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23

Research and Education

Farhan A. Salem1,2

1

Alpha Center for Engineering Studies and Technology Researches, Amman, Jordan . 2Mechatronics program,.

Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Taif University, 888, Taif, Saudi Arabia.

Email: salem_farh@yahoo.com

electric vehicles (S MEV), including Mechatronics design,

modeling, simulation and integration of accurate sub-systems

and overall system models. the proposed design and models can

be used to select, integrate, analyze and validate Mechatronics

deign process of S MEV and its sub-systems ; including

mechanical system, control system, components and electrical

energy, resulting in simplification, acceleration and increasing

accuracy of design. The proposed overall system model can be

modified to include any control strategy and/or any electric

machine (motor), where the motor and its associated driving

power circuit and /or controller can be replaced with different

motors and/or control strategy. The proposed model intended to

be used for research purposes as well as, for the application in

educational process. The proposed models were created and

verified using MATLAB simulink software.

.

Index Term Mechatronics design, Electric vehicle, Electric

Motor, simulink function block model.

I.

INTRODUCTION

Mechatronics systems design is Modern interdisciplinary

design procedure; it is a concurrent selection, evaluation,

integration, and optimization of the system and all its

components as a whole and concurrently, all the design

disciplines work in parallel and collaboratively throughout the

design and development process to produce an overall optimal

design. Mechatronics engineer is expected to design products

with synergy and integration toward constrains like higher

performance, speed, precision, efficiency, lower costs and

functionality, and in order to evaluate concepts generated

during the design process, without building and testing each

one, the mechatronics engineer, also, must be skilled in the

modeling, simulation, analysis, and control of dynamic systems

and understand the key issues in hardware implementation.

The Electric Vehicle, EV, was invented around middle of 19th

century. An EV uses one or more electric or traction motors for

propulsion and can be separated into three groups, based on

how and where the electricity is produced; powered from an

external power station, e.g. trolleybuses, powered by stored

electricity from an off-board generation system e.g. battery

electric vehicles and powered by an on-board electrical

generator such as an internal combustion engine (a hybrid

electric vehicle)[1] the last two groups are shown in Fig. 1. EV

can also be categorized into two groups; big and small electric

vehicles. In this paper we are most interested in design and

control of Small Mechatronics Electric Vehicles, SMEV.

Application examples of SMEV include; golf cars, power chairs

for the disabled, go-karts, home mobile robots, mobility

scooters, sea scooters and tiny quad bikes . A general model

that can be used to simplify and accelerate the mechatronics

design process of SMEV is desired. This paper suggests such

model, we are to develop general mathematical and simulink

models that can be applied in mechatronics design of SMEV,

considering all dynamics, with corresponding optimal control

strategy for desired output response, a general model that can

be used to design, select, integrate, test, analyze and control

SMEV to achieve desired performance.

The EV system consists of two subsystems, the electric motor

and the vehicle systems, the main components of the electric

vehicle (see Fig.1) are an electric machine as drive system,

electrical energy sources, control systems as a central control,

and power converter as a device that converts electrical energy

source with variable needs of the electric vehicle by switching

devices [2]. Meanwhile electric vehicles generally use a battery

as its main energy source [3],[4],[5]. But the batteries on

electric vehicles have a weakness that has the capacity and

service life is limited so that necessary arrangements for

charging batteries do not work hard [2].To drive EV system,

one electric motor can be used or two electric motor each for

each wheel, we will consider the case of one front drive electric

motor used.

The EV system takes input voltage as electric motor input, and

outputs the rotational speed of electric motor or the motion of

electric vehicles, electric motors are capable of generating high

torque at low speed, can operate efficiently over a greater

range of speeds, that is their speeds can be smoothly

controlled and in most cases are reversible, also electric motors

and their features can be tested and analyzed both by control

system design calculation and by MATLAB software, also by

using a simple controller e.g. of PIC micro, with corresponding

program and drive circuit, the rotation of electric motor, that is

the motion of electric vehicles can be controlled easily and

smoothly. The electric actuator most used for SMEV are DC

motors, therefore, the SMEV motion control is simplified to a

DC motor motion control. Controlling the performance of EV, in

particular, smooth driving for comfortable riding, is not a

simple task, where the design and operation parameters of EV,

I J ENS

as well as the road condition are always varying, therefore, the

controller should be designed to make the system robust,

adaptive and improving the system on both dynamic and

steady state performances (fast responsive and low-ripple).

With reference to testing a maximum speed of 23 m/s, (that is

82.8 km/h) in maximum of 8 seconds, if an electric vehicle

with total mass m= 900 kg , friction coefficient of 0.19, air

density of 1.25 kg/m3 and aerodynamic factors of 0.75, the

surface area of vehicles 1.5 m2, width of 1 m , height of 0.5,

the gear ratio G, n at 2, wheel radius of 0.3 m, and maximum

power efficiency of 0.77

Electric motor

Controller

Power

converter

Drivers

Mechanical

transmission

Battery charger

Mechanical

coupling

Battery

Tacho

Fig. 1. (a) Architecture of electric vehicle

Electric motor

Controller

Power

converter

Drivers

Mechanical

transmission

Battery charger

Mechanical

coupling

Battery

Tacho

Controller

Battery

Battery charger

Power converter

Fuel tank

Mechanical

transmission

Drivers

Mechanical

coupling

Electric motor

Gasoline en.

combines an internal combustion engine and an electric motor.

II.

motor and the vehicle systems; both will be modeled,

considering all acting forces and parameters, we will couple the

SMEV platform with the wheel rotational velocity via

characteristics of the electric motor and surface as well as to

derive the expressions for the acting forces, to calculate

required torque and power expressions, that can be used to

24

control systems.

II. I

ELECTRIC M OTOR M ODELING

The electric vehicle is driven by an electric motor, the SMEV

motion control is simplified to an electric motor motion control

that may or not include gear system. In the proposed model,

for design and control of SMEV motion control, only the motor

and its associated driving power circuit can be replaced with

different types of electric motors used, also with different

electric motors, it is necessary to use different control

strategies. EV requires that the driving electric machine has a

wide range of speed regulation. In order to guarantee the

speed-up time, the electric machine is required to have large

torque output under low speed and high over-load capability,

and in order to operate at high speed, the driving motor is

required to have certain power output at high -speed

operation[6]. Presently, brushed DC motor, brushless DC

motor, AC induction motor, permanent magnet synch ronous

motor (PMSM) and switched reluctance motor (SRM) are the

main types of motors used for electric vehicle driving [11].

