefilter, PID for the whole system , one PID for current
50
loop and other PID for speed loop, one PI for inner current
0
0
loop and other PD for outer speed loop, finally run the
suggested model with defined parameters, analyze, evaluate
-50
-500
0
1
2
3
0
1
2
3
and decide.
Seconds (s)
Seconds (s)
M/s

1500

33

500

600

-200

VI.

FUNCTION BLOCK TESTING AND RESULTS


Switching the proposed model, to PID control strategy for
both, inner and outer, loops, defining mechanical system
parameters, and defining variables and coefficients for
calculating acting forces, then running model for desired
output linear speed of 23m/s (82.8 km/h), will return response
curves shown in Fig. 12, curves show that using PID
controller for both loops, will result in system response with
overshoot and allmostly, but not smooth driving for
comfortable riding, as well as settling time is about 1.4
seconds.
Now, making use of simulink PID built-in block capabilities, to
switch it to PI for inner current loop, and PD for outer speed
loop , then running model for desired output linear speed of

ang. speed Rad/sec

Torque Nm

200

lin. speed M

Rad/sec

400

Acceler. m/sec 2

Fig. 12. (a) Linear speed/time, angular speed/time, current/time,


torque/time, response of SMEV for desired output linear speed of 23
m/s (that is 82.8 km/h) applying PID control for both inner and outer
loops

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

Kpw

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01


Linear speed/time

-50

-5

2
4
Seconds (s)

linear acceleration m/sec 2

2
4
Seconds (s)

100

Linear speed/time

2
4
Seconds (s)

2
4
Seconds (s)

100

Torque Nm

20
10
0

2
4
Seconds (s)

lin. speed M

2
4
Seconds (s)

Add,

,.

15

Angular speed/time

50

10

4
6
Seconds (s)

-50

linear acceleration m/sec 2

4
6
Seconds (s)

Torque/time

20

300

10

50
-10

0
-50

2
4
Seconds (s)

4
6
Seconds (s)

200
100
0
-100

Kpi*Ti.s+Kpi

Kpwm

Tw.s

Ti.s

Ts.s+1

La.s+Ra

current regulator
PI Controller.2

inverter TF .

,,

Add.1

4
6
Seconds (s)

Tw.s+1

Speed regulator
PI Controller

Fig. 14. Linear speed/time, angular speed/time Linear


acceleration/time, torque/time, response curves of SM EV for desired
output linear speed of 23 m/s (that is 82.8 km/h), applying PI
controller with prefilter for both , inner and outer, loop

Load
Dynamics

Kpw

5
10
Seconds (s)

100

Fig. 13. (a) Linear speed/time, angular speed/time Linear


acceleration/time, current/time, torque/time, response curves of SMEV
for desired output linear speed of 23 m/s (that is 82.8 km/h), applying
PD control for outer speed loop and PI for inner current loop .

input (0:36)

Torque/time
150

-50

15

20

-10

30

-10

5
10
Seconds (s)

linear acceleration m/sec

20

-20

50

Linear speed/time

Torque/time

30

40

Rad

lin. speed M

-10

15

Fig. 13. (b) Linear speed/time, angular speed/time Linear


acceleration/time, current/time, torque/time, response curves of SMEV
applying motion profile input and applying PD control for outer speed
loop and PI for inner current loop .

Angular speed/time

60

10

5
10
Seconds (s)

100

Fig. 12. (b) Linear speed/time, angular speed/time response,


current/time, torque/time, of SMEV for desired output linear speed of
23 m/s (that is 82.8 km/h), applying PID control for both inner and
outer loops and adding current limiting saturation block (250)
20

0
-100

-20

15

-5

-10

5
10
Seconds (s)

10

200

Torque Nm

m
0

15

300

10

linear acceleration m/sec 2

Torque/time

20

Torque Nm

2
4
Seconds (s)

20

Torque Nm

Rad

40

Rad

Rad

lin. speed M

50

10

.
sp

Angular speed/time

10

lin. speed M

100

20

-10

Linear speed/time

Angular speed/time

30

34

-K-

-K-

1/n

angular
linear speed.
speed
-K-

den(s)
Kt.

gear ratio
Transfer function n=3.1
1/(Js+b).

rad2mps
V=W*r1

Kb

-K-

EMF constant Kb

vehicle anglular feedbacK.

Fig. 5. SMEV model inner current and outer speed loops.

