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LEGAL ENGLISH
READING
前言
COMPREHENSIVE LAW

鑑於目前適合讀者學習的法律英語閱讀材料較為匱乏,
筆者應法律出版社之邀,特編寫此書,以滿足廣大讀者的需
要。

本書每篇文章主要由原文欣賞、參考譯文及註釋組成。與
其他法律英語閱讀教材相比,本書具有如下特色:(1)原汁原
味。本書的文章均選自英文原著,這不僅有助於讀者了解相
關國家的法律規定,還能使讀者在此基礎上掌握比較純正的
法律英語知識;(2)採用英漢對照形式。本書採用英漢對照和
隨頁註解的編排方式,方便讀者閱讀、學習和查閱;(3)文章
所涉內容非常豐富。在具體內容上,包括法律教育、法律制
度、法理學、刑法、律師、行政法、程序法等;在涉及國家
上,除重點介紹英美國家法律外,日本、古巴、紐西蘭等國
的法律制度亦包括在內;(4)文章大多短小精鍊,題材豐富,
能讓讀者在最小的空間內掌握最多的法律英語知識;(5)編排
體例靈活自由。本書在編排體例上沒有嚴格的前後順序,讀
者可根據自己的需要和喜好,自由選擇閱讀,無須拘泥於目
錄的編排順序。

本書適合具有一定英語基礎的大學師生學習使用,也可供
法官、檢察官、警察、律師、公證人員及其他法律工作者閱
讀,其他喜愛法律英語的讀者亦可選此書作為自學之用。

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以上是筆者最初的編寫意圖,或可作為讀者之使用須知。
書中疏漏之處在所難免,懇請讀者批評指正。

陳忠誠
2003年2月於上海

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目錄 CONTENTS
1. Education in the Law 法律教育……2

2. Law and Morality 法律與道德……8

3. The Nature and Functions of Law 法律的性質和職能……14

4. Rights and Duties 權利與義務……20

5. Some Preliminary Definitions 若干初步的定義……28

6. Technological Revolution and Law 科技革命與法律……36

7. Modern Legal Education 現代法律教育……46

8. Law and Linguistics 法律與語言學……54

9. Family of Socialist Laws 社會主義法系……60

10. Our Legal System 我們的法律體系……64

11. Res Judicata and Stare Decisis 一事不再理與遵循先例……70

12. The Common Law 共同法……76

13. Equity 衡平法……80

14. Case Method 案例教學法……84

15. Advantages and Drawbacks of Case Law 案例法的利弊……90

16. No Freedom Is Absolute 沒有絕對的自由……98

17. Legislative, Executive, Judicial Power

  立法、行政、司法三權…106

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目錄 CONTENTS
18. Two Types of Juries 兩種陪審團……114

19. Judges 法官……122

20. Delegated Legislation 委託立法……128

21. General Rules of Interpretation 解釋的一般規則……136

22. An American Tragedy 美國的悲劇……146

23. Criminal Law 刑法……156

24. Legality in Penal Law 刑法中的法制原則……164

25. Crimes and Criminal Responsibilities 犯罪與刑事責任……172

26. Penalties 刑種……182

27. The Mental Element of a Crime 犯罪的心理因素……190

28. How Much Self-Defence Is Legal?

 正當防衛至何種程度是合法的?……198

29. Capital Punishment 死刑……210

30. Offences Against Public Morality 妨害公共道德罪……218

31. Corporal Punishment in US Schools 美國學校中的體罰……228

32. The Lawyer in Society 律師與社會……236

33. Selection of a Lawyer 如何選擇律師……240

34. The American Bar 美國的律師界……244

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目錄 CONTENTS
35. The English Legal Profession 英國的律師界……252

36. Code of Professional Responsibility 律師守則……260

37. Dispute Resolution and Lawyers in Cuba

 古巴律師和解決糾紛的辦法……266

38. Law Careers in New Zealand 紐西蘭的法律工作……276

39. Administrative Law 行政法……286

40. Japanese Administrative Litigation Law

 日本行政訴訟法……292

41. An Overview of the Correctional Process

 懲治改造程序概述……300

42. Civil Cases 民事案件……306

43. Arbitration 仲裁……316

44. Hong Kong Arbitration (Amendment) Ordinance 1982

 香港1982年仲裁(修正)條例……346

45. The Major International Arbitral Systems and Their


 Prospects for Use in Chinese Trade

 主要國際仲裁體系及其用於中國對外貿易之前景……356

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目錄 CONTENTS

46. Settlement of International Economic Disputes With a


 Chinese Party

 以中國當事人為一方的國際經濟糾紛的解決……368

47. International Law 國際法……380

48. Air and Space 空氣和空間……392

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法律英文閱讀

原文欣賞 1
Education in the Law
Several years ago, some of us decided that something should be done
about the general failure of California high schools to teach practical legal
skills. How could our society make a dent in legal illiteracy, we thought,
if our schools didn’t even teach kids the basics of landlord-tenant, domestic
relations, consumer and business law? Armed little more than our
convictions, we approached members of the Los Angeles Times editorial staff
with the idea that they should join with us to push for legal education in the
public schools. It was all an eye-opening6 disappointment.

Education in the law is an absolute necessity, though I wish that it were


not. As a society we need to provide more—and more creative—law teaching
in our high schools. No one can ever hope to represent themselves if they are
ignorant of how our laws and dispute resolution7 systems work.