DC machines are characterized by their versatility. By means of

various combinations of shunt-, series-, and separately-excited

field windings, they can be designed to display a wide variety

of volt-ampere or speed-torque characteristics for both

dynamic and steady-state operation. Because of the ease with

which they can be controlled, systems of DC machines have

been frequently used in many applications requiring a wide

range of motor speeds and a precise output motor control [13,

14]. The selection of motor for a specific electric vehicle is

dependent on many factors, such as the intention of the EV,

correspondingly allowable variation in speed and torque and

ease of control, etc. The dynamic equations of these motors

can be derived, mainly based on the Newtons law combined

with the Kirchoffs law. The fundamental system of

electromagnetic equations for any electric motor is given by

[16,17]

d s

us Rs i s

j k s

dt

d R

us RR i R

j ( k Pb m ) R

(1)

dt

s Ls i s L i R

R LR i R L i S

(reference frame), Depending on motor construction (AC or

DC), the method of the supply and the coordinate system

(stationary or rotating with the rotor or stator flux) the above

mentioned model becomes transformed to the desirable

form[18], and the complement Eqs. (1) is equations describing

mechanical part of eclectic motor.

A series wound DC motor has the armature and field coils

connected in a series across the power source as shown in Fig.

2(b) A series wound DC motor is easy to use, will generate a

larger torque increase (startup torque) compared with a shunt

k

I J ENS

wound DC motor for given increase in current. Series motors

cannot be used where a relatively constant speed is required

under conditions of varying load." this means series wound

DC might not climb hills with varying slope briskly and

smoothly. The voltage supply is divided between stator and

rotor circuits and a common current flow through the field and

armature coils current i a, this all can be expressed as:

Vin Va Vf

, im if ia

di

di

V in (s ) (La a Lf f ) I a R f I a R a EMF

dt

dt

di a

di f

V in (s ) (La

Lf

) I a R f R a L mutual * i * n

dt

dt

Where :Lmutual :is the mutual inductance between the armature

winding and the field winding . Under steady state condition,

induction (L=0), gives:

V in (s ) R f I a R a I a EMF

V in (s ) I a R f R a EMF

The torque developed in the rotor is:

Tm K * *i K f *i f

Tm Kt *i 2

The back EMF, also, can be expressed as:

EMF Kb * * n Kb (K f * I a )n

Ia

K t m

The DC shunt motor has the same equations for torque as for

the separately excited motor,

A compound wound DC motor is a combination of shunt wound

and series wound configurations as shown in Fig.2(c). This

allows the compound motor to be used in applications where

high starting torque and controlled operating speed are both

required.

The separately excited DC motor (Fig.2(d)) The voltage is

applied to both to field and armature terminals, as shown, there

are two currents, filed current, if and armature current, ia in

order to have linear system, one of these two currents most

held constant, this motor allows having independent control of

both the magnetic flux and the supply voltage, which allows

the required torque at any required angular speed to be set

with great flexibility. The biggest drawback is they are nois y. In

[12] the mathematical model, transfer function and simulink

model of separately excited DC motor were derived and built,

where from Eqs. (1);

The air-gap flux, is proportional to the field current and

given by:

K f *if

2

EMF K* * m V in - Ia Ra

Motor Torque T m K 1 * *i a (t )

From this equation, if the input voltage Vin is kept constant, the

output angular speed is almost inversely proportional to the

square root of the torque, therefore a high torque is obtained at

low speed and a low torque is obtained at high speed. The sum

of the torques must equal zero, we have:

Te T T - TEMF = 0

Substituting the following values, gives :

L mutual * i 2 T Load

, i m if ia

flux, and the armature current ia(t), and given by:

V * Kt

Ra R f

Vin Va Vf

ia, this all can be expressed as:

V in (s )

R a R f K b m

2

in

25

d 2

J m 2 bm

dt

0

dt

coils connected in parallel (or shunt) across the power source,

in result the same voltage is applied to both coils this is shown

in Fig. 2(a). Shunt wound DC motor is designed for

applications where constant speed characteristics under

varying load conditions are important such as pumping fluids

and fans, shunt motor speed varies only slightly with changes

in load. A shunt wound DC difficult to control, as reducing the

supply voltage also results in a weakened magnetic field, thus

reducing the back EMF, and tending to increase the speed.

The stator and rotor circuits have the same voltage supply and

therefore the same voltage drop, and the current drawn by the

have:

T m K 1 * K f *i a (t ) * i f (t )

i f (t )

Tm

Tm

K 1 * K f *i a (t ) K b *

T

V in - K* * m R a m

Kb

The torque developed, is given by:

K*

Tm

V in K b n

Ra

The transfer function relating input filed voltage Vin_field(s), and

motor output speed m(s), with armature current ia (t) held

constant and ,given by:

G angle (s )

(s )

V in _ filed (s )

Km

Lf s R f Js b

motor angular speed, with varying both armature current ia (t)

and field current if(t ) , and given by:

I J ENS

(s )

V armature (s )

Kt If

Ra R f b

K V

La J 2 La J

s 1 b field

s

R a R f2b

R ab

Ra b

brushed DC motor drawback is that they need a commutator

and brushes which are subject to wear and require

maintenance, therefore have low life-span. the rotor (armature)

is composed of one or more permanent magnets, see Fig.2(f),

and coils for the stator (field). The rotor, being a permanent

magnet, simply follows the stator magnetic field around. The

speed of the motor is controlled by adjusting the frequency of

the stator power. In the BLDC motor, the electromagnets do

not move; instead, the permanent magnets rotate and the

armature remains static. The BLDC motor is actually an AC

motor. The wires from the windings are electrically connected

to each other either in delta configuration or WYE ("Y" shaped) configuration (see Fig.2(f))

The kinetics of the motor can be described as:

Te T T - TEMF = 0

d 2

d

T e T Load J m 2 bm

0

dt

dt

Te

Pe

m

back EMF in each phase . ia , ib, ic stator phase currents. Under

normal operation, only two phases are in conduction, therefore

the voltage balance equation, cross the two windings under

conduction, is given by:

di (t )

V w Rw iw (t ) Lw w

EMFw

dt

Induction motor is a type of alternating current motor where

power is supplied to the rotor by means of electromagnetic

induction. Stator windings are arranged around the rotor so

that when energized with a poly-phase supply they create a

rotating magnetic field pattern which sweeps past the rotor.

This changing magnetic field pattern induces current in the

rotor conductors, which interact with the rotating magnetic

field created by the stator and in effect causes a rotational

motion on the rotor. It has the advantages such as low-cost,

high-efficiency, high reliability, maintenance-free, easy for

cooling and firm structure, etc. making it especially competitive

in EV driving. Physical Model of 3-phase AC induction Motor

is shown in Fig.2(h) [6].

Permanent Magnets DC Motor,( Fig.2(e))

DC Motor and its features can be tested and analyzed both by

control system design calculation and by MATLAB software.

The PMDC motor is an example of electromechanical systems

26

equivalent representation of PMDC motor's two components

are shown in Fig.2(g). DC motor is a closed loop system in

nature, the back EMF introduces a negative feedback signal

proportional to the motor speed, which enhances the damping

of the system. In [12] the detailed equations of deriving

mathematical model of PMDC are introduced, where can get

differential equation that describes the electrical characteristics

of PMDC motor, by applying Ohm's law, substituting and

rearranging, all that gives:

d (t )

di (t )

V in R a i a (t ) La a K b

dt

dt

mechanical characteristics of PMDC motor, by performing the

energy balance on the PMDC motor system; the sum of the

torques must equal zero, we have:

Te T T - TEMF = 0

Considering that system dynamics and disturbance torques

depends on platform shape and dimensions the mechanical DC

motor part, will have the form:

Kt *ia = T + T + Tload +Tf

The coulomb friction can be found at steady state, to be:

Kt *i a - b* = Tf

Simplifying and substituting, we have:

d 2

d

K t * i T Load J m 2 bm

0

dt

dt

6

The PMDC motor open loop transfer function without any load

attached relating the input voltage, Vin(s), to the angular

velocity, (s), given by:

G speed (s )

Kt

(s )

V in (s )

La s R a J m s bm K t K b

Kt

(s )

7

G speed (s )

V in (s ) (La J m )s 2 (R a J m bm La )s (R abm K t K b )

inertia, the mobile platform can be considered to be of the

cuboid or cubic shape, with the inertia calculated as shown

below, where the total equivalent inertia, Jequiv and total

equivalent damping, b equiv at the armature of the motor with

gears attaches, are given by:

2

N

bequiv b m b Load 1 J equiv J m J Load

N2

bh 3

J load

12

8

N1

N2

given by:

I J ENS

G speed (s )

robot (s )

V in (s )

Kt / n

(La J equiv )s 2 (R a J equiv bequiv La )s (R abequiv K t K b )

9

The next open loop transfer function, relating the armature

input terminal voltage, Vin(s) to the output terminal voltage of

the tachometer Vtach(s), with most corresponding load torques

applied are considered, is given by:

27

simulink model of the filed current controlled DC motor is

shown in Fig.3(a), the simulink model of separately excited DC

motor is shown in Fig..3(b), Equivalent block diagram of

PMSM is shown in Fig. Fig.3(c) where Ts =Lq/Rs and =Pb m ,

and ea = f = Pb m f [18], the simulink model of PMDC motor

is shown in Fig. Fig.3 (d)

V s

K tach * K t

Gopen (s ) in

V tach s La s R a (J m s bm ) La s R a T K b K t

coulomb friction, and given by:

T=Tload+Tf

For high accuracy, the inertias of the gears and wheels have to

be included in the calculations, this value can be obtained from

literature or calculated using the equations for the inertia of a

cylinder since the gear has a form of cylinder, this can be

rewritten as follows:

N

mr ) 1

N2

motor

A permanent magnet synchronous motor is a motor that uses

permanent magnets to produce the air gap magnetic field rather

than using electromagnets. Such motors have significant

advantages, such as high efficiency, small volume, light

weight, high reliability and maintenance-free, etc., attracting

the interest of EV industry. The PMSM has a sinusoidal back

EMF and requires sinusoidal stator currents to produce

constant torque[6].

The d-q model of PMSM is shown in Fig.2(i) Voltage equations

are given by:

V d R * i d Ld

circuit [6]

di d

e Lq * i q

dt

di

V q R * i q Lq d e Ld * i d K b m

dt

The equations giving the stator current can be written in the

following form:

Id

Iq

1

V d e Lq * i q

Ld s r

motor's electromechanical components

1

V q e Ld * i d K b m

Lq s R

by:

Tm

3K b I q

2

0.5* P (Ld I d I q Lq I d I d )

DC motor, Permanent Magnets armature controlled DC Motors

are allmostly identical, the differences are in current filed or

armature applied to both torque and back EMF constants, this

induction Motor[6]

I J ENS

motor

torque

filed

current

Km

Lf.s+Rf

Step

12 V

Gain

filed

Transfer Fcn

28

estimated energy required of SMEV platform, the requested

power in kW that SMEV platform must develop at stabilized

speed can be determined by multiplying the total force with the

velocity of the SMEV, and given by:

speed

speed

1

s

J.s+B

Integrator

Scope

Transfer Fcn

1

PTotal ( F ) * FTotal *

11

Electrical

power

(in

watts)

in

a

DC

circuit

can

be

calculated

by:

Motor

Torque

angular

1

P=

I

x

V

1

speed

Km

1/n

-KLa.s+Ra

Vin

Jequiv.s+bequiv

Where: I is current in Amps and V is voltage. Based on

armature

Armature

.,

rad2mps

motor

gear ratio

linear speed

constant

,

n=3.1 V=W*r1

fundamental principle of dynamics the acceleration of the

1

motor.mat

vehicle is given: by

Field

Lf.s+Rf

current

To File..

P Ptotal

Vin.

field

,.

filed

m

M *

Kb

Where: Pm :The power

available

in the wheels of the vehicle.

Armature

Fig. 3. (b) Simulink model of separately excited DC motor

resistance

M,: vehicle mass

and speed

Table: Parameters of the DC Motor.

1

1/La

The totalsresistiveRa torque, TTotal is the torque of all acting Vf=240[V]

Load

Tload

torque

armature

Current,i

V armature

Armature

inductance

Integrator,

La=0.012[mH]

Va=240[V]

mutual

Lmutual=1.8[mH]

torque, which can Product

be written

as the wheel torque, given by:

Inductance

Twheel G * *T shaft

12

La

Current,i

1

Vin

La.s+Ra

Transfer function

1/(Ls+R)1

Load

torque

Torque

Kt

1/n

angular

speed

-K-

Jequiv.s+bequiv

torque

constant

Transfer function

1/(Js+b)1

V=W*r1 speed

n=3.1

Motor.mat

Kb

armature

Ra=0.6[W]

This wheel

torqueinductance

provides the resultant driving, tractive force,

1

Cr=29.2[N.m]

Rf

s

F

to

the

vehicle:

Total Integrator.

Lf=120[mH]

Field

Field

Fc=0.0005[N.m.Sec/Rad]

inductance

resistance

TField

G * *T shaft

wheel

inductance.

FTotal

13

r1/Lf

r

Referring to Fig.4, the relationship between the resultant

1

tractive force

andfc the torque produced angular

by the motor Tshaft ,can

s

speed

Integrator.,as: friction

be obtained

coefficient

rCr

T shaft FTotal

* Couple

14

-Kresisting

*

mutual G

Product1

.1

inductance

The vehicle inertia

torque can, also, be defined by the

1/J

following relationship:

Inertia

1/Lf

V Field

Tload

Rf=240[W]

J=1[Kg.m2]

To File..

EMF constant

current IS maintained

constant ia(t) = ia=model

constant

When derivingthe armature

an accurate

mathematical

for SMEV, it is

important to study and analyze dynamics

between

the road,

Motor linear

motor angular

filed current motor torque

speed

speed

wheel and SMEV

considering

all

1

1the forces1 applied upon the

Km

s

J.s+B

EV system.Lf.s+Rf

The modeling

ofTransfer

a FcnSMEVIntegrator

system

dynamics

Step

Scope

Gain

filed

12 V

Transfer

Fcn

involves the balance among the several acting on a running

SMEV forces, these acting forces are categorized into roadload and tractive force. The road-load force consists of the

gravitational force, hill-climbing force, rolling resistance of the

tires and the aerodynamic drag force and the aerodynamics lift

force, where aerodynamic drag force and rolling resistance is

pure losses, meanwhile the forces due to climbing resistance

and acceleration are conservative forces with possibility to,

partly, recover. This resultant force is the sum of all these

acting forces, will produce a counteractive torque to the

driving motor, i.e., the tractive force.

The disturbance introduced to the EV system is changes in the

road surface inclination angle, , it is required to design

controller to be robust and should have a disturbance

rejection. The disturbance torque to SMEV is the total

resultant torque generated by the acting forces, and given by:

T JVehicl

d vehicl

dt

v, and the angular velocity of the electric motor is given by:

r * / G

transmission gearing ratio. TL: Tshaft is the torque produced by

the driving motor. : The transmission efficiency. v: the

velocity of the vehicle. : the angular velocity of the motor. It

is required to couple the SMEV platform with the wheel

rotational velocity via characteristics of the electric motor and

surface such as the traction force, the torque, etc. as well as to

derive the expressions for the acting forces, to calculate

required torque and power expressions

that can be used to

FLift

F, wind

Fgrafitation

Traction force

Fwheel_powertrain

Faerod

=r

F tractive

M*g

Fig. 4. (a)

I J ENS

(per phase), rr =0.0503 Ohm. : The air density (kg/m3) at STP,

=1.25, At 20C and 101 kPa, =1.2041, The air density is

calculated by Eq. (18) expression, where: o = 101325 Pa, sea

level standard atmospheric pressure, T0 = 288.15 K sea level

standard temperature. g = 9.81 m/s 2.Earth-surface gravitational

acceleration. L = 0.0065 K/m temperature lapse rate. R =

8.31447 J/(mol*K) universal gas constant. M = 0.0289644

kg/mol molar mass of dry air:

Road incl.

M*g

g *m

Fig. 4. (b)

Fig. 4. (a)(b) Forces acting on moving vehicle.

flattening of the tire at the contact surface of the roadway and

depending on the vehicle speed and it is proportional to the

vehicle weight, and is given by:

15

In terms of the vehicle linear speed Eq.(15) becomes:

Where : M : The mass of the SMEV and cargo (Kg). g .Cr The

rolling resistance coefficients is calculated by the following

expression:

3.6

Cr 0.011

robot

100

the motion of the SMEV due to air drag, the aerodynamic drag

force is function of mobile platform linear velocity, and given

by:

2

Faerod 0.5* * A*Cd *vehicl

16

* sign (vehicle )

1

17

2

shape of the SMEV and can be calculated using the following

expression:

CD

II.II.III

The aerodynamics lift force, Flift; is caused by

pressure difference between the SMEV's roof and underside,

and is given by:

19

CL to be 0.10 or 0.16), and can be calculated using the

following expression:

L

CL

0.5 2 A

Where: L: lift, the air density (kg/m3) at STP, =1.25, V:

velocity of SMEV, A: frontal area.

M * g *Cr *cos( ) * rr

18

L * h R *L

M * 0 1

TO

R *T

2

Flift 0.5* * C L * B * vehicle

becomes:

Trolling

29

Faerod

0.5 2S

cylinder

, Cd =0.80, for sphere

Cd =0.47, and for

streamlined body

Cd =0.04 . A: Cross-sectional area of

the SMEV where it is the widest, (m2) : The linear speed of the

SMEV (m/s), o : The speed of the wind (m/s), against the

20

SMEV is moving up or down a hill, the weight of the SMEV will

create a hill-climbing resistance force directed downward, this

force will oppose or contribute to the motion, it is a

conservative force with possibility to, partly, recover. Two

components of gravity, the component of gravity in the

dimension of travel is the hill-climbing resistance force and is

given by:

Fclimb M * g *sin( )

21

gravity acceleration (m/s2). :Road or the hill climbing angle,

road slope (Rad.). If we assume the SMEV is on a level surface,

this force is zero, = 0 ,sin(0)=0. The hill-climbing resistance,

slope, torque, is given by:

22

II.VI The normal force Fnorm: is the force exerted by the road

on the mobile SMEV's tires, the magnitude of Fnorm equals the

magnitude of the Facc in the direction normal to the road, The

normal force Fnorm can be found as by:

Fnorm Fclimb Flift M * g *sin( ) 0.5* *C L * B * 2

23

I J ENS

II.VII The linear acceleration force Facc : is the force required

to increase the speed of the SMEV, The acceleration force is

the total tractive effort of the SMEV minus the summation of

forces opposing the motion of the SMEV and can be described

as a linear motion given by:

J

d

d

Facc M * a M

M wheel

24

dt

r 2 dt

Facc M * a M

d

M

dt

T

J

experienced as a result of the force exerted by the motors or as

a rotational movement, T: the resultant torque acting on the

wheels (Nm), J: the total inertia of the SMEV (kgM2), Jwheel : the

inertia of the wheel (kgM2)

II.VIII The angular acceleration force Facc_angle , is the force

required by the wheels to make angular acceleration and is

given by:

Facc _ angle J

G2

a

2

rwheel

25

and outer; The first loop is inner current regulation loop that

accomplishes current regulation control to meet the current

needs in accordance with the needs of electric vehicle, and the

second loop is outer speed regulation loop that adjusts the

speed of the motor (see Fig. 6).

PID controllers are ones of most used to achieve the desired

time-domain behavior of many different types of dynamic

plants. The sign of the controllers output, will determine the

direction in which the motor will turn. The PID gains (K P , KI,

KD) are to be calculated and tuned experimentally to obtain the

desired overall desired response. The PID controller transfer

function is given by:

K

K

K D s 2 P s I

KD

KD

K

K s K Ps K I

G PID K P I K D D

s

s

s

The transfer function of PID control can be rewritten in terms

of derivative time and integral time to have the form:

2

26

T T s 2 T I s 1

1

G PID K P 1

T D s K P I D

TI s

TI s

G2

G2

*J 2 a J

a

rwheel

rwheel

Where:

FTotal M * g * sin( ) M * g * Cr0 -C r1 * * sign ( )

0.5* * A*C d * vehicl wind

30

J

d

FLinear_acc M wheel

2

r

dt

model (shown in Fig. 11 that represents SMEV the dynamics,

and couple the SMEV with the wheel rotational velocity via

characteristics of the electric motor and surface.

III. CONTROL SYSTEM SELECTION AND DESIGN

Electric vehicle speed controller takes the nominally fixed

voltage from the power source (battery) and outputs a variable

voltage supply needed to control the motor speed. Its v oltage

output to the drive motors changes in response to control

signals supplied by the user from foot pedal, [8] When the

pedal is pushed, the controller delivers electrical currents from

the battery to the motor; this gives the car acceleration to

accelerate to the desired output speed, the sensors sense the

actual output speed and fed it back to controller. the main

voltage conversion is done very efficiently using PWM

technique, where controller sends pulses of power to the motor

thousands of times per second, where very short pulses cause

the motor to go slowly and long pulses cause the motor to go

fast. There are many motor control system strategies that may

be more or less appropriate to a specific type of application

each has its advantages and disadvantages; the designer must

select the best one for specific application. In [9], [10]

K

K P and

T D is the derivative time D

KP

KI

controller is widely used in variable speed applications and

current regulation of electric motors. The output of the PI

controller in time domain is defined by the following equation

(27)

t

V C (t ) K P e (t ) K I e (t )dt

0

27

control variable. Taking Laplace transforms and manipulating

Eq. (27) will result in the following transfer function:

K P s K I

K

Gcurrent (s ) G PI (s ) K P I

s

s

G PI (s ) K PI *

K

K P s I

K P K P s Z o

s

s

(T I s 1)

K PI

TI s

1

* 1

TI s

proportional gain, KI is the integral gain, and e(t) is the

instantaneous error signal Zo: zero of the PI-controller KP : the

proportional gain, KPI: the proportional coefficient; T I: time

constant. This transfer function, shows that, PI controller

represents a pole located at the origin and a stable zero placed

near the pole, at Zo=- KI/ KP, resulting in drastically eliminating

steady state error due to the fact that the feedback control

system type is increased by one. The PI pole and zero will

affect the response, mainly the PI zero, Zo=- KI/ KP, will

inversely affect the response and should be cancelled by

prefilter.

I J ENS

Systems design with prefilter; Prefilter is defined as a transfer

function Gp(s) that filters the input signal R(s) prior to

calculating the error signal. Adding a control system to plant,

will result in the addition of poles and/or zeros, that will effect

the response, mainly the added zero, will significantly inversely

effect the response and should be cancelled by prefilter,

therefore the required prefilter transfer function to cancel the

zero is given by (28). In general. The prefilter is added for

systems with lead networks or PI compensators. A prefilter for

a system with a lag network, mainly, is not , since we expect the

effect of the zero to be insignificant.

G Pr efilter (s )

ZO

s Z O

28

means the response that proceeds rapidly to the desired level

and holds at that level with minimal overshoot, The

characteristics of deadbeat response include; Zero steady

state error, Fast response, (short rise time and settling time)

and minimal undershoot, 2% error band[19].

PI-controller with deadbeat response design: With PI

controller with deadbeat response design, the overall closed loop transfer function, T(s), will be of third order will and

contain a zero of the PI-controller, Zo, This zero will

significantly affect the response of the closed-loop system,

T(s), and should be eliminated while maintaining the

proportional gain (KP ) of the closed-loop system that can be

achieved by a prefilter. Thus, the requiring pre-filter transfer

function [3]:

G Pr efilter (s )

Z PI

s Z PI

29

physical parameters of the system, to determine gains that

yield optimal deadbeat response, the overall closed loop third

order transfer function T(s) in terms of Zo and/or KP and KI, is

compared with standard third order transfer function given by

Eq. (24), and knowing that parameters , and are known

coefficients of system with deadbeat response given by

[19],also we choose n based on the desired settling time or

rise time , this way we obtain the optimal values of Zo and/or

KP and KI , that yield optimal deadbeat response,(for third

order system =1.9 and =2.2)

n3

30

G s tan dard (s ) 3

2

s n s n2 s n3

Current controller: The current control loop guarantees

limited variations of the current trough the inductor during

important load variations. The current regulation loop is the

inner loop connected to the stator circuit; this is shown in

Fig.5. In this paper we are to suggest to design current

regulator as PID or PI controller, in order to have small

overshoot and good tracking performance current regulation

can be designed as type-I system. In case current controller is

designed as PI regulator, the parameters of PI current controller

31

written as

(Las +Ra) I(s) = Vin(s) - Kb s(s)

31

The Laplace transformed equation of motor stator circuit, in

terms of input voltage Vin(s) and output current, I(s) is given

by

I s

1

32

V in s K b s (s ) La s R a

In practical systems, due to the fact that the electromagnetic

time constant is smaller than electromechanical time constant,

current regulation is faster than speed regulation. Hence,

speed regulation is faster than the variation of back EMF,

therefore, the effect of back EMF on current regulation loop

can be neglected, therefore (32), can be rewritten as

I s

V in s

La s

1

Ra

form:

I s

1 / Ra

V in s Telectric s 1

Where : Telectric electrical motor (stator circuit) time constant.

Depending on [15],[16] , the open loop transfer function of

current loop is given by:

Gcurrent _ loop (s )

KP

1

(R aT electric )s (2T s s 1)

depending upon generic open loop transfer function with

damping factor =0.707and given by:

G generic (s )

1

2 s ( s 1)

KP

KI

T electric

R aT electric

4T s

Therefore, the current regulator transfer function, PI controller,

is given by:

K I _ current

K P s

K P _ current s K I

K P _ current

G PI _ current (s )

s

s

(T s 1)

1

G PI _ current (s ) K P _ current * I

K P _ current * 1

TI s

T

Is

Where: KP_current: the proportional gain; KI_current: integral gain;

TI: time constant of current regulator. mainly the PI zero, Zo=KI/ KP, will inversely affect the response and it could be

cancelled by prefilter, the required prefilter transfer function to

cancel the zero is given by:

Zo

1 /TI

33

G Pr efilter (s )

s Z o s 1 / T I

KP

outer loop, this is shown in Fig. 5. In this paper, in order to

have smooth driving for comfortable riding, no steady state

I J ENS

error and acceptable anti-disturbance capability at transient

state, we are to suggest designing speed controller as PID or

PI controller. In case speed controller is designed as PI

regulator, a PI transfer function given by:

K I _

K P _ s

K P _s K I

K P _

G PI _ speed (s )

s

s

(T s 1)

1

G PI _ speed (s ) K P _ *

K P _ * 1

T s

T

s

KI_: the integral coefficient of speed regulator; T: time

constant of motor speed. Depending upon generic open loop

transfer function, the parameters of speed controller loop can

be found to be:

K P _

32

comfortable riding. Replacing, in Fig Fig.6, both PI controllers,

for current and speed regulation, with the derived PID

controllers, defining parameters, running simulink model will

result in speed curve shown in Fig. Fig. 9,

Now, Removing PID controller for the current loop, and

running simulink model with one general PID controller for the

whole SMEV, and tuning PID gains values, will result in speed

curve shown in Fig. 10. The obtained response curves show

that, applying two separate PI controllers , for both inner

current loop and outer speed loop, will result in more improved

response in the form of smooth driving for comfortable riding,

minimum settling time and less power consumption.

K

J

K I _ P

2T c

4T c

Where: Tc is the sum time delay due to speed loop, The same

approach, with PI prefilter to cancel the zero, can be applied to

speed loop PI controller.

The inverter: The input voltage Vin to inverter is considered as

constant (36V), the main voltage conversion is done very

efficiently using PWM techniques, the output voltage is

adjustable via the duty cycle ,of the PWM signal. The

transfer function of the inverter can be given as in [6] The PI

current controller is affecting the inverter switching frequency

to reduce the ripples in the torque and current

Gconverter (s )

inner current and outer speed regulation loops.

Current loop

Prefilter

Speed loop

prefilter

1/T i

1/Tw

s+1/T i

s+1/Tw

S1

Constant1

Constant

Tw.s+1

Kpw

T w.s

Manual Switch

Add,

Speed regulator

PI Controller

,.

Volt(0:36)

Add.1

Kb

K PWM

Ts s 1

Fig. 7. (a)

controller, (to be 0.25 ms)

Tw.s+1

Kpw

T w.s

-1

.,1

speed

regulator

PI Controller

Fig. 7. (b) T wo PID controllers for both inner current and outer speed

regulations loops.

Kpw

Tw.s+1

T w.s

(speed)

Add

.

Speed

regulator

PI controller

Add.3

Kpi*T i.s+Kpi

Kpwm

T i.s

Ts.s+1

inverter T F .2

current regulator

PI Angular

Controller.1 speed/time

30

20

EMF constant Kb

-K-

m2

Rad/sec

A

30

Kb

20

10

vehicle anglular

feedbacK

Fig. 7. (c) PI controllers for both; inner current and outer speed

-10

0

2

4

6

regulation loops.

sec

Angular speed/time

m2

Rad/sec

0

-10

20

20

m2

30

20

10

10

10

4

6

sec

Acceleration/time

Fig. 8. (a)

30

-10

Acceleration/time

30

-10

4

sec

4 6

sec

Fig. 8. (b)

Fig. 8. 20

(a) linear speed/time and (b) acceleration/time responses of SMEV

using two

10 separate PI controllers for inner current and outer speed loops.

0

-10

4

sec

I J ENS

10

-10

Acceleration/time

30

m2

IV.

SIM ULATION AND RESULTS

The SMEV subsystems; including the electric motor, the

vehicle systems and dynamics considering all acting forces

and control system; all was modeled and coupled, were SMEV

is coupled with the wheel rotational velocity via characteristics

of the electric motor and surface and both coupled with control

systems. The simulink model is shown in Fig. 6. Three control

strategies are introduced; first strategy controlling both loops;

current and speed loops with two separate PID controllers for

each, second strategy, controlling the whole system with one

PID controller and third strategy controlling both loops;

current and speed loops with two separate PI controllers for

each current and speed loop. The simulation of these

strategies are shown in Fig.7(a)(b)(c), For our design and

simulation, the desired output max linear speed is to be 23 m/s,

(that is 82.8 km/h)

Running simulink model applying two separate PI controllers,

one for inner current regulation and other for outer speed

regulation will result in linear speed/time curve shown in Fig. 8

, adding PI controllers prefilter to simulink block, will eliminate

the affect of PI zeros on the response, resulting in more

Nm

Rad/sec

200

50

100

0

International Journal

of Mechanical & Mechatronics

Engineering IJMME-IJENS Vol:13 No:01

0

-50

-100

10

5

sec (s)

10

Amp

M/s

1000

5

sec (s)

Linear speed/time

23m/s Current/time

(82.8 km/h), and tuning ,will return response curves

30

1000

shown in Fig. 13(a). Now, keeping same arrangement (PI and

20

PD controller) but switching input signal to motion profile will

10

500

return response curves shown in Fig. 13(b). Response curves

0

show that using PI controller for inner current loop and PD for

-10

0 outer speed loop, will result in system response without

0

5

10

0

5

10

sec (s)

(s)

overshootsecand

in smooth driving for comfortable riding, as well

Fig. 9(a)

Fig. 9(b)

as settling time is about 1.8 seconds

Fig. 9. (a)(b) T wo linear speed/time of SMEV response curves using two

Switching the general model, to PI control with prefilter for

PID controllers for current and speed regulations loops, obtained for

both , inner and outer, loops, considering that the time

different values of PID gains.

constants (speed gain Kpw=3.3,

speed time constant

Current/time

Linear speed/time

30

Tw=0.009 , current regulator and current prefilter values Kpi =

1.51, time constant Ti=0.08, and inverter time constant

20

Ts=0.0025, Kpwm=5), Running model for desired output linear

10

speed of 23m/s ( 82.8 km/h), will return response curves shown

in Fig. 14 , settling time is about 5.3 seconds , the performance

0

of SMEV is controlled desired response that is with smooth

-10

driving for comfortable riding,

2

4

6

0

2

4

6

Time (seconds)

Time (seconds)

The proposed model can be modified, where only the electric

Torque/time

Angular speed/time

Fig. 10. linear speed/time

motor can be replaced with different types of electric motors

100 of SMEV using one PID controller for whole

SMEV system.

most used for EV, also with different electric motors, it is

50

necessary to use different control strategies, model can be

V. A SUGGEST ED FUNCTION BLOCK WIT H IT S FUNCT ION

modified to include PI with dead beat response and IMC

BLOCK WIT H0 IT 'S PARAMET ERS WINDOW FOR

control.

Linear speed/time

Angular speed/time

M ECHAT RONICS SMEV DESIGN, T EST ING AND VALIDAT ING.

30

100

To simplify and accelerate

Mechatronics design process of

-50

2

4

6

0

2

4

6

20

SMEV

in terms of most mechanical

components and control

Time

(seconds)

Time (seconds)

50

system selection and integration, a function block with its

10

function block parameters window is proposed, shown in Fig.

0

0

11, , this function block can be used as follows: using

supporting m.file , designer is to define form, dimensions and

-10

-50

0

1

2

3

0

1

2

3

weight of required SMEV, define required variables and

Seconds (s)

Seconds (s)

coefficients for calculating acting forces e.g. CD, CL A, also

linear acceleration m/sec 2

Torque/time

150

1000

selected controller and its corresponding gains and/or zeros,

100

use manual switch to switch between controller types, PI,PD,

500

PI with prefilter, PID for the whole system , one PID for current

50

loop and other PID for speed loop, one PI for inner current

0

0

loop and other PD for outer speed loop, finally run the

suggested model with defined parameters, analyze, evaluate

-50

-500

0

1

2

3

0

1

2

3

and decide.

Seconds (s)

Seconds (s)

M/s

1500

33

500

600

-200

VI.

Switching the proposed model, to PID control strategy for

both, inner and outer, loops, defining mechanical system

parameters, and defining variables and coefficients for

calculating acting forces, then running model for desired

output linear speed of 23m/s (82.8 km/h), will return response

curves shown in Fig. 12, curves show that using PID

controller for both loops, will result in system response with

overshoot and allmostly, but not smooth driving for

comfortable riding, as well as settling time is about 1.4

seconds.

Now, making use of simulink PID built-in block capabilities, to

switch it to PI for inner current loop, and PD for outer speed

loop , then running model for desired output linear speed of

Torque Nm

200

lin. speed M

Rad/sec

400

Acceler. m/sec 2

torque/time, response of SMEV for desired output linear speed of 23

m/s (that is 82.8 km/h) applying PID control for both inner and outer

loops

I J ENS

Kpw

Linear speed/time

-50

-5

2

4

Seconds (s)

2

4

Seconds (s)

100

Linear speed/time

2

4

Seconds (s)

2

4

Seconds (s)

100

Torque Nm

20

10

0

2

4

Seconds (s)

lin. speed M

2

4

Seconds (s)

Add,

,.

15

Angular speed/time

50

10

4

6

Seconds (s)

-50

4

6

Seconds (s)

Torque/time

20

300

10

50

-10

0

-50

2

4

Seconds (s)

4

6

Seconds (s)

200

100

0

-100

Kpi*Ti.s+Kpi

Kpwm

Tw.s

Ti.s

Ts.s+1

La.s+Ra

current regulator

PI Controller.2

inverter TF .

,,

Add.1

4

6

Seconds (s)

Tw.s+1

Speed regulator

PI Controller

acceleration/time, torque/time, response curves of SM EV for desired

output linear speed of 23 m/s (that is 82.8 km/h), applying PI

controller with prefilter for both , inner and outer, loop

Load

Dynamics

Kpw

5

10

Seconds (s)

100

acceleration/time, current/time, torque/time, response curves of SMEV

for desired output linear speed of 23 m/s (that is 82.8 km/h), applying

PD control for outer speed loop and PI for inner current loop .

input (0:36)

Torque/time

150

-50

15

20

-10

30

-10

5

10

Seconds (s)

20

-20

50

Linear speed/time

Torque/time

30

40

Rad

lin. speed M

-10

15

acceleration/time, current/time, torque/time, response curves of SMEV

applying motion profile input and applying PD control for outer speed

loop and PI for inner current loop .

Angular speed/time

60

10

5

10

Seconds (s)

100

current/time, torque/time, of SMEV for desired output linear speed of

23 m/s (that is 82.8 km/h), applying PID control for both inner and

outer loops and adding current limiting saturation block (250)

20

0

-100

-20

15

-5

-10

5

10

Seconds (s)

10

200

Torque Nm

m

0

15

300

10

Torque/time

20

Torque Nm

2

4

Seconds (s)

20

Torque Nm

Rad

40

Rad

Rad

lin. speed M

50

10

.

sp

Angular speed/time

10

lin. speed M

100

20

-10

Linear speed/time

Angular speed/time

30

34

-K-

-K-

1/n

angular

linear speed.

speed

-K-

den(s)

Kt.

gear ratio

Transfer function n=3.1

1/(Js+b).

rad2mps

V=W*r1

Kb

-K-

EMF constant Kb

I J ENS

35

A:Cross-sectional area of SMEV, where it is the widest, (m2)1 21

Cd : Aerodynamic drag coefficient1 20

Divide43

aerodaynamic torque,

0.5*p*A*Cd*v^1

Divide31

Divide45

Divide46

Cd

.1

Divide25

sin(u)

cos(u)

CL

,1

. 0.5

r/2

.1

M*g*Cr*cos()

SinCos.1

Cd=0.1

Divide33

Divide32

Divide34

Cd

12

Divide47

Divide35

Derivative,1

Divide48

23

Divide49

0.5

13

-K-

r*m*g/2 , correct2

r^2*m*g/1

du/dt

r^2m/2. correct2

r*m/2

wheel radius,

V=W*r2

Divide50

PI or PID (Inner current) 3

Current PI Prefilter 18

Speed PI Prefilter 17

INNER controller

output

9

summing d3

Divide23

Divide20

Coloum friction

Divide24

4 Current, I

16 Inverter

L, Armature

Inductance

Kt, Torque

10

constant

11

Divide1

r, wheel radius

T, Torque, 2

1

Vin, Input Volt,(0 :30)

current

d1

d2

10

10

7

Torque

Divide,2

rads2mps=

R_wheel*(2*pi)/(2*pi).1

du/dt

Derivative1

den(s)

Divide41

Divide39 Integrator1

Transfer function

1/(Js+b).

1

Divide40

summing d1

angular

speed

Saturation

1

s

linear speed

in m/s

Acceleration

in m/(s^2)

Divide19

8

R, Armature Resistance

9

Divide42

7 All viscous damping

19

Divide37

Divide36

n, Gear ratio

5

6

Ktac, Tachometer constant ,

Manual

Switch

acceleration

Signal 1

Signal Builder

Speed regulator

PI Controller

Acceleration in m/(s^2)

electic_vehicl1.mat

Subsystem1

Tw.s+1

Kpw

,1

Vin, Input Volt,(0 :30)

Out1

T orque

T w.s

.,

-C-

1

PID(s)

T, Torque,

electic_vehicl2.mat

B3

n, Gear ratio

,2

Angular speed

PID speed

n

Ktach

current regulator

PI Controller.

output anguale speed, Omega

-C-

Ktach

Kpi*T i.s+Kpi

La

T i.s

Ra

Ra

PID(s)

electic_vehicl3.mat

B4

L, Armature Inductance

Current ,3

La

R, Armature Resistance

Kt

electic_vehicl4.mat

Kt

PID current

Current, I

r, wheel radius

linear speed in m/s

,4

Linear speed

9.8

inverter T F .

g

Kpwm

electic_vehicl5.mat

CL

Ts.s+1

Cl

Speed loop

prefilter

B

B

1/Tw

Inv erter

OUTER controller output

s+1/Tw

Speed PI Pref ilter

Current loop

Prefilter

1/T i

s+1/T i

-CKb, EMF

Cd

3

A

Cd

Cd : Aerody namic drag coef f icient1

A:Cross-sectional area of SMEV, where it is the widest, (m2)1

Rou, air

Cr

0

Cr

Road slope

Out1

Subsystem

Subsystem3

Fig. 11. (b) Function block with its function block with it's parameters window for SMEV design, testing and validating

1310701-5252-IJMME-IJENS February 2013 IJENS

I J ENS

VI.

CONCLUSION

Mechatronics design of small electric vehicles (SMEV),

including Mechatronics design of accurate general models

and control are proposes, the proposed model can be used

to select, integrate, analyze and validate, both mechanical

system with all acting forces and control system, resulting in

simplification, acceleration and increasing accuracy of

mechatronics design of SMEV. The proposed model

intended to be used for research purposes as well as, for the

application in educational process.

Testing the models and analysis of resulted response

curves show that, applying two separate PI controllers with

corresponding prefilter, for both inner current loop and

outer speed loop, will result in more improved response in

the form of smooth driving for comfortable riding of SMEV

and minimum settling time.

The proposed model can modified to include any control

strategy and/or any electric motor, where the motor and its

associated driving power circuit and /or controller can be

replaced with different motors and/or control strategy,

include PI with dead beat response and IMC control. to

overcome the drawbacks of PI and PID controllers, mainly

re-tuning process when the operating condition changes

and motors parameter variations, an m.file can be written to

calculated the desired values as well as PI-Fuzzy Controller

can be designed

REFERENCES

[1]

[2]

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Design and Development of Small Electric Vehicle using

MAT LAB/Simulink, international Journal of Computer

Applications (0975 8887) Volume 24 No.6, June 2011

Dhameja, S., 2002, Electric Vehicle Battery Systems, Newnes,

United Stated.

Husain, I., 2003,

Electric and Hybrid Vehicles Design

Fundamentals, Pertama, CRC Press, United Stated.

Larminie, J., Lowry, J., 2003, Electric Vehicle T echnology

Explained, John Wiley & Son

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University of Electronic Science and T echnology of China

P.R.China.

A. Shekeena1, P. V. R. L. Narasimham, Hybrid control of

brushless DC motor for variable speed application, International

Journal of Computer Science and Management Research, Vol 1

Issue 3 October 2012

http://buggies.builtforfun.co.uk/FactFiles/controller.html

Farhan A. Salem, Ahmad A. Mahfouz, Modeling and controller

design for PMDC motor, using different control strategies and

verification using MAT LAB/Simulink , Submitted and accepeted

but not puplished yet to I.J. Intelligent Systems and

Applications, Submission ID 124 , 2012

Hedaya Alasooly, ''Control of DC motor using different control

strategies'' global journal of technology and optimization 2011

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Systems,1999, pp.11-13

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motor, for mechatronics applications, using different

approaches and verification by MAT LAB/Simulink (I).

Submitted and accepeted but not puplished yet to I.J. Intelligent

Systems and Applications, Submission ID 123 , 2012.

Halila A., tude des machines courant continu, MS T hesis,

University of LAVAL, (T ext in French), May 2001.

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R., Digital signal processing for electrical machines,

International Conference on Electrical Machines and Power

Electronics, Kusadasi (T urkey), pp.211-219, 2001.

Hamdy Mohamed Soliman, S.M.EL. Hakim Improved Hysteresis

Current Controller to Drive Permanent Magnet Syn chronous

Motors through the Field Oriented Control International Journal

of Soft Computing and Engineering (IJSCE) ISSN: 2231 -2307,

Volume-2, Issue-4, September 2012.

M.P.Kazmierkowski, H.T unia "Automatic Control of

Converter-Fed Drives", Warszawa 1994

R.D. Doncker, D.W.J. Pulle, and A. Veltman. Advanced Electrical Drives: Analysis, Modeling, Control. Springer, 2011.

Grzegorz SIEKLUCKI,Analysis of the T ransfer-Function

Models of Electric Drives with Controlled Voltage Source

PRZEGL AD ELEKT ROT ECHNICZNY (Electrical Review),

ISSN 0033-2097, R.88NR7a/2012

Richard C. Dorf and Robert H. Bishop. Modern Control

Systems. Ninth Edition, Prentice-Hall Inc., New Jersey, 2001.

Authors Profile:ta

Farhan Atallah Salem : B.Sc., M.Sc

and Ph.D., in Mechatronics of

production systems, Moscow state

Academy. He is author and co-author of

textbooks and scientific papers in

Refereed Journals. Now he is ass.

Professor

in

T aif

University,

Mechatronics program, Dept. of

Mechanical Engineering and gendirector of alpha center for engineering

studies and technology researches.

Research Interests; Design, modeling

and analysis of primary Mechatronics Machines, Control selection,

design and analysis for Mechatronics systems. Rotor Dynamics and

Design for Mechatronics applications

I J ENS

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