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01

35

P: The invironment ( air) density (kg/m3) 2 22


A:Cross-sectional area of SMEV, where it is the widest, (m2)1 21
Cd : Aerodynamic drag coefficient1 20
Divide43

aerodaynamic torque,
0.5*p*A*Cd*v^1

Divide31

Divide45

Divide46

Cd

aerodynamics lift force


.1

Inclination angle (0:75)1 24


Divide25
sin(u)
cos(u)

CL

,1

. 0.5
r/2
.1

Rolling resistance force


M*g*Cr*cos()

SinCos.1

B : SMEV underside area1 15

Cd=0.1

CL: The coefficient of lift, ( CL to be 0.10 or 0.16)1 14


Divide33
Divide32
Divide34

Cd
12

Divide47

Divide35

Derivative,1
Divide48

M : The mass of the mobilr robot 1


23

Divide49

0.5

Cr: The rolling resistance coefficients1


13

-K-

r*m*g/2 , correct2
r^2*m*g/1

du/dt

r^2m/2. correct2
r*m/2

g: The gravity acceleration (m/s2).1

wheel radius,
V=W*r2

Divide50
PI or PID (Inner current) 3
Current PI Prefilter 18

Speed PI Prefilter 17

INNER controller
output

INNER LOOP from


9
summing d3

PI or PID (outer speed) 2

Divide23
Divide20

Coloum friction

Divide24
4 Current, I

16 Inverter

L, Armature
Inductance

Kt, Torque
10
constant

11
Divide1
r, wheel radius

T, Torque, 2

1
Vin, Input Volt,(0 :30)

current
d1

d2

10

10
7

Torque

Divide,2

rads2mps=
R_wheel*(2*pi)/(2*pi).1

du/dt
Derivative1

den(s)

Divide41

Divide39 Integrator1

output anguale speed, Omega

Transfer function
1/(Js+b).

1
Divide40

OUTER controller output

OUTER LOOP from


summing d1

angular
speed

Saturation

1
s

linear speed
in m/s

-K4 Inertia motor+ load

Acceleration
in m/(s^2)

Divide19

8
R, Armature Resistance
9

OUTER LOOP from summing d2

Divide42
7 All viscous damping

Kb, EMF constant


19
Divide37

Divide36

n, Gear ratio
5

6
Ktac, Tachometer constant ,

Fig. 11. (a) SMEV actuator subsystem


Manual
Switch

Step Input Volt(0:36)

acceleration

Signal 1

Signal Builder
Speed regulator
PI Controller

Ramp Input Volt(0:36)

Acceleration in m/(s^2)

electic_vehicl1.mat

PI or PID (outer speed)

Subsystem1

Tw.s+1

Kpw

,1
Vin, Input Volt,(0 :30)

Out1

T orque

T w.s

PI or PID (Inner current)

.,

-C-

1
PID(s)

T, Torque,

Inertia motor+ load

electic_vehicl2.mat

B3

n, Gear ratio

,2
Angular speed

PID speed
n

Ktach
current regulator
PI Controller.

Ktac, Tachometer constant ,


output anguale speed, Omega

-C-

Ktach

All v iscous damping

Kpi*T i.s+Kpi
La

T i.s
Ra
Ra

PID(s)

electic_vehicl3.mat

B4

L, Armature Inductance

Current ,3

La

R, Armature Resistance

Kt

Kt, Torque constant

electic_vehicl4.mat

Kt

PID current

Current, I

r, wheel radius
linear speed in m/s

,4
Linear speed

M : The mass of the mobilr robot 1

9.8

g: The grav ity acceleration (m/s2).1

inverter T F .
g

Kpwm

electic_vehicl5.mat
CL

CL: The coef f icient of lif t, ( CL to be 0.10 or 0.16)1

INNER controller output

Ts.s+1

Cl

Speed loop
prefilter

B
B

1/Tw

B : SMEV underside area1


Inv erter
OUTER controller output

s+1/Tw
Speed PI Pref ilter

Current loop
Prefilter

Current PI Pref ilter

1/T i

s+1/T i

-CKb, EMF

Cd
3
A

Cd

OUTER LOOP f rom summing d2

Kb, EMF constant


Cd : Aerody namic drag coef f icient1
A:Cross-sectional area of SMEV, where it is the widest, (m2)1

INNER LOOP f rom summing d3

P: The inv ironment ( air) density (kg/m3) 2

Rou, air
Cr
0

Cr: The rolling resistance coef f icients1

Cr

OUTER LOOP f rom summing d1

Inclination angle (0:75)1

Road slope
Out1

Subsystem

Subsystem3

Fig. 11. (b) Function block with its function block with it's parameters window for SMEV design, testing and validating
1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

International Journal of Mechanical & Mechatronics Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01