Our society was founded on liberal beliefs which included an acceptance


of “natural” or “positive” law8—the idea that all men recognize and respect
natural equality. The original dream was that all men would, and could,
freely contract9 with each other and that no intervention by the state would
be necessary. If and when disputes occurred, a jury of twelve would hear
evidence and arrive at a verdict10 on the basis of fairness. Education would
be properly tied to moral lessons intended to produce a consensus as to what
constituted fairness.

 make a dent in:在……方面打出凹痕,比喻造成影響


 legal illiteracy:法盲
 domestic relations:家庭法,親屬法
 business law:商法(包括企業管理在內;如不包括,則稱「commercial law」)
 push for(=press for):努力爭取

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Education in the Law

參考譯文 1
法律教育
若干年前,我們當中有些人決定對加利福尼亞州的中等學校,普
遍未能進行任何實際法律技能教學這一情況有所作為。我們認為:如
果我們的中學連租賃關係、親屬關係,以及消費者法與商法等基礎知
識也不教給學生,我們的社會又如何能在掃除法盲方面有所突破呢?
我們就憑藉著這些信念,向《洛杉磯時報》的編輯人員討論我們的想
法──他們應該和我們一起努力,推動中等學校裡的法律教育。談話
的結果使我們大失所望,但卻也讓我們大開了眼界。

法律教育是絕對必要的──儘管我寧願情況不是這樣。作為一個
社會,我們必須在中學裡進行更多而且是富有創造性的法律教學。人
們如果對我國各項法律和解決糾紛的制度如何運行一無所知,就絕不
能指望(遇事可不請律師)而自行其是。

我們的社會是奠基在自由信念上,包括接受「自然」法和「實
在」法(即人人都承認並尊重自然平等的概念)。最初的理想是大家
都願意並能夠彼此自由地訂立契約,而無須由國家來進行干預。一旦
發生糾紛,由12個人所組成的陪審團會在公正的基礎上審理證據並作
出裁決。教育會恰當地和道德教諭結合起來;而道德教諭的目的,則
在於為「公平」之內涵提供統一的認識。

6 eye-opening:使人開眼界的,令人大為吃驚的
7 dispute resolution:解決糾紛
8 positive law:實在法,實證法
9 contract:訂立契約
10 verdict:裁決(多指陪審團認定有罪與否的裁決)

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法律英文閱讀

As our society grew into an urban and mechanized state, we lost much
of this liberal spirit, just as we lost many of our other natural sensations. It
became easier to write rules and create programs for social and economic
interaction than to mediate11 disputes as they arose. In the attempt to
institutionalize12 fairness, freedom suffered.

The rules that we have evolved can transform the simplest transactions13
into bureaucratic nightmares. Whereas the 19th-century farmer built his
home and barn as he saw fit, his 20th-century counterpart must file an
environmental impact report14, take out building permits, hire licensed
contractors and build to specifications which are unrelated to his needs
or concerns. The urban homeowner will find that the legal complexity
of constructing a backyard shed costs more in time and money than the
construction itself.

The businessman of the 19th century looked to his banker for guidance.
His 20th-century counterpart requires legal assistance from an attorney
specializing in tax law, an accountant familiar with mandatory insurance
programs, plus a host of other quasi-15 legal specialists. Where the 19th-
century youth group could gather at the local church for a dance, today’s
youth must incorporate16, and report to two governments17, before they can
rent a hall. The conditions which must be met before those same youths can
be legally employed to mow a lawn or babysit often price them out of the
labor market.

11 mediate:調解
12 institutionalize:使制度化
13 transaction:交易,往來;法律行為
14 environmental impact report:環境影響報告書(按環保法規定某建築對環境有何影
響必須事先提出報告)

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Education in the Law

當我們的社會發展為都市化和機械化的國家時,這種自由精神大
都喪失了──猶如我們喪失了其他許多自然感受那樣。相較於在糾紛
發生後才進行調解,為社會與經濟的相互影響而預先擬定規則和計
畫,則比較容易。在企圖使公平成為制度的過程中,自由遭到了損
害。

我們逐步發展起來的各項規則,能把最簡單的交易變成官僚制度
的夢魘。19世紀的農家可以隨意地搭蓋住宅和牲口棚;而20世紀的農
戶,就得先提出環境影響報告、領取營造許可證、僱用領有營業執照
的包工並按照非其所願的規格來營造。城市住宅的主人則會發現在後
院搭一間小屋得在法律上履行種種的繁文縟節,其所需的時間和金錢
比營造這間小屋的代價還要大。

19世紀的商人請教的是與他有往來的銀行家;可是,20世紀的商
人需要的卻是一位擅長稅法的律師、一位熟悉強制保險計畫的會計
師,以及一群在法律上能給他幫助的準法律專門人員。19世紀的年輕
人可以聚集在當地的教堂舉行舞會;而今天的青年就必須在能夠租到
場地之前組成法人,向兩種政府報告。這些青年在能依法受僱割草坪
或擔任臨時保姆前所必須遵守的種種條件,往往使他們的工資標準高
到勞動市場無法承受的程度。

15 quasi-:準(××)。文中的「quasi-legal」英語中亦作「para legal」
16 incorporate:組織法人;成立公司
17 two governments:兩種政府(根據情況或為聯邦政府與州政府,或為州政府與地方政
府,因各級政府所管轄之事項不一)

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法律英文閱讀

It seems that law has grown geometrically and the population


arithmetically. The moral homilies18 of the 19th-century legal education were
not sufficient tools for coping with 20th-century legal complexity, yet it is only
within the last two decades that the curriculum in public schools has shown
any recognition of this fact.

18 homily:使人厭煩的說教

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Education in the Law

看來,法律似乎在按幾何級數發展,而人口卻在按算術級數增
加。19世紀法律教育關於道德的老生常談已不足以應付20世紀法律的
錯綜複雜了;但中學課程表對這一事實有所承認,卻是近20年來才有
的事。

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法律英文閱讀

原文欣賞 2
Law and Morality
It can be presumed that all or most societies distinguish legal rules from
moral precepts in some fashion. The positivistic legal doctrine of the
nineteenth century attempted to carry this tendency to its consummation.
John Austin emphasized the need for eliminating ethical value judgments
and moral reasoning from the application and enforcement of the law.
Halts Kelsen bluntly declared that, in his view of the positive legal order,
“the concept of law has no moral connotations whatsoever. ” More recently,
Herbert Hart5 has offered a defense, with some qualifications of the
positivistic insistence on separation of the two agencies6.

The separation doctrine is generally not extended to the making of


law7. Justice Holmes8, for example, who was a protagonist of the doctrine,
declared that “the law is the witness and external deposit of our moral life.”
The makers of the law9 are frequently influenced by traditional or novel
ideas of social morality. It is not only true that the most basic tenets of this
morality are almost inevitably received into the body of law10. It should also
be noted that there is a wavering line of demarcation between those moral
principles which become part of the law and those which stand outside its
orbit.

 positivistic legal doctrine:實證法學說,實在法學說


 John Austin(1790-1859):英分析法學派奠基人,85年(一說86年)執教於倫敦
大學。所著有《法理學範圍》(The Province of Jurisprudence Determined)、《憲法
辯》(A plea for the Constitution)、《法理學講義》(Lectures on Jurisprudence)等

 enforcement:執行,實施
 Hans Kelsen(1881-1973):奧地利法學家、維也納法學教授和奧地利憲法(90)作
者,後去英國,又在美國一些大學擔任教授,所著有《國家與法的概論》等多種。他
是一位重要的憲法和國際法學家,也許還是0世紀最有影響的法理學家

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Law and Morality

參考譯文 2
法律與道德
假設一切或大多數社會都以某種方式把法律規則與道德規則區分
開來。19世紀實證法學派學說,曾試圖使此趨勢登峰造極。約翰‧奧
斯丁強調,有必要把種種倫理價值的判斷和道德論證從法律的適用和
執行中一筆勾銷。漢斯‧凱爾遜則按照他對實證法律秩序的觀點,直
截了當地宣稱:「法律的概念中沒有任何道德的內涵」。晚近以來,
赫伯特‧哈特又有所保留地替實證法學派關於法律與道德兩者互相獨
立的堅決主張提供了辯護。

這種獨立論,一般不及於立法。例如,這一學說的積極主張者賀
爾姆斯大法官曾說過:「法乃吾人道德生活之見證人和外貌。」立法
者往往受社會道德的新舊觀念的影響。誠然,這一道德最基本的原則
幾乎是必然被納入法的總體;但是也應該指出:在構成法的一部分的
那些道德原則與處於法的軌道之外的那些道德原則之間,存在著一條
游移不定的分界線。

5  erbert Hart (1907-):英國法學家,曾先後任牛津等校教授,所著有《法律中的因果


H
關係》(與Honore合作)、《法的概念》、《法的自由與道德》等書
6 two agencies:兩者(此處指law和morality)
7 making of Law:立法;亦作「law(-) making」
8 Justice Holmes:賀爾姆斯大法官,全名為Oliver Wendell Holmes(8-95),
歷任哈佛大學法學院教授、麻省最高法院大法官及法院院長。90年起至9年止
任聯邦最高法院大法官共0年,為美國最優秀的法官之一。辦案期間常撰寫異議書
(dissenting opinion),據說其內容極其精彩,故有「偉大的異議者」(The Great
Dissenter)之稱
9 maker of the law:立法者;亦作「law(-)maker」
10 body of law:法律的總體

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法律英文閱讀

In the law of unfair competition 11, for example, some changes


accomplished in recent times by courts and legislatures12 must be attributed
to a sharpening and refinement of the moral sense, accompanied by a
conviction that the business community must be protected against certain
reprehensible and unscrupulous trading practices by means more effective
than moral disapproval.

Conversely, it may happen that certain acts previously deemed to


demonstrate a degree of immorality requiring legal proscription13 are taken
out of the domain of law and relegated to the sphere of individual moral
judgment. In England, for example, homosexual acts14 between consenting
adult males were removed from the reach of the criminal law15, and similar
legislation16 was adopted in the state of Illinois.

In as much as the promulgation17 of ascertainable standards identified


as legal commands or prohibitions is an essential ingredient of the rule of
law18, there is a plausible axiological conviction behind the demand that
the law and morals be kept apart in the administration of justice19. Yet,
there are definite limits to the extent to which this demand can be realized
and implemented in the judicial process20. Where there is ambiguity and
doubt in the law, the ethical convictions of the judge as to the “rightness”
or “wrongness” of a certain solution will often have a decisive bearing upon
the interpretation21 of a statute or the application of an established rule
to a navel situation. A reliance on moral ideas may also occur when courts,

11 law of unfair competition:不當競爭防治法。按:英語中法律的名稱中往往不用「防


治」、「反對」等詞,如「Statute of Frauds」當然不是「詐欺法」而是「反詐欺
法」。這裡的「law of unfair competition」,自然也不是規定如何進行不正當競爭的
「不當競爭法」,而是「不當競爭防治法」。這一點在理解和翻譯法律英語時,是需
要注意的地方。當然,用「反對」字樣的法律亦非絕無,如「Anti-trust Law」中的
「anti」
12 legislature:立法機關
13 proscription:禁止

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例如,在不當競爭防治法領域中,晚近法院和立法機關所完成的
某些改變,必須歸因於道德觀念的敏銳和精鍊,以及下列信念──必
須採取較道德上的非難更為有效的手段保護商界,使之免於遭受某些
不擇手段和應受譴責的商業習慣之害。

反之,也可能發生這樣的情況:某些先前認為是反映某種程度的
不道德從而依法予以禁止的行為,被挪出法的範疇而納入由個人行使
道德判斷的範圍中。比如說在英國,成年男子間經雙方同意而發生的
同性戀行為業已不在刑法範圍之內;美國的伊利諾州也通過了類似的
立法。

頒布有法律上的命令或禁令之稱的明確標準,乃是法制的基本內
容;所以,在司法不得把法律與道德混為一談,這一要求的背後,有
著一個似若有理的價值論上的信念。然而,這一要求能在審判過程中
得以實現和貫徹的範圍,是有一定限度的。凡法律上有含混不清之
處,法官關於某種解決是「是」或「非」的倫理信念,往往對一項制
定法之解釋或對一項既定規則是否適用於新情況,都具有決定性的影
響。依靠道德觀念的現象也會發生於下列情況:法院悖離「遵循先
例」原則而推翻先例。不僅如此,當一位法官被要求執行一項為當地

14 homosexual act:同性戀行為
15 reach of the criminal law:刑法的範圍
16 legislation:立法
17 promulgation:公布
18 rule of law:法治;法制(意同「legality」)〔按:漢語「法治」與「法制」為異義
概念,但英語「rule of law」卻可與「legality」同義〕
19 administration of justice:司法
20 judicial process:審判程序,司法程序
21 interpretation:解釋

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in overruling22 a precedent23, depart from the doctrine of stare decisis24.


Furthermore, a judge may become confronted with the moral dimension in
the law when he is called upon to enforce25 an enactment26 which is totally
repugnant to the community’s sense of justice27.

There exist, of course, broad areas of the law in which moral ideas do
not play any conspicuous part. The technical rules of procedure28, the
regulation of negotiable instruments29, the enactment of traffic rules30, the
details of the governmental organizational scheme would generally fall into
this category. The guiding notions of legal policy in these areas are utility and
expediency rather than moral convictions.

It appears from the foregoing exposition that the law and morality
represent distinct normative orders31 whose spheres of control overlap32 in
part. There are domains of morality which stand outside the jurisdictional
boundaries33 of the law. There are branches of law which are largely
unaffected by moral valuations. But there exists a substantial body of legal
norms34 whose purpose it is to guarantee and reinforce the observance of
moral imperative35 which are deemed essential to the well-being of a society.

22 overrule:推翻
23 precedent:先例,判例
24 stare decisis:(拉丁語)遵循先例
25 enforce:執行,實施
26 enactment:立下的法,立法
27 sense of justice:法制觀念,正義觀念
28 rules of procedure:(訴訟)程序規則

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居民的正義感所不容的立法時,他也會在法律中遭遇到道德問題。

當然,那些道德觀念沒有任何明顯作用的法律有其廣大的領域。
技術性的程序規則、有價證券的調整辦法、交通規則的訂立、政府機
關的組織法細則等,一般都屬於這一類。在這些領域中,法律政策的
主導觀念是效用和權宜,而不是道德信念。

綜上所述,不難看出:法律與道德乃屬截然不同的規範體系,兩
者所支配的範圍有一部分是互相重疊的。道德有其在法律管轄範圍之
外的領域。有一些法律的分支基本上與道德評價毫不相干;但是有很
大一部分的法律規範,其目的就在於保證並加強被認為是對社會福利
必不可少的道德規則之遵守。

29 negotiable instruments:流通證券,票據
30 traffic rules:交通規則
31 normative order:規範秩序,規範系統
32 overlap:重疊
33 jurisdictional boundaries:法律管轄的範圍
34 legal norms:法律規範
35 moral imperative:道德規則

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原文欣賞 3
The Nature and Functions of Law
It is not possible to gain an insight into the nature of any institution of
human life without an inquiry into the purposes or functions which the
particular institution is designed to accomplish. Nobody can intelligently
discuss problems of government and arrive at a considered judgment
with respect to the policies which should be promoted by public officials or
agencies without first forming an opinion as to the general aims and ends
for which governments are established. This is equally true for the institution
of law, at least in the secular, political sense with which we are concerned.
We treat law as a particular kind of governmental institution. From this
perspective, we assert that no official within the institution of law-no judge,
attorney or other person with official duties in the administration of law—
can adequately discharge his or her duties5 unless familiar with the general
purposes which the law is supposed to perform for society.

There exists in the law6, a separate discipline designed to investigate the


nature of law, its guiding ideas and social goals, and the general character
of the methods and techniques employed for the effectuation of its ends.
This discipline is known as “Jurisprudence”7. This subject, in most of its
ramifications, is dealt with in a separate course in many law schools8 . The
subject cannot in its full scope be taught to students who have not as yet
acquired a background in the positive rules, sources, and methodology of the

 judg(e)ment:此處作「判斷」;亦作「判決」
 agency:機關;代理
 attorney:律師,亦作「attorney-at-law」;表示「律師」,英語在「attorney」之外
而有別於「attorney」的,還有「solicitor」、「serjeant」、「serjeant-at-law」、
「barrister」等等
4 administration of law:司法

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參考譯文 3
法律的性質和職能
要洞察人類生活中任何一種制度的性質,但卻又對建立該制度所
要完成的目的或職能不加探究,那是不可能的。任何人如不先對政府
之所以建立的總目的和總目標形成一個意見,就不能明智地討論治理
國家的問題,並對國家官員或國家機構應該推行的政策作出深思熟慮
的判斷。對法律制度來說,情況也同樣如此──至少在我們所關心的
世俗、政治意義上是如此。我們把法律當作一種特定的政治制度,從
此觀點出發,我們主張:在法律制度內,任何官員──法官、律師或
其他在司法工作中擔負正式職責的人──如果不熟悉法律應為社會完
成的那些總目的,就無法恰當地履行其職責。

法學中有一門獨立的學科,其目的在於研究法律的性質、其指導
思想和社會目標,以及為實現其目的而採用的方法和技術等一般特
徵,這門學科就稱作「法理學」。它連同其大部分細枝末節,在許多
法學院系都成立一門獨立的學科予以討論,其內容不可能從頭至尾全
都教給那些對法律的實證規則、淵源和方法學尚未具有背景知識的學
生。儘管如此,已經決定投身法律事業的初學者,至少應對自己立志

5 discharge…duty:履行……義務(職責)
6 law:此處(第二段第四個詞)作「法學」解,而不是「法律」
7 Jurisprudence:法理學,此處是作為學校的一門課程,故大寫為「Jurisprudence」,
又可解釋為「判例」
8 law school:「法學院」(「school」並不意味著「中(小)學」)。由於俄語的影
響,傳統上把「政法學院」的「學院」譯作英語「institute」,易讓人誤解為「研究
所」,值得注意。有人以為「law school」是「法律學校」,那是誤解

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law. And yet beginning students who have decided to launch upon a legal
career ought to engage at least in some initial and preliminary reflection
upon the meaning of the institution to the service of which they intend to
devote their life and best energies.

Such reflection, unfortunately, is rendered difficult by the fact that there


is no general agreement among jurists and other legal, thinkers as to what
the goals and purposes of legal regulation are or ought to be. There does
exist a large measure of consensus as to the minimum objectives which the
institution of law is designed to serve. But when we turn from the minimum
and most elementary goals of legal control to the broader ends and ideals
for the attainment of which the law can be used by men, we shall encounter
a perplexing multitude and variety of viewpoints. Let us set out a number of
definitions of law which may be considered representative and which have
influenced the course of legal development:

Cicero: “Law is the highest reason, implanted in nature, which commands


what ought to be done and forbids the opposite.”

St. Thomas Aquinas: “Law is an ordinance10 of reason for the common


good, made by him who has care of the community, and promulgated11. ”

Hobbes: “Civil law 12 is to every Subject, those Rules, which the


Commonwealth hath commanded him, by Word, Writing, or other sufficient
Sign of the Will, to make use of for the Distinction of Right and Wrong; that
is to say, of what is contrary, and what is not contrary to the Rule. ”

Austin: “Every positive law13…is set by a sovereign14 person, or a

 jurist:法學家
10 ordinance:此處作「條令」,在美國,「ordinance」一般指地方(縣市等)
頒布的法律(聯邦頒布的法律多作「acts」或「statutes」,而各州的法律多稱
「statutes」)
11 promulgate:公布

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獻身並竭力為之服務的法律制度意義有初步的體會。

不幸地,這種體會卻難以表達,因為在法學家和其他法律思想家
之間,對於法律的目標和目的是什麼以及應該是什麼這個問題上,尚
未求得普遍一致的意見。固然,對於法律制度為其服務之最低限度的
目標方面,大致存有共識。不過,我們從法律管理之最低限度、最初
目標轉向人們能利用法律去實現更廣泛的目的和理想時,就要面臨許
許多多、各式各樣的觀點而茫然若失了。以下是一些具有代表性且影
響法律發展進程的法律定義:

西塞羅:「法律是扎根於自然的最高理性,它命令該做到什麼而
禁止所不該做的。」

聖托馬斯‧阿塞那斯:「法律是旨在維護公眾利益的理性的條
文,由管理本社會的人制定並頒布的。」

霍布斯:「對每一臣民而言,國內法者,乃共和政體以話語、文
字或表示意志之其他有效符號命令臣民用以區別是非的那些規則;
即:什麼是違反規則的,什麼是不違反規則的。」

奧斯丁:「凡實在法……均由主權者個體或主權者群體為占有主
權或至高地位的獨立政治社會之成員而制定。易言之,它是由君主或
主權成員給位居其下屬者而制定的。」

12 civil law:其含義不一,隨上下文而異。此處作「內國法」即「國內法」(相當於英
語)解。本句有許多名詞用大寫表示強調,這也是法律文字中常用的大寫法
13 positive law:實在法;實證法
14 sovereign:主權的;主權者

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sovereign body of persons, to a member or members of the independent


political society wherein that person or body is sovereign or supreme. Or
(changing the expression) it is set by a monarch15 or sovereign member to a
person or persons in a state of subjection to its author16. ”

Locke: “The end of law is not to abolish or restrain, but to preserve and
enlarge freedom. ”

Jhering: “Law is the sum of the conditions of social life in the widest
sense of the term, as secured by the power of the State through the means of
external compulsion. ”

Carter: “Law is not a command or body of commands, but consists of rules


springing from the social standard of justice of from the habits and customs
from which that standard has itself been derived. ”

Recasens-Siches: “Law was not born into human life by reason of the desire
to render tribute or homage to the idea of justice, but to fulfil an inescapable
urgency for security and certainty in social life. The question of why and
wherefore men make law is not answered in the structure of the idea of justice 17,
nor in the suite of outstanding values which accompany it as presupposed by
it, but in a subordinate value—security—corresponding to a human need.”

The definitions of law set forth above are heterogeneous but not
necessarily contradictory. Each of them accentuates an element or ingredient
in social control through law which may be considered indispensable or at
least desirable for the effective operation of a sound legal system. As you re-
read the above definitions, ask yourself what each author perceives to be the
role of law in human affairs.

15 monarch:君主
16 its author:指「the author of every positive law」

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洛克:「法律之目的不是要廢止或約束,而是要維護並擴大自
由。」

耶林:「法律乃最廣義的社會生活之諸條件的總和,由國家權力
透過外在的強制手段而予以保證。」

卡特:「法律並非命令或命令之總體,而是由產生於法制的社會
標準或該標準本身所派生的種種習俗之各種規則所組成。」

呂卡先‧薛克氏:「法律之所以誕生於人類生活,並非由於要來
稱頌或崇敬法制這一概念,而是為了滿足社會生活中對安全和確定之
不可避免的迫切需要。關於人們所以立法的理由和原因何在這個問
題,其答案既不在於法制概念的結構,也不在於如同法所預期那樣伴
隨於法的那些突出的價值觀,而在於一個從屬的適應人類需要的價值
觀──安全。」

上述種種法律定義雖眾說紛紜,卻未必互相矛盾。這些定義各自
強調在社會控制中,透過法律這項被認為是使健全法律制度得以有效
運轉所必不可少或至少是受歡迎的某一因素或成分。當讀者再次閱讀
上述種種定義時,請問問自己:在每位作者的心目中,認為法律在人
類事務中所發揮的作用各是什麼?

17 justice:據說,此詞在英語中義域不清;其詞義主要有三,取決於上下文:「公
正」、「司法」和「法制」(指廣義的「法制」而不是狹義的「法制」,即「法律制
度」)。此處指「法制」(廣義)
又,廣義的「法律」,英語除「justice」外亦作「legality」(如「socialist legality」
即「社會主義法制」)或「rule of law」(一般被譯作「法治」。其實,「法治」與廣
義的「法制」屬同一範疇)。但廣義的「法制」往往被誤譯為「legal system」(意為
「法律制度」),請注意

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原文欣賞 4
Rights and Duties
In the conditions of human society, where interests are in continuous
conflict, not every interest is capable of legal protection. Each system will
select some interests for protection and leave out others. The interests thus
rejected may be protected outside the legal system, for example by morality
or religion, but the law gives them no recognition.

The violation of such a legally protected interest is a legal wrong and


gives rise to a legal right. Legal rights have been classified into rights in the
strict sense, liberties, powers and immunities. Each of these types of rights
has its correlative. Thus every right has a correlative duty in another, every
liberty a correlative “no-right” 7 every power a correlative liability8, every
immunity a correlative disability9.

Just as rights have their correlatives, they also have their opposites. If
I have a particular right there is in me the absence of an opposite of that
right. Thus if in relation to a certain matter I enjoy a privilege10 there is an
absence of a duty11 in me in relation to that matter. The opposite of privilege
is thus duty. Likewise the opposite of a power is a disability, the opposite of an
immunity is a liability, the opposite of a right is a no-right. When I enjoy any
of these rights it follows that I am free of its opposite. When therefore we talk
of a right we must be conscious that around this concept a complex analytical

 capable of legal protection:可受法律保護的


 recognition:承認,認可
 legal wrong:違法行為(以區別於,比如說,「moral wrong」即「不道德行為」)
 legal right:法律上的權利(以區別於,比如說「moral right」即「道義上的權利」)
 immunity:豁免
 correlative:關聯物,對應物

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參考譯文 4
權利與義務
在人類社會中,種種利益都處於不斷的矛盾之中;在這種條件
下,並不是種種利益都能得到法律保護。每一種制度都會有選擇地保
護某些利益而不保護其他利益;那些法律不予保護的利益,可以在法
律制度之外得到保護──例如得到道德或宗教之保護──不過,法律
是不予承認的。

違反那種受法律保護的利益就是違法行為,進而產生了法律上的
權利。法律上的權利可分為狹義的權利、自由、權力和豁免權。在這
些類型的權利中,每一種類型都有其對應物。每一項權利都在他人身
上有一項對應的義務;每一項自由即對應一項「無權」;每一項權力
即對應一項「責任」;每一項豁免權則對應一項「無能」。

正如權利有其對應物,權利亦有其對立物。如果我有某一項特定
的權利,那麼在我的身上就不存在該項權利的對立物。比如說,如果
我對某一事項享有特權,那麼我對該事項就沒有什麼義務。所以特權
的對立物是義務。同樣地,權力的反面是無能;豁免權的反面是責
任;權利的反面是無權。我享有這些權利的任何一種結果,就是我擺
脫了該種權利的反面。所以,當我們談到某種權利時,我們必須認

7 no-right:無權
8 liability:義務,責任
9 disability:不能
10 privilege:特權(注意:「特權」在中文裡被認為是貶義的;而「privilege」在英語
中卻是中性的)
11 duty:義務,職責,稅

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structure can be constructed and we ought to achieve as great a precision as


we can in regard to the particular type of right we are discussing.

The jural12 correlatives are perhaps more important for us than the jural
opposites as they relate to the jural relationship between two persons, whereas
the jural opposites concentrate attention upon one person who is the holder
of a particular right.

These correlatives arise from the circumstance that if I have a right,


another person or persons must be under a duty to recognize and respect
that right. That recognition can take the form of some affirmative action or
abstention13 from action on the part of that person. Thus if I have a right to14
100 dollars upon a contract15 the other contracting party16 is under a duty
to pay me that sum. If I have a right to light and air from my window, my
neighbour is under a duty to abstain from obstructing it. If I have a liberty,
this confers on me a freedom to act as I please within the area of the liberty.
This places other persons in a right less situation regarding interference with
the exercise of that liberty. For example my liberty to practise my religion
places upon all others the obligation not to interfere with that practice—a
“norights” situation as far as other persons are concerned.

Powers refer to such aspects of rights as the right to appoint an attorney


or make a will. By such act I alter my rights and legal relations with respect to
others, who are under a liability to accept the exercise17 of that power. The
power once exercised creates rights and duties and hence the power-liability
situation gives way to a right-duty situation. Power-liability thus describes
a potential state. It springs into action upon the exercise of the power,

12 jural:法律上的,權利義務上的
13 abstention (from action):不作為(但「不作為」在刑法中多作「omission」)
14 r ight to…(如本文中的「00 dollars」和下文中的「light and air」):××權
(利)

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Rights and Duties

清:環繞著這一概念,可以建立起一個複雜的分析性結構,同時,應
該盡最大可能使我們所討論的特定類型權利達到精確無誤。

對我們來說,權利義務的對應也許要比權利義務的對立更為重
要,因為前者涉及兩人之間的法律關係;而後者則僅集中於特定權利
人之一身而已。

這些對應發生在下列情況:如果我享有一項權利,則他人就必須
承擔承認並尊重該項權利的義務。上述承認所採取的形式,可以是該
他人的某種積極作為或不作為。比如說,如果根據契約,我有取得
100美元的權利;那麼,契約之他方當事人就負有付給我100美元的義
務。如果我享有從窗口攝取陽光和空氣的權利,那麼我的鄰居則負有
不得妨礙我行使此項權利的義務。如果我享有某種自由,那麼我就有
在該種自由的範圍內隨心所欲地行事的自由。這就使他人處於無權干
涉我行使該自由的地位。例如,我有進行宗教活動的自由,這就使所
有他人都負有不干涉我進行宗教活動的義務──在他人來說,就是一
種「無權」狀態。

權力係指諸如委託代理人或訂立遺囑等方面之權利,我以這種行
為改變了我的權利和同有責任接受該權力之行使的他人之間的法律關
係。該權力一旦行使,就形成了權利和義務,從而權力—責任狀態也
隨之讓位給權利—義務狀態了。因此,權力—責任所描述的是潛在狀
態,它因權力之行使而付諸行動,並從而立即讓位給權利—義務關
係。假如我把我的金錶交給朋友代為保管之後,行使了向他索回的權

15 contract:契約
16 contracting party:契約當事人
17 exercise:行使(權利、權力、自由等等)

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法律英文閱讀

whereupon18 it immediately yields to a right-duty relationship. If I, having


deposited my gold watch with my friend for safekeeping, exercise my power
to demand it back, I then have a right to the watch and my friend is under a
duty to return is. So also I can enjoy an immunity from the exercise of power
by another.

The immunity from legal process19 of a juror attending court has as


its correlative the disability of a creditor to take the usual step he might
otherwise be entitled to take to enforce his rights. The immunity of an
ambassador from being sued in a court of law20 has its correlative in disability
of a road accident victim21 injured by him, to sue as he might otherwise have
done.

The particular words used to describe these four aspects of rights may vary
among different jurists. Though Hohfeld22 made the basic classification, his
terminology is not universally followed. For example, the situation described
by him as liability was described by another jurist, Radin, as subjection.
More elaborate classifications have been made by other jurists. Modem legal
logicians are constantly refining these analyses. Still, what is important is the
realization that there are many facets to the concept of rights and one must
make a distinction between legal rights in the broader sense and legal rights
in the narrower sense of the first of Hohfeld’s subdivisions.

It is important to remember in connection with words such as “right”,


“duty” and “obligation”23, that the terminology we are using is a terminology
shared by religion, morality and law. The tendency towards vagueness and
confusion is hereby accentuated and there is hence an increased need, when
one is dealing with the law, to seek some greater clarity in the meanings of
these terms.

18 whereupon:因此,於是
19 legal process:法律程序,訴訟(程序)
20 court of law:亦作「law court」,此處即作「法院」(有時,則是出於強調「law」
──以區別於「equity」──詳見有關各註)

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Rights and Duties

力;那麼我就對金錶享有權利,而我的朋友就有歸還該錶的義務。同
樣地,我也享有不受他人對我行使權力的豁免。

出庭的陪審官所享有的免受訴訟之豁免,其對應物就是債權人不
能採取本來有權採取的通常步驟,以實施其權利。大使有不到法院應
訴的豁免,其對應物則為在於其所造成之交通事故的被害人不能對他
起訴;而如果在其他情況下,被害人也許早已起訴了。

不同的法學家用來描述權利這四個方面的具體詞語會有所不同。
雖然作出基本分類的是賀菲爾,但其術語並未得到普遍襲用。例如,
他描述為責任的情況,在另一位姓瑞定的法學家則稱之為「服從」。
其他一些法學家則作了更細緻的分類。對這些分析,現代法邏輯學家
總是精益求精的。儘管如此,重要的是認識到權利概念有許多面向,
人們必須在賀菲爾最初所細分的狹義法律權利與廣義法律權利這兩者
之間加以區別。

關於「權利」、「義務」和「債務」等用語,我們務必記住,我
們所使用的這個術語是宗教、道德和法律所合用的術語。在此特別強
調的是含糊其辭的傾向,因此增加了人們在闡述法律時謀求能更加澄
清這些用語的需要。

21 victim:被害人;受害人
22 Hohfeld:賀菲爾(879-98)為美國法理學家,曾任史丹佛大學教授,尤以從事
法律關係之分析研究見稱,著有論文集Fundamental Legal Conceptions as Applied in
Judicial Reasoning(9)等書。
23 obligation:債務,義務,債務證書

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法律英文閱讀

Apart from the analysis already made of rights, there are also several other
classifications which in one context or another are of special importance;
rights may for example be rights over one’s own property24 (such as rights
of ownership25), or rights over another’s (such as a right of way26); perfect
rights27 (which are enforceable by action) and imperfect rights28 (which,
though recognized by law, cannot be enforced—as for example rights upon
a valid contract which are unenforceable for non-compliance with certain
statutory29 formalities); positive rights30 (which only require affirmative
performance of the correlative duty), and negative rights31 (which only
require some form of abstention); rights against a determinate individual32
(such as rights upon a contract) and rights against the world at large33 (such
as rights of ownership). There is also the important distinction between legal
and equitable rights34 arising from the former division between the courts
of common law35 and Chancery, and still reflected in the law of trusts36
where the trustee37 has legal ownership while the beneficiary38 has equitable
ownership.

It is not necessary to further discuss the details of any of the distinctions


underlying the divisions mentioned. It is sufficient if it is realised that the
concepts of rights and duties run through the entire fabric of the law and
are involved in the discussion of nearly every legal problem. When therefore
there is a mention of these terms it is important to have as clears an idea as is
possible of the exact sense in which they are used.

24 right over…property:財產權
25 right of ownership:所有權
26 right of way:通行權
27 perfect right:完全權利
28 imperfect right:不完全權利
29 statutory:(制定)法(所規)定的
30 positive right:積極權利

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Rights and Duties

除了已對法律作出的分析之外,還有其他在若干某種情況下特別
重要的分類;例如,權利可以是:財產權(如所有權之類)或對他人
權利之權利(如通行權之類);完全權利(可以透過訴訟求得實現
的)和不完全權利(這種權利雖得到法律認可卻不能強制執行,例如
根據不符合一定法定形式的有效契約而擁有之權利);積極權利(只
需要其對應的義務得到正面履行即可)和消極權利(只要求某種不
作為即可);對人權(如根據契約取得的權利)和對事權(如所有
權)。此外,還有共同法權利與衡平法權利之重大區別──這是由歷
史上有普通法法院與衡平法法院之分而引起的,而且現在仍在信託法
中有所反映──受信託人享有共同法上的所有權,而受益人則享有衡
平法上的所有權。

關於上述劃分所依據的任何一項區別,不必進一步作詳細討論
了。只要認識到這一點就夠了:權利概念與義務概念貫穿著整個法律
結構,而且涉及幾乎是每一個法律問題的討論。因此,一談到這些術
語,就必須對各該術語被使用的確切含義具有盡可能明確的理解。

31 negtive right:消極權利
32 right against a determinate individual:對人權
33 right against the world at large:對事權
34 legal right:此處作「共同法上的權利」;equitable right:衡平法上的權利
35 common law:共同法;court of Chancery:大法官法院,衡平法院
36 law of trust:信託法
37 trustee:受託人,受信託人
38 beneficiary:受益人

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法律英文閱讀

原文欣賞 5
Some Preliminary Definitions
The law, in common with other areas of learning, has specialized meanings
for certain words and phrases. Since recurrent use will be made of some of
these terms, the most usual of them will be explained, preliminarily, at this
point.

The common law and the civil law4. The term “common law” refers
to the system of law developed in England and transferred to most of the
English-speaking world. It is distinguished from the civil-law system used in
Continental Europe and in those nations settled by European peoples. One
or the other of the systems is the basis of law in most of the Western world.

Many ancient systems of law, such as the Egyptian, Babylonian, and Greek,
have totally disappeared. Others, such as the Hindu, Japanese, and Chinese,
have been incorporated in some measure into modern systems. Islamic law
is based on the Koran, as interpreted by tradition and juristic writings. As
Islamic nations separate law from religion, however, non-Islamic models tend
to be followed.

The civil-law system can be traced back to Roman law. Which extended
to the limits of the Empire. With the disintegration of Rome, its law lost its
universality. Wherever it was applied, it received admixtures of local customs
and differed in content in the various parts of Europe. Civil law received
its modem impetus from the early nineteenth-century French codes of law
created by French jurists under the direct leadership of Napoleon Bonaparte.

 preliminary:預先的、預備的
 at this point:此刻、此處
 common law:共同法(多誤譯為普通法),作為一種法律體系又譯為「英美法」

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Some Preliminary Definitions

參考譯文 5
若干初步的定義
法律也與其他知識領域相同:賦予一定詞語專門的含義。某些法
律術語將反覆使用,因此這裡先對其中最常見的作初步說明。

1.普通法與大陸法。「普通法」這一用語,指的是產生於英國並
傳播到大部分英語世界的法律體系。它不同於大陸法系──後者適用
於歐洲大陸和歐洲民族定居的國家。大部分西方世界的國家,其法律
不是以普通法為基礎,就是以大陸法為基礎的。

古代的許多法系,如埃及、巴比倫和希臘等法系,如今已全無蹤
影了。其他一些古代法系,如印度、日本和中國等法系,則已在某種
程度上歸併至現代諸法系了。伊斯蘭法則以按傳統和法學著作解釋的
《可蘭經》為基礎;但隨著伊斯蘭國家實施法律與宗教之分離,遵循
非伊斯蘭的法律模式已是大勢所趨了。

大陸法系可追溯到羅馬法,後者曾普及於羅馬帝國的版圖。羅馬
帝國分崩離析,羅馬法也隨之失去其普遍性。當時,羅馬法不論適用
於何地都混合了當地的習慣;故歐洲各地的羅馬法,其內容各不相
同。19世紀初,法國法學家在拿破崙直接領導下制定了法國的諸法
典,大陸法由此獲得了其現代的推動力。這兩種法系之基本區別在於
其所依靠的法淵源。普通法系以先前的判例為其至高的權力淵源。

4 civil law:此詞含義不一,與「common law」對稱作「大陸法」解,有時亦用作「羅


馬法」(Roman law)的同義詞。下文與「criminal law」(「刑法」)對稱而言,則
作「民法」解了

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The basic distinction between the two systems lies in the sources of law upon
which they rely. The common-law system uses prior decided cases as very
high sources of authority. The doctrine of stare decisis (let the decision
stand) in one of its forms is the essence of the common-law system. That
doctrine states that courts should adhere to the law as set forth in prior cases
decided by the highest court of a given jurisdiction as long as the principle
derived from those cases is logically essential to their decision, is reasonable,
and is appropriate to contemporary circumstances. Different courts apply this
general policy with varying degrees of strictness; English courts, for instance,
are inclined to be more rigorous than American courts in its application.

The civil law, on the other hand, is oriented toward a code of laws. When
a controversy is presented to a court or lawyer, the immediate problem is to
find the appropriate code provision covering the situation and then to apply
it to the problem at hand. The courts look to the writings of scholars to aid
them in interpreting code provisions. Cases are not ignored, but they do not
have anything approaching binding authority on judges.

Common law and equity. The term “common law” is also used to
distinguish this segment of Anglo-American law from another part called
equity. Today the terms refer to different sets of legal doctrines.

For centuries the English legal system had two types of courts existing
side by side. The older of the two was known as the common-law courts.
Another set of courts, including the Courts of Chancery and Star Chamber9
developed those principles we now call equitable10.

 stare decisis:拉丁文,讀作〔'sta:rei de' saisis〕(其含義在原文的下文中就有詳細說


明,不贅)
 the highest court:最高一級的法院。請注意:「the highest court」未必是「最高法
院」(supreme court),如紐約州最高一級的法院是「Court of Appeals」;其下屬
法院才是「Supreme Court」
 jurisdiction:一般多作「管轄」;此處作「法域」
 equity:衡平法

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法律英文閱讀/陳忠誠編著.--初版--.--臺北

市:五南,2007.11

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ISBN 978-957-11-5030-7(平裝)

1.法學英語 2.讀本

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法律英文閱讀
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