VI.
CONCLUSION
Mechatronics design of small electric vehicles (SMEV),
including Mechatronics design of accurate general models
and control are proposes, the proposed model can be used
to select, integrate, analyze and validate, both mechanical
system with all acting forces and control system, resulting in
simplification, acceleration and increasing accuracy of
mechatronics design of SMEV. The proposed model
intended to be used for research purposes as well as, for the
application in educational process.
Testing the models and analysis of resulted response
curves show that, applying two separate PI controllers with
corresponding prefilter, for both inner current loop and
outer speed loop, will result in more improved response in
the form of smooth driving for comfortable riding of SMEV
and minimum settling time.
The proposed model can modified to include any control
strategy and/or any electric motor, where the motor and its
associated driving power circuit and /or controller can be
replaced with different motors and/or control strategy,
include PI with dead beat response and IMC control. to
overcome the drawbacks of PI and PID controllers, mainly
re-tuning process when the operating condition changes
and motors parameter variations, an m.file can be written to
calculated the desired values as well as PI-Fuzzy Controller
can be designed

REFERENCES
[1]

[2]

[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

[7]

[8]
[9]

[10]
[11]

Asif Faiz, Christopher S. Weaver, Michael P. Walsh, an air


pollution from motor vehicles, , standards and technologies for
controlling emissions, the world bank Washington, D.C. 1996.
Bambang Sri Kaloko, Soebagio, Mauridhi Hery Purnomo,
Design and Development of Small Electric Vehicle using
MAT LAB/Simulink, international Journal of Computer
Applications (0975 8887) Volume 24 No.6, June 2011
Dhameja, S., 2002, Electric Vehicle Battery Systems, Newnes,
United Stated.
Husain, I., 2003,
Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Design
Fundamentals, Pertama, CRC Press, United Stated.
Larminie, J., Lowry, J., 2003, Electric Vehicle T echnology
Explained, John Wiley & Son
Qi Huang, Jian Li and Yong Chen, Control of Electric Vehicle,
University of Electronic Science and T echnology of China
P.R.China.
A. Shekeena1, P. V. R. L. Narasimham, Hybrid control of
brushless DC motor for variable speed application, International
Journal of Computer Science and Management Research, Vol 1
Issue 3 October 2012
http://buggies.builtforfun.co.uk/FactFiles/controller.html
Farhan A. Salem, Ahmad A. Mahfouz, Modeling and controller
design for PMDC motor, using different control strategies and
verification using MAT LAB/Simulink , Submitted and accepeted
but not puplished yet to I.J. Intelligent Systems and
Applications, Submission ID 124 , 2012
Hedaya Alasooly, ''Control of DC motor using different control
strategies'' global journal of technology and optimization 2011
Chan, C.C. (1999). T he Past Present and Future of Electric
Vehicle Development. IEEE Power Electronics and Drive
Systems,1999, pp.11-13

36

[12] Ahmad A. Mahfouz, Mohammed M. K, Farhan A. Salem

[13]
[14]

[15]

[16]
[17]
[18]

[19]

Modeling, simulation and dynamics analysis issues of electric


motor, for mechatronics applications, using different
approaches and verification by MAT LAB/Simulink (I).
Submitted and accepeted but not puplished yet to I.J. Intelligent
Systems and Applications, Submission ID 123 , 2012.
Halila A., tude des machines courant continu, MS T hesis,
University of LAVAL, (T ext in French), May 2001.
Capolino G. A., Cirrincione G., Cirrincione M., Henao H., Grisel
R., Digital signal processing for electrical machines,
International Conference on Electrical Machines and Power
Electronics, Kusadasi (T urkey), pp.211-219, 2001.
Hamdy Mohamed Soliman, S.M.EL. Hakim Improved Hysteresis
Current Controller to Drive Permanent Magnet Syn chronous
Motors through the Field Oriented Control International Journal
of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231 -2307,
Volume-2, Issue-4, September 2012.
M.P.Kazmierkowski, H.T unia "Automatic Control of
Converter-Fed Drives", Warszawa 1994
R.D. Doncker, D.W.J. Pulle, and A. Veltman. Advanced Electrical Drives: Analysis, Modeling, Control. Springer, 2011.
Grzegorz SIEKLUCKI,Analysis of the T ransfer-Function
Models of Electric Drives with Controlled Voltage Source
PRZEGL AD ELEKT ROT ECHNICZNY (Electrical Review),
ISSN 0033-2097, R.88NR7a/2012
Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop. Modern Control
Systems. Ninth Edition, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, 2001.

Authors Profile:ta
Farhan Atallah Salem : B.Sc., M.Sc
and Ph.D., in Mechatronics of
production systems, Moscow state
Academy. He is author and co-author of
textbooks and scientific papers in
Refereed Journals. Now he is ass.
Professor
in
T aif
University,
Mechatronics program, Dept. of
Mechanical Engineering and gendirector of alpha center for engineering
studies and technology researches.
Research Interests; Design, modeling
and analysis of primary Mechatronics Machines, Control selection,
design and analysis for Mechatronics systems. Rotor Dynamics and
Design for Mechatronics applications

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS